The Workshop for Enhancing Collaborative Research on the Environment in Sub-Saharan Africa Arlington, Virginia usa 24-26 January 2005

Appendix e: lISTYLE="OF REFERENCES

Lawton, J. H., 1999: Are there general laws in ecology? Oikos 84: 177–92.

Biggs, H. J., G.I.H. Kerley and T. Tshighuvo, 1999): A South African long-term ecological research. network: a first for Africa? S. Afr. J. Sci. 95, 244–245.

Henschel J.R. and J. Pauw, 2002: Environmental observatories: LTER à-la-Africa. In Rebirth of Science in Africa: A shared Vision for Life and Environmental Sciences, eds H. Baijnath and Y. Singh, pp. 149–159. Umdaus Press, Pretoria.

WCRP, 1999: ICPO Publication Series No.29

Githeko AK, S. W. Lindsay, U. E. Confalonieri, J. A. Patz, 2000: Climate change and vector-borne diseases: a regional analysis. Bull World Health Organ, 78:1136-1147.

Kiwanuka-Tondo, J. & Snyder, L. B, 2002: The Influence of Organizational Characteristics and Campaign Design Elements on Communication Campaign Quality: Evidence from 91 Ugandan AIDS Campaigns. Journal of Health Communication, 7(1): 59-77.

Zeleza, P.T. 2002. Transnational scholarship: building linkages between the U.S. and Africanist community and Africa. African Issues 30: 69-75.

Appendix F: Poster titles

  1. Adedoyin, Akintayo. Mechanism of Climate Change within the Kalahari Transect of Southern Africa: Impacts on the Environment and Social Life

  1. Amarillo, J., R. Oleski, R. Ruggles and L. Kajubi. A Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Land Uses Affecting Lake Victoria’s Wetlands

  1. Atekwana, Estella A., Baraka D. Kinabo, John P. Hogan, Henri A.B.Kampunzu and Motsoptse P. Modisi. Early Structural Evolution of the Okavango Rift Zone, NW Botswana

  1. Bassett, Thomas J. and Koussa Koné. Networks and Niches: The Political Ecology of Mobile Livestock Raising in Northern Côte d’Ivoire

  1. Baum,J., D. Klotter and R. Crouthamel. The African Upper Air Data Rescue Project

  1. Campbell, David,Salome Misana, Jennifer Olson and Pius Yanda. Climate-Land Interactions Project (CLIP) in East Africa

  2. Coughenour,Michael, Kathy Galvin, Craig Packer, Steve Polasky, Mark Ritchie and Bob Holt. Biocomplexity of the Greater Serengeti - Humans in a Biologically Diverse Ecosystem

  1. Dick, R. P., A. Badiane, M. Sene, M. Khouma,, S. Ndiaye, Jay Noller and Maria Dragila. Regulation of Hydrologic and C Cycles by Native Shrubs in Soils of Sub-Sahelian Africa

  1. Georgiadis, N. and N. Olwero. Evaluation and Applications of Remotely Sensed Vegetation Indices as Rainfall Data Surrogates in Drylands

  1. Getz, Wayne, Johan du Toit, Craig Tambling, Markus Hofmeyer, Shirli Bar-David, James Lloyd-Smith, Maria Sanchez, Paul Cross, Andy Lyons, Sadie Ryan, Wendy Turner and George Wittemyer. A Quantitative Focus on Wildlife Conservation and Diseases in Africa

  1. Goldman, Abe, Michael Binford, Jane Southworth,Colin Chapman, Lauren Chapman,

J. Terrence McCabe and Paul Leslie. Consequences of Parks for Land Use, Livelihood

Diversification and Biodiversity in East Africa

  1. Harris, Craig K. Dynamics of Change In the Lake Victoria Fisheries

  1. Henschel, Joh and Mary Seely. Gobabeb Environmental Observatories Network

  1. Jenkins, Gregory S., Amadou Gaye and Bamba Sylla. Collaborative Regional Climate Modeling Studies and AMMA Field Experiment Efforts

