[Note: This file/document begins after Page 42 of the original document.]

MAXIMIZING PERSONAL POTENTIAL FOR NATIONAL PROSPERITY

A blueprint for changing the way this country thinks about and addresses poverty.

May 2005

[Note: This file/document begins after Page 42 of the original document.]

Table of Contents

APPENDIXES LISTYLE="9

APPENDIX A: THE 21STYLE="CENTURY MODEL TO ADDRESS POVERTY PROJECT 10

Project Philosophy 10

Approach and Activities 11

Identification of Topical Lenses 12

Identification and Selection of an Overarching Change Model 12

Development of the Theoretical Construct 15

Development of Research Strategy and Products 16

Working Sessions 16

Compilation of Working Session Proceedings 17

APPENDIX B: POVERTY PROGRAMS SUMMARY AND MATRIX 18

Overview -- Agency, Program, Program Purpose and Beneficiaries 22

Program, Agency, Type of Assistance, and FY05 Funding Level 64

Program, Agency, Type of Funding and Applicant Eligibility 77

APPENDIX C: ISSUE PAPERS 99

Research Brief on Existing Definitions, Measures, and Causes 99

Introduction 100

Defining Poverty 101

The US Poverty Index – An “Operational” Definition of Poverty 102

Problems with the Current Measures 103

Causes of Poverty 104

Unraveling the Causes of Poverty 105

Situational Versus Persistent Poverty 105

Some Theories of Poverty 107

Some Broader Views of Poverty 109

Conclusion 110

Community-Based Solutions 112

Background 113

Various Approaches to Community-Based Solutions 113

Comprehensive Community Building Models 114

Comprehensive Community Initiatives 114

Neighborhood Revitalization Initiatives 115

Community Action Agencies4 115

Workforce Development Alongside Community and Economic Development 116

Community Economic Development Efforts 116

Integrating Workforce Development 117

Key Contextual and Structural Conditions for Successful Community-Based Coalitions that Address Poverty Key Paradigms for Potential Future Models 118

Engaging the Community and Developing Local Leadership 118

Community Asset Mapping and Other Indicators 120

Developing a Plan 121

Research on Effective Community-Based Models 122

Implementing Whole Community Strategies 123

Sustainability. What is Sustainability? 124

How to Achieve Sustainability 125

Evaluation and Sustainability 126

Conclusion 127

Sources 127

Family Economic Security 131

Overview 132

Financial Capital Acquisition and Asset Protection 132

Access to Mainstream Banking & Financial Products 133

Individual Development Account 134

Home Ownership 134

Asset Protection 136

Growing Social Capital by Building Strong Families 137

Creating Financial Incentives for Marriage 138

Marriage Education and Relationship Support 139

Father Involvement 140

Parenting Support 141

Marriage Education for Couples Becoming Parents 141

Becoming Parents Program (BPP) 142

Becoming a Family Program 142

Human Capital Support and Development 143

Roles of Federal and State Governments in Selected Supports for Low-Income Individuals 144

