Adams, Robert P., and Thomas A. Zanoni. 1979. The distribution, synonomy, and taxonomy of three junipers of southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Sout

Denver Service Center. 183 p. [2689]

http://biology.fullerton.edu/courses/biol_445/Web/pinyon.htm

References

Baxter, Clay. 1977. A Comparison Between Grazed and Ungrazed Juniper Woodland. General Technical Report RM, Rocky Mountain forest and Range Experiment Station #39. pp.

Describes the decimation of certain plant species and the loss of soil structure in overgrazed P-J woodlands.

Bruner, Allen and Donald Klebenow. 1979. Predicting Success of Prescribed Fires in Pinyon-Juniper Woodland in Nevada. USDA Forest Service Research Paper INT-219.

Tells how best to predict the success of a prescribed fire designed to eradicate pinyon and juniper in favor of grass by looking at such factors as wind, temperature and percent vegetation cover.

Christensen, Kerry and Thomas Whitham. 1993. Impact of Insect Herbivores on Competition Between Birds and Mammals for Pinyon Pine Seeds. Ecology 74(8): 2270-2278.

Mammals, birds and insects compete for pinyon pine (P. edulis) seeds. Some trees are genetically resistant to insect infestation. This resistance affects the community structure by changing numbers of insects, birds and mycorrhizeae.

Jensen, Neil. 1971. Pinyon-Juniper Woodland Management for Multiple Use Benefits. Journal of Range Management 25(3):231-234.

Clearing P-J woodlands to increase the amount of cattle fodder limits a multi-use area to one use--grazing. In contrast, numerous economically important products and uses can be gained from maintained P-J woodlands. These include Christmas trees, wild-life habitat, pine nuts, healthy watersheds and cordwood

Johnston, Barry. Woodland Classification: the Pinyon-Juniper Formation. 1987. in Ferguson, Dennis, Penelope Morgan and Federic Johnson. Proceedings--Land Classifications Based on Vegetation: Applications for Resource Management. Moscow, Idaho; November 17-19.

Defines a woodland and lists the plant association that have been described in the "Coniferous Woodland Formation." Also mentions P-J succession.

Lanner, Ronald. 1993. What Kind of Woodland Does the Future Hold? General Technical Report RM #236. pp. 14-18

A wonderful article (a must read!) describing why P-J woodlands should not be denuded to make way for grasses and cows.

Little, Elbert. 1977. Research in the Pinyon-Juniper Woodland. General Technical Report RM #39. pp. 8-19.

An rich overview of early research on P-J woodlands. Includes such topics as pinyon nut harvests, multiple use issues, type conversion and basic biology.

Tausch, Robin and Neil West. 1988. Differential Establishment of Pinyon and Juniper Following Fire. The American Midland Naturalist 119(1):174-183.

Although pinyon is highly susceptible to fire, it is adapted to its regular occurrence by rapidly reestablishing burned areas. Juniper is more fire resistant, with 38% of the juniper surviving fire and only 0.6% of the pinyon.

Thorne, Robert F. 1982. The Desert and Other Transmontane Plant Communities of Southern California. ALISO 10(2):219-257.

Excellent summary of transmontane communities and their distributions.

Wagstaff, Fred. 1986. Economics of Managing Pinyon-Juniper Lands for Woodland Products. in General Technical Report, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station #215. pp. 156- 172.

The value of the standing-crop on some of the more productive P-J sites is several hundred dollars per acre, based on the value of domestic firewood. Management of these woodlands for wood products makes strong economic sense.

Weise. David. 1990. Survival of Damaged Singleleaf Pinyon One Year After Wildfire. General Technical Report, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station #191. pp.

Pinyon pine survival after fire is not related to size or dbh. Longevity to 225 years in unusual.

The Pinyon-Juniper Ecosystem: A Symposium. May 1975. Utah State University College of Natural Resources. Utah Agricultural Experiment Station. Logan, Utah.

Silba, J. 1986. An international census of the Coniferae. Phytologia memoir no. 8. Corvallis, Or.: H.N. Moldenke and A.L. Moldenke.

Jones, David L. 1993. Cycads of the world. Australia: Reed Books.

