Corbicula Bibliography



1774 ‑ 2005

Clement L. Counts, III

Department of Biological Sciences

Richard A. Henson School of Science

Salisbury University

Salisbury, Maryland 21801


Department of Natural Sciences

University of Maryland Eastern Shore

Princess Anne, Maryland 21853


Research Associate, Section of Mollusks

Carnegie Museum of Natural History

4400 Forbes Avenue

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213-4080

How to cite this document:

Counts, Clement L., III. 2006. Corbicula, an annotated bibliography. </mollusks/corbicula.doc>. 436 pages.


A bibliography containing over 2,500 references to the literature concerning fossil and Recent species of bivalves in the genus Corbicula is presented for the period 1774 ‑ 2005. Annotations, usually in the form of the published abstract, are provided for most of the works listed.


As the size of this document testifies, there has been considerable interest in bivalves in the genus Corbicula for many years. This interest in the United States was first manifested in paleontological works on the Tertiary of North America. Later, interest was concerned with curiosity about an exotic bivalve that found its way from the Orient to the waters of the North American West Coast. Still later, this interest became more acute as corbiculid bivalves became a serious fouling pest in various agricultural and industrial facilities, particularly at electric power generating facilities. It is this interest that has generated two international symposia and nearly all of the published accounts of the biology, biochemistry, and physiology of corbiculid bivalves.

Other bibliographies on corbiculid bivalves have appeared in the past. Linstow (1922) provided a small bibliography concerning the paleontology of Corbicula fluminalis (Müller, 1774). More recent works have included those of Sinclair (1971), Dundee (1974), Corbin (1977) and Mattice et al. (1979). Sinclair's bibliography was chiefly concerned with Corbicula in the United States and was arranged by various subject headings. Dundee's bibliography included all the known exotic molluscs in the North American fauna and therefore included Corbicula as only one of many species covered. The most complete bibliography to date was that of Mattice et al. (1979) who included many papers on fossil and recent species. However, many papers were not included and there was no arrangement of the citations other than an alphabetical listing and keying papers to broad subject headings. However, these bibliographies were the most complete works to date and were extremely useful in providing a logical starting point to develop a comprehensive bibliography on the literature concerning these bivalves.


Titles of publications concerning bivalves in the genus Corbicula were assembled by several means. These included searches of the literature cited sections of recently published papers, the published bibliographies of Sinclair (1971), Dundee (1974), and Mattice et al. (1979) as well as the pages of Corbicula Newsletter. Searches were also made of the computerized data bases assembled by Biological Abstracts, the Zoological Record, Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts, and the National Technical Information Service. For those years not contained in the data base, searches were made of the printed volumes. Titles included in the bibliography include published books, papers, abstracts, and reports to various governmental agencies. In a few instances, titles published in the popular press are included. Additional computerized database searches were made in Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts, BioOne, Ecology Abstracts, Environmental Sciences and Pollution Management Abstracts, and Water Resources Abstracts.

Where possible, copies of all materials were obtained and titles, pagination, and plate and figure numbers verified. This was accomplished by conducting searches of the book, journal, and reprint collections of the following institutions: the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia (ANSP); British Museum (Natural History) [BM(NH)]; Field Museum of Natural History (FMNH); Library of Congress; Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History (LACM); Marshall University, Huntington, West Virginia; Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University (MCZ); Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (MNHN); Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Stockholm; University of Delaware; University of Maryland, College Park; University of Maryland Eastern Shore; University of Pennsylvania; University of Rhode Island; United States National Museum (USNM); Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution; Zoologisk Museum, Universitetets Copenhagen (ZMUC); Zoologisches Museum von Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, German Democratic Republic (ZMHU); Zoological Institute, Academy of Sciences of the U.S.S.R., Leningrad (AH‑CCCP). The period covered was between 1774 (during which O. F. Müller published his description of three species of corbiculids) and 1987. Where possible, an abstract is presented for the work listed.


I wish to thank Drs. George M. Davis, Arthur E. Bogan, and Robert Robertson (ANSP), Drs. Yaroslav Starobogatov and Z. I. Izzatullaev (AH‑CCCP), Solene Morris (BM[NH]), Dr. Alan Solem (FMNH), Dr. James H. McLean (LACM), Dr. Ruth D. Turner (MCZ), Dr. Simon Tillier, (MNHN, Paris), Drs. Joseph Rosewater, Arthur H. Clarke, and M. G. Harasewych (USNM), Dr. Rudolf Killias (ZMHU), and Dr. Jorgen Knudsen (ZMUK) for their help and for permitting me to use the extensive libraries of their respective institutions.