Tax Credits 144

Earned Income Tax Credit 144

Enable Work Education and Skills Acquisition 145

Sectoral Initiatives 145

Addressing Barriers to Work 146

Appendix: Income and Work Support Policies and Strategies 151

Government Cash Assistance 151

Food and Nutrition 151

Health Insurance 152

Housing Assistance 154

Energy Assistance 156

Child Care 157

Transportation 158

Minimum Wage and Living Wage 159

Maximizing Technology 164

1 Background 165

1.1 The Changing Face of Technology 165

Table 1.1 – The Three Industrial Revolutions 166

Workshop 166

1.2 Technology in Human Services Delivery Infrastructure 166

Figure 1. The Evolution of Human Services Delivery 167

1.3 Technology for Communities and Individuals 168

2 Current State Analysis 171

2.1 Individuals and Technology 171

2.1.1 Computer and Internet Usage 171

I. Americans’ Computer And Internet Use By Income 173

II. The Unconnected 174

The Offline Population 175

III. How And Where America Goes Online 175

Connection Types 175

Higher-Speed Internet Connection by Geographic Area 175

Location of Use 176

Internet Use by Specific Location 176

Primary Uses of the Internet 176

IV. The Digital Generation: How Young People Have Embraced Computers And The Internet
177

Computer and Internet Use 177

Computer Use Among 10 to 17 Year Olds By Income and Location 177

Computer Use at Home by Income 177

Computer Use Among 10 to 17 Year Olds By Race/Ethnicity and Location 177

Computer Use Among 10 to 17 Year Olds By Household Type and Location 177

Internet Use Among 10 to 17 Year Olds By Income and Household Type 177

How Young People Use the Internet 178

Concerns About Children’s Online Use 178

V. Computer And Internet Use Among People With Disabilities 178

Primary Uses by the U.S. Population 182

Figure 3-1: Online Activities, 2000 and 2001 as a Percentage of Total U.S. Population, Persons Age 3 + 183

Activities Among Those Individuals Online 183

Figure 3-2: Activities of Individuals Online, 2001 As a Percentage of Internet Users, Persons Age 3 + 183

Summary 184

More low-income Americans are going online 184

Large numbers of low income individuals have limited literacy skills or disabilities 184

More Americans from Other Cultures or Countries Are Using the Internet 185

Technology Access Outside the Home Is on the Rise 185

The Internet is rapidly Becoming Essential for Basic Needs 185

2.1.2 Impacts 186

2.1.3 Leveraging Technology for Individuals 187

2.2 Community and Technology 190

2.2.1 Leveraging Technology for Communities 192

Access 192

Infrastructure 193

Capacity 193

Using technology to support community-based industry: ACENet 193

Training 20th-century citizens for 21st-century jobs: The South Bristol Learning Network 194

A trusted service provider incorporates technology into its programs: United Neighborhood Houses of New York 195

Public institutions increasing access: Union City Schools and Libraries Online! 196

Providing support and information for community technology centers: CTCNet 197

Using technology to strengthen neighborhood communications: The AFNNeighborhood Network and MUSIC/LUV 197

Providing underserved youth with enrichment and training for the jobs of the future: Break Away Technologies, Plugged In, and National Urban League Youth Achievement Initiatives 199

CIOF Community Technology Centers 200

COMPUTER LEARNING CENTER/COMMUNITY ACTION PROGRAM OF EVANSVILLE AND VANDERBURGH COUNTY, INC. 202

2.3 Technology in Human Services Delivery Infrastructure 202

2.4 Characteristics of Technology in Human Services Organizations 203

2.5 Technology Actions – Government 205

2.5.1 Leveraging the Internet 205

1. Disability Access 207

2. Readability 208

3. Non-English Language Accessibility 209

4. Interactivity 209

5. Access Across Agencies 210

6. User Fees and Premium Sections 210

2.5.2 Legislative actions in 2003 to address the digital divide 211

Create a Statewide Digital Divide Grant Program 212

2.5.3 Nationwide trends in addressing the digital divide 215

2.6 Current Applications of Technology in Human Services 216

E-Government 216

Nebraska’s N-FOCUS System 217

Louisiana’s Department of Health and Hospitals 217

San Mateo Case Management and Consumer Follow through System 218

Community Human Service Agency – Camfield Estates 218

3 Advances in Technology 219

3.1 Before and After the Internet 219

3.2 Industry Advances in leveraging emerging technology 222

Banking 222

Homeland Security 226

Emergency Workers 227

3.3 Emerging Trends in Technology 227

Emerging Web Services Standards Stack 230

Communication Technologies 230

Radio Frequency Identification Devices 231

Business intelligence products are supporting a more networked view of the business 231

Text mining is emerging as the "hot" area in customer relationship management 231

Micro-content and micro-business will drive the knowledge economy 232

The support foundation for software infrastructure is changing. Real-time infrastructure will reshape IT operations and infrastructure. 232