The well-illustrated current standard work. Offers considerable information on cultivation and propagation of cycads. Highly recommended.

Vidakovic, Mirko. 1991. Conifers: morphology and variation. Translated from Croatian by Maja Soljan. Croatia: Graficki Zavod Hrvatske.

The most recent comprehensive treatment of conifers.

de Laubenfels, David J. 1988. Coniferales. P. 337-453 in Flora Malesiana, Series I, Vol. 10. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic.

Farjon, A. 1990. A bibliography of conifers. Königstein. [Regnum Veg. 122.]

Farjon, A. 1990. Pinaceae: drawings and descriptions of the genera Abies, Cedrus, Pseudolarix, Keteleeria, Nothotsuga, Tsuga, Cathaya, Pseudotsuga, Larix and Picea. Königstein: Koeltz Scientific Books.

An extraordinary book. This and the preceding (1984) volume on Pinus describe and provide outstanding line drawings for every species in the Pinaceae. I can only add that Farjon is currently working on a volume to be titled "Cupressaceae."

Dallimore, William, Albert Bruce Jackson, and S.G. Harrison. 1967. A handbook of Coniferae and Ginkgoaceae, 4th ed. New York: St. Martin's Press. xix, 729 p.

Farjon, A., and B.T. Styles. 1997. Pinus (Pinaceae). Flora Neotropica Monograph 75. New York, NY: The New York Botanical Garden.

The current state of the art for pines of Mexico and Central America. It is a particularly welcome volume because the taxonomy of these pines has been deeply puzzling to botanists for over a century; this work clears up many old mysteries. Excellent supplementary material on anatomy, pollen morphology, ethnobotany, etc. Outstanding line drawings by Rosemary Wise. Can be purchased online from the NYBG website.

Peattie, Donald Culross. 1950. A natural history of western trees. New York: Bonanza.

Illustrated with woodcuts by Paul Landacre and presenting considerable information (ca. 2-10 pages) on most species treated, i.e., those native to the western continental United States. Poetic. Offers some ethnobotanical detail.

Farjon, Aljos. 1998. World Checklist and Bibliography of Conifers. Richmond, U.K.: Royal Botanical Gardens at Kew.

American Forests. 1996. The 1996-1997 National Register of Big Trees. Washington, DC: American Forests.

Burns, R.M. and B.H. Honkala. 1990. Silvics of North America, Vol. 1, Conifers. Washington DC: U.S.D.A. Forest Service Agriculture Handbook 654. Can be viewed online at /spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm

Little, Elbert L. Jr. 1980. The Audubon Society field guide to North American trees. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Useful photographs. Coverage is limited to the United States and Canada.

Li Hiu-Lin. 1975. Flora of Taiwan, V.1, parts 1-8. Taipei: Epoch Publishing.

Perry, Jesse P. 1991. The pines of Mexico and Central America. Portland, OR: Timber Press.

Outstanding recent treatment, with sections on geologic history, natural history, taxonomy, present status, and rare/endangered species.

Harden, Gwen J. (ed.). 1990. Flora of New South Wales. Kensington, NSW, Australia : New South Wales University Press.

Cheng, W. C. and L. K. Fu, eds. 1987. Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae. Tomus 7: Gymnospermae. Beijing: Kexue Chubanshe.

In Chinese. English title, Flora of China - Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae, and Angiospermae / Dicotyledoneae / Archichlamydeae.

de Laubenfels, David J. 1969. A revision of the Malesian and Pacific rainforest conifers, I. Podocarpaceae, in part. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 50:274-314.

de Laubenfels, David J. 1985. A taxonomic revision of the genus Podocarpus. Blumea 30:51-278.

Elias, Thomas S. 1987. The complete trees of North America; a field guide and natural history. NY: Gramercy Publ. Co.

One of the most comprehensive sources for this part of the planet.

Liu Yeh-ching. 1970. Colored illustrations of important trees in Taiwan. Taiwan: publisher uncertain.

Palmer, Eve and Norah Pitman. 1972. Trees of southern Africa, covering all known indigenous species in the Republic of South Africa, South-West Africa, Botswana, Lesotho & Swaziland. Cape Town: A.A. Balkema.