Special thanks are extended to Mrs. Bertha Ritter, Coastal Ecology Research Laboratory, University of Maryland Eastern Shore, who so diligently typed the draft manuscript, and to Mrs. Mildred Weer, Librarian, University of Delaware College of Marine Studies, who assisted me in locating some of the more rare and or obscure papers cited. Dr. Edward R. Urban, Jr. provided assistance in locating materials in the Library of Congress, and Dr. Carla Schrier for help with translations. Last, but certainly not least, thanks are due to Dr. Timothy A. Pearce, Asstant Curator and Head of Section of Mollusks, Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, for bringing this document to wider dissemination through e-publication at the CMNH.

Finally, I wish to thank Dr. Roy Oleröd, Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Stockholm, and his family for allowing me to share the warmth and friendship of their home during my stay in Sweden. This volume is dedicated to the memory of Marguerite B. and Ellsworth W. Smith and Joseph Rosewater.

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Aarab, N., P. Mora, M. Daubèze and J.-F. Narbonne. 2005. In vitro detection and quantification of testosterone metabolites in aquatic organisms. Analytical Letters 38(4):629-640.

Abbott, R. T. 1975. Beware the Asiatic freshwater clam. Tropical Fish Hobbyist 23:15.

A warning to tropical fish hobbyists not to stock Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774) because of the potential for accidental introduction into local streams or ponds.

Abbott, T. M. 1979. Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) vertical distributions in Dale Hollow Reservoir, Tennessee. IN: Proceedings of the First International Corbicula Symposium, J. C. Britton, Ed. Texas Christian University Research Foundation (Ft. Worth). pp. 111‑118.

Differences between population densities and shell sizes between the epilimnion (8 m) and hypolimnion (12 m) were examined. Highly significant differences between 8 m and 12 m were shown for shell lengths, widths, heights, and population density. Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774) at 8 m were larger by an average length of 3.3 mm, height of 2.8 mm, and width of 1.2 mm. Densities at 8 m and 12 m averaged 376.6/m2 and 1215.9/m2, respectively. Temperature differences at 8 m and 12 m were hypothesized as a major factor producing the highly significant reduction of shell sizes at 12 m. Intraspecific competition appeared to reduce the larval recruitment to the populations at both depths as evidenced by no shell lengths less than 12 mm at 12 m and infrequent shell lengths less than 16 mm at 8 m.

Abbott, T. M., J. Cairns, Jr. and K. L. Dickson. 1976. Corbicula manilensis (Asiatic clam) population zonation within a stratified reservoir. Association of Southeastern Biologists, Bulletin 23(2):39. [Abstract]

See Abbott, T. M., 1979.

Abbott, T. M. and E. L. Morgan. 1975. Characteristics of Asiatic clam, Corbicula manilensis populations in deep oligotrophic reservoir. Midwest Benthological Society, 22nd Annual Meeting, Tennessee Technical University (Cookeville). [Abstract]

See Abbott, T. M., 1979.

Abbott, T. M. and E. L. Morgan. 1974. Asiatic clam Corbicula manilensis densities, size, distributions and substrate preferences in Dale Hollow Reservoir Tennessee. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science 49:59. [Abstract]

See Abbott, T. M., 1979.

Accordi, B. 1951. Esame geologico‑paleontologico della campionatura di un pozzo terebrato a Cartura (Padova). [Geological and paleontological examination of the core of a well drilled at Cargura]. Memorie dell'Instituto Geologico della Universita di Padova 16:1‑18.

The well was drilled through Quaternary beds. Forty‑nine species of Foraminifera and 86 species of Mollusca (including Corbicula sp.) are listed.

Achard, M., M. Baudrimont, A. Boudou and J. P. Bourdineaud. 2004. Induction of a multixenobiotic resistance protein (MXR) in the Asiatic clam Corbicula fluminea after heavy metals exposure. Aquatic Toxicology 67(4):347-357.

Multixenobiotic resistance mechanisms (MXR) related to the mammalian P-glycoprotein multidrug transporter protein (P-gp) are known to occur in several marine invertebrates. In the present work, we report on the induction of an MXR protein by various heavy metals in the gills of the freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea. The evaluation of the MXR protein level was assessed by Western blot using a specific monoclonal antibody raised against the human P-gp (C219). A field transplantation experiment, where clams were caged in a gradient relative to an industrial site, demonstrated a positive relationship between MXR levels and (a) metal pollution (Cd and Zn) in the environment and (b) metal bioaccumulation in the gills. To establish this correlative relationship, clams were exposed to different levels of cadmium (15-60 mu gl super(-1)) for up to 15 days in a controlled laboratory experiment. MXR protein levels increased in time for all treatments (including the control). However, the highest levels of MXR protein titer were expressed in clams that had been exposed to the lowest dose of cadmium. The causes for this observed inverse relationship between the exposure dose and the MXR induction is discussed. MXR protein titer was also shown to be induced by other heavy metals (zinc, inorganic mercury, and copper).