  1. Macko, Stephen A., Robert J. Swap, Thomas A. Szuba, Harold Annegarn, Bane Marjanovic, Francisco Vieira and Rui Brito. Real-Time Interactive Environmental Teleducation Between the United States and Southern Africa

  1. McCabe,J. Terrence and Paul Leslie. Livelihood Diversification among the Maasai of Northern Tanzania: Cultivation, Migration and the “New Thinking” in Ecology and Ecological Anthropology


  1. Mlingwa, Charles. Implementation of a New Wildlife Research Agenda in Tanzania

  1. Morfit, Christine,Kay Ikranagara and Tony Wagner. Association Liaison Office for University Cooperation in Development

  1. Nicholson,S.E. and D. Klotter. An Overview of African Research in the FSU Climatology Lab

  1. Nicholson, S.E., B. Some and co-authors. A Workshop for the Validation of TRMM Satellite Estimates of Precipitation over Africa

  1. Nyblade, A. and P. Dirks. AfricaArray

  1. Osofsky, Steven A., Michael D. Kock, William Karesh, Robert A. Cook, David H. M. Cumming and Richard Kock. Moving Conservation AHEAD (Animal Health for the Environment and

Development): Progress at the Intersection of Program and Policy

  1. Packer, Craig. Ecological Research in Tanzania

  1. Pauw, J. C. Developing South Africa’s Environmental Observation Network (SAEON)

  1. Pauw, J. C. and Joh Henschel. Monitoring and Understanding Long-Term, Large-Scale Environmental Change Across Southern Africa

  1. Pell, A.N., J.M. Kinyangi, S.O. Ngoze, D.R. Brown, C.B. Barrett, L.E. Blume, J.G. Gamara,

C.J. Lehmann, P.P. Marenya, H.A. Markewich, A.O. S.J. Riha, D.M. Mbugua, Odenyo,

L.V. Verchot and J. Wangila. Dynamics of Poverty and Soil Degradation on Smallholder

Farms in Central and Western Kenya

  1. Piketh, S.J., L. B. Otter and K. E. Ross.Sources and Impacts of Atmospheric Aerosols over

Southern Africa

  1. Reid, Robin S.F. Mohammed Y. Said, Joseph Ogutu, Shem Kifugo, Andrew Muchiru, Sandra van Dijk, N. Thompson Hobbs, Jeff Worden, Shauna Burnsilver and Helen Gichohi. Landscape Interactions Between Pastoral People and Wildlife in East Africa: Competition, Synergies or Both?

  1. Reilinger, Robert,Simon McClusky, Philippe Vernant, Woladai Ghebreab and Biniam Haileab. Global Positioning System (GPS) Constraints on Arabia-Africa-Eurasia Plate Interactions and Inter-plate Deformations: Developing a Physical Basis for Earthquake Hazard Assessment

  1. Sankaran, Mahesh, Niall Hanan, Jayashree Ratnam and Robert Scholes. Determinants of Woody Cover in African Savannas: Is Tree-Grass Coexistence Disturbance Dependant?

  1. Scholes, Mary. C. Biogeochemistry of Semiarid Savannas and Plantation Forests in Southern Africa

  1. Semazzi, Fredrick, Richard Anyah, Jared Bowden and Robert Mera. Climate Research over the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA)

  1. Sitoe, A., B. Guedes, J. Argola, F. Tchaúque, A. Muhate and J. Monteiro. Forest Cover Change and its Implications to the Conservation of Forest Resources: Case Study of the Beira Corridor

  1. Smith, Richard, and Lucie Rogo. BioNET-INTERNATIONAL: the Global Network Taxonomy for Taxonomy

  1. Swap,R. J., L. Estes, H. Sabea, C. Terni, H. Annegarn, C. Ford, W. Twine, V. Netshandamu,P. Omara-Ojungu, K. Vaz, N. Ribeiro and F. Eckardt. The University of Virginia ‘People, Culture and Environment of Southern Africa’ Summer Study Abroad Program – An Example of a Collaborative International Educational Program

