Psychological trends in retrospect and prospect: Invited symposium of iupsyS past-presidents

28th International Congress of Psychology

August 8-13, 2004, Beijing, China

Abstract Book

Edited by: Weimin Mou, Su Li, Bingwu Qiu

Notice: This abstract book is distributed among the participants of the 28th International Congress of Psychology. The registered participants' paper abstracts will be published in a special issue of the International Journal of Psychology by Psychology Press in 2005.

Extra copies are available at the souvenirs counter on the 2nd floor.

Sunday, 8 August 2004

0001 Nobel Laureate Address

Chair: Michel Denis, France

A perspective on cognitive illusions, Daniel Kahneman, Department of Psychology, Princeton University, USA

Current cognitive theory distinguishes two systems of thought. Intuitive thinking shares many characteristics of perception: it is fast, effortless, automatic, decisive, and normally accurate. People are also capable of a more deliberate and more logical form of reasoning, but it is effortful and slow. The analogy to perception explains some persistent errors and illusions in intuitive impressions, judgments and preferences. The interplay between the two systems of thought determines whether the individual is able to detect and override the illusions of intuition. The early research on heuristics and biases and the debate on human rationality that it generated will be reviewed from this perspective.

Monday, 9 August 2004


Psychological trends in retrospect and prospect: Invited symposium of IUPsyS past-presidents

Convener and Chair: K. Pawlik, Germany

1001.1 Psychology in ICSU: The beginning and some topics, F. Klix, Humboldt University Berlin, Berlin, Germany

In July 1980 when the XXII International Congress in Psychology closed, I had as the new President to draft some ideas for future activities. My main point was to get membership for IUPsyS in ICSU. The following years brought manifold negotiations. The biochemist B. Straub was chairman of the ICSU Admissions Committee. I was quizzed by the committee for two hours. My arguments were: IUPsyS will strive to foster international exchange with outstanding groups in psychophysiology, brain research, computer science, and through projects in environmental psychology, child rearing and socialization, or man-computer interaction. Finally, on 13 September 1982 the ICSU Assembly approved their recommendation to accept our admission (84 votes in favor, 2 against).

1001.2 An expanding world view in psychology, W. Holtzman, University of Texas, Austin, TX, USA

The 20th International Congress in Tokyo in 1972 marked the first major step toward globalization of psychological science. Subsequent changes in the Union's By-Laws facilitated the admission of more psychological societies from less developed countries, resulting in an expanded world view of psychology. At the 22nd Congress in Leipzig, serious bids to host a congress were received from several Latin-American countries, and the Mexican Psychological Society was chosen to host the 23rd Congress 1984 in Acapulco. Although now assured by holding the current congress in China, globalization and the nature of scientific psychology, especially in its applied and professional areas, continues to be debated.

1001.3 Gaining and sharing information about national and international psychology, M.R. Rosenzweig, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA

As President I undertook a survey about important national features of psychology, such as: 1) Numbers of psychologists; numbers who do research. 2) Financial support for research. 3) Social recognition for research. The results were published in a book that also contained chapters on some main areas of psychology, from an international perspective (Rosenzweig, Ed., 1992). A further international survey that I conducted was reported in part in chapters 1 and 30 of the International Handbook of Psychology (Pawlik & Rosenzweig, Eds., 2000). It seems to be typical of psychology, and in its best interests, to try to be well informed about its status, problems, and prospects.

1001.4 International psychology in the 1990s, K. Pawlik, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany

Towards the close of the last century the agenda for international psychology widened once again: The IUPsyS had to respond, in membership and capacity building ventures, to national transitions as in Eastern Central Europe. Its methodological profile of a biological and social science of behavior opened for psychology growing opportunities (and commitments) bridging between classical social and bio-sciences, as in the new research arena on global change. And new priorities arose: in literature and data archiving, in interfacing psychological science and practice, and in responding to growing global needs for regionalization.

1001.5 IUPsyS and its relationship with basic and applied psychology, G. d’Ydewalle, University of Louvain, Louvain, Belgium

The statutes of IUPsyS refer to the aim of development of psychological science, whether “pure” or applied. However, a mixed picture emerges from the history of the Union’s activities during the last thirty years. While the International Congresses under the auspices of the Union always included both, basic and applied research, scientific programs of recent Congresses show gradually a much stronger presence of presentations on basic research. Looking at the background of elected Executive Committee members, there is in recent years a shift to a more pronounced presence of colleagues from applied psychology. Are the congresses going into another orientation than its constituent body?