Adams, H. and A. Adams. 1858. The Genera of Recent Mollusca. Van Voorst (London). Volume 2. 661 pp.

Corbicula compressa 'Mousson' Deshayes, 1854, Corbicula moussoni Deshayes, 1854, Corbicula pullata Philippi, 1850, Corbicula pulchella (Mousson, 1848), and Corbicula rivalis ('Busch' Philippi, 1850) are discussed from the Indonesian Archipelago. Corbicula fluminea, Corbicula fluviatilis, Corbicula grandis, and Corbicula woodiana are also discussed.

Adams, W. and E. Leloup. 1939. Resultants scientifiques du Voyage aux Indes Orientales Neerlandaises de Ll. Bk. le Prince el la Princesse Leopold de Belgique. Gastropoda ‑ Pulmonata, Scaphopoda et Bivalvia. Memoirs du Muséum Royal d'Histoire Naturelle Belgique (Hors Serie) 2(20):1‑126.

The systematics and distribution of Corbicula gracilis Prime, 1860, and Corbicula javanica Mousson, 1849, in the Dutch East Indies are discussed.

Adegoke, O. S. 1977. Stratigraphy and paleontology of the Ewekoro Formation (Paleogene) of southwestern Nigeria. Bulletins of American Paleontology 71(295):1‑379.

Corbicula serrodentata sp. nov. is described (p. 280) and figured (Pl. 44, Figs. 10‑14, 21, 22) from three fragmentary specimens. Other unidentifiable corbiculids are also described. Fossil assemblages, stratigraphy and paleoecology of the Ewekoro Formation are discussed.

Afanas'eva, G. A. 1978. New chonetaceans from the Devonian of the Nakhichevan A.S.S.R. Azerbaijan S.S.R. Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal 3:64‑71. [Russian]

Agache, R., F. Bourdier and R. Petit. 1964. Le Quaternaire de la basie Somme: tentative de synthese. Bulletin de la Société Geologique de France (7)5:422‑442.

Fossil Corbicula fluminalis (Müller, 1774) is reported from Quaternary beds of the Somme in France.

Agrawal, H. P. 1976. Aquatic and amphibious molluscs of Himachal Pradesh, Pt. I. Records of the Zoological Survey of India 71:129‑142.

Corbicula occidens (Deshayes, 1854) is reported from the Simla Hills of Bilaspur District at Bhakra‑Nagal for the first time. Other species from the Simla Hills, collected by parties from the High Altitude Zoology Field Station, Solan, are discussed.

Agrawal, H. P. 1977. New records of fresh‑water pelecypods from Madhya Pradesh, India. Newsletter of the Zoological Survey of India 3(4):139‑141.

Corbicula occidens (Deshayes, 1854), Corbicula picta Clessin, 1879, and Corbicula inflata Clessin, 1879 are reported for the first time from Madhya Pradesh, central India.

Ahlstedt, S. A. 1981. The molluscan fauna of Copper Creek (Clinch River system) in southwestern Virginia. Bulletin of the American Malacological Union 1981:4‑6.

Corbicula manilensis (Philippi, 1844) is reported from 2 of 36 localities in a 60 mile reach of Copper Creek surveyed in May 1980. The relationship of other molluscan species to the Cumberlandian fauna is discussed.

Ahlstedt, S. A. 1983. The molluscan fauna of the Elk River in Tennessee and Alabama. American Malacological Bulletin 1:43‑50.

From June through September 1980, approximately 201 km of the Elk River was surveyed to document the Cumberlandian mussel fauna from tributary streams located in the Appalachian Mountains and the Cumberland Plateau region. Corbicula manilensis (Philippi, 1844) was found throughout the river in association with 38 other species of freshwater mussels.

Ahlstedt, S. A. and J. J. Jenkinson. 1987. A mussel die‑off in the Powell River, Virginia and Tennessee, in 1983. IN: Proceedings of the Workshop on Die‑Offs of Freshwater Mussels in the United States, R. J. Neves, Ed. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Upper Mississippi River Conservation Committee, and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Blacksburg). pp. 21‑28.

The occurrence of a black material on the gills of Corbicula killed with permanganate is noted along with the formation of manganese dioxide.

