Aar: the old term for Ger. Adler (adel ar) and means ‘eagle’: Frid dictus [called] Ar, near Konstanz 1258. See Ahr. Aaron


Aa: von der Aa: formerly name of a house of knights, both in Westph. and Switz., Aa, Ahe (SGer. Ach) is a very old term for running water, a stream (Goth. ahwa, Lat. aqua), to be found in many pl.ns. and creek ns.

Aaken, van Aaken, Acken: from the city of Aachen (doc.: Aken),cf. Aken on the Elbe, also Heinrich Aken of Beelitz 1484. In Lüb., Ro., Strals., Greifsw. around 1300, de Aken meant the city of Aachen as place of origin.

Aalden see Ahlden.

Aalderk (patr. Aaldring): the Frisian form for Alrich with a d inserted between l and r,older form Adel rich, same as Aaldert for Alert, Adelhart. Cf. Ahlerich.

Aalfs (E Fris.), see Alf, Ahlff.

Aalrep, Ahlrep, Ahlreip (LGer.): means eel fisherman, same as Ahlfänger, named after his fishing device, the eel ring: alrep or “Aalreif” (Joh. alreper, Strals. 1306). An Alesteker (Kiel 1449), on the other hand, uses a piercing or stabbing instrument [stechen = ‘to pierce’], cf. Aalstecher Strect in Ro. Heinrich Alkopf, merchant, Meckl. 1563.

Aapken see Ape(ken).

Aar: the old term for Ger. Adler (adel ar) and means ‘eagle’: Frid. dictus [called] Ar, near Konstanz 1258. See Ahr.

Aaron see L’Arronge.

Abb, Abben, Abbes, Abbing, with a k-suffix, Abbeke, Abken: in L. Saxony and Frisia Abbo was a popular sh.f. for Albert, albern, Albrand like Ubbo for Ulbert, cf. Abbio or Albio, Duke of the Saxons 785. Assimilation lb:bb as in Wobbe for Wolburg and Hebbele for Helburg: female Frisian names, same as Abba for Alburg (Ro. 1258). An Abbo Heemsta in Friesland 1422, a Woldericus filius Abben [Wolder, son of Abbo], Hbg. 1252.

Abbrecht see Abrecht, Albrecht.

Abbühl: UGer. bühel means ‘hill’, cf. Ainbühl, Zuntbühl, names of habitation: ‘at the hill’ in Switz. Uolrich ab dem Bühel, Lindau 1260.

Abderhalden (Switz.): ‘from the (mountain) slope’, named after the location of the farmstead, such as Anderhalden. Cf. ab der Wand, Tyrol 1388; ab der Lauben, Konstanz 1341: ab dem Wasen 1295 etc.

Abegg (Switz., Tyrol): from the home at the corner mountain ledge. Heinrich ab egge, Toggenburg 1272. H. auf dem Egg, Tyrol 1297. Cf. Abbühl, Abhöh.

Abeke(n), Abeking: LGer. patrs., see Aben. For the form cf. Gödeke, Gödeking (Westph.): deriving from Godefrid. For Fris. Abekena (genitive plural) cf. Allekena, Ukena: belonging to the Abo, Allo, Uko family.

Abel, Abels: popular name for Albrecht on the N Ger. coast during the Middle Ages, such as the female name Abele (Fris.) for Alburg (cf. Hebele for Helburg). Alem. Abeli(n) was common in SW Germany. The biblical name Abel did not come into use until the Reformation (e.g. Abel Faschang, Krain 1592; Abel Barner, Flensburg 1579). Abeling (cf. Abeking) in N Ger., Abels (freq. in Cologne), and Abelmann (Han., as early as 1481) mean offspring of Abel. Abekena is E Fris. A Frisian Abel Tamminga 1424.

Aben like Abben: Fris. patr. ‘son of Abo, Abbo’,cf. Eden: [son of] Edo; Duden: Dudo; Aven: Avo etc. With k suffix: Abeken, Abeking. With patr.  ing ending: Abing. See Abben.

Abend [evening]: to be interpreted like Feierabend (traditional name of farmers and craftsmen): the person who loves the evening; Herman des Avendes, Kiel 1455, however, refers to work during the evening (cf. Werenabund ‘withstand the evening’ in Freiberg (in Sax.) 1378; Heinrich Abund, Dresden 1432; H. der heilige Abund [holy night], Freiburg 1310; Gottsabend etc.) Abend is also a pl.n. (in Sax.) and a field n. (cf. Abendgrund, Villingen 1439). See also Morgen, Mittag, Mittnacht, Vesperzeit (1414). Obintfreude iseasy to interpret: MHG abentvröude [evening joy]. Godavent [good evening], Lüneburg 1349, Mertensavent [eve of St. Martin], Brsw. l390.

Abendroth: a widely used fantasy name, less common Abendschein [evening light], Abendschön. Occasionally the giant Abentrot, known from the legend of King Rother, might be involved. Concerning Abenrolh cf. H. von Abenrode, Frkf. 1250 (p1.n.), an Aventrot in Kiel es early es 1400, in Lüb. 1339. Concerning Abendstern [evening star] cf. Morgenstern (may be interpreted in some cases as a house n.; in Torgau 1750 it referred to a foundling found in the evening). Morgenschein isto be interpreted like Abendschein.

Abenteuer, with umlaut Ebentheuer: [adventure] MHG aventürer means traveling merchant (originally the adventurous knight). Jakob mit der Abenteuer/Ebenteuer e.g. is documented both in Iglau and in Liegnitz 1394. A Jessen de Aventure, Greifsw. 1399.

Aber, Abert: the same meaning as Alem. Abrecht, i.e. Albrecht: Sir Abero (Albero) Gruber = Albrecht G. around 1250.

Aberle, Aberlin: the Swab.-Alem. sh.f. of Abrecht = Albrecht; e.g. Aberlin or Albrecht Mutzscheler in Würt. around 1350; Aberlin or Albrecht von Strubenhard 1374. See also Auberle. Oberlin. Likewise Äbli: for instance Äbli = Albrecht Gierei, Rottweil 1353.

Äbersold (freq. in Switz.): based on the local pl.n. Äbersol or Ebersohl (likewise Hirschsol, Bärensohl) ‘where wild boars (Ger. Eber = hog) wallow’.

Abesser: from Abes or Abesser in Bav.: H. Abesser, near Regensburg as early as 1367.

Abfalter(er) see Affolter.

Abhöh see Abbühl.

Abholz(er) (Tyrol): probably from a field n. (like Holzer, Antholzer). Cf. Ableiter.

Abicht: originated in Thuringia, apparently a variant of Albrecht like the Alem. Abrecht. In general, Thur. Apel (in Sax. and Sil. Apetz: Opitz) was common as short form for Albrecht. Cf. the councillor Heinrich Abecht,Saalfeld 1428. Cf. Abicht, Naumburg 1472.

Abitz, Abitzsch: refer to a Slav. pl.n., like Kunitz, Delitzsch, Brauchitsch.

Ablaß: MHG abelas means sluice or floodgate; a pl.n. Ablas in Sax. An Ablaßmeyer in Zurich. Cf. Eberhard Ablauf, Lpz. 1481.

Ableit(n)er (Aust.-Tyrol): likewise Achleit(n)er derived from pl.n. or name of a farmstead ending in -leite (MHG lite ‘mountain slope’). Cf. Abholzer.

Äbli see Aberle.

Abraham (Hebr. Abram ‘father of the crowd’): the patriarch of the Old Testament, partly Jewish (as in Breslau already around 1300: A. the Jew and Abrosch, brother of Jacob the Jew; likewise in Liegnitz 1416: Abraham, sons Mosche and Merkel). However, non-Jewish: Abrams, Abramsen inE Friesland (hence Dutch-Fris. Brahms, in Holland still a very common f.n.: Bram Risseuw). Already in 1438 Conrad Abraham in Tyrol, Hans A. in Tüb. 1477; Aberram sartor [tailor], Lüneburg 1348. Abromeit (E Pruss.-Lith.): meaning ‘A.’s son’.

Abrecht: the Alem. form of Albrecht, see Aberle. Abrecht or Albrecht ab dem Berg documented in Würt. 1299. Heini Abrecht (Albrecht) 1408.

Abrell, Aberell, April: old UGer. form for “April” (Lat. aprilis); named for a seasonal activity or tax duty, hence an old peasant name. Burchart Abrelle, Memmingen 1320; the Abrellen (Abröll), farmers in Kempten 1532.

Abrusch, Abrosch, see Abraham.

Abs, Aps: very common in N Germany. It is the Fris. patr. of Ab(b), Abo, likewise Abbes, Aben, Abben. See Aben.

Absalon (Hebr., ‘Father of Peace’, King David’s son: II Sam. 14:25): rare name for peasants, burghers and clerics, used already in the Middle Ages. Heinrich A., Durlach 1274; Petrus Absolinis, Strals. 1413. Also as sh.f.: Apsel (Lüb., Stettin, Danzig) and Axel (Swedish) famous because of Gustav Adolf’s chancellor, Earl Axel Oxenstierna; the archbishop of Lund (in Sweden) is documented under the name Absalom or Axel as early as 1200. Hence Axelsen (Schleswig, Hbg.).

Abschatz (Liegnitz): abeschatz meant a tribute or tax, cf. MHG achtschatz, slegeschatz, schatzung. The name is famous because of the poet and baron Hans Aßmann v. Abschatz near Liegn.1646, also as early as 1311 a knight, Albert Abeschatz (son: Gawin!).

Abschlag (UGer.): MHG abe-slac means ‘partial payment’, in some places also means ‘scrap wood’, as a field n. (referring to a slope) probably of younger origin. Joh. Abschlag, Durlach 1385; Nic. Abslach, Leitomischl 1417. In pl.ns. like Abtschlag (likewise Schlag and Eppenschlag) in the Bavarian Forest, it means ‘tree-felling area’ for clearing land.

Abshagen (freq. in Strals.): from Abtshagen in the district of Strals.: ‘the abbot’s estate’.

Absmeier (Munich): stewart of an abbot.

Abt (freq. in Stuttgart) also Abbt, Apt: MHG abbet (from biblical abba ‘father’) means the abbot of a monastery: head of the monks; as a name it refers to a tenant farmer of a monastery. Thomas Abbt (Ulm 1738) was known as a writer in Würt. Henneke Abbet, Lünebg. 1331.

Abtsreiter (Munich): from the city of Abtsreit in Upper Bav. (in old documents: Abts-reut: clearing of or belonging to an abbot) like Bärnreiter from Bernreut. Burk Absrüter, Ravensburg 1387 (Absreuter) derives from pl.n. Absenreute in Würt.

Abzieher (UGer.): means a person who skins animals, a knacker: Bernhard Rot der abzieher, Würt. 1396; Hannes A., Iglau in Moravia 1404.

Achatz(y): the auxiliary saint Achatius (from Byzantium), honored especially in Bavaria, also Agatz (Slav.: Agceiak)*. Achachtius Heißwasser, Landau 1477; Israel Achatius, Pforzheim 1556; Achatz Parucker, Aschau in Bavaria 1764.

Achelis, Achgelis (N Ger.): = Achilles, the Trojan hero and Hektor’s adversary. As knightly f.ns., both Achilles and Herkules are names from literature and thus document the reading material of courtly circles, cf. Herbort v. Fritzlar’s Liet von Troye (Epic of Troy) around 1200. An A. also in Strals. 1288. Achilles is also Jewish.

Achenbach (Hesse): pl.n. in Hesse and Westph. Andreas A., painter in Kassel 1815.

Acher(er), Achler, Achner, Achmann, Achmüller: UGer. names from dwelling or place of origin (see Aa). A Hans Achler lived in Waldsee in Würt. 1350, an der Ach. Cf. pl.ns. like Achern in Baden.

Achilles see Achelis.

Achleit(n)er (Bavaria, Tyrol): from loc.n. of Achleiten (cf. Ableiter, Hausleiter) related to MHG lite ‘slope’ and ach ‘water, stream’. Jürg Achleyter 1485 Upper Bavaria; Arthur Achleilner, writer in Straubing 1858.

Achner see Acher.

Achsel, Acksel see Axel.

Achshalm see Axthalm.

Achter, Achtert, (Vienna, Munich, Breslau): not definite in meaning; may be based on a field n., cf. von der Acht. In 1416 a Jörg Achter is documented as a scribe in Freising; Hans Achter, Ächter in Moravia 1414, cf. Ächter (Munich). Hans Achtmann, Ihringen near Breisach 1538. MHG âchte, ächte also means socage.

Achtermann, Achtermeyer (N Rhine Westph.): means a settler who lives at the rear (achter = UGer. after); cf. Achternbosch, Achternfeld, Achternholt; Achterkirchen [behind the church]: Evert achter der kerken 1486. Achtrut = Achtern-ut.

Achtschilling:[eight shillings] usually indicates a tax obligation, as in Hans Achtmark, Tyrol 1501. In Reutlingen, a C. Bendel is known as Achtschilling 1416; a Dutch painter, Lukas Achtschelling 1626. See also Schilling, Schelling. Similarly Vierdung, Heller, etc.

Achtsnicht, Achzenicht, Achtznick, Ach(t)nich, Ach(t)nig, etc.: formerly a very common surname for someone showing lack of concern. Name is sh.f. of a whole phrase: Ger.”ich acht sin nicht”! [I do not respect him]. Niclos (ich) achtsinnicht in Brsl. around 1350; Peter a., Liegnitz 1415; Achtseinnicht, Olmütz 1378; Hans Achtenicht, Haldsl. 1453; Joh. Achzinit, Tüb. 1503; Achznit, Zurich 1504.

Achtzehn, Achtzig: [eighteen, eighty] cf. Achczenheller in old Brsl., indicating a tax obligation.

Acke (Jeverland., Hbg.): a Fris. and Danish name found in Ro. as early as 1268: Ake, Aco as in Olof Akesohn (Ro. 1914), thus Fris. Axen, Axsen (old: Ackesone); obviously in Fris. with loss of the l- consonant for Alke = Alhard, Aldag, etc. For Ackeman (Hbg., Stade, Ro.) see Aaken.

Ackemann (Hbg., Ro.) means a person from Aachen, as Mindemann from Minden, Winsemann from Winsen, Apmann from Apen.

Ackenheil (Stuttg.) [shows Swab. unrounding]: heil for häule = hau, freq. field n. for parts of a forests (tree-felling area) as in “Schreiberhau”. Cf. Bürklin Haw 1383; Hans Höwli, neu Stuttgart 1484; for ack (the MHG word means ‘foul smell’) cf. Ackensteig, Aggenbühl, Ackenbrache (near Eßlingen 1357).

Ackerknecht (freq. in Würt.): farm worker who plows the field: Heinrich Ackerknecht, near Gerabronn 1351. Also NGer.: Cord Ackerknecht = Ackermann [farmer] 1542. Likewise Herman Ackergang (MHG ‘agriculture’), Konstanz 1296; Stephan Ackerpferd [fieldhorse], Swab. 1431; Tylo Ackerscholle, Erfürt 1311; Peter ufdem acker, Kirnach 1508; Hänslin Ackerlin, Stuttgart 1482.

Ackermann: name for the farmer who tills the soil (cf. Ackerknecht) in the service of a land owner. Freq. in Stuttgart, Basel, also Dresden. In literature cf. Der Ackermannaus Böhmen [The Ploughman of Bohemia] 1400, the famous Humanist disputation between man and death.

Acksel see Axel.

Adalbert see Albrecht, (Adelbrecht).

Adam, Adamy (Hebr., ‘man made of clay’): popular biblical name during the Reformation (Adam Riese). Adamek, Adamschik: E Ger.-U.Sil.; E Pruss.-Lith.: Adomeit. Also with Slav. suffix: Adam Adasch, Glatz 1404. In Würt. the dialect word Ade is used (freq. in Stuttgart); it is documented sometimes in the genitive form (Lat.: Adae): Martin Ade = M. Adam, Altenburg 1438; Heinrich Ade, Fritzlar 1255.

Adde, Adden: Old Fris. sh.f. of Ada-wulf dating back to Germanic times: Adolf etc.: Adde Wyersna, Friesld. 1461. Concerning the double dd, cf. Dedde, Edde, Odde; in 982, however, Addo isalso documented as Aldo, likewise Fris.-L.Sax. Hiddo for Hildo, cf. Fris. Addike (patr. Addicks, freq. in Bremen) likewise Aldike (Aldick). Fris. patr. Addana, Adena: genitive plural (=belonging to Addo’s kinship). See also Athen, Atsma. A Fris. Addek Rembers, 1428.

Ade (UGer.) see Adam.

Adeba(h)r (freq. in Hbg., Königsberg): the old LGer. term for a stork (MLG: odevar, Dutch: ooievaar), a frequent name in E Pruss., Pom., Meckl., Hbg. Likewise Adebor. Cf. Joh. Adeber, Anklam 1426; Slacke Adebor, Kolberg 1558.

Adel, Adelmann: the old UGer. sh.f. of Adelbrecht, Adelold, Adelgoß, Adelrich, Adelger, Adelhard, Adelber: Germanic Adalo, (Fris. Allo). Cf. Adelo, ministerial at Eichstätt 1189. Adelmann is often found in the Francon. part of Würt.

Adelbe(e)r: the old Ger. name Adelbero (A1-bero); bero means bear (a symbol of power): Hans Adelber, Urach in 1399 Adalbero (Alber) Saz, Würzburg 1155. A famous archbishop of Trier Adelbero.

Adelbold see Albold.

Adelbrand see Ahlbrand.

Adelbrecht: usually contracted to Albrecht (brecht is Germanic bercht ‘shining, gleaming’, cf. Berchta: Berta). A farmer Bertschi Adelbrecht, Würt. 1313.

Adeldag see Aldag.

Adeigeiß, Adelgeist (Würt.): Germanic Adelgis (from gis, gisel ‘noble scion’). Was the name of one of Charlemagne’s brother-in-laws, a Langobard. Cf. Ulrich Adelgeiß, Neresheim 1545. Concerning Amalgis (11th c. Bav.) see Ahmels.

Adelger, Alger, Algermann: Adalger was an archbishop of Bremen-Hamburg around 900; Adelger and Alger: two brothers in Col. 1138; Hans Adelger in Reutlingen 1734. Cf. Italian poet Dante Al(d)ighieri.

Adelgöß (UGer.-Würt. only): Germanic pers.n.: Adal-gaut, Adal-got ‘noble Goth’; name of several Swiss bishops (of noble birth), l0th-12th c. Cf. Magingoß, Meingoß, Mengoß, SW Germany. As FN: Bentze Adelgoß, Waiblingen 1350; Diethalm Algoß, Waiblingen 1269.

Adelhard (UGer.) cf. LGer. Alhard: Ahlert: hard means ‘bold’. Joh, Adelhart, Sulz in Würt. 1417. A squire Joh. known as Alhart, Oppenheim 1360.

Adelheid (see also Aiheit, Alscher, and Vernaleken): during the Middle Ages one of the most popular female names, famous because of the wife of Otto the Great, Empress Adelheid, who was canonized (died in 999); the popular form was Alheit*; the LGer. sh.f. is Aleke (Taleke), Fris. Aaltje, Sil. Alusch. In FNs it is to be interpreted as ‘mother’ or ‘wife’: Heinrich Adelhait [son or husband of A.], Horb 1359; Henil Adelheid, Glatz 1361; Niclos Alheit, district of Glogau 1415.

Adelhelm (Hbg.) see Aldhelm. See Alm(s).

Ad(e)lhoch (UGer., Munich): rare Germanic pers.n., like Gerhoch (Gerok!) and Berchthoch (Bertuch!.

Adelmann see Adel.

Ad(e)lmar (UGer.): rare; LGer. Form Almer (Allmers).

Adelmut: rare Germanic fem. pers.n. (today in Holstein as Almut): Adalmod (together with her daughter Adalgard), documented near Werden on the Ruhr River 1150; Heinrich Adelmut, Kassel 1424.

Adelolt: rare Germanic name, last trace of the famous 7th c. king of the Langobards, Adalwald, developed like Amelolt (Amal-wald); the ending -walt means ‘reigning’. MHG poetry (Wolfdietrich epic) knows Adelung. Cf. Adetolt “the reformer”, Konstanz 1295. Adeloldus, councilman in Lüneburg 1291. Also found in the pl.n. Adelsoltesheim: Adelsheim on the Tauber River.

Adelram see Allram.

Adelrich (rare Germanic name) see LGer. Allrich: Hans Adelrich, Eßlingen 1301; Adelrich (died in 690, canonized), Duke of Alsace; he was the father of Saint Odilia and founder of the Odilienberg monastery. Duke Burkhard’s son Adelrich, too, was Alemannic (canonized in 970).

Adelt (rare): originally Adolt, pers.n. Adolt, Mies in Bohemia 1379.

Adelung: the ancient ending -ung isoften found in names from heroic poetry, such as Amelung, Nibelung, Ramung, Harlung, Hartung, Billung, Nudung, Morung, Berchtung, Balmung (Siegfried’s sword), in the sense of ‘belonging to’ or ‘descendant of’. See also Adelolt. There was a 9th c. Bishop of Sitten, Switz. by the name of Adelung. Around 1800 J. C. Adelung became famous with his Deutsches Wörterbuch. A town by the name of Adelungsbach: Adelsbach in Silesia.

Adelward see Ahlwardt.

Aden (Hbg., Kiel): patr. genitive of Ade, sh.f. for names beginning with Ad-, like Adolf; cf. Frie. Adden, Adena. In Westph., however Aden and Ahden are pl.ns. (old form Adana); concerning ad meaning ‘water’, cf. Bahlow Deutschlands geographische Namenwelt, p. 98.

Adenauer, Adeneuer: Adenau is located near the Ahr River in the Rhineland: Laur. de Adenau, tenant farmer at Sinzig on the Rhine 1334.

Ader: [vein, blood vessel] might be interpreted as name of a barber who bled a person (MHG aderlasser, LGer. aderlater: Joh. aderlater, Strals. 1288). Cf. in UGer. area: Eberh. known as Ader, Würt. 1282; Cuonrat Äderlin, Würt. 1358.

Aderjahn see Adrian.

Adermann (Hbg.): unclear meaning; obviously extended form of Ader or Aders (Ahders) in LGer. area. Aderhold(t), Aderholz (Hbg.) based on a field name, cf. Th. Aderpul, Malchin 1527; Ägid. Aderpol (= Pfuhl ‘mudhole’), Holstein 1635, MLG adelpol means ‘mud puddle’.

