Elektronisk Dansk A. I. Meddelser 107 Nov 07

March 29, 2007: <http://www.nzherald.co.nz/section/story.cfm?c_id=5&objectid=10431378>Rough, but there's little lost in Google translation. By Adam Tanner. Reuters / available from The New Zealand Herald / also available from The Star (<http://www.thestar.co.za/index.php?fArticleId=3755541>Google seeks world of instant translations) and (</2007/03/28/technology/google.reut/index.htm?section=money_technology>Google speaking everyone's language).

"In Google's vision of the future, people will be able to translate documents instantly into the world's main languages, with machine logic rather than expert linguists leading the way. Google's appro! ach, called statistical machine translation, differs from past efforts in that it sidesteps language experts who programme grammatical rules and dictionaries into computers. Instead, Google feeds documents that humans have already translated into two languages and then relies on computers to discern patterns for future translations. ... Google chairman Eric Schmidt also sees broad consequences in a world with easy translations. 'What happens when we have 100 languages in simultaneous translation? Google and other companies are working on statistical machine translation so that we can, on demand, translate everything all the time,' he told a conference this year. 'Many, many societies have operated in language-defined communities where they really don't understand and are not particularly sympathetic to other peoples' views because of the barrier of language. We're about to have that breakthrough and it is a huge thing.'"

Also see:

</Google+backs+character-recognition+research/2100-1032_3-6175136.html>Google backs character-recognition research. By Caroline McCarthy. CNET (April 11, 2007). "Google is sponsoring an artificial-intelligence research group's work to develop advanced technologies for character recognition. The open-source project, called Ocropus, has several goals, including developing a high-level, easy-to-use handwriting recognition system that can convert handwritten documents to computer text, assisting in the creation of electronic libraries, analyzing historical documents and helping vision-impaired people access information. The 'ocr' in Ocropus stands for optimal character recognition. The project is headquartered at the Image Understanding and Pattern Recognition (IUPR) research group at the German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI) in Kaiserslautern, Germany. DFKI Professor Thomas Breuel is leading ! the project."

Too Powerful? Us? Surely You Jest (<#ap9a>article at April 9th below)

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March 29, 2007: </science/discoveries/news/2007/03/almosthuman_0329>Obsessive Geniuses Strive to Create Almost Human Robots. Wired News interview.

"In the book Almost Human: Making Robots Think, published this month, Lee Gutkind introduces us to some of the most prominent minds and memorable personalities among them. ... Wired News: A number of people in your book don't sleep, don't bathe. Is there something about robotics that appeals to this personali! ty type, or does the work itself take over? Lee Gutkind: ! You can' t just do this for eight or 16 hours and walk away. Even debugging a program will take a whole day. So I think it takes a patient but obsessive personality. Don't forget also, it's a very male-oriented culture. There's not a lot of joking, not a lot of flirting, because there's no one to joke and flirt with. You're flirting with your robot is what you're doing. WN: Although the field is overwhelmingly male-dominated, in your book we do meet a number of highly accomplished female roboticists. How are women influencing robotics? Gutkind: Just look at Manuela Veloso. It took a woman in a sea of men to get the men to start talking to one another. She gave them a game to play, and she triggered off their testosterone and set them in a competition that brought them together. Would they have come together in a room at MIT or the White House to share their code? No, but to play a game and beat the pants off somebody from Stanford, that's another matter entirely. Similarly, ! Nathalie Cabrol, the NASA representative, got the scientists and the roboticists to work together and get a robot to do science. ... WN: You cross paths with some very 'realistic,' humanlike robots. Did you ever get used to those encounters? ... WN: Of course, there are always going to be people who are going to be afraid of the notion of robots replacing humans. Is that something roboticists even think about? ..."

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March 29, 2007: <http://www.itbusiness.ca/it/client/en/Comm_Network/News.asp?id=42816>AI tool to enhance computer-aided fire dispatch - An Ontario firm works with universities to develop a system that could assist departments across the country. The project leader discusses why real-time data has never been more important. By B! riony Smith. IT Business.