  1. Tenywa, M. M., M. J. G. Majaliwa, E. J. Wasige, A. Lufafa, M. K. Magunda, R. Lal, J. Gowing and P. L. Woomer. Sustainable Watershed Management in Uganda: Opportunities and Challenges

  1. Thomas, D. W.,R. Condit, E. C. Losos, B. Bishaw, D. Hibbs, G. B. Chuyong, C. Ewango,

D. Kenfack, T. Hart and J. R. Makana. Building Central Africa's Capacity in the Understanding and Monitoring of Forest Dynamics

  1. Trollope, W. S. W. and L. A. Trollope. Fire - A Key Factor in the Ecology and Management of African Grasslands and Savannas

  1. Uhlir, Paul F., Julie M. Esanu and Amy Franklin. Making Digital Science Productive and Meaningful in the Developing World

  1. Vanderbilt,Kristin. Ecoinformatics Training: Toward Data Sharing and Collaborative Research

  1. Wang, Y.Q. (Yeqiao), Gregory Bonynge, Jarunee Nugranad, Michael Traber, Vedast Makota, Amani Ngusaru and James Tobey.Impacts of Land Cover Change along the Tanzania Coast: A Case Study of Geographic Information for Sustainable Development

  1. Williams, Christopher A., Niall Hanan, A. Scott Denning, Joseph Berry, Robert Scholes, Jason Neffand Jeffrey Privette. Africa and the Global Carbon Cycle: Field Networks and Model Studies of African Carbon Exchange

  1. Yaindl, C., R. Oleski, R. Ruggles, D. Brandes, A. D. Kney and L. Kajubi. Impact of Agricultural Techniques on Wetland Processes - Uganda, Africa: Treatment Reliability and Hydraulic Strategies

  1. Yoder,Anne D., Carol Hanley, Achille Raselimanana and Steven M. Goodman. An Integrative Approach to Understanding Biodiversity in Madagascar

POSTER

ABSTRACTS

(Abstracts will be included in the final version only.)

1

Mechanism of Climate Change within the Kalahari Transect of Southern Africa: Impacts on the Environment and Social Life

Akintayo Adedoyin

University of Botswana, Department of Physics, Gaborone, Botswana Email: adedoyin@mopipi.ub.bw

It is well documented that since the late 60’s different parts of sub-Saharan Africa have experienced devastating droughts. The attendant inter-annual variability of rainfall and the shifts in the dynamics of the major rain-producing systems have also been the subject of much research work. This variability is closely linked with other global climatic conditions like the El-Niño (ENSO) phenomenon. The mechanisms for this inter-annual variability are discussed in relation to the modulating effects of continental rain-belt mode, large-scale atmospheric circulation and sea-surface temperature (SST) patterns. Observations show that above-normal (below-normal) Kalahari rainfall is usually accompanied by the southward (northward) displacement in the rain-belt mean axis, and there is a concurrent increase (decrease) in the total rainfall. Also, above-normal (below-normal) Kalahari rainfall is accompanied by dominant negative (positive) anomalies of 700 hPa heights over southern Africa. The correlation between sub-Saharan Africa rainfall patterns and global 700 hPa heights is therefore investigated with a two-layer model of the atmosphere. Results show that the most unstable perturbations occur when the interface between tropical Africa tropospheric air masses is at 700 hPa. The zones where tropical Africa monsoon winds attain this critical precipitating depth of 700 hPa are determined by global SSTYLE="anomalies. These anomalies are shown to influence the shift in the axis of squally activities during dry ENSO events, thereby depriving normally wet areas of the main rain-producing mechanism. Implications of observed variabilities on water resources, agriculture, energy, health-related issues and the tourism industry are discussed.

2

A Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Land Uses Affecting Lake Victoria’s Wetlands

Jay Amarillo, Rachael Oleski, and Roger Ruggles Lafayette College, Lammeck Kajubi, Makerere University

Over the past ten years Lake Victoria in Africa, the second largest freshwater lake in the world has begun to show signs of stress due to anthropogenic influence documented by indicators such as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and various nutrients (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorous). The increased concentrations of the nutrients may help to explain the increased growth of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). In addition, metals such as lead and cadmium have been reported at levels of concern in Lake Victoria.