Adickes, Addicks see Adde.

Adleff, Adloff see Adolf, Alf.

Adler (sometimes Jewish): [eagle] in SW Ger. formerly documented as house n. (today still used for inns, e.g. “Wirtshaus zum Adler”, E. “The Eagle Inn”); otherwise name based on comparison between man and eagle, e.g. in a MHG lament about King Ottokar of Bohemia (1278): “a mind like a lion, his goodness Jöhlin like an eagle, the gracious King is dead”. Petsche adelar, Liegnitz 1372. As a last name: cf. Wernher ze dem adeler, owner of a wine pub, Freiburg 1316 (lived in the Ilsung, Black Eagle House), also known as Gerung, Wernher der Adeler 1309! Likewise K. Bletz zem adeler also known as der adeler, Rottweil 1300.

Adloff (Hbg.) see Adolf, Alf.

Adlung see Adelung.

Adnet, Adnot (UGer.): pl.n. of Adnet near Salzburg.

Adolf(f), Adolph, Adolphsen: ancient Ger. pers.n.; dates back to the Visigoths: their first king’s name was Atha-ulf: ad as in adal, the syllable -ulf means ‘wolf’ (Wotan’s [Odin's] companion), later known as an ending (suffix) only. Favored as f.n. by the Holstein and Nassau dynasties. Hinricus Adolfi, Ro. 1265; Heinrich Adolf, Mainz 1303. See also Alf.

Adrian (freq. in Hbg.), Adrion, Dutch: Adriaan, Arianns, hence in E Fris.-Holstein: Arriens! Name of a saint (martyr), especially in Flanders and Switz., honored as patron saint of the blacksmiths; Em. Adriansen, a Dutch musician 1584; the Swiss Adrian Wettach (= Grock, the circus clown).

Adt (Hbg.) see Ade(n), Adde.

Aff (UGer.): MHG affe (LGer.: ape) figuratively: ‘fool’ (sometimes house n., tom apen, Brsw. 1526). Heinrich Affo and Ulrich Affo, Zurich 1340; Herm. mit dem affen, Erfurt around 1250. Cf. Güldenaff.

Affeld(t): in Hamburg area, named after town of Affelde, like Afferdt from Afferde. See also Affemann.

Affelmann: from Affeln in Westph., like Uffelmann from Uffeln (see Bahlow ON, p. 2).

Affemann; van Affen (Stettin, 16th c.): both refer to Affen as place of origin (cf. aff ‘foul water’) cf. pl.n. Affeln in Westph. and FN Affelmann. Also a swamp Afwidel near Ülzen 1004 (Bahlow ON, p. 2).

Affenschmalz: the MHG word means ‘a fool’s praise, foolish flatteries’, likewise affenheit ‘folly’, affenspiel ‘foolery, trickery’. H. v. Killer, known as Affenschmatz, Würt. 1385.

Afferdt: from Afferde in Westph. FN e.g. in Barth, Pom. 1505.

Affolter, Apfelter, Abfalter etc. (UGer.): freq. field ns. and pl.ns.; still unclear, however, whether deriving from OHG affoltra, MHG aphalter ‘appletree’ (see Bahlow ON, p. 2). Cf. field name “im Affhöllerin the Lahn Valley near Marburg. Andreas Apholter, Iglau 1412; H. Apfolter, Sterzing in Tyrol 1454; S. Abfalter, Graz 1730.

Afken (Fris.: Aveken, 1681) see Ave.

Afteiker (LGer.) see Apteker.

Agapitus, Gapitus, Apitus: Greek: ‘the beloved one’, martyr around 275, patron of Kremamünster in Austria (his saint’s day is August 18, “Agapten” Day).

Agatz see Achatz.

Ageley see Akeley.

Agethen, Agahd contracted to Eyth, Eitner (cf. “an san Aiten tag” in Vienna 1295): a metr. after St. Agathe (Greek: ‘the good one’), a female martyr from Sicily 251. In the Middle Ages, German stressed the first syllable, hence FN Agthe: Opecz der Ayten, Liegn. 1388; Aytener, Liegn. 1451; Aythe melczerynne, Liegn. 1397.

Agge(n), Aggesen: in Friesl. and Schleswig (also Agena like Adena, Ukena), based on an Old Fris-Germanic pers.n. Ag(g)o, in Fris. contracted to Aye, Eye (Ayssen, Eyssen). See Aye.

Ägidi, Egidy: Saint Aegidius (from Greek aigis = shield of the god Zeus in Homer) was an abbot of St. Gilles Monastery in S France and was popular everywhere as auxiliary saint. In Romance languages and S Ger., Gidius was weakened to Gilius, hence Gilles, Gilly, Gilg, Gilcher, cf. Jacobus Aegidii alias Gilii, Siena 1262. Gillige Rütstock, Freiburg 1406.

Aglaster, Agster (Baden): means magpie (MHG agelster).

Agnes, Agnesen, Nesensohn, also Angenete, Agneter: from St. Agnes (a martyr in Rome around 300; her symbol is the lamb, Lat: agnus), also known as Agnete, cf. G. Hauptmann’s Agnetendorf, in the Middle Ages popular as Nese, Nethe. Often found in metronymics meaning A.’s son or husband: Henne vern Agnesen, Kassel around 1370; UGer. Benz Agneser, Rottweil 1403; H. Agneter, Moravia 1382; Nesensohn (Switz.).

Agreiter (Tyrol): from the farmstead Agareit: Ajarei, Tyrol.

Agricola (Lat: ‘farmer’): Humanist name for Ackermann, Baumann, Bauer, Beuerlein, Schnitter (see Brechenmacher I, p. 12). Cf. Joh. Agricola (actual name: Schnitter)from Eisleben, a friend of Luther known for his collection of proverbs.

Agstein (UGer.): MHG agestein ‘amber’ (also house n.) means cutter of amber. Burkart zu dem Agstein, Freiburg 1337, H. Agstein, St. Blasien 1396. In Breslau: Aytstein around 1400. Cf. also Augstein.

Agster see Aglaster.

Agte see Agethen.

Agthen see Agethen.

Ahe, von der Ahe: in Holstein. See Aa.

Ahl, Aal: may be interpreted as name of an eel fisher, see Ahlrep, Aalrep. Possible reference, however, to a cobbler’s bodkin or awl.

Ahland see Aland.

Ahlbeer, Ahlbrecht see Adelbrecht, Albrecht.

Ahlborn (freq. in Hbg.): corrupted form of formerly popular LGer.-Fris. pers.n. Albern (Adel-bern), likewise Osborn, Ausbern from Osbern (but also possible. the pl.n. Alborn on the Lippe River). Cf. Ahlbrand, Ahlward in the same area.

Ahlbrand, Albrand, Allebrand: around 1300 the Fris.-Langobardic pers.n. of Alebrand (Adel-brand) was popular from Friesland to Pom., likewise Wil-brand, Si(g)-brand, Wut-brand, brand means blazing sword, cf. also Hildebrand, Liutbrand. Inthe saga, Alebrand Thidreks takes the place of Hadubrand of the Nibelungenlied. Cf. Archbishop Alebrandus, also Adelbrandus of Bremen 1035. As a FN known in Strals. as early as 1340: Evert Alebrant.

Ahldach see Aldag.

Ahlden (Bremen): town on the Aller River.

Ahle see Ahl and Ahlenstiel.

Ahlefeldt (Hbg.): from the city of Ahlefeld in S Schleswig (cf. also Alfeld on the Leine River). Bendix de Alefeld 1320; Bartram van Alevelde, Flensburg 1560.

Ahlemann (Ro.): see Ahlen. The ending -mann, often found in N Ger. names, indicates a town as place of origin; cf. Mindemann from Minden, Apmann from Apen, Rintelmann from Rinteln, Huntemann from the Hunte River.

Ahlen, von Ahlen (Hbg.): also Ahlemann (Ro.) means the man from Ahlen or Ahle in Westph.: Joh. de Alen, Ro. 1303; Tidemann de Alen, Strals. 1297.

Ahlenstiel (Hbg., Kiel) also UGer.: C. Alunstil, Kempten 1333, means a cobbler who punches holes with an awl, hence Ahlstich: Alenstich, in Baden 1365; there also Alenschmidt, 1493. Likewise Pfannenstiel [panhandle] for a cook, Häppenstiel [handle of a sickle] for a wine grower, Bungenstel for a drummer, Schopenstel for a brewer.

Ahlering see Allerding and Aaldring.

Ahlers, Ahlert, also Allers, Allert (Bremen, Hbg., Lüb., Ro.): the LGer. pers.n. Alard(Adel-hard), especially popular in the Middle Ages, alternating with Alward (Adelward), as found in Hbg. 1252: Alardus = Alwurdus de Bremen (FN Ahlward, Allwardt). Cf. Dutch-Fris.: Aaldert, Westph.: Allerding.

Ahlf (freq. in Hbg.), Ahlfs (E Friesld.), likewise Alf, Alfs contracted from Adloff: Adolf via Aleff, Aloff, cf. “hertoch Aloff van Holstein” 1559; like Rahlf(s) contracted from Radloff, Radolf. Hence Alves and hertoch Aleff v. Schleswig 1453; Alvesman 1509. See also Adolf.

Ahlfeld see Ahlefeld.

Ahlften, von A. (Hbg.): pl,n. near Soltau (Alvete like Wulften/Wulvete). For the water word alv see Bahlow ON, p. 109.

Ahlgrimm (freq. in Hbg., Ro.): Adalgrim (like Hildegrim etc.): old Ger. pers.n., rarely found in the Middle Ages, also a pl.n.: Alegrimeshusen (around 900): today Algermissen near Hildesheim; the syllable grim means dreadful mask (of war).

Ahlheit see Adelheid.

Ahlhelm (Lpz.): rare Germanic pers.n. from Adelhelm, in Fris. contracted to Alm(s), as Wilhelm to Wilm(s). Frater Adelhelm in Würt. 1298; Count A., Thurgau around 850; the brothers Gerlach and Friedrich Alhelm, Nassau 1313; Heinrich Alhelm, near Mainz 1341.

Ahlicke, Ahlke, Ahlckes; Ahles; Alken: all found in the LGer.-Fris. area, likewise Allecke, Allen, Alles: patronymics (those with k-suffix) derive from the pers.ns. with Al- (Adel-); sh.f. of Adalo: Al(l)o, see Allen; evident also in the LGer. Alensoon and Allekenson, Stade 1335. The LGer. female name Aleke (= Alheit) still exists in the metr. Vernaleken (A.’s son/husband). Cord Aleken, Duderstadt 1467; M. Alckenhans in Kassel 1524. The male form Alke is still a Fris. f.n.; may also be a sh.f. for Alerk (Ahlrichs), cf. Alke (Alleke), Yneke Onneken son [Y. son of Onnekel, around 1400; Alconis filius [son of Alco], a Fris. 1490; Alico, Alike also in Bremen, Ro., Strals. around 1300. With loss of the consonant 1: Fris. Acke, like Ulke: Ucke, Hilke: Hicke.

Ahlmann see Ahlemann.

Ahlmeyer (Westph.): named after the homestead same as Brockmeyer, Sehlmeyer, Sickmeyer, Moddemeyer. Ahle is a name for a creek or marsh.

Ahlrep see Aalrep.

Ahlrich(s): Fris. Alerk, Aalderk, Alderichs (with an inserted d) is the Germanic pers.n. Adel-rich. Cf.Ahlers, Ahlward etc.; Alke as Fris. sh.f.; variant: Allrich. See Adelrich for UGer. examples.

Ahlrot, Ahlrath see Allroth.

Ahlschläger (LGer.) = Öhlschlager: oil miller.

Ahlschwede, Ahlawede, Ahlswe: corrupted forms of the pl.n. Alswede in Westph. (‘swampy forest, marshy ford’), cf Godeke Alswede, Hamelin 1515; similarly Ahlschweig (Kiel), Ahlzweig (Hbg.) developed from Alswik (wik meaning ‘village’) like Braunschweig from Brunswik, Erkenzweig from Erkensnik (E. Schröder, p. 90, traced it wrongly to fem. Adelswind.) For als ‘swamp water’ cf. Alssiepen. See Bahlow ON, p. 7. For Alswede: Hülswede, Marwede.

Ahlschweig (Lüb., Kiel) see Ahlschwede.

Ahlstich see Ahlenstiel.

Ahlvers (Hbg.) see Alvers.

Ahlwardt, Allwardt: pers. ns. ending in -ward (meaning guardian, keeper) like Adelward, Markward, Volkward were popular in the Old Sax.-Elbe-Weser area. Cf. Bishop Adelward of Verden around 900, the first Christian missionary among the Wends. Therefore it is often found as FN between Bremen and Meckl. (see also Ahlers). Alwardus (Alardus) de Bremen, Hbg. 1252; Alwardus hotwalkere [hat maker], Ro. 1250.

Ahlzweig see Ahlachwede.

Ahme(e) (Hbg., Ro.): supposedly means LGer. ame, Ger. Ohm, term for a measurement. Cf. the amehus of the tub makers or coopers in Wismar. But for Ameke see Ahmels.

Ahmels (freq. in E Friesld.), Ahmel, Ahmelmann: Amalo, Amel sh.f. for Amelrich, renowned Germanic name dating back to the King of the Ostrogoths, Amalarich (from the royal house of the Amaler, inheroic literature known as the Amelungs). Name was still popular in the Middle Ages. See Amelrich. Ameke, Emeke (Ehmke) are sh.fs.; pl.n. Amaleshusen today Ahmsen in Westph.

Ahmling see Amelung.

Ahmsetter see Ohmsieder.

Ahn, Ahnen (von Ahn, von Ahnen freq. in Hbg.) also Ahnemann (in Bremen): refers to the Ahne River (in the areas of the Jade and Fulda Rivers: cf. H. von der Ane, Kassel 1442); also found in the pl.n. Zwischen-Ahn/Oldbg. The ancient word an means swamp water, cf. Ahnebeck, Ahne- Berg, Anewede ‘swampy woods’ (Bahlow ON, p. 117).

Ahner, Ahnert (Hbg.) see Ahn.

Ahnesorge, Ansorge, Ohnsorge: s.o. who lives without worries; Heintz Lebonsorge (Solnhofen); Neidhart v. Reuental, a MHG writer of courtly love poetry, speaks about “sorgen âne und vröudenrich” [without worries and full of joy]. Anesorge was a popular last name in many areas in the Middle Ages. A Sundersorge [same meaning] is found in old Hbg.

Ahnfeldt (Hbg., Ro.): pl.n. in Holstein. Anevelde is documented in Lüb. as early as 1339, in Strals. 1309.

Ahnhudt, Anhuth (Wismar, Hbg.): meaning ‘without a hat’, probably a derisive nickname for a hat maker or similar professions (cf. Vilthuth); likewise anevleysch [without meat] refers to a butcher and anetasche [without bag] (old Breslau) to a purse or bag maker. Ahnsehl (Kiel): meaning ‘without soul’ is found in old documents as anesele: cf. Modersele in the 15th c.

Ahorn, Ahorner: named after the dwelling [by a maple tree]; also loc.n. and pl.n, Peter Ahorn, Dresden 1391; cf. Mohorn (p1.n. in Sax.: im Ohorn!).

Ahr, Ahrbeck, Ahrberg (NGer.): the ancient ar represented in these names refers to water, likewise pl.ns. like Arloh, Ahrlage and river names like Ahr, Aar. See Bahlow ON, p. 3-4, 15. De Are documented in Ro. as early as 1304. Also Gerhard von Ahr 1193. In UGer. the MHG word ar meaning ‘eagle’ might have been involved: Frid. dictus [called] Ar, near Konstanz 1258.

Ahrendt, Ahrens see Arndt: In Hbg. name is represented about 900 times.

Ahrenholz see Arnhold.

Ahrhold see Arold.

Ahrnholz see Arnhold.

Ahr(n)ing (Hbg.), Ahringsmann: N Ger.- Westph. patr. documentod as having been contracted from Arnding, i.e. belonging to Arndt’s kinship.

Aibl see Eibl.

Aich- see Eich-

Aierle see Ayrer.

Aigner (Bav.): the farmer who owns property [eignen = to own]; auf dem Aigen, im Aigen, Tyrol 1400.

Ailts (Fris.) see Eilts.

Aineter see Ein-öder*.

Ainkürn (UGer.): corrupted from MHG eingehürne, “Einhorn” [unicorn], popular house n. in the Middle Ages. Hans Ainkürn, Nuremberg 1152; also Eingehürn 1388. See Einhorn.

Airer see Ayrer.

Aisch, Aischniann: from Aisch (river or town in Franconia). Cf. MHG eisch ‘ugly’.

Aisenbrey (Stuttgart), Eisenpreis: Swab. word for Ösenbrei, Ösenbry, Kempten 1394; Ösenkerb, Stuttgart 1393; the MHG word ösen ‘to empty, to destroy’; (cf. Landöse = one who destroys the land.

Aistleitner (Vienna); from Aistleite(n), slope on the Aist River (U.Aust.). For river names see Bahlow ON, p. 4.

Aitrang (UGer.): city in Swab. (old Aiterwang); Joh. A., Kempten 1333.

Akeley (LGer.), Ageley (UGer.), already OHG agaleia, name of a plant, flower [columbine]; a medicinal plant in the Middle Ages; also a female f.n.: Aglaja.

Aken, van Aken, see Aaken.

Aland, Ahland: old name of a fish (carp type), also Alander. Godeco dictus [called] Allant, Lübeck around 1300; Jacob Alant, Freiburg 1584; also name of a medicinal plant (cf. wine of alant).

Alban, Albany, Albohn: W Ger. saint; the St. Alban monasteries in Mainz and Basel are named after him. Henneke known as Alban, Sulzheim near Alzey 1340.

Albat: the E Pruss.-Lith. ending -at(is) means (Albin’s) son, as in Adamat: Adam’s son.

Albeck: LGer. for the Albach Creek. In Ro. as early as 1270: de Albeke, H. Albach, Mainz 1355.

Alber (UGer.): Adat-bero: Alber was a popular Old Ger. pers.n. (bero means ‘bear’), famous because of Erasmus Alberus, reformer and writer of fables from the Wetterau area in Hesse. Alber = Adalbero Saz, Würzburg 1155; Albero miles de [knight of] Ertinger, U.Rhine 1254; Dietlin Alber, Tyrol 1394; C. Alber, Reutlingen 1360. Berchtold under dem Alber, Weingarten 1295, however, refers to a poplar tree (MHG-Swab.), hence Alberer, Albermann.

Alberding: Westph. patr. of Albert like Alferding, Allerding, Humperding, etc; contracted to Albrink, cf. Hilbrink.

Alberich see Alverik.

Albern (Hbg.): LGer-Fris. pers.n. Adel- bern, Albern (bern meaning ‘bear’). Around 1200-1300 freq. in Ro., Hbg., Bremen, Stralsund. In Fris. sometimes alternating with Albrand, like Sibern with Sibrand (see Bahlow Alt-Stralsunder Bürgernamen, p.4). Sir Albern v. d. Wisch, Holstein 1356.

Albers (freq. in Hbg.): LGer. patr. for Albert (Albrecht): Lütke Alberdes, Kiel 1478. L.Rhine Albertz, Alberdi is a Humanist name. Cf. Alpers.

Albien see Albin.

Albiez, Alpicz: the Alem. variant of Altbüßer; see Altbüßer.

Albig: loc.n. near Alzey near Worms. Joh. Albich, Alzey 1534.

Albiker (Swiss): from Albikon, Switz. (old form: Albinghoven) like Zolliker from Zollikon, Hunziker from Hunzikon (cf Tobler-Meyer, pp. 12, 52).

Albin, Albien (Vienna): Johann Fischart (around 1550) calls the month of March the “month of Albin” named after St. Albin (Fr.: St. Aubin), the bishop of Brixen, Tyrol, and Angers. Hans Albin,Waldshut 1520. The FN Albinus, however, is the Humanist name for Weiß, Weißer (Lat.: albus, ‘white’), cf. Queen Christine’s personal physician by the name of Albinus who received the title Weiß von Weißenstein; Peter Albinus, Schneeberg, Sax. 1569. The Tyrolean bishop (of Carinthian nobility) was originally called Alboin like the king of the Langobards, his queen Rosamunde), i.e. Alb-win “the elves’ friend”; cf. Albenin, Bruchsal still in 1270; Elbewin, Zweibrücken, Palatinate 1223.

Albisser (Switz.): from the Albis farm in the mountains, Switz.*

Albold: based on the (rare) Germanic pers.n. Adelbold (bald means bold). Name documented among the aristocracy, e.g. at the court of King Dagobert around 650; also a saint’s n.: Bishop of Winchester around 1100; Bishop A. of Utrecht was well-known around 1000. Cf. Alboldus braxator, Erfurt, around 1250 Johann Alboldi, Lünebg. 1291.

Alböter see Altbüßer.

Albracht (L.Rhine-Westph.) see Allebracht.

Albrand see Ahlbrand.

Albrecht: see Adel-brecht: UGer.-CentGer. form Albrecht versus LGer. form Albert, Albers. The archaic form of Adalbert is based on Adalbertus as found in Latin documents. Adalbert was a common 19th c. first name, cf. Prince A. of Prussia; Duke A. of Baudissin; A. Stifter. Medieval courtly poetry and the Romantic writers first introduced the name into aristocracy around 1800 (cf. A. v. Weislingen in Goethe’s Götz). The medieval popularity of the name Albrecht (A. the Bear; A. Dürer) can be explained by the dominating character of St. Adalbert of Prague, the archbishop and martyr who was slain in 997 while trying to convert the Prussians to Christianity. Born a Bohemian prince, his original Czech name was Woitech (Pol.: Woycziech); he was later named after his foster father Archbishop A. of Magdeburg. Also Archbishop A. of Bremen. Albrecht in eastern dialects (Sil., Sax., Bohemia) is Olbrich(t), Ulbricht. Cf.Bahlow: Schlesisches Namenbuch, p. 51, See Apitz, Opitz, Aberle, Auberle.

Albrink see Alberding.