1001.6 Continuing challenges for psychology in a new century, M. Denis, University of Paris, Paris, France

Since they have entered into a new century, the international organizations of psychology are facing important challenges, of which I will discuss two. The first one consists in taking care that scientific research not only benefits to the academic community, but also to the professionals who are at the service of the public. The second challenge pertains to the fact that psychology is developing in a multidisciplinary environment and must invent original collaborations with other disciplines to offer more satisfying solutions to its users' needs. I will argue for the special role of the International Union of Psychological Science in this dual endeavor.


Test development and use in selected Asian countries

Convener and Chair: T. Oakland, USA

1002.1 A state-of-the-art of test use and development in the Philippines, C. Callueng, De la Salle University-Manila, Manila, Philippines

Significant efforts of Filipino psychologists and researchers to develop and use psychological tests are discussed. This somewhat comprehensive picture of psychological testing practices in the Philippines is based on a review of published and unpublished scholarship. Following a dearth of locally made tests in the 1950s, The Philippines now abounds with measures of diverse psychological constructs with well-established psychometric properties. Similarly, use of psychological tests has become widespread though still concentrated in traditional settings (e.g., schools, clinics, and industry).

1002.2 Factorial validity of the beck depression inventory-II for Hong Kong adolescents, B.M. Byrne1, S.M. Stewart2, 1University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada; 2 University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, TX, USA

Purpose of the study was to test for the validity of a Chinese version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (C-BDI-II) for use with Hong Kong community adolescents. Based on a randomized triadic split of the data (N=1460), we conducted exploratory factor analysis on Group1, and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on Groups 2 and 3, the second CFA serving to cross-validate the determined factor structure. Second-order factor analytic results replicated those reported previously for Canadian, Swedish, and Bulgarian adolescents. Findings related to internal consistency reliability, stability, and relations with relevant external criteria, strongly supported use of the C-BDI-II in measuring depressive symptoms for this population.

1002.3 Nonverbal intelligence among Asian-Pacific islander children, B. Bracken, The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA, USA

This study investigates cognitive functioning among Asian students in the US. Participants, ages 5 to 18, were from the normative sample of the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test, including 85 children designated as Asian or Pacific Islanders. Descriptive statistics are reported for UNIT subtests (i.e., Symbolic Memory, Cube Design, Spatial Memory, Analogic Reasoning, Object Memory, Mazes), Scales (i.e., Memory, Reasoning, Symbolic, Nonsymbolic), and Full Scale IQs for the Abbreviated, Standard, and Extended Batteries. Participants were matched with Caucasian students on gender, age, and parents’education. The Asian students scored significantly higher than the Caucasian sample on each subtest, scale, and FSIQ.

1002.4 Test use and indigenization: The case of Hong Kong, S.F. Cheung, F.M. Cheung, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China

The use of psychological assessment tools in Hong Kong will be reviewed briefly. Most commonly used instruments were adapted from Western instruments. In most cases, the adaptation involved only translation and minor item revision. Constructs relevant to the Chinese culture were introduced in some instruments. The Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory (CPAI) has been developed. in response to the need for a culturally relevant instrument. Following several revisions, the coverage of the inventory has been extended, leading the development of the CPAI-2. The development serves as an illustration of the dynamic nature of indigenization.

1002.5 Test development and use in Mainland China, J.Y. Yu, H.H. Wu, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, China

The rate of test development in China has increased significantly in recent year. Tests now are used in many areas, including education, counseling, clinics, human resource development, and management. Chinese scholars utilize classical test theory as well as item response theory and generalizability theory. Artificial neural networks also have been applied to psychological measurement. The development of tests suitable for Chinese culture is important. Psychologists attempt to adjust for culture difference when modifying tests originally developed in western countries. The use of computers in testing has been growing.

1002.6 Development and use of psychological testing in South Korea, K. Kwak, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea

Compared to the Western countries, a relatively small number of tests have been standardized based on nationwide samples in South Korea. Original version of most of the standardized tests which have been used are from America. However the Korean versions have undergone rigorous adaptation and standardization with a representative sample. Regarding using the tests, some of divisions of Korean Psychological Association issue licenses pertaining to psychological test administration and treatment. In the near future, many psychological tests which reflect the characteristics of Koreans must be developed, and many well trained testers must be supplied.