Ahmad, T. A. 1990. Pyruvate kinase from the muscle of the bivalve Corbicula fluminalis. Paper delivered as poter/paper 33, Biochemical Society Meeting No. 635, Aberdeen (UK), 18-20 Jul 1990.

Ahmed, M. M. 1975. Systematic Study on Mollusca from Arabian Gulf and Shatt Al‑Arab, Iraq. Center for Arab Gulf Studies, University of Basrah, Iraq. 78 pp.

Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774) and Corbicula fluminalis (Müller, 1774) are reported from the marshes of the Tigris River near Qurna and Shatt Al‑Arab on the Euphrates River from collections made during 1970‑1971. Water salinity at Shatt Al‑Arab was 0.54 ‑ 0.90 ppt.

Aikawa, T., Y. Aikawa and S. Horiuchi. 1982. Distribution of acid proteinase activity in molluscs. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 10(2):175‑180.

Acid proteinases with a pH optimum around 3 were demonstrated in various tissues of 12 molluscan species (including Corbicula japonica). Enzymes strongly inhibited by pepstatin were predominant and the molecular weight of those from two species were in the region of 38,000 ‑ 68,000, suggesting that they were cathepsin D‑type proteinases.

Akhtar, S. 1978. On a collection of freshwater molluscs from Lahore. Biologia 24(2):437‑447.

Ten species of gastropods and 4 species of bivalves were reported from Lahore, Pakistan. The morphology and ecology of Corbicula regularis Prime, 1860 and Corbicula striatella Deshayes, 1854 are described. The potential for exploitation of the molluscs of the region as a poultry and fish food is discussed.

Al Hassan, L. A. J., and K. D. Soud. 1985. Phenotypes of phosphoglucose isomerase, phosphoglucose mutase and general protein in some freshwater molluscs from Basrah, Iraq. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 13(3):319‑323.

Electrophoretic variants of phosphoglucose isomerase (EC. and phosphoglucose mutase (EC. were studied in eight species of freshwater molluscs [including Corbicula fluminalis and Corbicula fluminea]. Two phenotypes of phosphoglucose isomerase were observed in Melanopsis nodosa and one phenotype was observed in the remaining species. Onephenotype of phosphoglucose mutase was observed in all the species. Phosphoglucose isomerase is inferred to be a dimer encoded at a single polymorphic locus in Melanoides nodosa. There are two alleles at this locus. Phosphoglucose mutase is inferred to be a monomer encoded at a single monomorphic locus in all species. The electrophoretic analysis revealed that to differentiate the different numbers of the six families studied but, on the other hand, it is considered a good taxonomic criterion to differentiate Melanopsis nodosa and Theodoxus jordani.

Aldrich, F. A. 1961. Seasonal variation in the benthic invertebrate fauna of the San Joaquin River estuary of California, with emphasis on the amphipod, Corophium spinicorne Stimpson. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 113(2):21‑28.

Surveys of the benthic invertebrate fauna of the San Joaquin River in the vicinity of Antioch, California, indicated a relatively constant species composition in May and August, 1955. Dominant littoral species were Corbicula fluminea and the ectoproct Conopeum commensale. The dominant form living in the river bottom was the tube‑dwelling amphipod Corophium spinicorne, with numbers of this species increasing with an increase in the chloride content of the water. The incidence of C. spinicorne was found to be associated with brackish water and depths where the subtrata were predominantly sand, gravel, or clay.

Aldridge, D. W. 1976. Growth, reproduction and bioenergetics in a natural population of the Asiatic freshwater clam Corbicula manilensis Philippi. Master of Arts Thesis, University of Texas at Arlington. ix + 97 pp.

Aldridge, D. W. and R. F. McMahon. 1976. Population growth and reproduction in the life‑cycle of Corbicula manilensis Philippi. American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, 39th Annual Meeting (Arlington, Texas). [Abstract].

See below.

Aldridge, D. W. and R. F. McMahon. 1978. Growth, fecundity, and bioenergetics in a natural population of the Asiatic freshwater clam, Corbicula manilensis Philippi, from north central Texas. Journal of Molluscan Studies 44(1):49‑70.

Bi‑weekly to monthly samples were collected from September 1974 to January 1976 from a natural population of Corbicula manilensis (Philippi, 1844) in Lake Arlington, Texas, to investigate its life cycle, reproduction and bioenergetics. Two spawning periods occurred during 1975, late April until late July resulting in a spring generation; and late August through early December leading to a fall generation. The mean reproductive output was 387 veligers/clam/day (S.D. + 129) for the spring period and 319.8 veligers/clam/day (S.D. + 222.3) for the fall spawning period for a total spring release of 388,495 veligers/m2 and fall release of 752,325 veligers/m2. Spawning was initiated at 19oC and inhibited at summer temperatures above 32oC. Maximum veliger release occurred at 25.7oC.