Aldag (freq. in Hbg.): one of the typical Old Sax.-North Sea Germanic names ending in -dag (‘brightday’), originally Adeldag, like Reddag, Siddag, Eldag, Mardag, Wildag: famous because of Archbishop Aldag of Bremen-Hbg., advisor of Otto the Great (died 988). As a 16th c. En.: Aldach Wrede, Hbg.; Aldag Tegeder 1553; Heyneke Aldeges, Lürichg. 1353. Variants: Ahldach, O(h)ldach, Oldag. Also Oldegesdorf near Ro. in the 13th c.

Alde, Alden; Olde; Olden, Oldsen: ‘the old one, senior’ in contrast to the son, junior; also a pers.n. in LGer. as documented in the patr. form ending in -sen. Dominus [lord] Joh. dictus [called] Olde, Lübeck around 1300; Alder and Edo Aldersna, Friesld. 1277; likewise patr. Hillersna. For Alderich, Oldrich cf. Aalderk. Aldey: a field area near Arolsen.

Aldinger: from Aldingen in Würt.

Alefanz: MHG ‘wag, wit’.

Alefsen see Ahlf.

Aleken see Ahlicke. Also Vernaleken.

Aleit see Adelheid.

Alert, Alertz see Ahlers.

Aleth: means Adelheid: cf. Heinr. vern Aleth, Konstanz 1407.

Alewyn: means Adelwin (win = friend), like Aleward: Adelward.

Alexander (Greek: ‘fighting the men’): today also Jewish FN. During the crusades, the character of Alexander the Great, conqueror of the Orient, became the focus of attention in the Western world and in MHG poetry (e.g. Lamprecht’s Song of Alexander around 1130; Rud. von Ems’ Alexander etc.). As a f.n., A. experienced a revival in the 18th c.: A. von Humboldt 1769; A. and Cäsar(!) v. Lengerke, brothers 1802-1803. Also in sh.fs. Sander(s), Zander(s)! UGer. Lex, Lexer, however, go back to the saint’s n. Alexius. Cf. the mayor Alexsander, Brsl. 1229; Sander der schenke, Liegn. 1383; Sander Swarenpenning, Ro. 1285.

Aleydt see Adelheid.

Alf, Alfs, Ahlf(s): freq. in East Friesld., Hbg. Name is a contraction of the original Adlof, Adolf via Alef, Alof. See Adolf. Cf. Alf de Erteneburg, Lüneburg 1291; Duke Aleff of Schleswig 1453; Duke Aloff van Holsten 1559; Hinrik Alves = Hinricus Adolfi, Stettin 1324. Alf derived from Adolf, same as Ralf from Radolf.

Alferding: Westph. patr. of Alfhard, same as Deterding of Dethard, Allerding of Alhard, Humperding of Humpert, etc. Contracted to Alfring same as Alberding: Albring. Also Alfert (Allfahrt, like Seifahrt, Meifahrt) and Alfers (see also Alvers), Alfermann (Westph.: Alvermann). The sh.f. Alfke also derives from Alverik.

Alfke, Alfken (Hbg., Bremen): see Alferding. Also Westph. Alveking 1409.

Alften (Hbg.) see Ahlften.

Alfter (Hbg.): pl.n. near Bonn (in documents: Alveter, like Elveter, Brabant). For interpretation see Bahlow ON, p. 109.

Alfus: Lat. for Alf.

Algenstädt: pl.n. in the province of Sax. The novelist Luise A. was well known.

Algermann: Lower Saxon historian Franz A. around 1600; like Westph. Alvermann, Lükermann. See Adelger, Alger.

Algermissen (Alegrimeshusen): town N of Hildesheim.

Algöß see Adelgöß.

Alhart, Alhelm see Adelhart, Adelhelm.

Alken ( East Friesld.): see Ahlicke. But in Trier the FN Alken refers to the town in the Rhineld.

Alker (UGer.) see Adelger. (Alkerus, U. Rhine area 1145.)

Allebracht see Albrecht: bracht is the Rhenish-Westph. form for brecht ‘shiny’, cf. names like Gerbracht, Humbracht, Öhlbracht, Vollbracht, Wybracht.

Allen (Hbg., Bremen): also Alle, Alles, Allecke, Alleckna (like Abekena), all are Fris. variants the pers.n. Allo (Adalo): Folcmarus AlleniuscuiusparensAllo [Folcmar Allen whose parent was Allo], Friesld. 1355 (Stark, p.174). But Aschen van Allen refers to the loc.n. in Westph.

Allerding see A(l)ferding.

Allerdt see Ahlert.

Allerhand: documented as surn. of a grocer in Ro. 1285: Lambertus allerhandwar! [all kinds of wares]. Similarly Allerlei: Moravia 1410; Würt. 1424; Baden 1657: L. Neidinger known as Allerley, a ‘traveling merchant’.

Allermann: from the Aller River, like Wesermann from the Weser.

Allers, Allerssen see Ahlers.

Allewelt see Allwelt.

Allgeier (UGer.): means a person coming from the Bav. Allgäu. Also Allgayr, Allgöwer.

Allinger (freq. in Vienna, Munich): from Alling in Bav. or in Austria.

Allmann, Allmang: name for a German in the German-Romance border area (Alsace), where the Alemannians were the old border tribe: Joh. Alman, Surburg, Alsace 1477; Otto cognomento Alemannus [known as Aleman], abbot of Marseille 1113.

Allmeder (Vienna): from the Almed farmstead in Upper Austria (1451: Alm-öd).

Ai(l)meier (Regensburg.): like Vilsmeier; cf. the Al-ach River near Straubing.

Allmen: a middle-class family “von Allmen” in the Bernese Oberland.

Allmendinger (Stuttgart, Karlsruhe, Basel): from Allmendingen (Würt. and Switz.). Popular local writer Karl A. in Würt. 1683.

Allmers (Hbg.): like Hillmers a common LGer.-Fris. pers.n. ending in -mar, i.e. ‘famous’; All- is a contraction of Adel-, as in Allers, Allen, Allebrecht, Almut. Cf. UGer. Almer. Hermann Allmers and his Marschenbuch were well known in 1858.

Allnach, Allnoch (UGer.): loc.n. Allner: pl.n. near Siegburg in the Rhineland.

Allofs (Hbg.): means Adlofs.

Allram (UGer.-Austrian): especially in aristocratic circles of 12th and 13th c. Austria (Styria), Adal-ram,Alram was a popular Germanic pers.n.; ram is OHG hraban, the ‘raven’ (of Wotan) same as in Wolfram, Gundram, Sindram. A courtly love poet from Austria Alram v. Gresten; Jacob Alram in Moravia 1352; Seidel Ollram, but also “Alram, Ruoprecht, Friderich”, servants, Moravia 1414.

Allrath: a pl.n. in the Rhineland, like Allroth pl.n. in the S Harz Mountains.

All(e)raun(e) (Nuremberg): probably name for a pharmacist ‘mandrake’, a medicinal herb against the plague); Hinse Alerune, Lüneburg 1376.

Allrich see Ahlrich.

Allripp see Ahlrep.

Allroggen (Hbg.) see Altrogge, Ollrogge.

Allroth see Allrath.

Allwardt (Ro., Hbg., freq. in Wismar) see Ahlwardt.

Allwein (UGer.): the old Ger. pers.n. Adelwin, Alwin (win = friend).

All(e)welt: [all the world] a very common exclamation in the Middle Ages, cf. the poet Walther von der Vogelweide rejoicing about his fief granted to him by his feudal lord: “al diu werlt, ich hân mîn lehen!” Cf. Aldewerlt, Ro. 1291 and Hamelin 1412; Allewerld, Brsl. around 1300; Allewelt in Switz. 1504; in Fr.: Tout le monde, Cologne 1464.

Allwörden (Stade, in Hbg. frequently: von A.): pl.n. in the Stade area. Cf. Wör(de)mann.

Allzeit: [any time, always] fantasy name like Gutzeit, Liebezeit; some are based on every day expressions. Also cf. Alletag, Allewelt [every day, everybody]. Allentag in Mersebg. 1485.

Alm see Alms.

Almann see Allmann.

Almer: Germanic Adel-mar (mar = ‘famous’), cf. Allmers. Around 1300 Almarus documented in Hbg., Lüb., Ro. A. Almer, Freiburg 1410.

Almoser (freq. in Augsburg): from All-moos, Almos, cf. Rohrmoser, etc.

Alms (like Almsen): Fris. patr. of Alm (frequently in Hbg., Ro.), contracted from Alhelm(Adelhelm) likeWilm(s) contracted from Wilhelm. Magnus Almesone, Kiel 1438.

Alpers (Hbg., freq. in Stade) Alpert, Alpermann, Alps: LGer.-Fris. pers.n.; variant of Albers. Cf. Volpers,Wolpers as variants of Volbers, Wolbers. Not to be confused with UGer. Alp-hart (from the Dietrich legend): a monk Alphart is documented in Metz as early as 1020; an Austrian vassal Alphart von Peyten 1353; Peter Alphart, near Prague 1360. King Alpher in the legend of Walther. (Ger. Alraune, Alraune see All(e)raune.

Alscher (freq. in Sil.), Alischer, Altscher, Alschner: son or husband of Frau Alheit or Adelheid. Cf. LGer. Vernaleken. It sometimes even means her son-in-law; name consists of the sh.f. Alusch (with a Slav. suffix) and the UGer. ending -er, like Hielscher (in Sil.), Thielscher, Irmischer. Documented: Alusch (Alheyd) Anesorgynne, Liegn. 1383; Hannus Alusch, Liegn. 1413; Augustin der Aluschyn, Neiße 1413, Lorenz Alischer, Görlitz 1434 (Bahlow SN, p. 33).

Alsen (freq. in Hbg.), Alse, Alsing, Alsema: all are patrs. of Fris. Als, which derived from sh.f. Alo with an -s added to it; cf Dutch Alensone. See Allen. In connection with the stem Al- also note Alarich and Allo, Alafridus’ sons (9th c.). For Fris. Alsema cf. Ailema, Onnema, Reemtsma, also the Fris. female name Alseke. Concerning Alsen (Lüb. as early as 1350) cf. the island Alsen.

Alsleben: pl.n. in N Thur., like Eisleben, Memleben (see Bahlow ON, pp. 107, 328).

Alster: ancient river n. near Hamburg and also in Westph. Cf. the field n. Alstervoget, Hbg. 1309.

Alswede see Ahlschwede.

Altbüßer: LGer. Olböter is an old form for a cobbler (cf. the Altbüßer Street in Brsl. and the Oltböter Streets in Wismar and Stettin); MHG büeßen means ‘to mend’, as in Hosenbüeßer, Panzerbieter, Ketelböter (repairer of pants, armor, kettles). In the Klettgau there is Albeisser; Alem. Albiez Altbütz 1464; Albütz 1634; Alpiez 1738.

Alt(er): the elderly, father (senior); LGer. Alder.

Altermann: LGer. aldermann was the name of the head of a craftsmen’s guild, cf. olderman unses godeshuses [elder of our church], Haldesleben 1415.

Altgeld, Altgelt (Hbg.): probably means a miser or a moneychanger. See Redegeld ‘cash’.

Althamer: from Altheim in Würt. or Bavaria. Also Altheimer in Augsburg.

Althaus: belongs to the group of Westph. names ending in -hus or -haus indicating place of origin (a farmstead in most cases) like Brockhaus, Grothues, Oldehues.

Althenne: in Hesse, Henne was a common name for Johann or Hans; cf. Henne Swertzing known as Aldehenne, Lorch, Rhine 1366.

Altherr: MHG altherre ‘senior of a corporation’.

Althoff, Ol(de)hoff. name of a Westph. farmstead (cf. Althaus) like Dylchoff, Eckhoff, Braukhoff, Lehnhoff. Cf. Bene im alden hove, Lippe 1590. But Oldehof, Ro. 1260 = Althoff near Doberan.

Altland (Hbg.): from the Altenlande area near Hbg., cf. M. Oldelande, Lüb. 1328.

Altmann (freq. in Hbg.): MHG altmann old man with experience. LGer.: Oldmann, Oltmann. Also used as pers.n. in the Middle Ages.

Altner beside Altnau: from Altenau in Bavaria.

Altrath: from Altenrath near Siegburg.

Altreiter: also Altenreiter, from Altenreut in Austria, like Bärnreiter from Bernreut.

Altreuß, Altreiß: MHG altriusse* means cobbler (see also Altbüßer). A guild’s name in Bingen 1485. Fritz Altreuß, Bavaria 1470. See also Reuß. Altrich, Oltrich: rare old pers.n., doc. also as alderich, Oldrich. Erkenbald, known as Altrich, was bishop of Strasb. 965. A town Altrich near Trier.

Altrogge, Altrock and LGer. Olderogge, Ollrogge, Olderog, Olderock: In Örlighausen on the Lippe River, Altrogge is the standard Ger. form of 1485 Olderogghe. Oldehaver is an old farmer’s name.

Altschuh: a cobbler’s name (likewise Altreuß, Altbüßer) in 14th c. Göppingen. See Ruf Altschüher, Eßlingen 1353 (Brech., p. 24).

Altschwager, LGer. Oldschwager: means father-in-law. See also Altmutter, Altvater, Altsohn.

Altvater: means ‘grandfather’.

Altwasser: pl.n. in Sil.; Theodor A. was a Sil. writer 1824-79. Also a field n.: de Oldenwater, Ro. 1282.

Altweck (UGer.): also Altwegg (Zurich). Surn. for a baker [Weck = (hard) roll]; likewise Spitzweck; Spitzweg, Butterweck, Weißweck.

Altwein: like Gutwein, Kühlwein surn. for a wine dealer or owner of a wine pub. Sixtus Altewein, brewer, Halberstadt 1697.

Alvensleben: a town on the Bever River near Haldensleben. Wichard de Alvensleben 1163.

Alver(s), Alvermann, also Ahlvers, Alfers: all of which are patrs. of LGer. Alver = Alverik (Alverichs: E Friesld.), Alverk = UGer. Alberich name of the King of dwarves (= the elves) in the medieval tale of the Nibelungs. Around 1300 Alvericus in Bremen, Hbg., Lüb., Ro. Alverik Raleves, Jeverland 1406; Henneke Alverkes, Kiel 1415. With umlaut: Elverich v. Heyle, Westph. 1229; Elver (Bremen, Lüb., Ro., Stralsund around 1300).

Alves, Alving, Alvesmann, see Alfs. Also Alferding.

Alwardt see Ahlwardt.

Alwig: in Würt. documented as pers.n. (Germanic Adalwig, wig = battle): Alwich the Tall and his sons Alwich and Diemar (Surn.: Alwich) and grandsons Alwich and Diemar (Diemar’s sons) in Schwäb-Gmünd 1278-1290. (Brech. I, p. 25). Also Berthold Alwich, a farmer in Mengen, Würt. 1280.

Amandus, Amandi: Saint A. (Lat.: ‘the lovable’) was bishop of Maastricht, thus Apostle of the Netherlands. Master Paul Amandus, Jena 1558.

Amann see Ammann.

Ambelang, Amblank see Amelung. (Jacob Amblung or Amelung in Würt. 1417.)

Amboldt (MLG): = Amboß ‘anvil’; name for a blacksmith.

Ambos: surn. for a blacksmith, likewise Funke [‘spark’], Hammer [‘hammer’], Stahl [‘steel’], Pinkepank . MHG anebos. Joh. Anebuß, Hesse 1380; Jakob Amboß, Swabia 1479.

Ambros, Ambrosch (UGer.): Saint Ambrosius (‘immortal, divine’) was bishop of Milan and the teacher of St. Augustin. Sh.fs. Bros., Brösel, Broseke, Broschek.

Ambs see Ams.

Ambühl, Ambihl (UGer.): ‘at the slope’, cf. Abbühl, Zumbühl (Switz.).

Ameis, Ohmeis, Emeis: [ant] an industrious, busy person. Otto Ameiß, Upper Austria 1180; Hensel Omeys, Liegnitz 1372.

Amelang see Amelung.

Amelbrecht (UGer.): Germanic pers.n. Amal-berht (cf. the Gothic royal house of the Amaler), see Amelung. Amalperaht 823; Amelprecht, Kremsmünster 1395; Wenczlab Amelprecht, Moravia 1414. Also an Ital. FN: Amalberti.

Amelrich: documented very early as name of a ruler of the Ostrogoths, popular in the Middle Ages. In the Nibelungenlied, Hagen pretends that his name is A. when crossing the Danube with his people. Cf. also Amelung. Sir Amelrich von Isenheim, Alsace 1253. Fritz A., Eßlingen 1338; Bernadus filius Amelrici (Bernard, son of Amelrich), Stralsund 1270. LGer. sh.f.: Ameke, Emeke (Ehmke). See also Emmelrich.

Amels see Ahmels. Cf. Amler.

Amelung, Amelang, Ameling, Ahmling etc.: in heroic poetry, Dietrich’s men are called Amelungen ; also the descendants of the Gothic rulers by the name of Amaler, whose dynasty favored names with Amal- (‘vigor, energy’). Amala-Picus, Amala-frida, Amala-berga, Amala-swintha are relatives of Theoderich the Great; also one of his warrior heroes is called Amelung in the MHG epic Rosengarten (version C). Concerning the ending -ung, see Adelung. Around 1100-1300, Adelung was a popular name both in the North and South, among the nobility as well as for burghers and peasants. Amelung von Lengerke, mayor of Kiel, still around 1600 named his son Amelung. See also Amelrich, Amelbrecht.

Amend(e): ‘living at the end of the street or the town’, like Ende, Endemann freq. in Bavaria, Sax. and Sil. But in SW Germany: Amort! Albrecht an dem ende, a grocer in Brsl. 1363; Paul am ende and his son Hensel am ende, Braunau in Bohemia 1410.

Ameseder, Amesöder: belong to the group of Bav.- Aust. names ending in -öd ‘wasteland’.

Amira (von A.): of Turkish origin according to family records; cf. Arabic amir al ma ‘Admiral, Commander at Sea’; (MHG amiral means ‘caliph, ruler’).

Amlehn (UGer.): MHG lên, lehen means ‘fief’. The medieval poet Walther von der Vogelweide rejoiced : “al diu werlt, ich hân mîn lehen” [all the world, I have my fief!]. Cunrat an demLen, Konstanz 1293.

Amling, Amlung see Amelung. Cf. patr. Amler, Emler for Amelrich.

Ammann (S Gor.: freq. in Zurich, Stuttgart): MHG ambetmann means ‘local magistrate, governor, mayor’; sometimes, however, it refers to a person who is subject to a governor, such as the bonded couple Herm. and Mathilde Ammann in Würt. 1277; but also Sir Joh. der Amman, Waldkirch 1281. See also Ammon. A well known wood carver, Jost Ammann from Zurich, 1539.

Ammelt (Hbg.): Fris. pers.n. (see Amels) like Eddelt, Garrelt, Sibbelt.

Ammen (Hbg.): patr. of the Fris. pers.n. Ammo (Amme also in Hbg.): cf. Amme Oyken around 1550; Fadeke Ammessen, E Friesld. 1427; Hinricus Ammonis, Hbg. around 1250; also female: Amka 1426, cf. Sir hinrik vorn Ammeken, Haldensleben 1350. However, Nickel mit der ammen, Brsl. 1352, as well as, Amensun, Freiburg 1291, both refer to a wet nurse (Ger: Amme).

Ammer: a finch-like songbird; cf. Goldammer (‘yellowhammer’), Burammer, Lüneburg 1380. In Würt. and Bav. possible reference to the Ammer River (old: Ambra) (see Bahlow ON, p. 9). A town Ammern on the Unstrut River in Thur.

Ammermann (Oldbg.): coming from the Ammerland region in Oldenburg. Botke A., Oldbg. 1440.

Amolter(n): a town in the S of Baden. Sir Joh. von Amoltron, Zurich 1245.

Ammon see Ammann.

Amort (UGer.): = Amende, see this. (CentrGer.). Cunrat an dem orte, near Ulm 1216; Riprecht am ort = R. in fine [Lat.: at the end of town], Überlingen 1315-24.

Ampferl (Bav.): sorrel (plant).

Ampler (UGer.): manufacturer of lamps and vessels, containers made of pewter according to Fritz Ampelgießer, Augsburg 1362, and Hainrich der ampeler [lamp maker], Urach 1344. The MHG word ampel (based on Lat.: ampulla) is the S Ger term for CentrGer.-LGer. Lampe, Leuchter (‘lamp, light’) (as used by Luther); cf. LGer. Luchtenmeker.

Ampletzer (Munich) [villager]: cf. the Amplatz farmstead in Tyrol, Pletzer in Tyrol.

Amrain (UGer.): named after the dwelling place at the edge of a field. Frau Regel Amrain (in Zurich) in Gottfried Keller’s novella by the same title. But Amrhein: living on the Rhine: Arnolt am Rine, Selz on the Rhine (Alsace) 1366. Cf. Rei(n)mann.

Ams, Ambs (UGer.): Ruodin Ams, Kolmar 1407; Th. Ams = Ampser, Waldkirch 1571. Based on a field n.

Amsinck (fairly freq. in Hbg.): Fris. patr.: ‘Amso’s offspring’, same as Mensing: Menso.

Amsler, Amsel: UGer. for a blackbird hunter or a birdcatcher; cf. Vogler and Vogel. In Thur.-Franc.-UGer. Amschler, Amsch(e)l. Heinrich Amseler, Konstanz 1446. pl.n. Amslau near Friedld. in Bohemia (also a FN in Bohemia 1381); a pl.n. Amslen in Switz.

Amstutz (Switz., Tyrol): ‘at the steep slope’. Cf. Amstalden ‘at the steep trail’, Amstad; Amt(h)or: Engelfrid am tor, [at the gate] Rottenburg. 1396; Amwerth (MHG wert, LGer. werder means ‘island in a river’): Rud. an dem Werde, U. Alsace 1295.

Amter (Lüb.): from the town Amtern in Oldenburg.

Amtrup, Antrup, Antrop: belong to the group of Westph. names ending in -trop, -trup = dorp (Ger. Dorf ‘village’), like Istrup, Ribbentrop, Wentrup; am Wasser [at the water] as in Amelo, Amewik (Bahlow ON, p. 115).

Anacker:âne = ‘without’, hence ‘without a field’, for a day laborer or tenant farmer who worked s.o. else’s land. Clawes Aneacker, Braw. 1401.

Andelfinger: pl.n. belonging to the group of Würt. names ending in -ingen, cf. Gundelfinger.