Real-Time Infrastructure 233

4 Technology in Human Services 234

4.1 Making Technology a Powerful Weapon 235

4.2 A Technology Primer 235

4.3 Technology Framework to consider 237

5 Sources 237

APPENDIX D: WORKING SESSION DESCRIPTIONS 239

APPENDIX E: MEETING RECORDS 242

REVIEW AND DISCUSSION OF THE PRINCIPLES 260

IDENTIFICATION OF WHAT NEEDS TO CHANGE TO GET TO VISION OF NEW DEFINTIONS (GAP ANALYSIS/DEVELOP STRATEGIES) 263

Roles 264

Systems 264

Funding 265

Policy 266

Attitudes 267

Structures 268

Behavior 268

Incentives 268

APPENDIX A Core Elements: Mission, Imperatives, Vision, and Principles 272

Mission, Imperatives, Vision, and Principles 272

APPENDIX B Research Themes: Redefining Poverty 275

Compelling Case for Change 275

Questions to Consider 278

APPENDIX C The Evolution Of Thinking About Poverty: Exploring The Interactions 279

THE EVOLUTION OF THINKING ABOUT POVERTY: EXPLORING THE INTERACTIONS 279

THE EVOLUTION OF THINKING ABOUT POVERTY: EXPLORING THE INTERACTIONS 279

I. INTRODUCTION 279

II. INCOME AND CONSUMPTION 282

Table 1: The Incidence of Poverty 284

Growth, Inequality, and Poverty 287

From Mechanical Relationships to Policy 289

III. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT 291

Measuring Human Development 291

Table 3: Proportion of children who were born in the past 5 years who are no longer living, by wealth 293

The Seamless Web 294

Human Development and Growth 295

IV. VULNERABILITY AND VOICE 298

Asking the Poor 298

Coping with Risk 302

From Isolation to Participation 306

V. OUTSTANDING ISSUES 308

References 310

APPENDIX D Characteristics of Successful Change 317

APPENDIX E Current state presentation: Highlights from the research 318

APPENDIX F Participant List 320

APPENDIX G Project Staff List 323

Community-Based Solutions Working Session 326

PROCEEDINGS 328

SESSION CONTEXT AND CONTENT 331

SMALL GROUP WORK: VISIONING THE IDEAL (DETERMINING DESIRED FUTURE STATE) 333

Visioning the Ideal: Community Engagement 334

APPENDIX A Core Elements: Mission, Imperatives, Vision, and Principles 350

APPENDIX B Research Themes: Community-Based Solutions 353

Community Based Solutions Related to Poverty 353

Community Assessment, Planning, and Development Models 354

Community Building as a Poverty Reduction Strategy 355

Linking Community, Economic, and Workforce Development Efforts 356

Creating, Maintaining, and Sustaining Community-Based Solutions 357

Questions to Consider 359

APPENDIX C Initiative context presentation: Characteristics of Successful Change 361

APPENDIX D Current state presentation: Highlights from the research 362

Community Based Solutions to Reducing Poverty 362

APPENDIX E Participant List 364

APPENDIX F Project Staff List 368

Family Economic Security 371

PROCEEDINGS 373

IDENTIFICATION OF WHAT NEEDS TO CHANGE TO GET TO THE IDEAL 390

APPENDIX A Core Elements: Mission, Imperatives, Vision, and Principles 402

APPENDIX B Research Themes: Family Economic Security 405

Family Economic Security 405

Compelling Case for Change 405

Current State 406

Acquisition and Growth of Assets 406

Mainstream Goods and Services 407

Public Policy 408

Questions to Consider 408

APPENDIX C Initiative context presentation: Characteristics of Successful Change 410