Corbicula manilensis reached sexual maturity at a shell length of 10 mm. The life span was approximately 14‑17 months, while some individuals survived up to 24 months. Annual average shell length was about 35 mm. A peak density of 94.6 clams/m2 occurred in December 1975, and a low density of 17.7 clams/m2 during June 1975. The annual accumulation of shell calcium carbonate was approximately 317 g CaCO3/m2/year, the equivalent of 10 g CaCO3/clam/year.

Average standing crop organic carbon biomass values over the life span of the spring and fall generations were 1.1 g/cm2 and 0.9 g/cm2, respectively, and that of the entire population, 2.6 g/cm2. Total annual assimilation of the Corbicula manilensis population was 14.6 g C/m2/year of which 29% was utilized in respiration leaving the remaining 71% as annual net productivity (non‑respired assimilation) (10.4 g C/m2/year). Reproduction accounted for 15.3% of the annual net productivity leaving 84.7% for growth. Turnover ratios (net productivity to average standing crop in carbon per square meter ratios) were 4.8 (spring generation) and 5.5 (fall generation), equivalent to turnover times of 91 and 95 days, respectively. Annual turnover ratio for the whole population was 4.1 or a turnover time of 91 days.

Alexander, K. M. 1972. Biochemical investigations on edible molluscs of Kerala. 1. A study on the nutritional value of some bivalves. Fisheries Technology, Cochin 9(1):42-47.

Data on the biochemical constituents and food values of 5 commercially important edible bivalves of Kerala, Lamellidens corrianus, Corbicula striatella, Mytilus edulis, Vellorita cochinensis and Ostrea cucullata have been presented. Physiological significance of the variations have been discussed. Present study reveals that the bivalve meat compares favourably with the common food fishes with regard to their caloric value and hence would be an excellent and economic source of nutrition for our people.

Aliev, A. D. 1960. On the molluscan fauna of lower Kura. Izvestiya Akademyii Nauk Azerbaidzhanskoi SSR 5:115‑118.

Corbicula fluminalis is reported from the Kura River of Azerbaijan, U.S.S.R.

Alimov, A. F. 1974. Growth regularities in fresh water bivalve mollusks. Zhurnal Obshchei Biologii 35(4):576‑589. [Russian with English summary]

The linear growth of the species occurring in the largest masses which belong to the Unionidae, Dreissenidae, and Corbiculidae (Corbicula fluminalis [Müller, 1774], Corbicula purpurea Prime, 1863, and Corbicula tibetensis Prashad, 1929 can be approximated by the Bertalanffy equation. Changes in the constants of this equation under the effect of some factors of the environment (oxidability, calcium content, temperature) were studied. Every species is characterized by a proper range of optimum values of separate environmental factors. The growth constant of the Bertalanffy equation is functionally dependent upon the values of these factors. The greatest length of the adult animal rises with an increase of the sum total of the effective temperatures of the habitat. The results obtained made it possible to introduce the functional dependencies of the indices of the varying values of the environmental factors into the equation of linear growth.

Alimov, A. F. 1975. The rate of metabolism in freshwater bivalve mollusks. Ekologiya 1:10‑20. [Russian with English summary. English translation in: Soviet Journal of Ecology 6:6‑13. 1975.]

Metabolic rate in freshwater bivalve molluscs was demonstrably exponentially dependent upon their weight. No statistically reliable differences were found in metabolic rates of molluscs having the same weight but referred to different taxa. Corbicula sandai Reinhardt, 1878 had the lowest metabolic rate while Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) had the highest.

Alizade, A. N. 1945. Freshwater molluscan fauna of Azerbaijan. Izvestia Academii Nauk Azerbaijan SSR 6.

Alizade, A. N. 1946. Hydrobiology of Lake Adzhikabul. Trudy Institute of Zoology Azaerbaijan SSR 11.

Allan, J. A. and J. O. G. Sanderson. 1945. Geology of Red Deer and Rosebud Sheets, Alberta. Reports of the Research Council of Alberta 13:1‑115.

Corbicula occidentalis ventricosa var. nov. is described (p. 90) and figured (Pl. 5, Figs. 18, 19, 25, 26).

Allen, H. J. 2002. Development, validation, and evaluation of a continuous, real-time, bivalve biomonitoring system. Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation, University of North Texas.