Dynamics of perception and action

Convener and Chair: B.G. Bardy, France

1003.1 Reaching and standing via the inertia tensor, B. Isableu, D. Bernardin, P. Fourcade, B.G. Bardy, University of Paris XI, Orsay Cedex, France

Reaching requires the control of arm orientation with respect to the object. We suggest that the inertia tensor, I, of the arm, a invariant that quantifies the arm's resistance to rotation, is a relevant variable used to achieve successful reaching. A model of I will be presented, allowing predictions about its role in the control of the hand. Results of experiments that alter relations between the inertial eigenvector and the axis of the arm confirm an important role for I. We suggest that the importance of I may generalize to the control of the lower limbs in upright stance.

1003.2 Exploratory movement in perception and action, T. Stoffregen, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA

Perception and action are related in two ways. Perception guides action, while action strongly influences what we perceive. Movement commonly is used to seek out and pick up perceptual information that is relevant to particular goals. In this talk, I discuss the use of movement to explore the animal-environment system. I will concentrate on skilled movement that provides information about the observer's action capabilities (affordances). Infants, children, and adults are known to use particular types of movements in an exploratory manner, to learn about what they can do in a given environment or situation. Examples include locomotion, catching, and stance.

1003.3 Rhythmic timing and resonance constraints, D. Sternad, H. Yu, A. de Rugy, Pennsylvania State University, PA, USA

Three experiments show that rhythmic movements are constrained by the resonance properties of the moving limb. In our task we manipulate the limb’s inertial properties and determine metronome frequencies that are longer and shorter than the subject’s resonance frequency. In a continuation task and two tracking tasks subjects synchronize with the prescribed frequency but also show systematic deviations such as period drift and phase differences. A model of coupled oscillations consisting of a neuromechanical level coupled to an external pacemaker via an internal pacemaker can replicate these features.

1003.4 How do humans deal with variability in the internal/external enviroments to produce skilled movements? K. Kudo, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

Human movements are produced in variable external/internal environments. Because of this variability (e.g., the amount of neurotransmitter, external forces), the same motor command can result in quite different movement patterns. Therefore, to produce skilled movements we must coordinate the variability, not try to exclude it. In addition, because our movements are produced in the redundant and complex sustem, a combination of variability should be observed in different anantomical/physiological levels. In the symposium, I will introduce our recent research about human movement variability that shows remarkable coordination among different levels, and between the organism and the environment.

1003.5 Accuracy constraints on voluntary movements during standing, M. Duarte, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo/SP, Brasil

Voluntary movements are combined with balance control in many tasks in our daily life. To perform such tasks, we often have many other constraints and at the same time much more freedom than we are used to study in a laboratory setting. The present work will discuss one aspect of this issue: the effects of spatial and temporal accuracy constraints on voluntary movements during standing. The classical speed-accuracy trade-off paradigm will be exploited to understand movement and balance control.


Attention and perception: Applied Approach

Convener and Chair: J.C. Yuan, Taiwan, China

1004.1 Effects of relative brightness highlighting on target detection performance in a cockpit display of traffic information, W. Johnson1, M.J. Liao1, 2, S. Granada1, 2, 1NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA; 2San Jose State University, USA

This study examined how mixtures of bright and dim aircraft symbols within a cockpit traffic display affected the search for a target aircraft. The main independent variables were 1) whether the target was among the bright or dim alternatives, and 2) the target brightness. In one experiment the dependent variable was time to find the target (search time), while in a second experiment the dependent variables were accuracy (sensitivity) and response bias. Results showed that bright targets did not preferentially attract attention, but did create a masking effect that made the dim targets harder to detect.

1004.2 The role of visual attention in detecting changes from visual short-term memory, Y.Y. Yeh1, B.C. Kuo1, H.L. Liu2, C.T. Yang1, Y.C. Chiu1, 1National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, China; 2Chang Gung University, Taiwan, China

The role of visual attention in detecting changes is examined in this study with both behavioral and fMRI studies. From the manipulation of cue onset time and the type of change, the results support the prioritization hypothesis. Selective attention benefits change detection only when an early cue can transfer information before it decays and allow sufficient time for memory consolidation. A late cue evokes greater visual analysis which could delay reaction time in detection. In either case, a distributed network showed greater activation and the exact combination depends on the cue onset time and type of change.