"The old-! school f ire response systems employed across the country could be hitting the junkyard in a couple of years when Markham, Ontario-based safety system company CriSys rolls out a system powered by artificial intelligence that can process a pile of information to 'decide' how to best battle a blaze. ... Nowadays, according to Paus, the expanded role of fire services -- including first response, vehicle accidents, and hazardous material situations -- makes it impossible for the simple rules of thumb that powered the previous systems to work well anymore. [Dale Paus] said, 'AI is the only way we can adequately deal with the level of complexity we have now.' ... 'We want to create a piece of software that mimics the reasoning of an experience firefighter,' said Paus. ... CriSys plans to set out to interview fire chiefs about their reasoning come early summer...."

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April 2007: </apr07/5004>Strange Ways - A weaving together of minds, machines, and mathematics. Book review by Stephen Cass. IEEE Spectrum Online.

"[Douglas R.] Hofstadter has returned to one of the themes of his 1979 opus, believing it to have been somewhat overshadowed by the rest of the book. What is this overlooked gem? That we owe our self-awareness to the existence of 'strange loops.' In I Am a Strange Loop, Hofstadter develops the implications of this idea.... He further argues that any system capable of representing a sufficiently rich suite of symbols could develop self-awareness: it doesn’t matter if the microlevel of the strange loop is composed of neurons or transistors. When this idea was expressed in Gödel, Escher, Bach, most people latched onto it for its strong support of the ! possibility of true artificial intelligence."

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Also see: </2007/04/01/magazine/01wwlnQ4.t.html>The Mind Reader - Questions for Douglas Hofstadter. Interview by Deborah Solomon. The New York Times Magazine (April 1, 2007). "[DS] What does a computer lack that a person has? [DH] It has no concepts."

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April 2007: </wired/archive/15.04/truman.html>The Power of Babble - MIT researcher Deb Roy is videotaping every waking minute of his infant son's first 3 years of life. His ultimate goal: teach a robot to talk. By Jonathan Keats. Wired (Issue 15.04).

"[Deb] Roy, 38, directs the Media Lab's Cognitive Machines Group, known for teaching remedial English to a robot named Ripley. By record! ing the early stages of his boy's life, Roy is seeking to supplement his steel-and-silicon investigations: His three-year-long study will document practically every utterance his young son makes, from the first gurglings of infancy through the ad hoc eloquence of toddlerdom, in an unprecedented effort to chart -- uninterrupted -- the entire course of early language acquisition. The goal of the Human Speechome Project, as he boldly calls his program, is to amass a huge and intricate database on a fundamental human phenomenon. Roy believes the Speechome Project will, in turn, unlock the secrets of teaching robots to understand and manipulate language."

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April 1, 2007: <dependent.co.uk/world/science_technology/article2411403.ece>Bill of Rights for abused robots - Experts draw up an ethical charter to prevent humans! exploiting machines. By Jonathan Owen and Richard Osley. The ! Independ ent Online Edition.

"A robot rights movement is taking shape and preparing the world's first ethical guidelines for human/robot relationships. The 'Robot Ethics Charter', which will be unveiled later this year, will insist that humans should not exploit robots and should use them responsibly. It is expected to be a version of the classic three laws of robotics developed by the science fiction author Isaac Asimov. ... With artificial intelligence becoming ever more advanced, there is growing concern about how interaction between robots and humans can be regulated. The issue will be addressed at a robotics conference in Rome next week.... High on the Rome agenda will be the issue of sexual relations between humans and machines.... But it is the ethics around military robots that is causing most concern among scientists."