Critchfield, William B. and Elbert L. Little. 1966. Geographic distribution of the pines of the world." U.S.D.A. Forest Service Miscellaneous Publication 991.

Richardson, D.M. (ed.). 1998. Ecology and Biogeography of Pinus. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-55176-5.

An outstanding volume, representing the work of 40 recognized experts, with 22 chapters addressing subjects as diverse as systematics, late Quaternary population dynamics, regional surveys, the role of fire, the evolution of life histories, genetic variation, seed dispersal, ecophysiology, mycorrhiza and soils, diseases and insect interactions, cultivation, and pines as invaders in the southern hemisphere.

Lanner, Ronald M. 1983. Trees of the Great Basin. Reno: University of Nevada Press.

Beautifully illustrated and filled with interesting tidbits on the species treated. Highly recommended.

Van Royen, P. 1979. The alpine flora of New Guinea. Germany: J. Kramer.

Farjon, A. 1984. Pines: drawings and descriptions of the genus Pinus. Leiden: E.J. Brill.

Elmore, Francis H. and Jeanne R. Janish. 1976. Shrubs and trees of the Southwest uplands. Tucson: Southwest Parks and Monuments Association.

Highly recommended as a field guide for botanical neophytes in the American southwest. Sold at nearly all National Parks in the area, as well as bookstores.

Schmid, Maurice. 1981. Fleurs et plantes de Nouvelle-Calédonie. Les éditions du Pacifique. ISBN 2-85700-117-7, ISSN 0240-0936.

van Gelderen, D.M. and J.R.P. van Hoey Smith. 1986. Conifers, 2nd ed. Portland: Timber Press.

The authors have made a fairly earnest effort to provide color photographs of every conifer species. There's a strong emphasis on horticulture.

Arno, Stephen F. and Jane Gyer. 1973. Discovering Sierra trees. Yosemite Natural History Association.

Atlas Florae Europaeae. 1998. Computer program available for download at URL=http://www.helsinki.fi/kmus/afe.html, accessed 12-May-1999.

Forest Inventory and Planning Institute. 1996. Vietnam forest trees. Hanoi: Agricultural Publishing House. Pp 1-23.

Hickman, James C. (ed.). 1993. The Jepson Manual. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Lanner, Ronald M. 1981. The piñon pine. Reno: University of Nevada Press.

Liu Tang-Shui. 1971. A Monograph of the Genus Abies. Taipei: National Taiwan University.

Brown, Peter M. 1996. OLDLIST: A database of maximum tree ages. P. 727-731 in Dean, J.S., D.M. Meko and T.W. Swetnam, eds., "Tree rings, environment, and humanity." Radiocarbon 1996, Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, Tucson.

Hartzell Jr., Hal. 1991. The yew tree: a thousand whispers. Eugene, Oregon: Hulogosi.

Mitchell, A.F., V.E. Hallett and J.E.J. White. 1990. Champion trees in the British Isles. Forestry Comission Field Book 10. 33p.

Stevenson, D. 1991. Flora of the Guianas, Series A: Phanerogams, Fascicle 9, Sections 208 Cycadaceae, 208.1 Zamiaceae, and 211 Podocarpaceae. USA/Germany: Koeltz Scientific Books.

Little, Elbert L. Jr. 1970. Names of New World cypresses (Cupressus). Phytologia 20:429-445.

Quinn, C.J. 1982. Taxonomy of Dacrydium Sol. ex Lamb. emend. de Laub. (Podocarpaceae). Australian Journal of Botany 30: 311-320.

D.M. Richardson and Philip W. Rundel. 1998. Ecology and biogeography of Pinus: an introduction. P.3-46 in Richardson 1998.

Carder, A.C. 1995. Forest giants of the world: past and present. Fitzhenry and Whiteside. 208 pp.

Price, R.A., A. Liston and S.H. Strauss. 1998. Phylogeny and systematics of Pinus. P.49-68 in Richardson, D.M. (ed.), Ecology and Biogeography of Pinus. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-55176-5.