Anderegg (freq. in Switz.): ‘living on the corner’ (cf. also Abegg), i.e. living at a remote place, out of the way; an der Egge or ‘in solitudine’ [alone, by himself], Pfullendorf 1248. See Anderangst (‘at the narrowest place’), Andergast (‘at the alley, street’, in UGer. still today: Gaß): Heinrich an der gassen, Würt. 1286; Anderhalden (cf. Abderhalden), Andermatt, etc.

Anders: especially E Ger-Sil. for Andres = Andreas, the Apostle (Greek: ‘manful, valiant’). See Bahlow VN, p. 7 and Bahlow SN, p. 55. Anders von der Wede, Sil. 1372; K. Anders, Liegn. 1547; Andersen, Andreesen (patr.) common in Schleswig Holstein area, same as Petersen, Claussen, Frenssen, etc. Drews! is the LGer. variant. Ander(er), Anderl are of S Ger. origin; also see the umlauted forms Enders, Enderl as well as the Slav.-Ger. names Jander, Wandrey, Ondra, Andrick, Handrock.

Andersnicht: [not in any other way] surn. given to a journeyman at his promotion from apprentice; perhaps based on a common expression. Hans Andersnicht, Duderstadt 1387. Joh. Andersnicht, Hbg. around 1350, Str. 1345).

Andert see Ander(s).

Andler (UGer.): Heini Andler, Dattingen, Baden 1373; Werner Andler, Kayh, Würt. 1381. Evidently from pl.n. Andlau, Alsace; cf. the old Alsatian dynasty v. Andlau.

Andrasch see Andrich.

Andrich: cf. Wendish-Ger. Andrick, Androck, Andruck for Andreas; cf. also Angrick.

Andritzky (U. Sil.): related to Andreas.

Anekost: ‘without meals or support’. Henrich Anekost, Duderstadt 1446; similarly Anefleisch, Anetasche, see Ahnhudt.

Angel (UGer.): MHG ange(l) ‘sting, fishing rod’, also a house n. Rüdiger Angel, a knight in old Eger.

Angelbeck: N Ger. creek n. and pl.n., e.g. near Quakenbrück. Anghelbeke documented in Lüb. as early as 1328; For the old European water word ang, angel see Bahlow ON, p. H.

Angelroth, Angelrodt: from Angelroda in Thur., same as Allroth from Allrode.

Angenfeld: with L.Rhine guttural nd:ng change meaning ‘at the field’ (= an dem Feld); same as Angendendt [at the end], Angenheister (‘at the beech trees’), Angenhülsen (‘at a wet copse’), Angenrieth (in Wesel: ‘at the reeds’).

Angermann: one who lives at the meadow. Likewise Angerer (UGer.). Peter am anger = uf dem anger = der Angerer, Füssen, Allgäu 1398.

Angler: not a fisherman but name comes from place of habitation or origin: Hans Angler, Augsburg 1369; Seb. Angler, Tyrol 1558 (name of a farmstead, like Engler from the Englen farm in Tyrol). M. Anghelere, Hbg. 1276 (see Joh. Hadelere = J. de Hadelen, Hbg. 1274-76), from the region of Angeln.

Angrick, Angrück: the E CentGer. dialect variant of Wendish Andrick, cf. Angress for Andress like hinger for hinter [behind].

Angst: Angstmann (UGer.): from a field name (Angst = very narrow place, cf. Lat.: angustia): Bertschi an der angist [at the narrows] 1382; Konrad known as Angstman, near Saulgau 1368; Hans Angster, Lenzkirch, Black Forest 1525.

Angst: by itself as well as Angstl probably based on MHG angest = ‘distress, worry, fear’, see Angstwurm (Bav.), Vienna 1585; Unangst, Brodangst, Stralsund 1300; Anangst 1599.

Anhalt, Anholt: cf. Anhalt County, also pl.n. in Westph.; Aneholt Castle, a castle surrounded by water, located on the Ijssel River. Hans Anhalt, Halberstadt 1547.

Anheißer (UGer.): unrounded variant of Anhäuser, like Dannheißer from Tannhäuser. Pl.n. Anhauser freq. in SW Germany. Joh. Anhuser, near Zurich 1384.

Anhudt (N Ger.) see Ahnhudt.

Anich (Tyrol): name of a Tyrolean farmstead. Peter Anich was the first to draw a map of Tyrol in the 18th c.

Ani(e)ser (Tyrol, Allgäu): from the Anisen Valley in Tyrol (and therefore not related to the herb anise).

Anke (Hbg.): attested in a document, Hbg. 1301: Rederus filius Anken (Ankonis) [Reder, son of Anke], the name is based on an old (Fris.) pers. n. such as Onke, Onken, also Anno-Onno (without the k-suffix). Cf. Menke-Menno; Manke-Manno; Nonke-Nonno; Ineke-Inno.

Ankele (Swab.): dialect for ‘neck’ (Schwäbisches Wörterbuch), based on MHG anke . Balth. Ankelin, Reutlingen 1578.

Ankenbrand: UGer. field n. like Ankenmoos, Ankenreute, Ankenbuck, Ankenbrunn. For the water word ank see Bahlow ON, p. 12. Cf. also Ankenbauer.

Anker, Ankermann: [anchor] to be interpreted as the narne for a smith who forged anchors: Joh. Ankerman = Joh. ankerslegere, Stralsund around 1300. A blacksmith known as ‘der Ankerman’ documented in Würt. 1412. In SW Germany also house n., cf. “The Golden Anchor Inn”.

Anklam: town in W Pom. Ertmar Anklem, Stralsund 1303.

Anlauf, Antlauf (Sil.): MHG anlauf means ‘attack’. An aggressive person.

Annen, Anneke: Ann: N Ger. variant of the pers.n. Anno, like Nannen of Nanno; name is well known because of Archbishop Anno of Cologne and the OHG Annolied around 1100. Name is probably contracted from Arno, like Benno from Berno. In Switz., however, Annen is based on a metr., cf. dictus vron Annen [lord, husband, or son of Anne], Minseln E of Lörrach 1207 (likewise V. frater Anne, Bremen 1306), also Verannemann and Anneler (Switz.). Abrecht Annensun [A., son of Anne], Lahr 1293; Annenmann, Tübingen 1448.

Anneser (Munich) see Aniser.

An(n)sinn(en): ‘without senses’, cf. Ansinn, Ahnsorge (MHG: âne = without). Same as Anmuth: ‘without courage’.

Annuscheit, Anscheit: (Lith.-E Pruss.): ‘Anna’s son’.

Anreiter: (Tyrol): from a loc.n. ending in -reut(h) meaning ‘a clearing’ (cf. Bayreuth), like Bärnreiter and Stollreiter.

Ansahl (Hbg.): like Lehmsahl near Hamburg, a loc.n. ending in -sahl ‘marsh’. Cf. the Große Sahl near Hamburg. For an ‘swamp water’ see Bahlow ON, p. 118.

Anschlipp: from Andisleben N of Erfurt, like Büschlepp, Elchlepp, Ortlepp, Ortlipp. For the Thur. pl.ns. ending in -leben (-leve) ‘what was left behind, legacy’, see Bahlow DN (1932), p. 93.

Anschütz: (Hbg., Kiel, Ro.): uninterpreted as yet. Probably derived from Slavic pl.n. ending in -itz like Nauschütz, Nierschütz, Wildschütz, Doberschütz, Kubschütz.

Anselm: saint’s name (from Anselm of Canterbury), Germanic Ans-helm; UGer. Anshalm. The Ansen (Asen) were Germanic demigods. See also sh.f. Ensslin. (Änsle, Ansli, Anselmann). Anselm Feuerbach was a well known painter.

Ansorg see Ahnsorge.

Anspann (Munich): MHG espan, aspan, anspan ‘pasture, grazing area’.

Anstett (UGer.-Alsace, freq. in Stuttgart): used by the Alsatian writers Murner and Geiler for St. Anastasius (patron saint against epilepsy); J. Fischart uses Angstett in his writings (Brech., p. 35). Ludwig Anstett, Hagenau, Alsace 1768.

Anstötz: (L.Rhine): from the place of the dwelling, likewise Ansteeg [at the footbridge].

Ante: LGer. = ‘duck’. Likewise Antvogel. Cf. Antepohl, Antepöhler, Antenbrink, Antefuhr.

Antelmann: like Rintelmann, Hamelmann, Affelmann, derived from pl.ns. But there is also Hantelmann, Pantelmann.

Antenpöhler (LGer.): ‘at the duck pond’.

Anthes: W Ger.-Rhenish for Anton, cf. Anthis Ide, Worms 1446; K. A. Anthes, Taunus 1640. St. Anthony (father of monasticism), the patron saint of farmers (and pigs), was honored on a special day, the so called Anthistag; St. Anthony of Padua was named after him (Wilh. Busch writes that he used to study until late at night by the light of his halo). Cf. also Thönnes and Theng.

Antholz(er): like Abholz(er) originated in the Tyrolean Eisack Valley.

Anthon(g), Anthenissen, etc. See Anthe. Patr.: Anthonier, Brünn 1365.

Antlat: MLG for ‘face, mask’ (also for a ‘dancer with a mask’*). Hinrik Antlat, Lüneburg 1315.

Antlauf see Anlauf.

Antlitz (UGer.): named after a house with a painted face!

Antosch, Antusch: E Ger. for Anton with Slav. ending = Anton. Lith.: Antonat.

Antrag, Antrack, Andrag: E Ger.-Wendish for Andreas.

Antrech(t): MHG antreche ‘male duck, drake’. Antreche, Villingen 1225; Antrecht, Feuerbach 1595.

Antretter, Antritt (Munich): Antrat, Antritt are names of farmsteads in Tyrol; trat and tret = ‘pasture’.

Antrop, Antrup see Amtrup.

Antwerk (UGer.): MHG: ‘siege machine’, but also work of a mechanic. Hans Antwerck, Saulgau 1477.

Antwort (UGer.): the MHG word means ‘defense in court’; may be interpreted as surn. for an advocate (fürspreche), defense lawyer. Jakob A., Aargau 1423.

Anwander (Würt., Switz., Bav., Tyrol): refers to a field neighbor, bordering on one’s field; MHG: anwand(or) = ‘field line’ where the plow turns around.

Anz (Rhine-Hess.): once a popular sh.f. in the Mainz-Worms area (= Arnz, Arnold; same as Wenz = Wernz, Wernher) Anzo zum Lode, Nierstein 1330; Anzo Haverman 1326; Joh. Anzo, Worms 1301. Werner Anzeman (a squire), near Mainz 1366.

Apeken, Aapken, Ape: LGer. for ‘ape’ and also ‘little monkey’; house n. tom Apen, Brsw. 1526. See also Aff. Flensburg documents 1596 the birth of an ‘insane child with the face of a monkey’. Also Herman mit dem apen, Dortmund 1349. Apenbaard in 14th c. Hbg.

Apel (Thur.): popular sh.f. for Albrecht in Thur. and Franc. 1200-1400, equivalent Appel in Franc. and Würt.: Slavic influence shows in Sax.-Sil. form Apetz (today Opitz). Also Apelt, Appelt with secondary -t. Apel saltzkastener, Würzburg 1296; Apel Endevenger, Duderstadt 1442; Appel Gerenbrecht, Würzburg 1409. Appelin = Albertus, Heilbronn 1281; Appelman = Albrecht von Crailsheim 1330.

Appel: (LGer.) ‘apple’, surname for an apple seller. Hinrich Appelhoke, Ro. 1330, hence Buschappel, Einappel, Smaltappel, Surappel. But from pl.n. Appel near Hbg.: Borchard van dem Appel, Hbg. 14th c.

Apelles: Humanist name, documented for Ap(p)el in Freiberg, Sax. around 1570.

Apen (Holstein): pl.n. in Oldenburg., cf. N of Hbg. Evert van Apen, Flensburg. 1585. Likewise Apmann. For the water word ap See Bahlow ON, p. 14.

Apengeter, Apengießer: in the LGer. area from Bremen to Greifswald it is the name for a “red founder” or a “yellow founder”, i.e. a manufacturer of copper, brass and bronze vessels, also of bells and cannons (?), term was used in Lübeck even until around 1650 (in one guild with the Gropengetern, Grapengießern). Conrad Apengetere, Lüb. 1337.

Apfelkammer: from Apfelkam, U.Bav. (ham = heim) like Vollkammer, Birnkammer (Berine-heimer), etc.

Apfelstädt: from A. in Thur., on the river Apfel (prehistor. Aplosta, see Bahlow ON, p. 14).

Apfler (UGer.): for a fruit dealer (also see Obster). In Würt. the pl.n. Apflau may be involved. Berthold Apfler, Konstanz 1437. Also with umlaut: Äpfler. Philipp eppelkramer [apple dealer], Moravia 1414, G. Appelkrämer, Neuß 1617; R. Epfeler, Glatz 1367, J. Eppeler, Görlitz 1485. Also simply Apfel [apple], Konstanz 1437. Cf. LGer.-L.Rhine Appelbaum, Appelbohm [apple tree].

Apfolter (UGer.) see Affolter.

Apitus see Agapitus.

Apitz, Apetz see Opitz.

Apollonius see Plönnies.

Apostel, Aposter: may be interpreted as name for somebody who represented Paul, the apostle, in medieval church plays. Paul Apostel, Oberglogau 1660. Cf. Clemens Osterspil [Easter play], Münsterberg, Sil. 1400.

Appe, App (UGer.): sh.f. for Apprecht = Albrecht. Cf. Lutz Apprecht, Würt. 1358. Heinrich called Appe, Oppenheim 1291; Albrecht, also called Appenhans, Mengen 1344.

Appelbohm: name of habitation. Cf. Appelhoke, Strals. 1332; Sûrappel [sour apple], Greifsw. 1307; Einappel, Edesheim 1613.

Appeldorn: pl.n. Apeldorn (Emsland area, Holland, etc.), See Bahlow ON, p. 14.

Appelles see Apelles.

Appold, Appoll, Apolde: from Apolda in Thur. Rudolf Apolde, Jena 1406, M. Pfanne de Apoll, Merseburg 1500.

Appen, von Appen (freq. in Hbg.): pl.n. near Pinneberg. Also see Apen.

Appenrodt: (occurred in Quedlinburg 1509, e.g.); from Appenrode or Abbenrode, Harz Mts.

Appenzeller (freq. in Switz., Stuttg., Karlsruhe): from Appenzell, Thurgau.

Apprecht see Appe. Likewise Äpple.

Appuhn: E.Prus-Lith. like Steppuhn (Stephan), Jankuhn (Johannes).

Aprill see Abrill. Joh. Apill (mayor), Ahlen 1425.

Apsel see Absalon.

Apteker, Afteiker (LGer.): apothecarist, pharmacist, in the Middle Ages a herbalist and spice grocer, who in Frankfurt would belong to the guild of the grocers; Peter Apteker (also grocer!), Frkf. 1375. Hesselin in der apteken [H.in the pharmacy], Strasb. 1281, Franzke der apteker, Brsl. 1349. Conrad Abbetekere, Brsw. 1383. See also LGer. Krüdener. For ample evidence see Brech., Der heilkundliche Beruf, p. 44.

Arbeit(er) see Arbter.

Arbenz (Zurich): members of the Arbenz family immigrated to Zurich in 16th c. from Savoy*. The name was rendered in German from French Arbanson (pl.n. Albenson in Savoy), cf. 1637 in Zurich: Barb. Arbenzung from Andelfingen (the original center of the clan).

Arber, Arbert (UGer.): in Swabia cf. names of copses and forests like Arbenholz, Arbenhau, Arbet*; medieval Lat. arbua small woods’, Lat. arbor ‘tree’.

Arb(o)gast (freq. in Strasb.), Argast, (freq. in Basel), sh.f. Gast, Gastli: Saint A. (bishop 678 A.D.) was the patron saint of the Alsace; arbi ‘heir’, gast ‘stranger’. Arbegast Röder, squire in the Alsace 1335, P. Argast, Baden 1500.

Arbter beside Arbeiter, Arbeit: freq. in Sil. where it is reminiscent of the Slavic bondsmen; arbeit originally meant ‘toil, distress, misery.’ Arbaiter, Erbeter, Moravia around 1400, cf. erbten, Liegn. 1416. Wernher celled Arbeit, Würt. 1271.

Arbs see Arps.

Archenholz see Arkenholz.

Arcularius: Humanist name for Kästner, Kistner, Schreiner [cabinet maker], cf. Lat. arca, MHG arche ‘box’. See Kistner.

Ardelt see Arlt.

Arend see Arndt.

Aretin, von A.: descendant of an Armenian prince, Aroutioun, who received the title Baron of Aretin.

Aretz (L.Rhine) see Arndt.

Arf, Arff, Ads, Arfs, Arfmann: LGer.-Fris. (Hbg., Kiel, Ro.), cf. Arfsten (Holstein, like Brunsten, Thorsten, of Scandin. origin); from Germanic arbi-, Dutch erf ‘heir’, also in W Ger. pers.n. Erf. Cf. Arbogast.

Arfert (freq. in Ro., Kiel, Hbg.), Arvert: see Arf. But Gerardus van der Arffe, Cot. 15th c. derives from a pl.n. or river n. Ar-afa (see Bahlow ON, p. 15).

Arg, Argeli (UGer.) means ‘bad, angry’, also ‘stingy’, cf. K. Argenhaß, Lorch 1348. H. Arge, Alsace 1415. B. Argelin, Reutlingen 1274. But Arge, Argemann in Lippe beside Henke van Argen 1507 indicate a pl.n.

Argast see Arbogast.

Argelander: Humanist n. for Lehmann (understood as Lem-mann [clay man], Gr. argillos, Lat. argilla ‘soil for pottery, clay’) cf. Neander ‘Neumann’ [Newman], Chrysander ‘Goldmann’ [Goldman], Sercander ‘Fleischmann’ [Meatman].

Arheilger: from Arheilgen near Darmstadt.

Arkenberg, Arkenstedt, Arkenholz (Arkenhold): from the water word ark (also contained in Ark-lo, Arkel in the Netherlds. and Arke, name of a region in Oldenburg), cf. Bahlow ON, p. 123; ­holz is a standardized form of -holt: H. Arckenholtz, Peine 1648. Arkenberg near Nienburg on the Weser (hence a freq. FN in Han. and Hbg.).

Arlt, Arlet, Arlitt, Arloth: freq. in Sil.-U. Lausitz, through repositioning of the l (metathesis) form first developed from Arnold during 16th c., cf. Humblot from Humbold; also in pl.ns.: Arlstein for Arnoldstein; Arlesgrün 1542 for Arnoltzgrün 1370; farmstead Arlt in Tyrol was still Arnold in 1500. Cf. Franc. Aroldt. Arnold (Arolt) Niclas, Liegn. 1571, Arlott, Arlett are farmers from Striegau 1586. See Bahlow SN, p. 33.

Armbrecht: (Hbg.) lengthened form Arrenbracht (so Helmbrecht becomes Hellenbrecht): variant of the Germanic pers.n. Ermbrecht, Irminbrecht like Armgard for Ermgard, Irmingard. Irmin was the surn. of the highest Germanic god Tiu ‘mighty big’. Cf. Cord Armbrecht beside Hans Ermbrecht, Duderstadt 1463-76 and H. Imtbreht, Villingen 1336.

Armbruster, Armbrüster, Armbriester (freq. in Stuttg., Karlsruhe, Strasb., Basel, Freiburg, Frkf., Zurich), LGer. Armborster, Armburster; also Armbrust, Armborst. Contracted form Armster, Armbster meaning crossbow maker, archer, also in the service of the towns.

Armeke beside Ermke (LGer.) see Armbrecht. Cf. pl.n. Ermke in Oldenburg (947 Armike).

Armerding: a Westph. patr. like Deterding, Humperding, etc., related to Armhard. See Armbrecht.

Armgardt: variant of Ermgard, Irm(in)gard Like Armbrecht from Ermbrecht, Irminbrecht: see Armbrecht. Was a fem. pers.n. for noble women in 19th c., as in Schiller’s drama Wilh. Tell and in Fontane’s Stechlin; the Romantic writer Achim v. Arnim 1822 called his daughters Armgard and Gisela. A lady Armegart in Bremen 1310; Dyle Ermgarde sun [D. son of Ermgard], 1362 near Nidda.

Armknecht: MHG = bondsman, serf.* Henning Armeknecht, Neuhaldensleben 1358.

Armleder: UGer., ‘with leather sleeves’, name of a ringleader of farmers during the persecution of the Jews in Alsace 1338 (Brech. I, p. 40). Also in Würt. 1381: B. v. Massenbach called Armleder.

Armstark: [arm-strong] cf. Goczil Amistark, Iglau 1369. Similarly Baumstark [tree-strong].

Armstroff (Hbg.): from Armstorf W of Stade.

Armut(h): a poor one. Joh. Armut, Nrbg. 1535. Cf. G. Armelsele, Lüneburg 1293.

Arndt (LGer. Arnold), lengthened A(h)rend, Ahrens, Ahrendsen, L.Rhine Aretz, Arntz, Arntzen, Westph. patr. Arnding. A(h)rning, with k-suffix: Arnecke, Arnke; for Arndt, Ahrens cf. Berndt, Behrens. arn ‘eagle’ (cf. Udalricus Aquila [Lat. =‘ eagle’] also known as Arnds, Warburg 1556, also Henn zum Arn, Mainz 1439). Arnoldus Wondeler, also known as Schipper Arnd, Kiel 1467, Arnd Botel and Bernd B., Hamelin 1458. Hans Arndes, Kiel 1443. Arneke Gherken, E. Friesld., Henning Ameken, L.Sax. 1602. Also see Anz.

Arneck(er), Arnegger (UGer.): name of origin (from Arnegg near Ulm) like Rienecker, Rosegger.

Arnemann (Hbg.): sh.f. of Arnold. Hans A., Ardegsen 1505.

Arner, Arnert (UGer.). MHG = ‘reaper’ (from arn ‘harvest’). Nik. called Arner, Bühl (in Baden) 1374. But Rudolf der Amer (or de Ame), Zurich 1258-74, means s.o. from Arn near Zurich.

Arneth (UGer.): = Arnold. Cf. Arnetsried in Swabia (doc.: Arnoltzried).

Arnheiter: corrupted from Arnheider: from Arnheide, cf. Westheider, Schönheit (p1.n. Schönheide), Grünheit (Grünheide); thus not a fem.n. (as presumed by E. Schöder).