APPENDIX D Current state presentation: Highlights from the research 411

Compelling Case for Change 411

Support to Low Income Individuals 411

APPENDIX E Participant List 413

Aspen Wye River Conference Center 413

APPENDIX F Project Staff List 417

Maximizing Technology 420

Group 3 432

IDENTIFICATION OF WHAT NEEDS TO CHANGE TO GET TO THE IDEAL: GAPS AND STRATEGIES 438

TECHNOLOGY STRATEGIES 444

APPENDIX A Core Elements: Mission, Imperatives, Vision, and Principles 447

APPENDIX B Research Themes: Leveraging Technology in Human Services 449

Current State of Technology in Human Services 449

Technology Leveraging in Other Industries 452

Questions to Consider 453

APPENDIX C Initiative context presentation: Characteristics of Successful Change 455

APPENDIX D Current state presentation: Highlights from the research 456

The Emerging Digital Economy 456

Internet Based Eligibility Systems 458

Business Redesign 463

APPENDIX E Participant List 464

APPENDIX F Project Staff List 468

APPENDIX F: CONTRIBUTORS 472

APPENDIXES LIST

Appendix A: The Project to Create a 21st Century Model to Address Poverty, provides a description of the project within which much of the blueprint content was developed, including how and why specific activities were undertaken.

Appendix B: Poverty Programs Summary and Matrix, summarizes the vast landscape of federal programs, including the program name, intent, funding level, etc.

Appendix C: Issue Papers, which provide environmental scans of issues related to definitions of poverty, community-based approaches to poverty, family economic security, and technology.

Appendix D: Descriptions of the four working sessions convened in the late summer of 2004.

Appendix E: Meeting records for each of the four working sessions, within which a host of unvetted, unfiltered, untested strategies are provided that could be used as a shopping list of potential projects to be further explored.

Appendix F: Principal Contributors List, which provides a list of key people who lead, wrote, and/or supported the development of the vision and this document.

APPENDIX A: THE 21ST CENTURY MODEL TO ADDRESS POVERTY PROJECT

May 2005 Appendix A 1

In November 2003, Clarence Carter (then Director of the Office of Community Services) initiated a two-year project to develop and frame a theoretical construct upon which new ways of thinking about and addressing poverty could be built and that could be used to help launch a long-term social change movement. As the project leader, Mr. Carter initiated the work with a strongly held, but complex and unrefined vision for a fundamentally different approach to poverty. The project was designed to harness the components of that vision, enhance it with research and the participation of others, and give it the form and structure necessary for it to serve as the basis for change.

Mr. Carter brought in a team of external resources with multiple areas of expertise, including organization, community, and workforce development, as well as human services, sociology, communications, and technology. The organization and workforce development component of the team served as the strategic and project management arm of the operation, serving as a central hub for strategy and coordination of all of the components of the project. The sociology, community development, and technology team members served as subject-matter-experts, who offered subject-specific guidance for a number of project activities, including its overall direction, the development of the working sessions, the implementation of further research, and as expert reviewers of the research products associated with the project.

Because changing the way the country thinks about and addresses poverty is a long-term goal, the project got underway with the understanding that realizing that goal would obviously not occur over the life of a short-term project. With that in mind, the initiative was designed to establish a foundation upon which future strategies could be built and to give the issues of poverty structure and form so that the people and organizations that make up society—the people who can collectively make a difference—could create systemic and comprehensive strategies toward a future built upon the construct. The extent to which the project accomplished that goal is at least partially attributed to a shared understanding between the project leader and the project team that, since they were navigating “uncharted territory,” their work together was a learning and discovery process. This understanding, combined with the absence of an organizational hierarchy, contributed to a spirit of adventure, openness, collaboration, deference, and creativity. The project is described in more detail in the sections that follow.

Project Philosophy

A few key philosophical tenets thread through the work of the project, and were held as truths in the development of the construct and related project activities. These tenets are:

  • The best place to address poverty is in the community. The community is the entity just small enough to know its own circumstances, people, issues, and resources and to have the ability to impact all of them. It is also the entity that is most directly affected by its own issues of poverty, and therefore has the most stake in addressing it and in creating its own desired future. On the other hand, the community also just large enough an entity to have formal and informal leadership that can gather and deploy resources toward those circumstances and can influence policy at the local, state, and Federal level.