1004.3 Transcranial magnetic stimulation of FEF, LIP and MT/V5 areas during a spatial remapping task, Y.J. Chou, S. Jackson, Nottingham University, Edinburgh, UK

The brain areas frontal eye field (FEF), lateral intraparietal area (LIP) and MT/V5 are known to be involved in the visual-motor control and the initiation of saccadic eye-movement. We hypothesized that these areas also contribute to the spatial updating system during a pro-saccade spatial remapping task. A Magnetic Stimulation methodology was used to disturb these areas while participants carried out the task. The findings showed that For the first time we are able to separate the functions of FEF and LIP in the spatial updating system by the different timings they contribute to the task.

1004.4 Tactile interface system using an illusion on body image, H. Morikawa, T. Kawai, H. Kubota, H. Nagashima, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan

In this study, the authors proposed an interface system using the illusion of induced body image for virtual reality and cyberspace, and examined the human characteristics that give rise to the illusion. The authors developed a display system able to present stereoscopic 3-D images superimposed in the position of the actual hand and that could be visually stimulated. Using this display system, two experiments were performed. The results of these experiments demonstrated that the illusion did in fact occur with 3-D images presented on a display system. Furthermore, the authors also found several optimum conditions for inducing the illusion.

1004.5 Stereoscopic 3-D display system using dynamic optical correction, T. Shibata1, T. Kawai1, M. Otsuki2, N. Miyake2, Y. Yoshihara3, N. Terashima1, 1Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan; 2Nikon Corporation, Japan; 3Arisawa Manufacturing Co. Ltd, Japan

This paper describes a development of stereoscopic 3-D display system in order to reduce the imbalance of visual functions between convergence and accommodation. The imbalance is a major problem in stereoscopic 3-D displays since it causes visual fatigue in the observers. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a stereoscopic 3-D display system with minimal visual fatigue by using optical correction mechanisms.

1004.6 The influence of symbol brightness on eye movements within a cockpit display of traffic information, M.J. Liao1, 2, W. Johnson1, S. Granada1, 2, 1NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA; 2San Jose State University Foundation, USA

In the context of a cockpit traffic display, previous research has shown that bright aircraft symbols do not preferentially attract attention when compared with dim aircraft symbols. Instead, bright aircraft appear to make dim targets more difficult to detect. One hypothesis is that this effect occurs through a form of contrast inhibition that interferes with participants’ ability to detect the dim target on the first serial search of the displayed symbols and only allows detection on a subsequent repeated search. The present experiment manipulates symbol brightness within a display of mixed bright and dim aircraft and examines participants’ eye movements to test this hypothesis.

1004.7 The human factor consideration of 3D display, J.C. Yuan1, K.C. Huang2, 1`Fu-Jen Catholic University, Taipei County, Taiwan, China; 2Industrial Technology Research Institute, Taiwan, China

The current trend of high resolution display let it be possible to process the 3D images. There are good potential to develop the 3D display. New technique let the observer need not to wear any shuttle glasses or split-color glasses. But the left/right eye images are superimposed. At the same time there are cross-talk problem. So we do some experiments to test the tolerance rate of the cross-talk of the subject. The images include the natural images, computer drawing images, and random-dots patterns. The results show that human eye have good tolerance to static images, far better than the machine can fulfill.


Experimental studies on quantification of choice behavior

Convener and Chair: J. C. Todorov, Brazil

1005.1 Rapid acquisition in concurrent chains: Evidence for a decision model, R.C. Grace, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand

This talk will review evidence that pigeon’s response allocation in concurrent chains can adjust to rapidly-changing contingencies; that sensitivity to current- and prior-session contingencies depends on whether or not there is a predictive relationship between those contingencies; and most importantly, that response allocation conforming to both generalized matching and categorical discrimination can be obtained in some cases. All of these results can be explained by a decision model which assumes that preference for an alternative increases after a relatively short delay to reinforcement, and decreases after a relatively long delay to reinforcement. The model is able to explain generalized matching and temporal discounting as the aggregate of a “winner take all” decision process

1005.2 Temporal factors in choice, D.T. Cerutti, J.E.R. Sttadon, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA

Choice has been theoretically described in terms of response strength and measured in terms of response rate. This approach has encouraged molar models and neglect of temporal factors. We recently found that pigeons’ post-reinforcement waiting contributes substantially to relative response rates in choice procedures: longer waits, and thus fewer responses, with longer delays to reinforcement. Computer simulations of wait-and-respond (WR) models on simple concurrent variable-interval schedules reproduced typical findings such as power matching. Here we report on the results of WR models applied to concurrent-chain schedules and problems such as reinforcement delay, self-control, and preference for variable times to reinforcement.