To address these issues of increasing pollutants in and around Lake Victoria a cooperative study between Makerere University, Uganda, Africa and Lafayette College, Easton PA, U.S. has been established through a National Science Foundation (NSF) program - International Opportunities for Scientists and Engineers Program (IOSEP). The overall study consists of four components:

  1. A study of transition through a historical assessment of land use utilizing remotely sensed images

  2. Rapid monitoring of the wetland-lake interface on Lake Victoria

  3. Comprehensive chemical, hydrologic and sedimentation assessment of selected Kampala and Jinja, Uganda wetlands.

  4. Wetland construction research examining innovative agricultural techniques, treatment reliability and hydrologic strategies.

This particular study, the analysis of land uses affecting Lake Victoria’s wetlands, addresses components 1 and 2 of the overall IOSEP study. An information system to support on-site studies was developed by faculty and students at Lafayette College prior to traveling to Africa. This system included delineation of watershed boundaries, digitizing maps, obtaining and analyzing satellite imagery and integration of all information into a geographical information system.

Over the summer of 2004 a team of faculty and students from both Makerere University and Lafayette College began to study land use around Lake Victoria and to monitor water quality in the Lake. Water quality measurements were taken in Murchison Bay, the portion of Lake Victoria adjacent to Kampala, the capitol and largest city in Uganda. Water quality in the bay, the source of drinking water for the city, was found to be heavily impacted by increasing population, land use changes and limited wastewater treatment systems. The results of this study will be used to develop recommendations for further study.

3

Early Structural Evolution of the Okavango Rift Zone, NW Botswana

Estella A. Atekwana, Baraka D. Kinabo and John P. Hogan

University of Missouri-Rolla, Department of Geological Sciences and Engineering.

Henri A. B. Kampunzu and Motsoptse P. Modisi

University of Botswana, Department of Geology

High resolution magnetic and gravity data from the nascent Okavango Rift Zone (ORZ) in northwest Botswana has been used to investigate the earliest stages of continental rifting. Three of the questions that we are currently investigating through our studies of the ORZ are as follows: 1) To what extent is the development of continental rifts influenced by preexisting structures present in the basement? 2) How does the initial distribution of faults associated with the earliest stages of rifting link together to define and bound discrete rift basins? 3) How then do these faults and their associated basins evolve to form a continental rift system?

Preliminary results data from the ORZ suggests three main fault directions: 1) northeast-southwest (045- 070), 2) northwest- southeast (310 - 315) and 3) westnorthwest-eastsoutheast (280- 290). The 045- 070 structures occur both within the rift zone and throughout the surrounding basement. They also form the main bounding fault system of this incipient rift. The NE - SW orientations of the fold axes and foliation of the basement rocks mirror that of the main bounding faults of the rift basin. Thus, our preliminary interpretation is that the basement fabric plays an important role in localizing the development of faults within the stress regime present during the initiation of continental rifting. Additionally, the greatest throw (~300- ~600 m) occurs along the Kunyere (NW dipping) and Tsau faults (SE dipping), defining a full graben as observed on 2 3/4 –d gravity models. This differs from the half-graben model typical of most continental rift zones. Thus it appears the basin geometry was strongly influenced by the position of the pre-exiting faults. Evidence of fault linkage is seen along some of the faults. Linked segments of faults are well defined and extend for up to 200 km. We suggest from this result that fault linkages and propagation occurred very early and prior to significant basin development. We conclude that basement fabric seems to be a controlling factor at least in the early stages of basin architecture and structural evolution of ORZ.