Also see:

</media/storage/paper736/news/2007/04/06/OpinionColumns/Robotic.Revolution.Only.Matter.Of.Time-2827230.shtml>Robotic revolution only matter of time - New movement in South Korea is moving us even closer to the world of science fiction, er, reality. Opinion column by Sujay Kumar. Daily Illini (April 6, 2007). "By the end of this century, mankind will live peacefully with the first alien intelligence that it has ever encountered: robots. ... South Korea, a technological powerhouse of the 21st century, has started to construct a visionary Robot Ethics Charter that will be released later this year. The charter will be an ethical GPS-system for the roles and functions of robots in our society. It will probably be heavily inspired by Isaac Asimov's three laws of robotics. ... The United Kingdom Office of Science and Investigation Horizon Scanning Centre ... aims to spot the implications of emerging technology. The repor! t 'Utopian dream or rise of the machines?' predicts that robot! s could demand human rights in 50 years. ... Before you say 'no domo arigato, Mr. Roboto Revolution,' prepare to rewire your mind, and read on. Feelix Growing is a research project that is welding the talent of 25 roboticists, developmental psychologists and neuroscientists in order to manufacture robots that can learn and respond to human emotion."

<http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/asia/article1620558.ece>The robots are running riot! Quick, bring out the red tape. By Leo Lewis. TimesOnline (April 6, 2007). "When the science fiction writer Isaac Asimov envisioned a future shared by human beings and robots, he predicted that the mechanical servants of tomorrow would be safely controlled by only three simple laws. But when Japan’s notoriously zealous bureaucracy looks into the future, it sees robots enmeshed in miles of red tape. Three l! aws, the robotics experts say, are nowhere near sufficient to ensure human safety in a world where cleaning, carrying and even cooking could one day be performed by machines. So the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry has drafted a hugely complex set of proposals for keeping robots in check. The document, entitled Draft Guidelines to Secure the Safe Performance of Next Generation Robots, was obtained by The Times yesterday. ... After a yet more convoluted process of public consultation, the ministry will draft, as early as May, a set of principles to which all robots must conform. As a rapidly ageing country with a shrinking population of youngsters, Japan imagines robots playing a variety of roles."

</NewsTrack/Science/2007/04/06/japan_drafts_rules_for_advanced_robots/>Japan drafts rules for advanced robots. United Press International (April 6, 2007).

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April 3, 2007: </tech/news/techinnovations/2007-04-02-ibm-donation_N.htm>IBM gives U.S. military $45M in translation tech. By Brian Bergstein. The Associated Press / available from .

"To honor an employee's son who was badly wounded in Iraq, IBM plans to give the U.S. military $45 million worth of Arabic-English translation technology that the Pentagon had been testing for possible purchase. ... IBM would not make [CEO Samuel] Palmisano available for comment. But according to other IBM executives, Palmisano had heard from several IBM employees who have returned from active duty in Iraq that a shortage of Arabic translators has severely hampered U.S. forces' efforts to communicate. With that and Ecker's experience in mind, Palmisano called and wrote Bush, offering to make IBM's Multili! ngual Automatic Speech Translator software, known as MASTOR, 'immediately available for use by our forces in Iraq."'Palmisano offered 10,000 copies of the MASTOR software and 1,000 devices equipped with it, plus training and technical support. ... It is also worth noting that MASTOR has been undergoing testing by the Pentagon's Joint Forces Command, in addition to a rival two-way translation technology known as IraqComm from non-profit SRI International. Both systems take English or Arabic that is spoken into a computer microphone, translate it into the other language and utter it through the machine's speakers."

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April 4, 2007: </science/displaystory.cfm?story_id=8954632>Computer vision - Easy on the eyes. A computer can now recognise classes of things as accurately as a person can. The Economist.

"One theory goes that the human brain ! recognis es strategic positions in a general way, and that this helps to reduce the problem to a manageable size. Thomas Serre and his colleagues at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have built a computer processing system that tries to work in this general way. ... A neuroscientist trying to understand how people recognise objects would thus start with this simplest of systems. That is the purpose of Dr Serre's computer. His project is nothing less than an attempt to reverse-engineer the relevant part of the brain. ... Dr Serre considered his computer's processing units analogous to nerve cells, and he organised them into areas, just as they are in real brains. Then he let the machine learn in much the same way that babies do. ... A system like this has obvious applications (it may, for instance, soon be put to use searching for child-pornography sites on the internet). But it also brings more subtle benefits. Based as it is on how brains work, it may give insights into what! happens when they go wrong."