Arnhold(t) (freq. in Sax.): = Arnold, like Bernhold = Bernold and Weinhold = Winold. Arnholtz (LGer.) like Weinholtz, Reinholtz. Also Arnold freq. in Leipzig, Chemnitz, Dresden, etc. Also see Arlt and Arold.

Arni, Erni (freq. in Switz.): sh.f. of Arnold, also Ernemann; likewise Ärnli. Old Ärni, Rottweil 1354; Arnold (Emi) v. Rotberg 1387.

Arnim: town near Stendal. Known from the Romantic writer Achim v. Arnim.

Arning: Westph. patr., according to doc. contracted from Arnding 1590 (Lippe).

Arnst see Ernst.

Arnswaldt: town near Stolberg, Harz Mtn.

Arntz see Arndt.

Arnwaldt: not from Arnold (since Germanic -wald had long become -old) but from pl.n. ending in ­walde [woods], like Buchwald, Maiwald, Mehwald, Krautwald, Luckenwaldt, Ringwald, etc.

Arold(t) (freq. in Nbg., Ansbach): Franc. form for Arnold, Sil. Arlt. Also Arhold. Cf. Gregor Arholt (Aroldt), Lützen 1504.

Arp (Hbg., Ro., Friesld.); Arps, Arpke, Arp(p)e, Arper, Arpert: LGer.-Fris. pers.n., known from organ maker Arp Schnitger. Originally Erp which changed to Arp around 1300. Germanic erp ‘brown’. Erpo Crumholt, Hbg. 1270. Cf. Erpeshagen 1330, now Arpshagen in Meckl.

Arpke: pl.n. near Peine, cf. Tiges Ludeke van Arpke (Ar-beke), Hildesheim 1521. Arper probably from pl.n. Arpe near Meschede.

Arriens (Hbg., Jeverland: freq. Arians): Dutch-E.Fris. form for Adrian(s), which spread from Flanders where a martyr Adrianus was worshiped (patron saint of blacksmiths and protector against the plague), also in Switz. E. Adriansen a Dutch musician.

L’Arronge (Hbg.): French form of Aaron (brother of Moses); as early as 14th c. in Brsl. Aaron jude [A. Jew]. Also FN Aron(sohn), Aronstein.

Arsch: [ass] Alb. Arshar [a. hair], Han. 1444, Bernd Vûl-ars [lazy a.] 1489 near Hildesheim, Joh. Pagen-ers (horse’s), Soest 1309, Dülvelsers [devil’s], Ro. 1385, Clouwen-ers (scratch the ass), Lüb. 14th c.

Artel(t): Sudeten dial. form for Ertel = Örtel (Ortolf, Ortwin). Artet Lawran and Hans Artet, Moravia 1414.

Artmeier, Artmann (freq. in Bav.): MHG artland ‘field’, from am ‘to plow, till’.

Artopé: Theodor A., writer. Artopäus is a Humanist name for “Bäcker” (from Greek artos ‘bread’). Peter Becker (Artopäus) was a learned school principal in Stettin 1530.*

Artschwager: = blood related brother-in-law (MLG art ‘offspring, child’).

Artus (Hbg.): from the Arthurian legend. Canon Artus, Kolberg 1253, Arend Artus, Soest 1378.

Artzen (L.Rhine), Aartsen (Dutch) = Arnt’s son.

Arvert see Arfert.

Arwe (Hbg.) see Arfe. Also Arwen.

Arx, von Arx (Switz.): town in the Basel area. B. vonArx, Basel 1516, Cäsar v. A., playwright.

Arzt: [physician] from medieval Lat. arciater, Greek archiatros, came into German at the time of Charlemagne: UGer. still in MHG lâchener ‘s.o. who cures by magic’. MHG arzat, arzet became FN early, around 1300; in most cases referred to a person practicing the art of healing not as a main profession, hence also FN for farmers (around 1200-1300) and in the cities for the bathhouse operator (= Bader). Cf. master Peter derArczt = P. derBader, Liegn. 1382-1399.* Nic. Ercztel, Iglau 1365.

Asam, Asum: freq. in Mnch., Augsburg; the Bav.-Aust. variant for Asm(us) = Erasmus, analogous to Rasem. Cf. Asemstat 1471 for Asmanstat, Tauber River 1500. Also NHG Brosame [crumb] stands for MHG brosme. Evidence: Asem (pastry baker), Augsburg 1369, Asam Aster, Tyrol 1543. A family of artists by the name Asam in Bav. around 1700.

Asang, Asanger: UGer. field n., MHG âsang ‘place ir the forest cleared through burning’. Ulrich der Asank, 1272 near Graz. Joh. Ansang, Mommingen 1427. Cf. Osang, Onsang.

Asbach: common creek n. and pl.n. in the Sieg-Lahn (river) region, N Ger. Asbeck; also Asbrock. For interpretation (as ‘dirty water’) see Bahlow ON, p. 16.

Asbahr (Kiel, Hbg.): see Osbahr. Asbrand (Hbg.): LGer. pers.n.; for as see Anselm. brand = ‘sword’. Cf. Sigbrand, Albrand.

Asch, Aschen (freq. in Hbg., E FriesId.): Aseke was an OS-Fris. pers.n. Also in pl.n.: Asekendorp = Aschendorfon the Ems River. According to doc. 816 Asico is sh.f. for Adralricus in Westph. (cf. Stark, Kosenamen, p. 94). Cf. Goseke (Gosch, Göschen) for Godeschalk. Also AscheAschwin van Salder, Hoya 1314.

Aschenbrenner (UGer.), LGer. Aschenberner: name for the old trade of gaining ashes through wood burning; they were needed for glass making and soap-boiling. Eggherd Aschenberner, Barth 1392.

Aschendorf see Asch.

Aschenreiter (Vienna): like Anreiter, Bärnreiter frorn the UGer. loc.ns. ending in -reut [a clearing].

Ascher, Aschmann, Asch in S Germany: derived from loc.ns. and pl.ns. like Asch, Ascha, Aschau. Cf. Wolf (von) Asch, Würt. 1432, H. Aschman, Eßlingen 1404, Conrad Ascher, Eger 1340 (a pl.n. Asch there!). As Jewish name Ascher means ‘a happy one’, like Ascher sohn [son] = Ben-Ascher. Asser, son of rabbi Chajim, Brsl. 1350.

Aschoff: Westph. loc.n. ending in -hoff like Althoff, Dykhoff, etc. [Hof = farmstead]; individual farmsteads are typical of Westphalia.

Aselmann: from Asel (As-lo) in Westph. like Asselmann from Assel.

Asenbaum (UGer.): MHG = ‘post, pile, supporting beam’, probably surn. for a carpenter. Walther Asenbaum, 1321near Zurich, Dietmar A., U. Aust. 1462.

Asmus see Assmann.

Asp(er) (UGer.): from loc.ns. Asp, Aspen, Aspern. Cf. Konrad von Asp, Villingen 1356; Rudi Asper, 1448 near Lucerne; S. Aspmair, Tyrol 1481; zemAsper, farmstead name in Tyrol 1288; N. Asparer, Moravia 1414. Hans Asper, Swiss painter around 1550. MHG aspe means ‘aspen tree’.

Asprian, Asprion (UGer., Würt., Aust.): name of a giant in the MHG epic König Rother (cf. Kuprian), a variant Aspelan in Thidreks Saga (hence 1322 in Lübeck: AspelanusSak). UGer. evidence: Steinmar and Asprian, 1267 on the Neckar; a peasant Asprian, Tyrol 1266; Hans Asprion, Rottweil 1486.

Asselmann, Asselmeyer: from Asseln in Westph. or Assel near Stade; cf. Aselmann, Rintelmann, Uffelmann. A LGer. fem. n. Assel (probably Fris.) common in Lübeck, Ro., Greifsw. around 1300; with metr.: Conrad vernAsselen, Lüb. 1340, likewise 1358 in Neuhaldensleben.

Assemaker, Ass(en)macher (L.Rhine: freq. in Col., Essen, Bonn): name for a maker of wagon axles (LGer. asse = axle, like osse = ox), hence Wagner, Rademacher, Stellmacher [cartwright, wheelwright]. Cf. As(s)hauer.

Asser (Hbg.): old Fris. pers.n.: around 1200-1400 in Bremen, Ro., Stralsund.

Aßfalg see Astfalk.

As(s)hauer, As(s)heuer (freq. in Dortmund, Düsseldorf): L.Rhine-Westph. Assemaker. See there. Joh. Assinslegir, Koblenz 1360.

Assing (Jewish): Ludmilla A., daughter of the Jewish physician Assing (in Altona) and Rahel Varnhagen van Ense, 1827. Asser, son of Rabbi Chajim, Brsl. around 1350.

Assler: from Aßlar near Wetzlar. For interpretation see Asbach, also Bahlow ON, p. 17.

Assmann (Thur., Sax., Sil.): = Asmus = Erasmus. Saint Erasmus was considered one of the 14 auxiliary saints and was popular around 1500. Erasmus ofRotterdam, famous Humanist. Hans Aßmann Baron of Abschatz, Sil. writer. Cf. Aßman = Aßmus = Eraßmus Wincke, Liegn. 1565; Aßmann = Eraßman Jünger, Freiberg, Sax. 1445. Cf. Raßmann. In Schleswig-Holstein patrs. Asmussen, Rasmussen (freq. in Denmark), also Asmes(en): Asmes Festersen 1568, Nis Asmesen, Flensburg 1599. Hence Asmy, Erasmy (Lat. genitive).

Ast [branch]: surn. ofa woodchopper, forest worker, cf. Fellnast, Darrast. Hannus Ast, Liegn. 1384, Rud. Ästlin, Biberach 1369. Cf. also pl.n. Ast in Bav.

Aster (Tyrol); also Astner: derived from the field n. and farmstead n. Ast, Asten in Tyrol (Aste means an alpine pasture, grazing field). Cf. Atsegger, Astfeller (Astfelder), Asthalter (Asthalder), Asthofer, all in Tyrol. But van Asten (Ro.) refers to the Dutch pl.n. Asten, see Bahlow ON, p. 18.

Astfalk, Aßtfalg, Astfahl (UGer.): probably surn. of a falkner.

Astrup: from Astrup near Vechta (1050 Adisthorp).

Athen (freq. in E Friesld.): variant of Aden, see there. (Like Athenstedt beside Adenstedt).

At(h)mer (Hbg.): indicates a pl.n. like Bothmer (Aller, Leine area), Weimar etc., all containing the old word mar ‘swampy spring area’. For ad see Aden.

Atsma (Fris.) see Adde.

Attehnann: from Atteln, Westph., like Assemann from Asseln.

Attendorn: town in Westph., hence a newcomer from there, as early as 1270 in Lüb., Ro., etc. G. de Atendern, Ro. 1277. Cf. Bahlow ON, p. 19.

Attenhofer, Attenhauser, Attenheimer, Attenberger, etc. are S Ger. names of origin. For the meaning of att see Bahlow ON, p. 19.

Atz(e), Atzen: very old nickn. for Adelbert, Adolf, etc. in UGer, Cf. Karl Atz, Tyrolean writer. Sigismund Atze 1400, dean of the cathedral at Liegn. W. Atzen, Basel 1356. Azzo (son: Rüdeger), Konstanz 1222; Cunrad and Hainrich called Azzo, Konst. 1259.*

Atzel: see Atze. In Hesse the dialect form Atzel = ‘magpie’, already in MHG, is involved: Anton Atzel, Wetzlar 1661, Joh. Atzele, Wetzlar 1346.

Atzeroth, Atzrott: from Atzenrode in Hasse or Atzerode in Thur. (N ofSchmalkalden), cf.Almeroth, Billroth, Klapproth, Lutteroth. Atz- in this case not a pers.n. but an old water word (Bahlow ON, p. 19), as in Atzenbach, Atzenmoos, Atzenholz.

Atzler (UGer.: freq. in Vienna): from UGer. pl.n. like Atzel(en) in Switz., Atzlern in Bav., farm Atzl in Tyrol. Cf. Ulrich Atzler, St. Gall 1408, Joh. AczIer(us), Klattau, Bohemia 1369. Likewise Riezler: from Riezlern.

Atzwanger (Tyrol): from Atzwang, Tyrol. Cf. Binzwanger.

Aub (UGer,): dialect for Auw = MHG oawe wet field, wetland’. Heinz Aub, Kirchheim, Würt. 1430. Also pl.n. Aub on the Main River.

Aube(r)le, Aube(r)lin: Alem.-Swab. for Abe(r)le = Albrecht. Aubelli = Albrecht der Hafner [the potter], Mengen, Würt. 1398, Auberlin Auber = Aubrecht A. Albrecht A.,Urach 1448.

Aubke (Hbg.) beside Aubeck: means LGer. creek n. Au-beke, cf. Sülbke = Sülbeke.

Aubrecht see Auberle.

Auch(t) (UGer., freq. in Stuttg.); Auchter: from MHG üchte ‘field for night grazing’, the night shepherds are still called Auchter*. Cf. 1226 Uchtweide [night pasture]. Also in Tyrol: “Äcker samt Anewandten und Auchten” [fields along with plow turns and night pastures], cf FN Anwander. Cuntz Uchter, Kempten 1410, Klaus Auchter, Ulm 1542.

Aude (Hbg., Ro.): LGer. variant of O(h)de = Oderik or Odelrik = Ulrich; cf. Aulerich beside Ohlerich.

Auer (UGer., freq. in Mnch.): from the location of the dwelling at a wet field (Aue), cf. the medieval epic writer Hartmann von Aue (“der Ouwäre”). Joh. us der ouwe 1294; L. Omwer, Eßlingen 1269.

Auerbach: known through Berthold A., popular writer from the Black Forest, several places in Baden, Würt., Bav., Rhine Hesse by that name, doc. Urbach: ur is an old water word (dirty, muddy water, already used by Pliny), as in Urach, Aurach Urstede (Auerstädt), canton Upi in Switz., there also urig ‘damp, moist’. Ludwig Aurbacher was the author of the hist. chapbook The 7 Swabians.

Aufderheide, Aufderherst etc. in Westph.: already 1050 uppan dero hetha [onthe heath, field] name of a field near Freckenhorst.

Auf der Mauer (Switz.) [on the wall]: name taken from place of dwelling. Cf. Hans auf der Mauer in Schiller’s Wilhelm Tell. Similarly Auf der Flüh (Switz.): MHG fluo ‘on the mountain slope’.

Auffährt, Auffarth (Thur.): MHG ûfvati day of Christ’s ascension, nowadays called Himmelfahrt. Luther still said: “Ostern, Auffahrt, Pfingsten” [Easter, Ascension, Pentecost]. Ostern and Pfingsten are also FN’s. Auffahrt has been the name of an old family of pastors in Thuringia!

Auf(f)ernlann: Rhenish beside Offermann Opfermann, Oppermann: name for the sexton.

Auffinger: from Aufing in U.Bav.

Aufhammer, Aufheimer (Bav.): from Aufham or Aufheim in Bav.

Aufleger (Mnch.): still a business there today = ‘loading worker, transporter, mover’ (MHG ûfleger). Cf. LGer. Uplegger.

AufmOrdt: LGer. = CentGer. at the end (of the village or street): ‘updem orde’, Lilb. 1350. Also Aufmbroich (L.Rhine), Aufmkolk, Aufmbrink (Westph.). In the more hilly south cf. Heinrich (knight), called uffedeine bühele [on the hill] 1296.

Aufrecht (freq. in Vienna, also Brsl., Stuttg.): MHG üfrecht [upright].

Aufreither (Vienna): belongs to the UG loc.ns. ending in -reuth ‘a clearing’. Achatzy Aufreutter, U.Aust. 1590.

Aufschneider (Bav.); also Aufschnaiter: from the farmstead Aufschnait in Tyrol. Leonhard A., Kitzbühel 1671. Cf. Lardschneider, Oberschneiter (schneite ‘aisle, lane’ in a field or woods).

Aufseß, Aufseeßer (Bav.): from Aufseß in U.Franc. Old Franconian nobility von Izu Aufseß (name from the family castle). A Hermann Ufseßer, Bamberg 1467.

Aufstößer: MHG üfstößer ‘loader of merchandise’. Cf. LGer. Splettstößer. Lampert Ufstößer, Worms 1307.

Auf und dahin: [up and away] may be interpreted as name of a traveler, vagrant. Elias Aufunddahin, son of Joh. A. from Budweis, Stuttg. 1583.

(Auge): [eye] in many compounds like Liebaug [dear eye], Rothaug [red eye], Weinaug [wine eye], Gansauge [goese eye]; UGer. Grünäugl [green eye], Schwarzeigl [black eye], Feinaigle [pretty eye]; also documented: Schönäugli [pretty eye], Äugli (Switz.), Glotzauge [goggle eye], Cronauge (crane eye), Goldauge, (Goldoghe), Kiperoghe, Spanoghe (LGer. = ‘bleary eye’). A Hensel mitden liben owgen [H. with the kind eyes], Liegn. 1368, also Hencze mit den sichen ougen [H. with the sick eyes].

Augener see Auner.

Augenstein see Augstein.

Augst, Augstein, Augstien: Saint Augustine, famous Church Father. See also Aust(en) and Stinnes. Augestein Ehm, Kempten 1530. Augenstin Henckel, Schaffhausen 1533. Ulrich Augst, Freiburg 1362, Märkli Augstman, Würt. 1397. In Würt. note a Swab. variant from MHG agstein ‘amber’ (see Agstein), there is e.g. an Augstein mine near Backnang 1444. A Konrad Augsteindreher, Kirchheim/Teck 1418.

Auke(n), Äuckens, Eucken, Aukama: Fris. patr. (from pers.n. Auke, probably from Aveke). Auco Kempius 1500, Hero Aucama (Aukinga) 1413-19 (Stark, p. 174).

Aig, Aula (Hbg., Ro.): variant of LGer. Ohl(s), as sh.f. of Aul(e)rich (Hbg., Ro.) or Old(e)rich, Le. Saint Ulrich: sente Oterik, Odeltik. Also Aubnann (Hbg.) beside Ohlmann.

Auleb: from Auleben on the Helme River in N Thur., cf. Billeb, Witzleb.

Auler see Autner.

Aulerich see Aul.

Aulich, Aulig, Aulock (Sil.): cf. pl.n. Auligk near Borna in Sax. Lord Apecz von Ulok, Hirschberg 1289, Bosse von Awlack, Liegn. 1391.

Aulner, Auler, Eulner, Euler: in Mosel- Franc. and Hesse-Nassau (still today Eulner in Wetterau) = ‘potter’ (from Lat. olla, MHG üle ‘pot’, MHG ülner ‘potter’). Gerhard der Ulener to Linepe [G. the potter at Lennepe] 1362.

Aumann (Aust., Bav., Rhineld.): from the place of the dwelling on the Aue (wet field, river island). In Sax. also from pl.n. Aue, cf. Auner.

Aumer (freq. in Bav.): a contraction of Aumeier, like Stromer (Nbg.) from Stromeier according to doc. Also cf. Aumüller: tenant of the Aumühle [Au Mill] (in Bav. also freq. pl.n.): Hans Aumüllner 1446.

Auner (Thur., Sax.): living on the Aue(n) [wet field, river island], like Wiesner auf der Wiese(n) [on the meadow]. A farmstead Auner (Styria) 1339 was called in der Auen. Cf. Andreas Auner, Chemnitz 1476; B. Auener (Augner), Thur. 1586.

Aupperie (freq. in Stuttg.): recent variant of Auberte, i.e. Albrecht.

Auras (Sil.): town in the district of Wohlau. Willusch von Uras (Owras), Brsl. 1359.

Aurelius see Orelli.

Aurich, Auricht (Hbg.): from Aurich in E Friesld.

Aurisch: (Sil.). Cf. Auras.

Ausborn (freq. in Hbg.): the LGer. pers.n. Os-bern, as early as 1340 in Lüb.: Nie. Osborn, where the original -bern (the bear) was not understood any more and replaced by -born [‘spring, fountain’], also in Strals. 1286: Osbem (Osborn) smith; likewise 1345 in Strals.: Ostbom Ratte; Osbern also in Ro. and Hbg. around 1300; compare Albern, Wulbern, Wigbern. Os is LGer. for Ans (the Germanic demi-gods), cf. Osger (Oskar), Oswin, Oswald.

Aus’m Werth (Rhine): MHG wert (LGer. werder) ‘river island’.

Außem (L.Rhine), doc. Olveshem, from river n. Olve, like Muleshem, Poleshem, Soreshom.

Aust, Austen, Austmann (Sil.). = Augustin(us), saint’s n., Austin Knebel = Augustin K., Liegn. 1453, Austen Meißner, Liegn. 1491 (Bahlow SN, p. 55).

Austbeer: perhaps meaning ‘August beer, harvest beer’. Gerlich Owestbere, Strals. 1327.

Austerling (Westph.) beside Osterling, like Austermann beside Ostermann: Westph. FN and farmstead n., from the place of dweiling: oster = eastern, east of, cf. Osterbrink, Osterloh, Osterhoff. Austermuth see Ostermuth.

Austermühle, Austerwischen (LGer.); ‘from the mill,’ ‘from the meadow’. Cf. Albert aus der Mühle, Bauna near Kassel 1299. LGer. Utermöhlen.

Autetrieth (Swab.): pl.n. Autenried several times in Bav.

Auter, Autor. See Auctor. <<Correct via the German Edition (Auctor does not exist!!)

Autrum (Ro., Hbg.): Fris. pl.n. ending in -um (­heim) like Baltrum, Sottrum, all referring to water and swamp (Bahlow ON, p. 455).

Autze(n), Outzen see Otzen.

Auwärter (freq. in Stuttg.): field warden.

Ave (Hbg.), also Awe (freq. in Hbg., Ro.): Fris. pers.n., patr. Aven (Joverland),

Aving, Aveke: Marquardus filius Avekonis [M. son of Aveko], Lüb. around 1300; Detmer Aving, Oldenburg 1428; Jürgen Aven, farmer, Meckl. 1556. For fem.n. Ava (freq. in old Ro.) of Peter Veraven (Ave), Barth 1340; Frau Aveke, Strals. 1331.

Avenarius: Humanist n. for Habermann. Known from the writer Ferdianand A.; also Joh. A. (1564) with his prayer book.

Ave(n)marg: = Ave Maria (church greeting), liturgical name like Kyrieleis. Ave Maria, Strals. 1324, Herman AveMárie, Lippe 1434.