  • Supporting communities in addressing their own issues of poverty means providing enabling conditions, not prescribing them. No Federal or other outside entity can know what supports, strategies, or solutions any particular community needs to address its issues of poverty. Therefore, strategies must support, enable, and empower communities to address issues of poverty locally in ways that make sense for their unique circumstances. Doing so also creates appropriate ownership and commitment within communities in its own well-being.

  • No one entity, political party, sector, organization, program, funding stream, or service delivery strategy can claim blame for the nation’s issues of poverty or fame for successfully addressing it. Responsibility for the current and future poverty situation is shared by every sector of society—it is a systemic issue. In addition, the speed at which societal, economic, cultural, and technological change occurs renders any solution obsolete in short order, no matter how appropriate it might have been at the time of implementation. Therefore, defending turf, past programs, or strategies is not necessary and should be discouraged in any activity associated with the project.

  • No matter how big an undertaking the reconstruction of the nation’s approach to poverty is, or what form or shape it ultimately takes, its impact must reach the individual. We must strive to develop systems, structures, and strategies in which resources and capacity do not stop at the door of the system, but rather, reach the individual and make a difference in their life.

Approach and Activities

The project in general was approached iteratively, with multiple activities in various stages of development occurring concurrently. This iterative approach meant that for most of the year-long project, none of its components was fully developed. The positive side of that scenario is that the concurrent evolution and learning from the development of each activity or component informed the others, which resulted in a natural alignment in the end. The challenge in that scenario is that the complete picture was not known until late in the game, when all of the components naturally came together to form a coherent whole. The resulting ambiguity was considered a necessary evil by the project staff. As mentioned previously, the spirit of discovery and learning and the absence of a formal hierarchy was key for the ultimate success in building the construct in its current form. Given the project’s iterative nature described above, the activities described below are provided in relative sequential order.

Identification of Topical Lenses

Poverty is obviously an enormous and complex topic, with many tendrils ranging from the conditions, causes, and impacts of poverty to the difficulties we as a society have in openly discussing it. The challenge in starting a national dialog about changing the way the country thinks about and addresses poverty is that the discussion can’t start ‘everywhere’ at once—there is simply too much there. At the same time, starting with a manageable subset of topics related to poverty will always seem incomplete. Understanding that the former is impossible and the latter is insufficient, the latter was chosen as a starting point. Five subtopics were chosen and used as “lenses” through which to view issues of poverty and the country’s approach to addressing it. These lenses served as areas of inquiry for the research activities (see “Development of Research Strategy and Products”), as topical themes for the initial working sessions (see “Working Sessions”), or as a thread running throughout all project activities. The five topical lenses are described below.

* Redefining Poverty—This lens was and can be used in the future to explore definitions of poverty for the purposes of expanding our thinking to encompass a broader set of elements that more accurately describe conditions of impoverishment. Since definitions lead to strategies, it suggests that if we are interested in changing the way we address poverty, then we must change the way we define it.

* Community-Based Solutions—This lens was and can be used in the future to explore ways to support, enable, and empower all communities to address issues of poverty locally in ways that make sense for their unique circumstances.

* Family Economic Security—This lens was and can be used in the future to explore key areas that impact families’ economic security, such as basic income (including work supports), acquisition and growth of assets, mainstream goods and services, and public policy.

* Maximizing Technology—This lens was and can be used in the future to explore ways that technology can be used to more significantly impact individual and community impoverishment.

* Leadership—This lens was and can be used in the future in two ways. One, as a thread throughout each area of inquiry to understand what leadership and leadership development work would be necessary to create and sustain the new approach envisioned through each lens. Second, as the development of a group of advisors/champions who can provide feedback and guidance on the construct and the strategies as they were developed, and serve as ‘communication ambassadors’ in their spheres of influence.

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