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April 5, 2007: </wp-dyn/content/article/2007/04/04/AR2007040402715.html>Software's Benefits On Tests In Doubt Study Says - Tools Don't Raise Scores. By Amit R. Paley. The Washington Post (page A01).

"Educational software, a $2 billion-a-year industry that has become the darling of school systems across the country, has no significant impact on student performance, according to a study by the U.S. Department of Education. ... The study, released last night, is expected to further inflame the debate about education technology on Capitol Hill as lawmakers consider whether to renew No Child Left Behind this year. 'We are concerned that the technology that we have today isn't being utilized as effectively as it can be to raise student achievement,'! said Katherine McLane, spokeswoman for the Department of Educ! ation. I ndustry officials played down the study and attributed most of the problems to poor training and execution of the programs in classrooms."

Also see:

</ew/articles/2007/04/02/31intelligent.H36.html>New Breed of Digital Tutors Yielding Learning Gains. By Debra Viadero. Education Week (April 2, 2007; Vol. 26, Issue 31, Page 9). "Struggling algebra students in the Everett, Wash., school district get help from special tutors who diagnose their weaknesses, tailor instruction to their needs, and provide on-the-spot feedback -- all with an inhuman degree of patience. That’s inhuman literally: The tutors are computers. Three years ago, the district started employing Cognitive Tutor, a series of computer programs based on artificial intelligence that were developed by researchers from Carnegie-Mellon Universi! ty in Pittsburgh. The programs provide an alternative form of math instruction to secondary school students who haven’t succeeded in regular classrooms. The experience proved so successful that officials in the 20,000-student district have expanded the program. ... 'What distinguishes intelligent tutors from integrated learning systems or skill-building software is that the tutors sort of both scaffold and support more complex cognitive processes,' said Margaret Honey, the director of the New York City-based Center for Children and Technology. 'Well-designed tutors are smart enough to know there’s not a single way to solve a problem, and that’s what makes them 'intelligent.'' ... 'Our goal isn’t to replace teaching,' said Mr. Koedinger, who also co-directs the Pittsburgh Science of Learning Center, a $25 million operation run jointly by the University of Pittsburgh and CMU that uses intelligent-tutoring systems to study learning. 'It’s to give ! teachers more time to do what they do best.'"

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</pg/07100/776597-298.stm>RAND to assess algebra curriculum developed by CMU. By Eleanor Chute. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (April 10, 2007). "The RAND Corp. will study the effectiveness of Carnegie Learning's Cognitive Tutor algebra curriculum with a $6 million grant from the U.S. Department of Education. RAND announced the grant and the five-year study last week. Cognitive Tutor, which is based in Pittsburgh where RAND has an office, uses a software program that adapts to each student's understanding of the subject. ... The company's Cognitive Tutor programs are currently used by more than 475,000 students in 1,300 school districts across the United States. The math programs of Carnegie Learning are based on cognitive science research done at Carnegie Mellon University, where researchers study how students think, learn and apply new knowledge in mathematics."

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April 6, 2007: </New+technology+lets+you+read+your+voice+mail/2100-1039_3-6173839.html>New technology lets you read your voice mail - Several companies are betting on voice-recognition applications that transcribe those rambling messages into e-mail or text messages. By Marguerite Reardon. CNET .

"Why listen to your voice mail messages when you can read them? That's what a new crop of companies is asking--they're developing software that turns voice mail messages into transcribed e-mail or text messages. ... One indication that voice-recognition technology is getting hot is the recent Microsoft/Tellme deal. In March, Microsoft said it would buy privately held speech-recognition maker Tellme Networks in a deal believed to b! e in the range of $800 million. Tellme recently started testin! g a cell phone application that allows people to say out loud the information they are looking for and have data sent to their phone. 'Voice is still the killer application for any phone,' said Charles Golvin, an analyst with Forrester Research. 'And it is underappreciated as an opportunity and underutilized for development of new services. Carriers can use voice applications to drive data-oriented experiences.' ... [Jill Aldort,] agrees that voice recognition services are going to be hot, especially services like the one offered by Tellme, which can help people find information on the fly."