Averdar, Aberdar: ‘here again’ (name for a messenger?). Nic. son of Averdar, Stettin 1324.

Averdieck, Averhoff, Averdung (Westph.): from the place of dwelling; LGer. aver = over ‘beyond’: cf. Overbeck [over, beyond the creek], Averdebeke, Barth 1465. Avermann (Westph.): Ovemann 1557 beside Nederman.

Awe (freq. in Hbg.) see Ave.

Axd, Axelsen see Absalon.

Axen, Axsen (freq. in Jeverland): EFris. patr. (like Rixen), contracted from Ackesson (Strackerjahn, p. 22), cf. Akessohn. See under Acke.

Axe(n)macher (Col., Aachen) see Assemaker.

Axmann see Axt.

Axnick see Achtsnicht.

Axt, Ax, Ax(t)mann: means carpenter or also axe smith. Cf. Peter mit der ax = P. ax, Brs1. 1352, Cunot mit der ax = C. ax, Brsl. 1354. Michel Gutaxt, Bohemia 1390.

Azthalb, Axthelm (Bav.): mean ‘axe handle’ (MHG halbe, halm ‘handle’).

Aye (freq. in Hbg.), Ayecke (Hbg.): OFris. pers.n., sh.f. of old Germanic names with Ag- (blade or point of a sword) like Haye from Hag-; cf. the name of the king of the Langobards Ago (Agio) or Agi(l)ulf 591, likewise Ajo (4th c. leader of the Langobards). Around 1250 in Hbg. Joh. Aye (Ayonis). Hence patr. Aissen, Eyssen. Ayerle, Aierle (Swab.) see Ayrer.

Ayrer (UGer.): name for an egg seller (MHG eieräre), known from the Nuremberg author of comedies, Jakob Ayrer (imitator of Hans Sachs). As FN already around 1350 in Eßlingen: Berthold Ayrer, furrier. Hence Swab. Ayerle. Also Joh. Aiermann, Tienggen 1360, Hans Ayresser [egg eater], Weichs 1478, Ayerkuch, etc. Also several Ayrimschmalz [eggs in lard], a popular dish (fried eggs, sunny side up).

Aythe, Eyth see Agathe and Eitner.


Baack, Baake, Backe, Backen: N Fris. sh.f, contracted form of Balke (Baldeke), = Baldewin, likewise Hicke from Hilke, Ucke from Ulke (Ulrich), Acke from Alke, Eicke from Eilke (Eilward), etc. But also Fris. LGer. bake ‘beacon, light signal for ships’ may have to do with the name; cf. Herman Bake, Ro. as early as 1285. Otto Bake, Haldensl. 1414. Bako recorded in Stade 1288, Backe in Bremen around 1300.

Baade see Bade.

Baader see Bader.

Baake see Baack.

Baalhorn see Balhorn.

Baalke see Bahlke.

Baar (freq. in Hbg., also Bahr): MLG bare ‘the bear’; before 1300: Bere. See also Barensteker = UGer. Ber-stecher ‘castrator’, where bear means boar. In Lüb. around 1300 also Berenstert, Bernschinke (‘bear tail, bear thigh’). Drewes to dem beren, Haldensl. 1435, refers to a house n. as B. zum Bären, Freiburg 1460, but Sir Huge de Bare (Bere), Westph. 1288, means bear.

Baark, Barck (Hbg., Ro.): Thid. dictus [known as] Barke, Hbg. as early as 1294; Gerke im Barke, in Lippe 1488. MLG berke (barke) means birch bark; cf. Hence Berkenben (Birkenbein) in Ro. 1264. Also pl.ns.: Barke, Bark.

Baars (Hbg., Ro.) see Bars.

Baas, Baasch (freq. in Hbg.): LGer. and Dutch baas ‘master, boss, supervisor’ (cf. Heuerbaas ‘hiring boss’, Schlafbaas ‘landlord for sailors’). “Böttcher Baasch” [tub maker B.] is the name of a figure in the works of the 19th c. German writer Th. Storm.

Babbe (Hbg.), Babbeke: name derives from baby talk. Herman Babbe (Babbeke) and Joh. Babbekensone (from Flensburg), Kiel 1357; Babbe, 1277, and Hinr. Babbeke, Strals. 1323. In loc.ns. like Babbelage (Westph.), Babbelake (England) babbe means mud, mire.

Babe (UGer.): old name Babo derives from baby talk (likewise Boppo and similar ns.); cf. Babenberg. Barnberg (Bav., Switz.).

Babekuhl: pl.n. in Prignitz.

Babendererde, Babenerde, Babenihr (Meckl., Hbg.): LGer. boven, baven, baben ‘up(stairs), above’; name means: not at ground level, but living up from, as Darboven [above there] opposed to Dameden [below, beneath]. Cf. Bovenuth [above there, up there] and Achteruth [out at the back, behind there]. Simitarty “uf der erde” (‘on the ground’), Bav. 1194, ‘under der erde” (‘below the ground’) in Wetzlar. Bovenerde (pers.n.) recorded in Queainburg 1300, Peter Babendererde, Stargardt (Meckl.) 1573. Cf. Bovenkerken [above the church], Bovensiepen, Bovenblot (‘naked, uncovered above’), Bovenschulte, Babendreier, Babenschneider; to Baben.

Babick, Babcke, Babuck (E Ger.): related to Slav. baba, babka ‘babushka, old woman, grandmother’; cf. Jacobus known as babka (Miklosich, p. 31).

Babo (von Lintpach, Bav. 1140) see Babe.

Babst (UGer.): MHG babes (from Greek/Latin papas) ‘the pope’; Heinricus der Babest in the Rhine area around 1250; Sir Burchard der Babest, councilman in Breisach 1290. A person with a popish character; sometimes the name also indicates relations to the papacy.

Bach: from the dwelling on a stream. Cf. Bachmann, Bachmayer, Bachmüller; also Bach-elbel (Elbel = Albrecht on the stream) in Eger (likewise Bachdietel, Bacheberlin, etc.). In the same group around 1300: bi dem bach [by the streaml, by der bach, an der bach, im bach, us dem bach [from the stream], uf der bach [in the stream], over de beke (cf.Oberbeck).

Bache (UGer.): MHG bache ‘ham’, bachen-swin ‘ham hog’ (cf. Leberecht Bachenschwanz, Zerbst 1729). Also house n. zum Bachen, Worms 1316; also recorded there Gerlach, known as Bache, meaning ‘butcher’. However E Ger. and Bohemian Bacha, Bachnik, Bachura = Bartholomäus!

Bachem: pl.n. (in Rhine and Saar areas); also Jewish.

Bacher (UGer.): derived from towns like Bach, Bachern; also Jewish (Hebrew bachur ‘young man’). Bav.: Pacher.

Bachmann see Bach.

Bachofen see Backofen.

Bachstelz (UGer.) derives from a bird n. Bachstelze [‘water wagtail’].

Bächtold see Bechtold.

Back (MLG) ‘bowl, kneading trough’; Bakenhower, alderman, in Brunswick 1419. Cf. Kikeback, Schadeback, Spöleback.

Bäck, Bäcker see Beck(er).

Backe [‘cheek, buttock’]: cf. Vetteback, Haldsl. 1435, also FN Fettback (= UGer. Feistback), Smoltebake, alderman, Kolberg 1335; Starkebacke, Dortmund 1392; Bredobake, Hildesheim 1325. Also see Baack.

Backen see Baack.

Backenstoß (Konstanz): ‘Backenstreich’ [‘box on the ears’] like MHG backenboß, backenslac.

Backfisch: like Bratfisch [‘fish for frying, fried fish’]: for a fish frier, cook.

Backhaus: (L.Rhine: Backhus, Backes!): s.o. who lives near the village bakery or works there; cf. Backofen [‘baking oven’]. Also pl.n. Henne Bakhus, Frkf. 1387.

Bäckler see Böckler.

Backof(en), Bachofen: corresponds to Backhaus. Probably also a baker’s name, e.g. the baker Guckinofen [‘look in the oven’] in Olmütz 1350.

Backs see Backhaus.

Bacmeister: The B. family traces their name back to Lütke Willens, who was the chief baker at the court of Lüneburg 400 years ago and was therefore called Lütke (Lüdeke) Bacmeister [master baker].

Bade, Baade (freq. in Hbg., Ro.), Bahde, patr. Baden, Badenius, Bading: formerly popular short forms of LGer. Segebade, also Garbade; around 1300 still Bode (Bodo), also Segebode, Gerhode (cf. UGer Sigbot, Gerbot): bod, bot = ‘lord, ruler’. For patr. Baden cf. Henricus Bodensone (H.filius domini Boden), Hbg. 1250; as to Badeke: Bodeke (Bodemannus), Strals. 1300. Bade (= Bote [messenger]) is rare, cf. badenlohn [messenger’s fee].

Bäd(e)ker, contracted to Bäker: drawn-out form of Bödeker (Böcker), the LGer. variant of Böttcher [cooper, tub makerl; cf. variants Kähler for Köhler or Gädtke for Gödeke. Fris. form is Bätjer.

Badel(t): pl.n. Badel in Altmark area.

Badendiek: old LGer. variant of Bodenteich S of Üzen, also place n. in Meckl.

Badenmöller (Ro): derives from loc.n. Badenmühle [mill] in Doberan.

Bader, Baader, Beder: UGer. and CentrGer. name for the tenant or owner of a public bathhouse, also Badstüber (Patschdieber!). Stöwer (Badstover) was the usual LGer. name, cf. UGer. Stüber. The “Bader” was also the barber, who trimmed and shaved beards and bled people. (For geographic frequency of names and documentation cf. Brech., Der heilkundliche Beruf. Görlitz 1937, p. 24.) Cf. Badeschilt in Brsl. and Bademuter, ‘midwife’.

Bag(e)horn: pl.n. like Balehorn, Githorn, etc. Concerning bag, ‘swamp’ see Bahlow ON, p. 22.

Bagemühl: pl.n. in Uckermark area. Cf. Boghe(n)mite (Lüb., Ro., Strals.).

Bagge: Scandinavian personal name, is still a family name along with Baggesen in Denmark and Sweden (cf. the Danish writer Jene Baggesen). Joh. Bacghe was recorded in Strals. 1300 along with the pl.n. Baggendorf.

Baggel: loc.n. in Westph., Joh. de Baghele, Gemen 1290; Henrich Baggele, Münster 1435; Winold Baggele (mayor), Ro. 14th c.

Baginski (E Ger.): Polish -ski refers to place of origin, cf. Kaminski etc. Baginski is also pl.n. in E Prussia. Cf. Simon Bagynski, Polonus, University of Königsberg 1592. bag (Pol. bagn-) means ‘swamp, bog’.

Baguhn: E Pruss.-Lith., likewise Appuhn, Steppuhn, etc.

Bahde see Bade.

Bahe, Bahmann = Bade, Bademann. See there.

Bahl, Bahls, Bahlke, Bahlmann (all freq. in Hbg. etc.) derive from Bole, Boleke, Bolemann, all were popular sh.fs. in the North Sea area around 1300 of Bol(d)emdn (Baldewin): Jac. Boleke (Baleke), near Bukow in Meckl. 1568.

Bahlhorn see Balhorn.

Bahlow Balow: name of a peasant family in Uckermark area, documented in Meckl.-Strelitz around 1500; a tenant farmer of a monastery near Ro. (Marienehe), Hans Balow, was recorded around 1440. The village Balow is situated E of Grabow in Meckl. A fluviusBalow (B. River) near Tillendorf in the district of Stuhm in W Prussia, 1323, is recorded and a knight, Sir (“dominus”) Schamborius Stange, a knight (“miles”) de Balow 1326 (Prussian Document Register U, 293, 375); also Andreas Balow de Danezk at University of Erfurt 1441. See also Bahlsen. Thid. Balowe, Hbg. 1385. There is a Lake Balen (Balen-See) near Fürstenberg (stagnum Balam from Lith. bala ‘swamp’).

Bahlrüß see Ballrüß.

Bahlsen: based on Balehusen as Ahlsen is on Alehusen and Vahlsen on Valehusen; all synonyms for settlements on or near swampy areas. (Bahlow ON, p. 24.)

Balmann (Hbg.): see also Bahmeier from Bademeier, in Lippe 1530, likewise Uhmeier from Udemeier.

Bahnemann (Hbg.): from Bahne in Hadeln.

Bähnisch, Bänsch (Sil.); also Behnisch, Bensch (U. Sil.): name was a popular Silesian sh.f in 15th c. with a Slav. suffix -isch for the saint’s n. Benedikt (Bahlow U. Vornamen p. 13; SN p. 55). Benisch Falkenhayn 1438 = Benedictus F., Liegn. 1435; even as late as 1532: Benisch Lauring in Neustadt (U. Sil.). Cf. Czech. Benesch (Bähnisch, Die dt. Personennamen, p. 41).

Bahns, Bahnsen (freq. in Hbg.): Frisian pers.n.; Bane Laurensen, Husum 1568; Owe Banessen, Husum 1524; also Bahnson.

Bahr (freq. in Hbg.): Bare see Baar. Huge de Bare (Bere) ‘the bear’ in Westph. 1288 (Document Register VI, no. 1396). Peter Bare, Flensburg 1582.

Bähr see Behr.

Bahrdt see Bart.

Bährisch see Behrisch.

Bährle see Beerle.

Bahrs, Baars see Bars.

Baier see Bayer.

Baiker, Baikert: Franconian variants of (Sil.) Peuker(t) = Pauker [drummer] (Nied FF, p. 21).

Bailer (Stuttg.); Beiler (Berne): possibly ‘gauger, sealer’, cf. MHG beigel, beil ‘inspection of the barrels’, beigler ‘inspector’.

Baintner, Paintner (UGer.: Bav.-Austrian): from MHG biunte ‘fenced-in plot’, often found in field ns. and ns. of farmsteads; cf. Hug in der bande, Konstanz 1295; Conrad in der peunt, 1376.

Baitinger (freq. in Stuttg.): from the town of Beutingen, Würt.

Baitz: pl.n. in Mark Brandenburg. Thomas B., Brandenburg 1541.

Bajohr: pl.n. near Memel.

Bake see Baack.

Bakker see Becker.

Balbach (Franconia): pl.n. on the Tauber River.

Balbier(er): the barber.

Balek, Balcke (Hbg.) see Balke.

Baldas: UGer., likewise Baldus, Baldes which were originally used as sh.fs. of Baldasar, Balthasar (not of Sebaldus, whe was the local patron saint only in Nbg.). Freq. in Saarbrücken. Cf. Balthas Hirt in Würt. 1554; Baltas = Balthus = Balthasar Mäder around 1600 (Nied SF, p. 21).

Baldauf, Balduf, Balluf, Ballauf, Pallauf: UGer. common surname, originally Baldolf;thus recorded in Würt. and changed, i.e. distorted, later to Baldlouf, Balduf(f), etc., like Kuterolf to Kuttruf etc., Biterolf to Bittroff, Bitterauf. MHG balden means ‘to hurry’, balde ‘hold, fast’; -olf was often used as suffix in personal names, cf. MHG triegolf ‘swindler’. –olf: -auf appear in names like Gundolf: Gundauf, Landolf: Landauf. (Nied, SF, p. 16.)

Balde (UGer.): Jakob Balde (1604), the Baroque writer of Latin works, hailed from the Alsace. Bäldi (a Swiss chronicler, 1550) and Bäldelin (Baldemarus) were recorded in Eßlingen 1371-86 as sh.fs. of Baldemar, Baldewin. A certain Balde Schrod in Frkf. 1346. Cf. Baldemann. Balde is a very old river n. and pl.n. in Hesse, as is Baldeborn in the Alsace and in Würt.

Baldemar: Germanic pers.n.: Baldemar, Bacharach 1260; Bal(de)mar = Bäldelin see Balde.

Baldenweg, Baldenweck (UGer.): name appears more complete in Conrad Baldhinweg [soon to be gone], Augsburg 1559. A peasant Cunrat Baldenweg from Entringen (Würt.) 1300. Cf. Morneweg.

Baldes see Baldas.

Baldewein, Ballwein (UGer.): old Ger. pers.n. Baldewin (bald ‘bold’, win ‘friend’). Cf. Baldewin and Baldeke in old Brsl. (1366, 1310); Baldeivin, Frkf. 1387; Wernh. Baldewin, Krems 1206; Jörg Paldwein, Prague 1363; Jörg Baldwein, Zofingen 1583. See also LGer. Boldewin.

Baldinger: from the town of Baldingen in Würt. and the Aargau (area in Switz.).

Baldram: Germanic pers.n. like Wolfram, Adalram: Bav. Paltram.

Baldrich: a rare Germanic pers.n. (bald ‘bold’, rich ‘mighty’). Konr. Bäldrich, Ravensburg 1480; Ludolf Bolderich, Ro. 1296. Baldrich Earl of Lorraine is documented in the 11th c., also Earl and Bishop B. of Liege in the l0th c.

Baldung: the suffix –ung connotes membership of a group of retainers, especially in heroic poetry (epic), cf. Berchtung, Adelung, Gerung, Amelung, Esung, etc. Concerning bald see Baldewin, Baldrich, Baldungus in Mainz 1283, Henr. Baldunc, Worms 1313. The painter Hans Baldung, known as Grien, was a contemporary of A. Dürer.

Baldus (freq. in Rhine area) see Baldas.

Baleke see Bahlke.

Balensiefen (Cologne): pl.n. (Bahlow ON, p. 24).

Balfanz: pl.n. (Pom., Neumark).

Balg: name appears also in compounds; means ‘pelt, hide’ (however Smerbalch = ‘fat belly’. Reinh. Balg, Col. 1187), cf. the furrier Frambalch (‘good hide’) in Lüneburg. Lederbalg [leather hide], Hbg. 1252. Similar names are Hasenbalg [rabbit skin], Ziegenbalg [goat skin]; Kalbesbalg [calf skin], 1194; Pfefferbalg [pepper skin]. But Blasebalg [bellows], Liegn. 1383 and Lpz. 1455 is a name for the blacksmith or the boilerman or stoker.

Balge (Ro.): MLG balge ‘tub’. Joh. Balghe, Han. 1353. Cf. pi.n. Balge near the town of Nienburg on the Weser (balg ‘moist’).

Balhorn (Ballhorn, Bahlhorn, Baalhorn): several pl.ns. in Westph. and Hesse. Balehorn means ‘swampy corner’ (as in pl.ns. like Ahlhorn, Beinhorn, Gifhorn, Segehorn, Tockhorn, Uhlhorn, etc.). (See Bahlow Dtlds. geogr. Namenwelt, 1965.) B. occurred au FN as early as 1307 in Stettin, 1333 in Kiel. The idiom “verballhörnen” traces back to the Lübeck printer Joh. Balhorn (around 1550).

Balke, (Balck), freq. in Hbg., Ro., etc.; means ‘timber, beam, girder’, surname of a carpenter; as early as 1270 in Ro. und Berne (Switz.). Balke (Lat. trabes) in Hbg. und Lüb. 1292; Herm. B., a “Deutschmeister” of the Teutonic Order of Knights in Prussia, 1233. Cf. Rambalke, Hbg. 1258, Sengebalke, Lüneburg. Not to be confused with Bahlcke, Baleke which derive from Boleke (Boldewin).

Balkenhol (Westph. field n.) likewise Lemenhel, Odenhol, Ulenhol: all of which designate swampy holes. balk means ‘wet, moist’. Cf. Balkenslede etc. (Bahlow ON, p. 25).

Ball (UGer.): has several meanings; perhaps the juggler at fairs, or it may refer to bales of goods. Also a pl.n. in the Rhine area. Cf. Konrad Ball in Würt. 1377. The writer Hugo Ball (1885) was from the Palatinate.

Ballast: ‘shipload, cargo’, Mathias Ballast, Hbg. 1463.

Ballauf see Baldauf.

Balle (UGer.): MHG balle = ‘bale of goods’, cf. H. Ballenbinder, Frkf. 1341, und Bindeballe.

Balles, Ballas (Karlsr., Frkf., Saar area) see Baldas, Baldes.

Ballin (Hbg.): cf. pl.n. Ballin near Woldegk.

Balling, Ballinger (Mnch.): cf. pl.ns. Baldingen and Ballingshausen (Bav.). Probably not cognates of MHG banlinc, ballino ‘an outlaw’.

Ballmoos (Switz.): pl.n.

Ballreich see Baldrich.

Ballrüß, Bahlrüß: MLG rüse, balrüse ‘a kind of fish trap’ in rivers. Arnold Balrase in Barth (Pom.) 1379.

Ballschnüeter, Ballschmiede(r): LGer. word for juggler at fairs. Hinr. Bal-smiter, Greifsw. 1325. See also Schmieter.

Ballweg (UGer.): originally Ballenweg, Baldenweg, see Baldenweg.

Ballwein see Baldewin.

Balmer (UGer.): from the town of Balm (Switz., Baden); balma is a word of Lat. origin used in the Alps meaning ‘rock cavity with an overhang, ledge’. Heinr. von der Balme,knight in Zurich 1246. Bernh. Balmer, Berne 1430.

Balow see Bahlow.

Bals (Mnch.), Balser: cf. Balser Hülsing, Han. 1540; = Balthasar.

Balster, Balsters: = E Fris. for Balthasar (Winkler, p. 24), cf. pl.n. Balster near Köslin, Balsterholz near Ennepe/Ruhr. The Swab. variant for Berthold is Balsterli, near Saulgau 1286. (Brech. I, p. 65.)

Balthasar, mostly Baltzer, rarely Balser: Caspar, Melchior, und Balthasar are the three well known holy kings or wise men. (Literally: ‘God protect his life’.) Around 1700 B. was still used as f.n.: B. Neumann, the Baroque architect; Baltzer Bruswitz, 18th c. in Pom. UGer. sh.fs. Bal(t)z, Balzel, Balzli, Bälzle, as opposed to Balthas, Baltus, Baltes, Baldas, Baldus.

Baltner (Würt.): MHG paltenäre, balteniere (Medieval Lat. paltonarius) means ‘pilgrim in a coarse cloak, beggar, vagrant, shop keeper.’ Albrecht der Baltener, Söflingen 1342.

Baltrusch, Baltruschat, Baltruweit: E Pruss.-Lith. Balthasar or Balthasar’s son.