Allen, H. J., W. T. Waller, M. F. Acevedo, E. L. Morgan, K. L. Dickson and J. H. Kennedy. 1994. Use of remotely sensed valve movements of Corbicula fluminea to evaluate episodic toxicity events and ambient toxicity. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 15th Annual Meeting: Ecological Risk: Science Policy, Law and Policy, Denver, Colorado, 30 October-3 November 1994. (World Meeting Number 944 5003), Poster Paper No. WB29

Allen, H. J., W. T. Waller, M. F. Acevedo, E. L. Morgan, K. L. Dickson and J. H. Kennedy. 1996. A minimally invasive technique to monitor valve-movement behavior in bivalves. Environmental Technology 17(5):501-507.

A real time, minimally invasive method to observe valve movement of bivalves using proximity sensors and a personal computer has been developed. The method is being evaluated as a tool to assess both episodic toxicity events and ambient toxicity. The method described minimizes contact with the animal to the anchoring of one valve and the placement of a small aluminum foil disk on the other valve, and allows the measurement of the distance that a clam's valves are open. Using proximity sensors and an aluminum foil target, valve movements of the Asiatic clam, Corbicula fluminea were measured and digitally recorded using a data acquisition board and a personal computer. One advantage of this method is its use of readily available stock electronics. In its final form, we envision an in situ biological monitoring system using C. fluminea deployed in aquatic systems in association with automated physical/chemical monitoring systems like those found at USGS gauging stations. A tool such as this could be used as a warning system to increase the probability of detecting toxic events as they occur.

Allen, J. 1950. Australian Shells. Charles T. Branford Co. (Boston). xxi + 487 pp.

A discussion of the distribution, ecology, and taxonomy of the Australian species of Corbiculidae appears on page 402. Species discussed are Corbicula spp., Corbicula australis (Lamarck, 1818), Corbicula nepeanensis (Lesson, 1830), Corbicula maroubra (Iredale, 1943), Corbicula ovalina Deshayes, 1854, Corbicula desolata Tate, 1887, and Corbicula prolongata Prime, 1861.

Anazauna, K. 1929. First instance of Echinostoma revolutum in Kan and its infection route. Taiwan Igakknai Zasshi 288:221‑241. [Japanese with English summary]

Many specimens of E. revolutum, a common avian trematode in Formosa, were obtained from fecal samples of a female patient. Eggs were found in feces and she was treated with Filmaron oil. This is the first report of this species in man. Examinations of freshwater Mollusca revealed that Corbicula producta, which Formosans eat raw, pickled over‑night, or half‑boiled, is the possible source of the parasite. Immersion in 5% saline solution killed the cysts in 10 min.; in diluted Formosan "samshu", they lived no longer than 30 min.; and in soy sauce the were killed in 5 min.; in 1% aqueous acetic acid all were killed in 7 hrs.; in 10% aqueous aqueous acetic acid or in 3% HCl, they did not live longer than 10 min. Experiments on chickens, ducklings, mice and dogs with the encysted larvae from C. producta gave positive results. In Taichu and Taihoku prefectures the occurrence of this parasite in man is placed at 2.8 ‑ 6.5%.

Ancey, C. F. 1880. Description des mollusques nouveaux. Le Naturalist 42:334.

Corbicula bavayi sp. nov. is described (p. 334) from the Maroni River, Cayenne, South America.

Ancey, C. F. 1891. Mollusque noveaux de l'Archipel d'Hawaii, de Madagascar, et de l'Afrique equatoriale. Bulletin de Société Malacologique France 7:339‑347.

Corbicula sikorae sp. nov. is described (p. 345) from the River Mangoro, Madagascar.

Anderson, F. M. 1905. A stratigraphic study in the Mount Diablo Range of California. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 3rd Series, Vol. 2, Geology. pp. 105‑206.

Corbicula dumbelei sp. nov. is described.

Anderson, F. M. and G. D. Hanna. 1925. Fauna and stratigraphic relations on the Tejon Eocene at the type locality in Kern County, California. California Academy of Sciences Occasional Papers No. 11. 249 pp.

Corbicula williamsoni sp. nov. is described (pp. 164‑165) and figured (Pl. 1, Fig. 4; Pl. 3, Fig. 2) from the Tejon Formation, California Eocene, Kern County.

Anderson, K. B., C. M. Thompson, R. E. Sparks and A. A. Paparo. 1976. Effects of potassium on adult Asiatic clams, Corbicula manilensis. Illinois Natural History Survey, Biological Notes No. 98. 7 pp.

The threshold concentration of potassium for foot immobilization response in Corbicula manilensis (Philippi, 1844) was 120 mg/l. The 96 hr. LC50 was 225 mg/l. The possibility that naturally occurring concentrations of potassium in North American rivers could limit the zoogeographic dispersal of C. manilensis is discussed.