Schultes, Richard Evans, and Robert F. Raffauf. 1990. The healing forest: medicinal and toxic plants of the northwest Amazonia. Portland, OR: Dioscorides Press.

Stevenson, D. and T. Zanoni. 1991. Flora of the Guianas, Series A: Phanerogams, Fascicle 9, Sections 209 Gnetaceae and 210 Pinaceae. USA/Germany: Koeltz Scientific Books.

Van Pelt, Robert. 1991. Washington Big Tree Program 1991. Seattle, Washington: College of Forest Resources.

Van Pelt, Robert. 1996. Champion Trees of Washington State. Seattle, Washington: University of Washington Press.

Vovides, A.P., John D. Rees and Mario Vázquez-Torres. Flora de Veracruz: Fascículo 26, Zamiaceae. Xalapa, Veracruz: Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones sobre Recursos Bióticos.

Filer, Colin (Department of Anthropology & Sociology, University of Papua New Guinea). April 1991. Two shots in the dark: the first year of the task force on environmental planning in priority forest areas. [Published online : link here].

Gray, N.E. 1958 Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 39:424-477.

Ohwi Jisaburo. 1965. Flora of Japan. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution.

Rushforth, K.D. 1987. Conifers. New York: Facts on File. 232p.

Weber, William A. 1987. Colorado Flora: Western Slope. Niwot, Colorado: University Press.

Burstall, S.W. and E.V. Sale. 1984. Great trees of New Zealand. Wellington, NZ: A.W. Reed. 288pp.

Farjon, A. 1989. A second revision of the genus Keteleeria Carrière (Taxonomic notes on Pinaceae II). Notes of the Royal Botanical Garden Edinburgh 46(1):81-99.

Farjon, A. 1992. The taxonomy of multiseed junipers (Juniperus Sect. Sabina) in southwest Asia and east Africa (Taxonomic notes on Cupressaceae I). Edinburgh Journal of Botany 49: 251-283.

Fowells, H.A. (compiler). 1965. Silvics of forest trees of the United States. Agriculture Handbook 271. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Gray, N.E. 1956. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 37:160-172.

Holmes, Richard L.; Rex K. Adams and Harold C. Fritts. 1986. Tree-ring chronologies of western North America: California, eastern Oregon and northern Great Basin. Tucson: University of Arizona Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research.

Owens, J.N. and S. Simpson. 1986. Pollen from conifers native to British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 16:955-967.

Pojar, Jim and Andy MacKinnon (eds.). 1994. Plants of the Pacific Northwest coast. Vancouver, BC: Lone Pine.

The outstanding field guide for the area.

Schmidt, Wyman C. 1995. Around the world with Larix: an introduction. P.6-18 in Schmidt, W.C. and K.J. McDonald (compilers). Ecology and management of Larix forests: a look ahead; proceedings of an international symposium; Whitefish, Montana, U.S.A., October 5-9, 1992. Ogden, UT: U.S.D.A. Forest Service General Technical Report GTR-INT-319.

Wolf, C.B. 1948. Taxonomic and distributional studies of the New World cypresses. Aliso 1:1-250.

D.K. Bailey and F.G. Hawksworth. 1988. Phytogeography and taxonomy of the pinyon pines. Pp. 41-64 in M.-F. Passini et al. (eds.), Il Simposio Nacional sobre pinos piñoneros. CEMCA, Chapingo, Mexico D.F.

Boland, D.J.; M.I.H. Brooker; G.M.Chippendale; N. Hall; B.P.M. Hyland; Johnston, R.D.; Kleinig, D.A. and Jurner, J.D. 1985. Forest trees of Australia. Melbourne: Nelson, CSIRO.