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April 9, 2007 [issue date]: </magazine/content/07_15/b4029007.htm>Too Powerful? Us? Surely You Jest - In an interview with BusinessWeek, Google CEO Schmidt takes issue with the idea that the search behemoth is! unfairly dominant. BusinessWeek Online.

"[BW] Is Google creating a real artificial intelligence? [Eric E. Schmidt] A lot of people have speculated that. If we're doing AI, we're not doing it the way AI researchers do it, because they do real cognition. Our spelling correction (on misspelled search queries) is an example of AI. But if you talk of that in an AI class in computer science, they'll say, Oh yeah, yeah, no big deal. On the other hand, spelling correction applies to millions of people every day. [BW] But Larry and Sergey talk about doing a real AI, and there's the idea that you're scanning all this stuff on the Web to be read and understood by an AI. That gives a lot of people the willies, because there's any number of movies such as The Terminator that show the negative aspect. [Eric E. Schmidt] ..."

Also see the main Business Week Magazine cover story:! </magazine/content/07_15/b4!

029001.h

tm> Is Google Too Powerful? As the Web giant tears through media, software, and telecom, rivals fear its growing influence. Now they're fighting back. By Robert D. Hof. Business Week Magazine.

... this Online Extra: Slide Show - </ss/07/03/0329_google/index_01.htm>The Many Faces Of Google: Here’s our attempt to provide a fuller picture of the elephant in nearly every company’s board room. By Robert D. Hof. "Plenty of people wonder just how much further beyond search Google’s mission to 'organize the world’s information and make it universally accessible and useful' will take it. ... Here is an attempt to provide a fuller picture...."

... </ss/07/03/0329_google/source/2.htm>Search Engine ... <http://images.bus!

/ss/07/03/0329_google/source/9.htm>Artificial Intelligence

... and </mediacenter/qt/podcasts/cover_stories/covercast_03_29_07.mp3>listen to Business Week's </mediacenter/podcasts/cover_stories/current.html>"behind this week's cover" podcast with Executive Editor John Byrne and San Mateo Bureau Chief Rob Hof.

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April 9, 2007: </stories2007/4256/>U.S. Robot Satellites Makes History. SatNews Daily.

"Orbital Express, an in-space U.S. refueling demonstration mission consisting of two robot satellites, wrote itself into the history books ! a week ago by successfully accomplishing the first transfer of! liquid fuel between orbiting satellites, and is about to achieve another first by using its three meter robotic arm to transfer components - the first unassisted component exchange in space history. Orbital Express consists of the Autonomous Space Transfer and Robotic Orbiter, or Astro, prototype servicing satellite, and the NextSat serviceable spacecraft. An Atlas V orbited both March 12 from Cape Canaveral."

Also see:

</news/n0704/03orbitalexpress/>Robotic satellite servicer rehearsal underway in orbit. By Stepher Clark. Spaceflight Now (April 3, 2007). "Officials tout the many firsts Orbital Express is expected to achieve in areas such as satellite servicing, autonomous robotics and on-orbit refueling using U.S. technology. 'The point of Orbital Express is to take the technical excuse off the table fo! r autonomous on-orbit servicing,' said U.S. Air Force Lt. Col. Fred Kennedy, DARPA's program manager for Orbital Express."

</article.ns?id=dn11341&feedId=online-news_rss20>'Grease monkey' satellite set for space tune-up. By Kelly Young. news (March 8, 2007). "A 'mechanic' satellite designed to refuel and repair a partner in space is set to launch on Thursday. The feats would be the first of their kind and will lay the groundwork for future autonomous robotic missions to the Moon, Mars and beyond. ... The Russian Progress cargo spacecraft is able to rendezvous with the International Space Station (ISS) autonomously. Once it is within 150 metres of the station, ground controllers and astronauts track the final approach and could fly it manually if necessary."