Anderson, R. V. and D. J. Holm. 1987. Chaetogaster limnaei (Oligochaeta: Naididae) infesting unionid mollusks (Pelecypoda: Unionidae) and Corbicula fluminea (Pelecypoda: Corbiculidae) in Pool 19, Mississippi River. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 4(1):61‑64.

A population of Corbicula fluminea and eight species of cohabiting unionid molluscs were examined for the presence of the oligochaete, Chaetogaster limnaei. The molluscs were collected in Navigation Pool 19, upper Mississippi River. Infestation of C. limnaei in C. fluminea was significantly greater than in the unionids. A decline in the occurrence and abundance of C. limnaei infesting C. fluminea was found in the winter when the bivalve's population also declined. Of the unionid molluscs, Leptodea fragilis had the highest rate of infestation and the highest number of C. limnaei per individual.

Andres, S., M. Baudrimont, Y. Lapaquellerie, F. Ribeyre, N. Maillet, C. Latouche and A. Boudou. 1999. Field transplantation of the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea along a polymetallic contamination gradient (River Lot, France): I. Geochemical characteristics of the sampling sites and cadmium and zinc bioaccumulation kinetics. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 18(11):2462-2471.

Specimens of the Asiatic clam Corbicula fluminea were transplanted from a clean lacustrine site to four stations along a polymetallic gradient in the river Lot (France), downstream from an old Zn ore treatment facility. The bivalves were held in benthic cages for a 5-month exposure period, April to September 1996; mollusk growth and metal bioaccumulation kinetics (Cd, Zn) were followed by subsampling the cages at t = 0, 21, 49, 85, 120, and 150 d. Rates of Cd bioaccumulation in the whole soft bodies and in individual organs were greater at the upstream stations located close to the pollution source, but there was no direct proportionality between Cd in the bivalves and in the unfiltered or filtered river water samples. Unlike the case for Cd, rates of Zn bioaccumulation did not reflect the contamination gradient. Marked growth differences were measured among the four stations, reflecting both nutritional differences and changes in the degree of metal contamination; these growth differences produced markedly different trends when metal bioaccumulation was expressed in terms of burdens rather than concentrations.

Andrusov, D. 1953. Nove paleontologike nalezy v karpatskom paleogene. [Nouvelles decouvertes de fossiles dans le Paleogene des Karpates]. Geologiya Sbornik (Bratislavia) 4(1‑2):431‑496.

The bivalves (including Corbicula sp.) and gastropods from the Paleogene of the Carpathian Mountains are described.

Andrusov, N. I. 1963. Apsheron layers. IN:Choisen (sic) Works, Vol. 2. Akademii Nauk SSSR (Moscow). pp. 333‑568. [Russian]

Corbicula fluminalis apscheronica var. nov. is described (p. 430) and figured (Pl. 2, Figs. 22‑25) from the Aspheron Layers of the Russian (Caucasian) Pleistocene.

Androussov, N. I. 1923. Étage Apcheronien (Aspcheronien). Memoirs Committee Geologique, St. Petersburg 110:1‑294.

Corbicula fluminalis apscheronica is described (p. 117) from the Russian (Caucasian) Pleistocene.

Anistratenko, V. V. and Ya. I. Starobogatov. 1990. Stroenie zamkov rekovin nekotorykh dvustvorchatykh molluskov (Mollusca, Bivalvia) po novoj sisteme indeksatsyi zubov [Hinge structure in some bivalves (Mollusca, Bivalvia) under new system of tooth indexation]. Vestnik Zoologii, 1990(2):75-76. [Russian only]

A previously proposed (Skarlato and Starobogatov, 1986) new system of tooth indexation aimed both at abbreviated marking of hinge teeth and revealing features of resemblance and difference in the hinge structure reflecting systematic principal proposition of species is under consideration. The hinge of representatives of Cerastoderma genus is the most typical and complete. The hinge of Corbicula genus is closely akin to it. They differ only in the following point, i.e. Cerastoderma has only two cardinal teeth in the right shell and Corbicula - three. Parvilucina is the partially inverted Pisidioidea hinge. They both differ greatly from Cerastoderma hinge in the main point, i.e. cardinal teeth of their right shell are homologous to one front lateral tooth and not two as in case with Cerastoderma. Gouldia hinge may be represented as the inverted and partially reduced Corbiculidae hinge. Carditida hinge is alike to Cerastoderma hinge but without outer lateral teeth in the right shell.

Annandale, N. 1916. Preliminary report on the fauna of the Tale Sap or Inland Sea of Singgora. Journal of the Natural History Society of Siam 2:90‑102.