Gadek, P.A., D.L. Alpers, M.M. Heslewood and C.J. Quinn. 2000. Relationships within Cupressaceae sensu lato: a combined morphological and molecular approach. American Journal of Botany 87(7):1044-1057.
ABSTRACT: Parsimony analysis of matK and rbcL sequence data, together with a nonmolecular database, yielded a well-resolved phylogeny of Cupressaceae sensu lato. Monophyly of Cupressaceae sensu stricto is well supported, and separate northern and southern hemisphere subclades are resolved, with Tetraclinis within the northern subclade; there is no support for any of the tribes sensu Li. Taxodiaceae comprise five separate lineages. Chamaecyparis nootkatensis falls within Cupressus, clustering with a robust clade of New World species. Libocedrus Florin is paraphyletic and should incorporate Pilgerodendron. Evolution of several characters of wood and leaf anatomy and chemistry is discussed in light of this estimate of the phylogeny; numerous parallelisms are apparent. A new infrafamilial classification is proposed in which seven subfamilies are recognized: Callitroideae Saxton, Athrotaxidoideae Quinn, Cunninghamioideae (Sieb. & Zucc.) Quinn, Cupressoideae Rich. ex Sweet, Sequoioideae (Luerss.) Quinn, Taiwanioideae (Hayata) Quinn, Taxodioideae Endl. ex K. Koch. The rbcL sequence for Taxodium distichum is corrected, and the implications for a previously published estimate of the minimum rate of divergence of the gene since the Miocene are highlighted.

Li De-Zhu. 1997. A reassessment of Pinus subgen. Pinus in China. Notes Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh 54(3): 347-349.

Walker, Egbert Hamilton. 1976. Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu Islands. Smithsonian Institution Press.

Wang, C.W. 1961. The forests of China; with a survey of grassland and desert vegetation. Publ. Maria Moors Cabot Foundation for Botanical Research 5. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University.

Barbetti, M., Bird, T., Dolezal, G., Taylor, G., Francey, R., Cook, E., Peterson, M. 1995. Radiocarbon variations from Tasmanian conifers: Results from three early Holocene logs.

Benson, Lyman. 1959. Plant classification. Lexington, Massachusetts: D.C. Heath & Co.

Brako and Zarucchi. Catalog of the flowering plants and gymnosperms of Peru.

Canadian Forestry Service. 1983. Reproduction of conifers. Forest. Techn. Pub. Canad. Forest. Serv. 31.

Carlquist, Sherwin. 1996. Wood and bark anatomy of lianoid Indomalesian and Asiatic species of Gnetum. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 121: 1-24.

Carlquist, Sherwin. 1996. Wood, bark and stem anatomy of New World species of Gnetum. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 120: 1-19.

Carlson, Clinton E. 1965. Interspecific hybridization of Larix occidentalis and Larix lyallii. M.Sc.F. thesis. University of Montana.

Carlson, Clinton E.; Cates, Rex G.; Spencer, Stanley C. 1991. Foliar terpenes of a putative hybrid swarm (Larix occidentalis × Larix lyallii) in western Montana. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 21:876-881.

Chamberlain, Charles Joseph. 1919. The living cycads. Chicago: The University of Chicago press.

Very readable source on cycads.

Corner, E.J.H. 1988. Wayside trees of Malaya. Malayan Nature Society.

Dyer, R.A. 1965. The cycads of southern Africa. Bothalia 8: 404-415.

Earle, Christopher J. 1993. Forest dynamics in a forest-tundra ecotone, Medicine Bow Mountains, Wyoming. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Washington, Seattle.

Gadek, P.A. and C.J. Quinn. 1993. An analysis of relationships within the Cupressaceae based on rbcL sequences. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 80: 581-586.

Gentry, Howard Scott. 1942. Rio Mayo plants. Washington: Carnegie Institution.

Hall, N.; R.D. Johnston; and G.M. Chippendale. 1970. Forest trees of Australia, 3rd ed. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Hamrick, J.L. and W.J. Libby. 1972. Variation and selection in western U.S. montane species. I. White fir. Silvae Genetica 21:29-35.

Hosie, R.C. 1969. Native trees of Canada, 7th ed. Ottawa.

Jaeger, Edmund C. 1969. Desert wild flowers. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Johnson, L.A.S. 1959. The families of cycads and the Zamiaceae of Australia. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 84:64-117.

Knudsen, G.M. 1968. Chemotaxonomic investigation of hybridization between Larix occidentalis and Larix lyallii. M.Sc.F. thesis. University of Montana.

Lanner, Ronald M. 1974a. Natural hybridization between Pinus edulis and Pinus monophylla in the American southwest. Silvae Genetica

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