Baltus, Baltes (Rhineland, Würt.) = Balthasar, see Baldas. Cf. Hans Baltusor, Füssen 1502; Baltus Geber, Memmingen 1527; Baltes Barnow, near Stettin 1535.

Baltzer, Balzer, Balser: popular forms for Balthasar, see this. As a f.n. Balthasar did not come into full use until the 15th-16th c. Baltzer Hartusch, Dresden 1455; still in the 18th c.: Baltzer Brüswitz in Pom. Cf. Lith. Balzereit, Baltzuhn, Baldzuweit.

Balve: pl.n. near Dortmund. Cf. Balf(er).

Balz, Bälzle, etc.: UGer. sh.fs. of Balthasar, Balzer.

Bandach(or): from the town of Banilach in Baden (1130 Bamenang; pl.ns. ending in -wang, like Backnang, refer to a wet field or meadow; see Bahlow ON, p. 50).

Bander, Bärnler, (Würt./Swab.): ‘loafer, idler, slowpoke’. Cf. Johann Bämler, printer in Augsburg around 1475.

Bamm: from the pl.n. Bamme in the Havel area (Havelland). Cf. Bamme, Haldensl. 1350 (compare with the name Cramme which is also a pl.n.). Of same origin probably Bammann (Hbg.) like Hemmann (which is documented) from Hemme.

Bammert (UGer.) = Bannwart, see there.

Banck see Bank(e).

Band, Bandt(e): means Bandthauer [hooper, who makes the hoops for tubs], recorded 1562 near Magdeburg, also Bandtholt, Bandtholtz (MLG bant ‘hoop’). Joh. Bant, Stralsund 1307.

Bandel, Bandle (UGer.): means band or lace maker, cf. Kniebandel. Bendichin [small, narrow band or ribbon]; Sydinbant [silk ribbon]. Cf. Bandleon = Pantaleon.

Bandemer (Brsl.), Bandomir: Slav. pers.n., likewise Jaromir (Jarmer), Tesimer (Teanier), Gogtimer (Gustmer), Venzmer, etc. -mir = ‘fame’. Occurs also in pl.ns.: Bandemerstorp 1285: Bandelstorf in Meckl. Sh.fs. are Bandusch like Bogusch; also pl.ns. like Bando(w), Bandelow, Bandekow (all in Meckl. and Pom.). Concerning Wendish Bandahl see Landahl.

Bandholt, Bandholtz see Band. Also Bandhauer and Bandmacher: Clevi Bandmacher, near St. Blasien 1417.

Bandke: like Bandusch, sh.f. of Slav. Bandemer.

Bandmann (Hbg.): from Band in Oldenburg.

Bandix(en), from Holstein, see Bendix.

Bandow, Bandekow see Bandemer.

Banger(t): UGer. = Baumgart [orchard] (but in Alsace = Ban-wart ‘field ranger’ as in Joh. Fischart’s work, Gargantua). Hans Bangart, Külsheim on the Tauber River, 1525.

Bangratz see Pankratz.

Banhardt: UGer. “Bannwald” [forest for protection against avalanches). V. Banhati, Würt. 1281.

Banholz(er): UGer. = Banhard. H. Banholzer, Würt. 1372, J. Panholzer, Tyrol 1394 (Tarneller, p. 156).

Bank(e): E Ger-Sil. from the pl.n. Bankau, freq. in U. Sil., documented through Hans Banke = Banckaw, Bresl. 1487, also Alexius Bang = Banckow, Bresl. 1436. Cf. Bankmann (Görlitz); also Tinzmann from the town of Tinz (Bahlow SN, p. 78).

Bankert: MHG banc-hart, Dutch bankaard ‘illegitimate child (fathered on a bench) of a nobleman or ruler’. E.g. Knight Gerhart von Neuenburg der Banckhart, Switz. 1395; a glass painter Jooris Banckaert, the Netherlands 1544 (Brech., p. 67).

Bannasch (Bannaski), Bannach: Slav. like Jannasch, Jannack.

Bannier, Bannehr: E Ger-Wend. like Bernier, Hallier, Polthier, etc. in Meckl. and Brandenburg. Achim Bannere, Russow/Meckl. 1544.

Bannwarth: MHG banwart = ‘field ranger’, cf. Bammert. Heinrich der Banewart, near Schopfheim 1278.

Ban(n)wolf (UGer.): patrician family from Augsbg.: Hainr. Banwolf,Augsburg 1324 (Brech., p. 68).

Bänsch see Bähnisch.

Bans(e): CentrGer., LGer. = granary. Zum Banse in Gütersloh 1496. Heinr., called Banse, near Kassel 1384.

Bantele, Bantli, Bentele, Bentlin: Alem. Swab. sh.f. of Bantleon, i.e. Saint Pantaleon, the patron saint of physicians. Benteli = Bantaleon, Zurich 14th c.

Bantelmam (Hbg.): from the town of Banteln near Elze on the Leine River, like Rintelmann from the town of Rinteln.

Bantin (Hbg.): pl.n. near Hagenow in Meckl.

Banz: pl.n. in Franconia: so early as 1345 in old Brsl. Opecz von Bancz.

Banzer (UGer.) see Panzer. Concerning Banzhaf see Mosthaf, Kochhaf, Ölhaf.

Banzhaf(f): freq. in Stuttg., from Swab-Bav. banz ‘beer barrel’ (hafen = ‘container’), means: maker of beer barrels (Banzenmacher). Banzenmacher in Würt. 1565.

Bär: the bear (as the symbol of strength, also house n.: zum Bären, cf. Drewes to dem beren, Haldensl. 1435) lives on in FNs like Bär, Bähr, Behr, Beer, LGer. Bahr. Cf. compounds like Berenvreter [bear eater], Berenstert [bear tail], Bernschinke [bear ham buttock] in Lübeck.

Barbe: a carp-like fish, name for a fish dealer or fisherman.

Barber = “Barbier”, see Balbier.

Barbrack: pl.n. near Hoya.

Barby: pl.n. near Calbe on the Saale River.

Barche(n)t: surnarne of a weaver of fustian (a flannel-like material). Herrn. Barchantweber, Gmünd 1445; Hans Barchat, Überlingen 1550.

Barchfeld: pl.n. in Thuringia.

Barck- see Bark-.

Bardeleben, Bardewik, Bardewisch see Barleben.

Bardenheuer (LGer.): freq. in the Aachen- Cologne area, Bartenheier (UGer., likewise Kolbenheyer), also Barde in Hanover 1442: maker of wooden handles and shafts for battle axes (Ger. Barten, LGer. Barden); cf. Schwepenheuer, Bomheuer, Moldenhauer, Schopenhauer, etc. Also Bardtenschlager (likewise Beckenschlager, Kannenschlager) and Bardenwerper (likewise Rodenwerper, Kegelwerper): in Hanover and Brsw. as early as 1300, 1436 in Kiel; changed to standardized German: Bartenwerfer around 1550; e.g. “mit exsen, bylen u. barden beworpen…” [hit by axes, hatchets, and handles].

Bardey: in documents also Bordey, Burdey in the Loneburg-Prignitz area 1479, 1453; of Wendish origin (Bortaj = Bartholomäus?). Henneke Bordeye, Kiel 1413. Cf. Bardohn, Barduhn; Bardehl.

Bareis: the one who has been in Paris. Burkhart known as von Parîs, in the Breisgau area 1279.

Bär(e)nklau: pl.n. (freq. in Brandenburg and Saxony) [bear claw].

Bärenreiter, Bernreiter: from Bernreut (Bavaria).

Barensteker (MLG): ‘bear killer’. Thid. Barensteker, Strals. 1307 (Th. Barenspliter, 1305: spliten = ‘to split’). In the 18th c. name was used as nickname for police by students in Ro. Documented also Barenhovet in Anklam 1333, Barenstert in Maastricht 1359, Bahrenjuß (Berenvot) in Kiel, Berenschinke in Lüb. 1300, Berenvreter in Malchin 1300, Berenfenger in Frkf. 1367. (Cf. recorded text: “se wulden de hudt verkopen, or se den baren steken” they wanted to sell the hide before they killed the bear”.)

Baresel, Bahregel: MHG bar ‘naked, bare’. Cf. Bellesel in Würt. 1410.

Barfknecht (Stettin): Chr. Barfknecht in Greifenberg 1716. Documented name is Bederveknecht in Hbg. and Meckl. 1350, later Berveknecht, Barveknecht. Literal meaning: ‘honest, trustworthy vassal’, actual meaning yet unclear. MLG berve = bederve ‘honest, upright’; cf. “vrome, berve Lüde” = “vrome bederve Lüde” ‘honest upright people’, Herford Document Register 1420.

Barfoth, Barfaut (LGer.) = UGer. Barfuß [barefoot(ed)]: the barefoot monk. Hinrik der Barfoten broder, Haldsl. 1395.

Barfurth (Hbg.): frorn the town of Barförde near Lauenburg/Elbe; older form: Berefürd ‘ford, passage through swampy terrain.’

Barg, Barge, Bargen (LGer. barg ‘mountain’): these names are partly based on pl.ns., partly on names of habitation, cf. Bargmann = Bergmann = Berger: s.o. dwelling near or on the mountain, hill. Freq. in Hbg.: “v. Bargen” (pl.n. Bargen occurs twice in Holstein, besides Barge near Stade).

Bargende: E Ger.-Slav. pl.n., same as pl.n. Warbende.

Bargha(h)n = Barkhahn: LGer., originally Berkhahn ‘Birkbahn’ [grouse]; Joh. Berchane, Hbg. 1296, cf. Auerhahn [grouse].

Bargheer: Wendish like Banneer etc. (see Bannier).

Bargholz (LGer.) = Bergholz = Berkholz ‘birch forest’.

Bargum: pl.n. near Husum.

Baring (LGer.) = Bering, Behring.

Baritsch: pl.n. near Jauer in Sil.

Bark, Barck (LGer.) = Barg (Berg), however LGer. berke, NHG Birke [birch] may come into play; cf. im Bark, Barkhop, Barkemeyer, Barkei (Westph.). Documented: Herm. Barchower (Berckhouwer), Kiel 1469.

Barkhahn see Barghahn.

Barkholt, Barkholz (LGer.) = Berkholt, Berkholz, NHG Birkengehölz [birch forest].

Barkmann (LGer.) = Berkmann = Bergmann see Barg and Bark.

Barlach (Holstein, Hbg.) see Barlag.

Barlag(e): pl.n. in Oldenburg area (lage means ‘wet pasture’).

Barleben: pl.n. near Magdeburg (cf Herrn. de Bardeleve, 1159, Cord v. Bardeleben, Hamelin 1562). For the water word bard,see Bahlow ON, p. 26. Cf. Joh. de Bardelaghe, knight in Holstein 1356; Diderich Bardewisch, Oldenburg 1425; Niklas Bardewieck, Holstein 1552; de Bardewik, Ro. 1284; Joh. Bardenvlet, Oldbg. 1383.

Barlemann (Westph.): from the town of Barl (Berl-lo) in Westph., same as Werlemann from Werl. Berlemann, Barlemann, Meckl. 1526; de Berte, Greifsw. 1355.

Barlösius (Barlosius, Barlesius): in Magdeburg and Thur., Humanist name, apparently from a Slav. pl.n. For Barlose(n) compare Gorlosen, Parlösen.

Barmann, Baarmann, Bahrmann (LGer.) = Bermann.

Barmbrok(Bemebrok), Barmbek (Bernebek): Berne is an old water name (ber, bern = ‘mud, mire’ as in Barenbruch [Bernbruch], see Bahlow ON, p. 34). Cf. the town of Berne on the Berne River near Bremen.

Barmföhr, Barneföhr: = pl.n. Berneförde. See Barmbek = Bernebeke! Barmwater (Hbg.) like Bernewater means ‘burned water’. Cf. Bernewyn, Ro. 1321; Bernevüre (squire), Br./Lunebg. 1360: ‘arsonist’.

Barme (Hbg.): from the town of Barmen. Brant van Banne (Bannen), Lüneburg 1383; Clawes Barme, Kiel 1451. Cf. pl.n. Barme near Verden on the Aller River.

Barmwater (Hbg.): LGer., derives from Bernewater (cf. Barmföhr), can also be explained as syntactic name “brenne Wasser” [burn water], cf. Bernewin, Ro. 1321, Bernebom, Ro. 1278, Berneblas, Lüb. 1319.

Barnebeck: pl.n. near Salzwedel (Bernebek compare Barmbek). Barnehl: Slav. like Possehl.

Barnekow: pl.n. near Wismar in Meckl.

Barner (Hbg.). LGer. for Berner (Germanic Bern-her), some occurrences in Hbg., Lüb., Strals. around 1300: Bemer(us). Competing form: Berner = Brenner (meaning ‘arsonist’).

Barnewitz: pl.n. in the Havel district.

Barold: Germanic pers.n. Berold. Rodolphus (knight) called Barolt in Pom. 1313 (Pomeranian Document Register, p. 125). Rentze Barold (city councillor), Barth in Pom. 1454. Baroldus, Ro. 14th c.

Báron (Sil.): Slav. like Staron, Garon, Maron.

Barpfennig (UGer.): corresponding name form to LGer. Redepenning; denotes a money changer. Rüllin Barpfennig, Strasb. 1413.

Bars, Baars, Bahrs, Barsch (freq. in the North Sea area): fish name, der Barsch [perch] denotes a fish dealer or fisherman. Herm. Bars, Ro. 1263, also Wilh. Sebars, Ro. 1273, R. Culebars, Greifsw. 1356 (= Kaulbarsch). See also Stint, Stör, Schlie, Schnepel, etc. For Barsman, Han. 1306, see Schliemann.

Barschall: Bar-schalk ‘free servant, freeman’, see Parschalk. Cf. Marschall, Seneschall.

Bart see Barth.

Bartel, Bartelmann see Barthel.

Bartels (freq. in North Sea area): patr. of Bartelt, i.e. Germanic pers.n. Berthold;in LGer. vowel changes er:ar around 1300; thus Barthold, Bartheldes, Bartholz: Hermen Berteldes, Kiel 1455. As late as 1597 in Flensburg: Bartelt Sarow. 1680 in Hbg.: Barthold Hinr. Brockes (German writer and poet).

Bartenschlager, Barter (UGer.) see Bardenheuer (Nied, p. 97).

Barth (widespread name): the man with a beard or with an unusual beard. Since the 12th c. there were periods when a shaven (beardless) face became fashionable; in the 16th c. various shapes of beards became fashionable again. The original name form is found in the Emperor’s name, Otto “mit dem Barte” (with the beard), Cuntze mit dem barte = Cuneze bart, Liegn. 1382. H. mit dem barde = Bartmann! Brunsw. 1397; Graf Eberhard im Bart, who is called the “beard man”, 1540. Mätebart ‘fight the beard’, Han. 1528. Cf. Thid. anebart, Hildesh. 1290; de Barth freq. in Strals. around 1300: from the town of Barth. Also house name: C. zem barte, Basel 1341.

Barthel (UGer., Centr.Ger); Bartle (Swab.): sh.f. of the saint’s name Bartholomäus, Barthelme (Bahlow VN, p. 12; SN, p. 56).

Barthold see Bartels.

Bartholomä etc.: freq. in UGer. area, also sh.f. Barthel, Bartl.

Bartke, Bartek, Bartilla: Slav. sh.f. of Bartholomäus.

Bartling, Bertling: Westph. patr., originally Bertholding.

Bartloff. pl.ns. Groß-Bartloff and Klein-Bartloff in the Eichsfeld area (cf. Bartlowo in E Pruss.); similar pl.n.: Haseloff.

Bartmann see Barth.

Bartnick (freq. in Brsl.), Bartnig, Barting; Bartnitzki: Pol. bartnik = ‘bee keeper’. Also pl.n. Bartnig near Brsl.

Barton: E Ger.-Slav. Bh.f. of Bartholomäus, cf. Bartek, Bartke, Bartosch.

Bartram; LGer. variant of Bertram. See Barthold, Bartels.

Bartsch (E Ger.-Sil.): documented Bartusch (Slav. Bartosch), Bartisch: around 1300-1400 was popular sh.f. of Bartholomäus, (Bahlow SN, p. 56.) Batiusch = Bartilmeus Wolf, Brsl. 1370; Bartsch Lemberg, Görlitz 1495; Ranisch Lindener, Liegn. 1491.

Bartscher: contracted from Bartscherer [beard shaver] just like Scheer from Scherer [shearer]. The latter mainly S Ger. whereas Scheer is N Ger.: Bartscherere around 1250-1300 in Ro., Strals., Greifsw. etc. Also sentence name: Scheerbarth [shear the beard]: Scerebard, Ro. 13th c.

Bartz (freq. in Hbg.), Barz; patr. Bartzen: Rhenish, from Bartholomäus, likewise Dutch Baerts, Baertson.

Baruth, Bahruth: pl.n. (province of Brandenburg, Sax.).

Bärwald: from Bärwalde (freq. in Sax., Brandenburg, Sil.).

Barwick, Barwig: N Ger.; sometimes deriving from pl.n. like Berwick near Soest, sometimes from pers.n. Berwig (see there).

Bärwolf: MHG ber-welf ‘bear cub’. Berwelf,Worms 1335; Berwolf, Oppenheim 1375.

Bau see Bartz. Also pl.n. Barz in Meckl.

Bächle (Swab.) = Baschtian! See Bastian.

Bäschler (Würt.) = Bastler? [handyman] (Brech., p. 77). Nikol. Bäschler, Löffingen 1425; der Bischler, Echterdingen 1281.

Baschugel (Würt.): perhaps “Bastnagel” (Nied SF, p. 96), name for a nail smith?

Bäsecke, Beseke: recorded as LGer. sh.f. for the saint’s name Basilius, Beseke =Bäsilius von der Gartow 1342 (Bahlow DN, p. 60). Historical records in the town of Quedlinburg (Harz) from the 14th c. show the name. Baseke, Beseke also recorded in old Lübeck. C. Beseken, Duderstadt 1324.

Bas(e)dahl (Hbg.): pl.n. Basdahl near Bremervörde. As early as 1302 in Strals.: Hinceko Basdal.

Basedow: pl.n. in Meckl., of Wendish origin like Garsedow etc.

Bas(e)ler: from the city of Basel.

Basse (Hbg.): from the towns of Basse (near Wunstorf and near Ro.); also Bassemann just like Gressmann from town of Gresse and Plessemann from town of Plesse. Cf. Joh. van Basse 1380 and H. Basseman, Han. 1309; Joh. Basse, squire, Holstein 1362. Likewise Bassen: pl.n. near Verden.

Bassel(mann): from Bassel near town of Soltau.

Bassermann (Jewish) see Wassermann.

Bassewitz: Slav. pl.n.

Bassler (MLG): “baccalaurius”, also ‘young nobleman’. Jac. Basselere, Hbg. 1382, Thid. Bascelere, 1295.

Bassüner: MLG basûner ‘trombonist’. Stacius Basunre, Ro. 1288. Lüdeke Passunere, Stettin 1324.

Bast, Bastke, Basten, Basting: sh.f. for Bastian = Sebastian. Lith. Bastigkeit.

Bastard: ‘illegitimate offspring’ (cf. Bankart). Albr. Bastard, Baden 1449.

Bastian: = Sebastian, martyr and saint, worshipped mainly in the south and in the Rhine area as evidenced by numerous sh.fs.: Bastl, Baschtel, Baschi, Büschele, Bästle, Bestel (used by the Baroque author, Fischart); Best(gen) is Rhenish, etc. See also Baustian, Paustian.

Bästle see Bastian.

Bastmann: = Bastian.

Bastöver: = Badstöver ‘owner of a public bath’ (Badestube). Lubbeke Bastover, Ro. 1382 (Kiel 1378). Related is Ba(h)steen ‘bath stone or rubbing stone’.

Bath(e), Bathke: Slav, pers.n., cf. Batek (related to Russ. batja, batika ‘father’, Miklosich, p. 31). A person by the name of Bateke was recorded in Strals. 1280. Bathies (E Prusa.-Lith.), likewise Bartschies, Jogschies, etc. Cf. pl.n. Batevitz. However Batevest (LGer.) ‘help a lot!’, 1453.

Bäther see Böther.

Bäthke, Bithge, Bätje see Bethke, Bethge.

Bätjer (Fris.), Bötjer see Bötteher.

Batt, Battmann. UGer.-Alem.: Saint Batt (Lat. Beatus ‘the blessed, the blissful’) was known as apostle of Switzerland (cf. pl.n. St. Bauen near Berne). The brother of the Humanist Thomas Murner was called Batt Murner (around 1500); Hans Battman in Baden 1469.

Batz, Batzle(n): Alem-Swab. ‘lump, pile’ (ein Batzen Geld! ‘a lot of money’); also a coin, hence the FN Batzenschlag(er) [coin maker] in Würt. Cuntz Batze, Waiblingen 1350.

Batzlaff: pl.n. in Pom. (Slav.).

Bauch, Biuchle: LGer. Bu(u)k: s.o. with a protruding stomach. Cf. Altbauch, Breitbauch, Schmalbauch, Spitzbauch, Schmerbauch, Gutschebauch, Bleckebauch, Rockenbauch, etc.

Baucke see Bauke.

Baudach (Sil.): Slav. pl.n. (two in Brandenburg): Bartel Baudach, Görlitz 1465. Concerning the stem of the word bud as in Baudissin (Budissin) see pers.n.Budislaw.

Baude (Sil.): Slav. like Baudach, Baudemann. Cf. Hentschel Bawde, 1420, and Bernh. Budaw, 1419 (both from the same family) near Liegnitz. Pl.n. Budau in Bohemia and Baudau in Sax. Concerning Baudemann (Sil. 1636) see pl.n. Baudmannsdorf (from Budwinsdorf, likewise Gießmannsdorf from Goswinsdorf).

Bauder (also Buder): Swab. ‘hitter’ (MHG buden ‘to hit’), hence der Buder, Stuttg. 1350.

Baudis (freq. in Dresden): pl.n. in the districts of Liegnitz and Neumarkt (Sil.); Cf. Baudissin, Bauditz, Bauditsch like Abitz, Abitsch; Baudach. Baudisch, Baudusch are sh.fs. of the Slav. pers.n. Budislaw, Budimir.

Baudissin: (older Budissin: the former name of the town of Bautzen, i.e. Buchslaws place). Name of a well-known noble family from the Lausitz region.