4

Networks and Niches: The Political Ecology of Mobile Livestock Raising in Northern Côte d’Ivoire

Thomas J. Bassett and Koussa Koné

Department of Geography, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign Email: bassett@uiuc.edu

This research project takes a political ecologicalapproach to explore the social and ecological processes structuring the spaces and scales of mobile livestock raising in northern Côte d’Ivoire. The new pastoralism literature emphasizes the ecological determinants of herd mobility. The opportunistic grazing model that informs this literature argues that livestock management practices are highly structured by environmental instability and contingent events. The literature assumes that pastoralists possess perfect environmental knowledge and unhindered access to rangelands in managing their herds. The thesis of this research project is that there is a disconnect between the temporal and spatial distribution of grazing resources and actual grazing patterns. Herd mobility is not as finely tuned to the environmental heterogeneity of savanna environments as the new pastoralism literature suggests. Our research shows that herd movement patterns are more strongly related to social, political and economic considerations than to rangeland condition.

This poster presents the results of a three-year field study (2002-2004) that recorded the herd movements of eight pastoral households. Field methods included tracking herd positions using GPS devices and administering a questionnaire every ten days to herders on the political ecological dynamics of herd mobility. Our research confirms the general view that herd mobility is an important livestock production strategy in savanna environments. However, our findings show that the diversity of herd movement patterns is largely determined by a multitude of social (labor control), political (access to land), pastoral (herd size) and agro-ecological processes (disease, agricultural calendar, fallows). Some herders go on long distance treks while others move within a more circumscribed area. Many herders return to the same rangelands year after year. Others shift direction and duration for personal or political reasons. Herd movement patterns demonstrate the importance of social, political and economic considerations as much as ecological opportunities and constraints. The poster presents a political ecological model of herd mobility that better illustrates these social and biophysical dimensions of livestock raising in West African savannas.

5

The African Upper Air Data Rescue Project

J. Baum, D. Klotter and R. Crouthamel

NOAA Climate Database Modernization Program, Florida State University

Email: klotter44@met.fsu.edu

In this set of projects the interest is on preserving and using data from African meteorological stations. Numerous radiosondes and pilot balloon (pibal) measurements have been made over the decades throughout the continent, with the data tabulated and stored. However, this data has stayed in storage for long periods of time and is in danger of being lost forever. Also, at present, little of this information is available to potential users, as it is in written form and not computerized. The purpose of the Africa Upper Air Data Rescue Project is to go to severalcountries in Africa and, through a multi-stepprocess, preserve and digitize the data so that nothing more will be lost and all data will be available for use. This has entailed traveling to these countries and instructing the local met department so that they can create digital photo images of the pibal forms, collect the images onto CD's and ship copies to NCDC. As funds become available, the images will be digitized to a computer friendly format and saved to library databases. Six African countries have contributed to this effort and Malawi's radiosondes have recently been finished and are in the process of being returned.

6

Climate-Land Interactions Project (CLIP) in East Africa

David Campbell, Salome Misana, Jennifer Olson and Pius Yanda
Michigan State Universit;, University of Dar es Salaam; International Livestock Research Institute, Makerere University; NOAA, Purdue Universiy; University of East Anglia Email: djc@msu.edu

The intensity and spatial reach of contemporary human alterations of the Earth's land surface are unprecedented. Land use and land cover change (LULCC) are among the most significant of these human influences. Many studies demonstrate the influence of LULCC on local and regional climate. Meanwhile, climate change is expected to significantly affect people and ecosystems due to warmer temperatures and altered precipitation patterns. While significant research has focused on global climate modeling and socioeconomic drivers of land use change, an integrated assessment of coupled human-climatic systems is required to address the question: What is the magnitude and nature of the interaction between land use and climate change at regional and local scales?

An international, multi-disciplinary team including social, ecological, atmospheric and statistical scientists from the U.S, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and the U.K., is addressing this question by exploring the linkages between LULCC and climate change. This project is among the first to complete the loop of land use/climate/land use impacts assessment. Its contribution is in analysis of the linkages between components—how does land use change affect climate and how will climate change affect land use? These linkages are being examined through characterizing and modeling agricultural systems, land use, the physical properties of land cover and the regional climate. East Africa, with its variety of ecosystems, wide range of tropical climatic conditions, areas of rapid land use change and a population vulnerable to climatic variability, is the location of the research.

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