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April 12, 2007: <dependent.co.uk/people/obituaries/article2441969.ece>Obituary - Professor Karen Sparck Jones, Cambridge computer scientist. By Martin Campbell-Kelly. The Independent Online Edition.

"Today, anyone who uses Google to hunt for information on the World Wide Web is making use of fundamental research conducted by Karen Spärck Jones which began in the 1950s and is now woven into the fabric of computing. She worked in machine translation and information retrieval, which for some years were poorly supported by the funding agencies, until the arrival of the Internet and massive improvements in computer capabilities propelled them to the centre of today's networked world. ... During the 1980s Spärck Jones became increasingly involved in what she called 'heavy-duty public service'. She was the principal advisor to the Alvey Directorate in Inte! lligent Knowledge Based Systems. In 1985 she was a founder of, and taught on, a master's course on computer speech and language understanding - which produced a generation of research associates and graduate students. ... Her many honours included the lifetime achievement award of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the Lovelace Medal of the British Computer Society."

Also see:

<http://www.admin.cam.ac.uk/news/dp/2007040403>Karen Spärck Jones (26 August 1935 – 4 April 2007). Press release from the Computer Laboratory, University of Cambridge (April 4, 2007). "Karen Spärck Jones, who has died this morning aged 71, was Emeritus Professor of Computing and Information at the University of Cambridge and one of the most remarkable women in computer science. A Fellow of the British Academy, of which sh! e was Vice-President from 2000 to 2002, she had a long, rich a! nd remar kable career as a pioneer of information science from the very early days of computing to the present day. She had worked in automatic language and information processing research since the late 1950s when she co-authored a paper in one of the great founding collections of the discipline, the Proceedings of the 1958 International Conference on Scientific Information in Washington, DC. She made outstanding theoretical contributions to information retrieval and natural language processing and built upon this theoretical framework through numerous experiments. Her work is among the most highly cited in the field and has influenced a whole generation of researchers and practitioners. ... Karen was a Fellow of the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) and the European Coordinating Committee for Artificial Intelligence (ECCAI), and was President of the Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL) in 1994. She received several major awards for her res! earch including, in 2004, the ACL Lifetime Achievement Award and in 2007, the British Computer Society (BCS) Lovelace Medal and the Association for Computer Machinery (ACM)/ AAAI Allen Newell Award."

</server.php?show=ConWebDoc.10791>Computing's too important to be left to men. BCS managing editor Brian Runciman interviewed Karen Sparck-Jones, winner of the 2007 BCS Lovelace Medal. The British Computer Society (March 2007). "[Q] By way of introduction, can you tell us something about your work? [A] In some respects I'm not a central computing person, on the other hand the area I've worked in has become more central and important to computing. I've always worked in what I like to call natural language information processing. That is to say dealing with information in natural language and information that is conveyed by natural language, because that's what we use. ...&qu! ot;

! </mar07/comments/1746>Language Theorist Lauded for Information Efforts. IEEE Spectrum Online (March 24, 2007). "A professor at Cambridge University is seeing her life's work in natural language and information processing reap a bouquet of awards from major computer science institutions this month. The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) announced Wednesday that it has chosen Karen Spärck Jones as the recipient of both the ACM/AAAI Allen Newell Award and the ACM-W Athena Lecturer Award. Only weeks ago, she was also honored with the prestigious Ada Lovelace Medal by the British Computer Society (BCS). ... Spärck Jones will receive her ACM awards during presentation ceremonies this June and July. The Newell Award, bestowed each year in conjunction with the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, recognizes those whose careers have demonstrated 'breadth within computer science.'! The Athena Award, presented by the ACM Committee on Women in Computing, recognizes women who have made 'fundamental contributions to computer science.' The BCS's Lovelace Medal honors 'individuals who have made a contribution which is of major significance in the advancement of information systems.'"

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