1005.3 A selectionist model of choice, A. Machado, Universidade do Minho, Braga, Portugal

I will present a selectionist model of choice that is based on three assumptions. First, reponses replicate at the end of epochs whose length is inversely related to the overall reinforcement rate. Second, each response replicates in proportion to its local reinforcement rate. These assumptions imply that whereas overall reinforcement rate sets the tempo of learning, a Weber-like fraction in the domain of reinforcement rate sets its direction. And third, responses of one class may mutate into responses of another. The model accounts for a variety of results concerning steady-state choice behavior and the speed of acquisition of preference.

1005.4 Behavioral versions of human decision making research, T. Sakagami, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan

Experimental economists have pointed out several crucial differences between economic and cognitive approaches in decision making studies. We conducted a behavioral version of the experiments for the certainty effect using Indonesian and Japanese students as subjects. Both populations previously showed the effect in paper and pencil questionnaires. The students were requested to respond to a computer display on a Web page containing two differently colored alternatives. Points could either be earned (Gain trials) or lost (Loss trials). Results revealed that a majority of participants showed the shift of preference from riskless to risky choice that is characteristic of the effect.

1005.5 Procedural aspects of experiments on choice behavior, J.C. Todorov, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil

A review of studies on choice behavior involving human and animal subjects will be presented to show the importance of careful planning of contingencies and recording and reporting of results. In studies related to the matching law and infra-human subjects, with two concurrent schedules of variable-interval reinforcement, some critical definitions are the consequences for changeovers, the discriminability of the different stimuli associated with the schedules of the concurrent pair, and the discriminability of the different operand associated with the four operants in the situation. When humans are used as subjects and procedural aspects are neglected there is the danger of concluding erroneously that species differences are present.


Scientific reasoning - Current research

Convener and Chair: M. Bullock, USA

1006.1 Scientific reasoning: From formal models to classroom instruction, D. Klahr1, Z. Chen2, 1Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 2University of California, Davis, CA, USA

I will describe a long term project designed to assess and improve the scientific reasoning skills of children in grades one through five. We start with a formal model of the structure of the scientific discovery process, and we use that framework to guide us in the development and assessment of a set of instructional materials for advancing children's understanding of how scientists learn about the world. Our project includes both conventional psychological studies with individual students and curricular interventions in whole classrooms. Several specific instances of this overall program will be described.

1006.2 The development of scientific reasoning skills from childhood to adulthood. Findings from a longitudinal study, B. Sodian1, M. Bullock2, C. Thoermer1, P. Barchfeld1, W. Wang1, S. Koerber1, 1University of Munich, Munich, Germany; 2American Psychological Association, Washington DC, USA

To date, few studies have explored the development of scientific thinking skills longitudinally. We present findings from the Munich Longitudinal Study on the Genesis of Individual Competencies (see Weinert & Schneider, 1999) on the development of experimentation skills, understanding of experiment design, metatheoretical understanding, as well as epistemological understanding in the age range from 12 to 22 years. The findings suggest gradual, rather than stage-like progress in experimentation skills, as well as in metaconceptual understanding of the nature of science. Individual differences in competence levels were largely unaffected by the type of secondary school education.

1006.3 The development of reasoning abilities during adolescence (11- to 18-year-old students): Theoretical and educational implications, N. Valanides, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus

Scientific reasoning is usually broken down into constituent elements that are taught separately rather than offering a diet of “whole investigations.” I will present evidence from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, and cross-national comparisons relating to the development of reasoning abilities during adolescence. The evidence indicates that there is a need to re-focus attention upon students’ inquiry skills, and how these can be taught explicitly both in “isolation” and in the context of “whole investigations.” It seems, furthermore, that different theoretical perspectives should be considered when evaluating cognitive development, or for the design of learning environments conducive to growth of reasoning.


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