Three unnamed species of Corbicula are reported to be a component of the benthos of Tale Sap. All of them are species already reported from the Malay Peninsula and the countries of Indo‑China.

Annandale, N. 1916. Zoological results of a tour in the Far East. The Mollusca of Lake Biwa, Japan. Memoirs of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 6:41‑74.

Corbicula sandai and Corbicula viola are reported from Lake Biwa.

Annandale, N. 1918. Memoirs of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 6:317.

Corbicula sandai is discussed.

Annandale, N. 1918. Aquatic molluscs on the Inle Lake and connected waters. Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) 14:103‑182.

The genus Corbicula is discussed.

Annandale, N. 1918. A new species of Taia from Chindwin Valley, upper Burma. Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) 14:213‑214.

The genus Corbicula is discussed.

Annandale, N. 1918. Freshwater shells from Mesopotamia. Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) 15:159‑170.

The genus Corbicula is discussed.

Annandale, N. 1921. The aquatic fauna of Seistan. Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) 18(5):235‑253.

Corbicula fluminalis (Müller, 1774) is one of three species of molluscs found in the Seistan Desert springs. Specimens were collected in the pools, watercourses and desert springs at Hamun and appeared to show little response to their environment.

Annandale, N. and C. Dover. 1923. Advances in our knowledge of the fauna of the fresh and brackish waters of India, with a bibliography for the years 1912 ‑ 1922. Journal of the Proceedings, Asiatic Society of Bengal (New Series) 18(10):527‑554.

A review of the literature on Indian Mollusca (including bivalves in the genus Corbicula) with a bibliography.

Annandale, N. and B. Prashad. 1924. Report on a small collection of molluscs from Chekiang Province of China. Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London 16(1):27‑49.

Corbicula fluminea was collected in the Grand Canal at Hangchow. Corbicula largillierti was also collected in the Ch'ienting River, 30 miles west of Hangchow.

Annandale, N., B. Prashad and A.‑U.‑Din. 1921. The aquatic and amphibious molluscs of Manipur. Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) 22(4):529‑631.

The genus Corbicula is represented in the collections from Manipur by three species. Of these, Corbicula striatella is common throughout India and Burma. Corbicula occidens has a wide distribution in the Central Provinces, United Provinces, Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, Sikkim, and Assam. Corbicula subradiata is newly reported in India. Corbicula occidens was found in Manipur in a muddy channel flowing into Loktak Lake near Potsengban Bungalow. Corbicula striatella was collected in a small stream near Waikhong on the Manipur‑Burma Road. Corbicula subradiata was taken from a shallow stream near Potsengbam and from a large, shallow, artificial tank called Ningyang Pukri at Imphal.

Annandale, N., B. Prashad and S. W. Kemp. 1919. The Mollusca of the inland waters of Baluchistan and of Seistan. Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) 18:17‑63.

The ecology, distribution, and morphology of Corbicula fluminalis (Müller, 1774) from Baluchistan and Seistan are discussed and compared with Corbicula cor Prime, 1864 and Corbicula crassula Prime, 1864.

Annis, C. G. 1986. Corbicula manilensis: a potential indicator of copper and lead pollution in aquatic environments. Master of Science Thesis, Florida Institute of Technology (Melbourne). xi + 117 pp.

Anonymous. 1963. Little creatures clog big canals. Reclamation Era 49:96‑98.

Popular account of the invasion of United States waters by Corbicula manilensis (Philippi, 1844).

Anonymous. 1969. Ordinary general meeting: 18 June 1969. Proceedings of the Geological Society of London No. 1660:388‑390.

Corbicula fluminalis is discussed in relation to the intermitant disappearance of rich shell‑bearing Ipswichian beds exposed due to accumulation of scree in the Stour Valley, England.

Anonymous. 1973. Chinese clams clog United States rivers. Marine Pollution Bulletin 4(4):54.

Popular account of the invasion of United States waters by Corbicula manilensis (Philippi, 1844).

Anonymous. 1973. Biology briefs: Chinese mollusk threatens U.S. waterways. Bioscience 23:411.

Popular account of the invasion of United States waters by Corbicula manilensis (Philippi, 1844).

Anonymous. 1973. Here come the clams. Newsweek 81:66.

Popular account of the invasion of United States waters by Corbicula manilensis (Philippi, 1844).

Anonymous. 1973. Chinese clam invasion. Saturday Review, May:54.

Popular account of the invasion of United States waters by Corbicula manilensis (Philippi, 1844).

Anonymous. 1973. The case of the Chinese clams: what do we do? Science News 103:306.

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