Baudistel (freq. in Stuttg.): peasant name in sentence form [grow a thistle]. Eberlin Buwendistel, Stuttg. 1471.

Bau(e)r (freq. in Bav.): MHG büwäre (büwen = ‘to form’). Swabian variants are Bäuerle, Beuerle, Boyerle (unrounded vowel like in Seyerle).

Bauermeister see Burmeister.

Bauer(n)feind (UGer.); also Paurnfeindt [enemy of the peasants]: name for knights and robber knights. Heintz von Redwitz, called Bauemfeind in the 15th c. Cf. Geburenhaß in tho epic Seifrid Helbling.

Bauerochs: [farm ox], the Standard German form of LGer. Buhrosse (Flensburg 1604). A family B. from Liegnitz had its name changed to Rodewald [clear the forest] in 1912!

Baugatz: E Ger-Slav. like Begatz, Baratz, Glowatz, Heinatz. Frem Slav. bog ‘god’; cf. Bogurnil, Bogislaw, Bogdan.

Bauhuys (L.Rhine area) = Bauhaus (name of locality), similar Broekhuis, Veenhuis, Panhuis, Steenhuys.

Bauke, Baucke: 1) in Silesia name derives from pl.n. Baucke, district Neiße; 2) in Friesland, however, it is a pers.n. with a k-suffix: from Baveke, like Aucke from Aveke, Haucke from Haveke. Concerning the patr. Baucken see Aucken.

Bauknecht (Würt.): MHG bûknecht ‘farm hand’.

Baum (UGer., Sil.), Bäunde (Swab.): named after the dwelling place; also field n. Sometimes surname for a lumberjack as in Baumhauer, Baumhäckel, Baumhacker, as well as for the tree farmer in Baumgärtner. Lodewig zum grünen Baume, Frkf. 1387.

Baumann (UGer.): MHG bûmann ‘farmer’. LGer. Bu(h)mann!

Baumbach, Bombach, Bombeck (LGer.): pl.n. in Hesse, Baden, Rhine area, Westphalia, Altmark.

Baumer, Baumert (Centr.Ger.-Sil., also UGer., Bahlow SN, p. 78): name of origin and dwelling place [near a tree], cf. Eschbaumer [dwelling by an ash tree] etc. In Westphalia: Bäumer (also Böhmer) as in Brinkbäumer, Schuckenbäumer; vor dem Schuckenbome, also relating to ‘a barrier’.

Baumgart(e), Baumgarten, Baumgärtl, Baumgärtner: living near an orchard or owning one: ‘fruit grower’. Cf. Seczebaum, Brsl. 14th. c. Similar names (from the field of tree farming) Pfropfreis, Buckreis. The names ending in -er are UGer. A certain Hannoz Schindel, called Baumgarte (in Liegn.) is eventually just called Hannos Baumgarte, 15th c. (Bahlow SN, p. 78). The name occurs also in numerous towns and hamlets.

Baumgratz see Pankratz.

Baumhäckel, Baumhacker: UGer. and E Centr.Ger. = Baumhauer. MHG heckelhacker [cutter].

Baumhauer, Baumheuer; Baumheier, Baumhöer (UGer.): lumberjack but also s.o. who cuts and trims tree trunks or logs. Cf. LGer. Bo(h)mhauer; also Baumhacker, Baumhäckel.

Bäumle see Baum. Bäumler (freq. in Bav.-Franconia): both names refer to the dwelling place [near a tree]. Cf. field name: “zem Böumelin”.

Baumöl (UGer.-Austr.) stands for Baumhöwel = Baumhauer [tree cutter], cf. Steinhöwel.

Baumstark: cf. Wasmodus Bomstark [strong as a tree], Lpz. 1418.

Baunach (Nbg., Würzbg.); pl.n. near Bamberg, where the Baunach River flows into the Main. (Bahlow ON, p. 29.) Cf. Baunack (freq. in Lpz.).

Baur (Bav., Austria) see Bauer.

Baureis(s): UGer., unclear etymology; cf. Buckreis (Kronach), Pfropfreis. Probably meaning ‘plant sprigs or scions!’ (for a gardener).

Baus, Bausnik, Bauske, Bauschke, Bauschat, Bauschus are Ger.-Slav., cf. pl.ns. like Bausa, Bauska, Bauschwitz. See also Bus-.

Bausback (UGer.), Pausback: ‘chubby- cheek(ed)’. Busbacke, Würzburg 1351.

Bausch (UGer.): MHG bûsch ‘fluffy ball’. MHG bûs ‘swelling füllness’. Cf. Kornbausch, Bauschwängel, Olmütz 14th c. Bauschweckel (‘hard roll’), Moravia 1414.

Bauschke (Slav.) see Baus.

Bause(n)wein (UGer.): = Schwendenwein, name for a heavy drinker, boozer (büzen ‘to feast’). Eberh. B., Kürnbach 1527. Also Bauser (UGer.) ‘boozer’: Nic. miles dietus Busere (Knight Nic., called B.), Ingelheim 1293; Busemann (archbishop of Mainz, 1350) “because he liked to drink”! Cf. Otto Bausmann, Kaub 1653.

Baustian see Bestian.

Bautz(e), Bautzmann (UGer., Bautz freq. in Stuttg., Konstanz): MHG butz ‘little fellow’. Joh. Bautz (Butz) from Bottwar/Würt. 1486.

Bauwens (Dutch-L.Rhine) = Baudewins = Baldewins (cf. Baudouin). Martin Baudewyns (Balduini), bishop of Ypern 1512-83.

Bax (Hbg., Ro.), Baxmann (Hbg.), Baxmeier; Baxhenrich; Backs (Osn.): H. Backesman, Han. 1370 (for Backes see Backhus).

Bayer, Baier, Beyer, Beier; Bayerle, Bayerlein [‘Bavarian’]; numerous Beyers (see Bahlow SN, p. 78). Name contains the name of the Celtic tribe of the Bojers (note the origin of the name Bohemia from Bojohemum).

Bebber (van Bebber): pl.n. near the Deister hills. (Older form: Bedebur; see Bahlow ON, p. 37.)

Bebel (UGer.-Würt.); also Böbel: s.th. small (Swab. “böbbele”). Name is known through August Bebel, the social democrat; also Heinrich Bebell the Humanist from Würt. around 1500. Wernh. called Bebele, near Frkf. 1307; Hans der Bebler, Waldshut 1376. Hans Bäbler, Aargau 1358; Hans Böbel, Würt. 1480.

Beber(t), CentGer. for Biber [beaver] (cf. LGer. Bewer, Bever): cf Hans Behber (Biber), Jena 1557. Also Bevernest in Haldsl. Pl.ns. like Bebra, Bevern derive from an old river name. Cf. “am Beberberge”, Bebermeier.

Bech (UGer.): MHG bech = ‘pitch’. Also Bechmann, the pitch gatherer, pitch burner (MHG becherer). A pl.n. in the Rhine area: Nieder-Bech.

Bechem, Bechen (Cologne): pl.n. like Bachern (= “Bachheim”); cf. pl.n. Bechen in the area of Bergisches Land.

Becher (Mnch., Col. freq.), Bechert, Becherle, Becherer (LGer. bekerer, bekerwerte): name for the occupation of the turner, who makes wooden drinking vessels or mugs; but in the UGer. area MHG becher(er) ‘pitch gatherer, pitch burner’ may come into play. A guild of the “Becherer” existed once in Nordhausen. A certain Hans Becherlin was recorded in Basel 1428; Thomas Becherer, Liegnitz 1372, Stephan Becherer textor in Brsl. 1387. Names for drinkers: Lerenbecher [empty the mug], Neigenbecher [tilt the mug], Schwenkenbecher [wave the mug], Stürzenbacher (LGer. Störte(n)becker) [tip the mug]. The seal of Jörg Becherer, Strasbg. 1443, shows three beakers (mugs): cf. Cl. Drebecher, Frkf. 1370.

Bechler, Bichler (UGer.): s.o. who lives on a stream, e.g. Berchtold der Becheler, Überlingen 1350, Cunrat Bicheler, Konstanz 1259.

Bechlin (Ro.): pl.n. in Brandenburg.

Bechmann (Mnch.) see Bech.

Bechstein: both Ludwig B., the collector of fairy tales, as well as Carl B., the piano maker, were from Thuringia. As early as 1216, Diderich Bechstein is recorded near Mainz; also there in 1300: Herbordus called Bechstein; Pechstein in Lohr/Main 1150, Bechstein, 1338. Pechstein appears along with quartz in Breslau around 1350! “Pechstein” is a quartz-like, clear mineral.

Becht, Bechtle, Bechtel: sh.f. of Bechtold (also Bechtolf, Bechtram); Becht- is a dialect variant of SW Germany and Hasse for Bercht- (Germanic ‘shining, famous’). Cf. Becht Nebeger, Frkf. 1367, K. Bechtli, Stuttg. 1504.

Bechtold, Bechtolf, Bechtloff, Bechtluft see Becht. Bechtold Suleffel, Frkf. 1442, Tiburtius Bechtolf, Frkf. 1568, Bechtram Nuzeman, Wetzlar 1347 Bechtold, Bechtoldes son, Fulda 1387.

Beck, Backe (Bav. Böck): the older S Ger. name for the baker. Also Bäcker, Becker. For the geographical distribution of the two forms see Brech., pP. 89-90. Pfister (Würt.) from Lat. pistor actually indicates the baker of a monastery. The following compounds are found: Brodbeck (a guild of “Brodbecken” in old Konstanz), Dürrbeck, Hofbeck [Hof = ‘court’], Kornbeck [Korn = ‘grain’], Sauerbeck, Semmelbeck [Semmel = ‘hard roll’], Weitzenbeck [Weizen = ‘wheat’], Täglichsbeck [täglich = ‘daily’]. Also surnames like Butterweck [Weck = ‘roll’], Hebelwecke, Surhebel, Spitzweck (cf. the painter Spitzweg!), Backwerk, Simmel, Siebenstriezol, Mohnstriezel; Klunkerteig, Teigfuß, Schmatzenteig, Sauerteig, Knüllemehl, Machhörndl, Saffran, Fladen(maul), Pustkuchen, Guckinofen, Ofenloch, Backesbas, Hefenbauch, etc.

Becken (N Ger) see Beecken.

Beckenhaub, Beckelhaub: UGer. (MHG beckelhûbe ‘spiked helmet, helmet’), also for an armorer (specializing in helmets): hubensmid. Occurs also as an old house name: zuo der Beckelhuben, Strasb. 1343

Beckenschlager: means coppersmith, who manufactured copper and brass containers (= Becken), in old Lübeck, old Breslau, etc. recorded.alongside the brass smith.

Becker see Bock.

Beckhardt: = ‘Begharde, lay brother’ (of a religious community around 1300; the female Beghines formed a separate community). Begehati, Brsl., 14th c.

Beckmann: LGer., corresponds to Centr. UGer. Bachmann: named after the dwelling place on a stream (geographical distribution see Brech., p. 90). LGer. beke ‘stream’. Cf. Overdebeke.

Bedbur (Cologne): pl.n. Bedburg near Col. (documented as Bedebur), with an old castle surrounded by water. bed is an old water word (Bahlow ON, p. 37).

Beddies: based on Beddinges as Wirries on Wirringes.

Bedepenning (LGer.): bede = ‘tax’, cf. Bedenknecht.

Beder: umlaut form of Bader (common in old Frankfurt), also in old Brsl. and Haldensl.

Bednar, Bednarek and similar names: Pol.-Czech. for the cooper.

Bee(c)ken, Becken (LGer.); Beeck: Dutch van der Beeck (Verbeeck), after the dwelling place: an der Beke (= am Bache, ‘on the stream’). See also Beckmann.

Beel(e): Hbg., de Belen, Ro. 1280 (Bahlow ON, p. 31).

Beeack, Beenken see Behnke.

Beer, Behr, Bä(h)r: S Ger., W Ger. and E Ger., meaning ‘bear’, mostly a surname, also name of dwelling (Drewes to dem Beren, Haldsl. 1435). Cf. Margrave Albrecht der Bär [the bear] (“so called for his heroism”). In the Sil-Sax. area (where Beer and Behr are freq.) the dialect variant for the FN Beyer may be involved (Bahlow SN, p. 122) as well as in some instances the old pers.n. Bero (for Berwin, Bernhard), cf. Bero Rußwurm, Bamberg 1178, Ber von Ramungen, Ulm 1294, also Berlin = Bernhard, Heilbronn around 1400-1500, whereas the UGer. form for Bernhard is mostly Benz. Beerli is the Swiss variant, LGer. mostly Baar, Bahr (Her Huge de Bare (Bere), Westph. 1298).

Beerbohm, Behrbohm: LGer., after the dwelling at a pear tree [Birnbaum] (cf. Nottebohm = Nußbaum). Also house name. Hinr. Berbom, Lüb. around 1300.

Beerhold see Berold.

Beerle (Swab.) see Beer.

Beennmm (LGer.) see Behrmann.

Beerschneider, Beerstecher see Barensteker.

Beese (Hbg. freq. in Ro.): LGer. bêse, Dutch bies ‘reed’, contained in pl.ns. Besenhorst, Besenbruch, Besenkamp and pl.n. Beesen (Altmark, Holstein, Westph.): Henr. (de) Besen = H. Bese, Ro. 1282; Joh. Bese, Strals. 1283. Cf. Biese and Biesenbinder.

Beesten (Hbg.): pl.n. near Lingen on the Ems River.

Beethoven (Flemish): = ‘beet garden’.

Beetz (freq. in Hbg.): pl.n. on the Havel River.

Begemann, Begemeyer (Lippe area): from the Bega (small river near Detmold), likewise Huntemann, Wippermann, Bestemann, in which the first compound of the name refers to a river.

Beggerow (Meckl.): pl.n. near Demmin.

Behaghel (Bentheim): Dutch behaghel ‘pleasing, joyous’; cf. mishagelik ‘displeasing’. FN Unbehagen.

Beha(i)m (UGer.): the Bohemian. Cf. Behm, Böhm.

Behler (UGer.): Burkart der Beler, near Donau-Eschingen 1314, where a pl.n. Behla is found. Concerning Behl(e), Behla, Behlau consider the pl.ns. Behl (Holstein), Behla (Netze area), Behle (Silesia) and see Biehler.

Behling (Hbg.): pl.n. in the Ruhr area; also pl.n. Behlingen/Weser.

Behlmer: pl.n. near Hoya.

Behm see Böhm.

Behn, Behne, Behnk(e), Behnken (all are LGer., also with -ck-) are sh.fs. of Bernhard. In some instances of Behn “Bein” [bone, leg] may be involved. See this. (Cf. Henning mit dem bene; Hans Röreben, Han. 1459). Ro. references: Bene carnifex, Strals. 1289, Hans Bene, Barth 1412, Beneke (Bernart) Sachtelevent, Strals. 1301, Beneke (Bernard) Vleminc, Strals. 1300. In Westph. also Beine, Beinker.

Behnisch see Bähnisch.

Behr (Thur., Sax., Sil.) see Beer. Behrbohm see Beerbohm.

Behre (Hbg.) derives from the pl.n. Bohren (several occ. in Han., Meckl.); concerning the omission of the -n see Beese(n). A Bohre River runs near Efeld/Harz. Cf. Bohren.

Behren (von) (Hbg.): pl.n. (see Bohre). Lüder von der Beren, Lüb. 1317. Cf. Theodor von Beren 1267 (pl.n. Gr.-Beeren/Teltow).

Behrens, Berends, Behrend, Behrendsen: lengthened from Bernd = Bernhard, likewise Ahrens from Arnd = Arnold. Used to be very popular in N Germany also as Beneke (Behnke). Behrend Janssen Iben recorded 1860 in E Fris. Jeverland. The documented form for Behrens is (Hinrik) Berndes, Greifsw. 1387.

Behrenstengel see Birnstengel.

Behringer (UGer.): from Behringen or Böhringen in Würt. (C. Beringer, Zurich 1317). But N Ger. Behring is patr. as in Lippold Bere (Bering) = ursus [bear]. Pom. 1237-51.

Be(h)risch (freq. in Dresden, Sil.): sh.f of the Slav. pers.n. Beroslaw just as Bohrisch from Boroslaw. M. Berisch, Görl. 1432, P. Berusch, Brsl. 1367, Beruschke, cook, Brsl. 1391.

Behrie (Würt.), Beerli see Beer.

Behrmann (LGer.) means the beer merchant (Biermann) just as Wienmann means the wine merchant; the spelling is from the 17th c., e.g. “verdrunken 3 kan behr” [drank 3 pitchers of beer], 1673. Likewise Westph., “viel Bier” [a lot of beer], Suhrbeer “Sauerbier” [sour beer], Mügebeer, “Mögebier” [likes beer]. Sluckeber [swallow beer], Ro. 1327, Drinkeber, Lüb. 1300.

Behrstecher, Behrschneider, Behrsauter see Barensteker. Be(h)schitt (Brsl.): Slav. like Ragnit near Tilsit.

Beiche, Beichmann: from Beicha and Beucha on the Saale River, Beichau (Sil.) (likewise Tinzmann from Tinz/Sil.).

Beiderwieden (LGer.): “dwelling near the willow tree”; cf. Wiedenbohm, Wiedenkamp, Wiedenmann.

Beier see Bayer.

Beifuß (Peyfuß in Austria): plant name.

Beil (UGer.) [hatchet, axe]: denotes the occupation of the Beilschmidt, (Mnch.), ‘axe maker’, or of the carpenter: cf. Timmerbeil. Also related Breitbeil, Dünnebeil, Blankebeil, Hackebeil (Beilhack), Klingbeil (LGer. Klinkebil, Rendsbg. 1355); H. Bilmeker, L.Rhine area 1535. J. Bilhower, Ulm 1480. As to MHG bihel compare Würt. Beyel (Bihel 1436).

Beiler (Würt., Switz.) see Bailer.

Beil(i)cke, Behlike: pl.n. Belicke near Magdeburg.

Beilstein: pl.n. (Hesse, Moselle, Würt.). See Bielstein.

Beimfohr (Westph.): becomes clear through the name BeimForde ‘near the ford’, likewise Tomfohr = TomForde [LGer. variant with the same meaning]. Cf. Hans vorm Fohrde, Stemmen 1602. Similar: Beimbrinke, Beimgraben, Beimdieke.

Bein, Beyn (freq. in Hbg.) [bone, leg]: rarely meaning the part of the body (cf. Henning mit dem bene), but in some cases compound name refers to a conspicuous feature as in Langbeen [long leg], Kegebein, Kortebein [short log], Dickeben [fat leg], Swakeben, Stolteben [strutting leg], Snakeben, Spinnebein [spider leg], Vulebeyn [lazy leg], Krohnsbeen [crane leg], Kohbeen [cow leg], Rehbeihn [deer leg], Ruckeben [hopping leg]. In the LGer. area = Behn = Bernhard. Thus Beine parallels with Behne, and Beinke with Behnke, Beining with Be(h)ning. Compare Beinker (patr.) in where ei stands for e. See also Beinhorn (Benhorn).

Beindner (Mnch.) see Bainter.

Beinhauer (Hesse): Hessian word for the butcher (Knochenhauer, Fleischer). MHG bein = ‘bone’.

Beinhorn: pl.n. near Lehrte (documented as: Benhorn ‘little swamp’), likewise Benhorn near Walsrode; Druchhorn, Balhorn, etc. (Bahlow ON, pp. 30, 33).

Beining, Beinlier see Bein. (Beineker, Lippe 1666: parallels Bencke as Gödeker with Gödeke). Cf. Benckers, Bremen 1501.

Beinlich (Glatz/Sil.): Niclas Beinling, Glatz 1465 (MHG beinlinc ‘trouser leg’).

Beinroth: from Beinrode/Eichsfeld area, likewise Billroth, Klapproth, etc.

Beischlag see Beyschlag.

Beise: tributary of the Fulda, also the towns Beiseförth and Beisheim (Bahlow ON, p. 30).

Beisele(n): Würt., like in the name pair “Eisele und Beisele”.

Beisker see Peisker.

Beißenhirtz, Beißenherz: means the hunter (and his hounds).

Beißer (UGer.): s.o. who bites. Ulrich Beyßer, knight 1317. Beismichnit, Freiburg 1542.

Beißwenger, Beißwinger(t): from Beiswang/Würt.; cf. Binswanger from the town Binswangen.

Beitl, Beitler see Beutler.

Beitz: probably from the E Ger pl.n. Baitz, Beitzsch, etc.

Bekerer: Tymme, Ro. 1263, denoting a wood craftsman who makes mugs (“Becherdrechsler”). Also R. Bekerholt, Hbg. 1371.

Belde, Beldel see Balde(win): Cf. Beldewin, Frkf. 1387, der Belde (old Breslau); Beldner (UGer.): Belde = ‘willow tree’; Beldach = ‘willow stand’; Beldengraben [Graben ‘ditch’].

Beleites, Behleit (E Pruss.-Lith.): likewise Mickeleit, Poweleit (-eit is patr. ending).

Belke, Belkner: possibly from pl.n. Belkau (several occ. in EGer. area).

Bell (freq. in Cologne): pl.n. in the Rhineland (twice).

Belleb (Thur.): from the pl.n. Belleben.

Beller (UGer.-Würt.): = ‘quarreller’ (MHG bellen ‘to bicker, to quarrel’). Wigand Beller, near Wertheim 1166; H. der Beller, Würt. 1308. A. Bellesel, Würt. 1410.

Bellennann: from Beller/Westph.

Bellmann (freq. in Hbg.): from Belle/Westph., Bell/Rhineland or Bellen south of Bremen. Cf. Bassemann: from Basse; Bestmann: from Besten, etc. E. von Belle, Stettin 1531.

Bellon (Ital. ‘pretty’): imported to Ulm around 1650.

Below: pl.n. in Meckl. (3 times).

Beischner: UGer.

Belser (UGer.): from Belsen/Würt. (bels = ‘swamp’, see Bahlow ON, p. 32). Belsemeyer: from Belsen near Cello.

Belter (MLG): ‘belt maker’ (Swed. bälte ‘belt’; occupational name(s) as in “bältare och remsnidere”, Stockholm 1461). Chr. Belter, Riga 1291. Winand B., Danzig 1263, Wulhard B., Ro. 1280. Also “der belter gerhus” (beltmakers’ tanning building) in old Riga.

Bel(t)z (UGer.). probably means the furrier or fur trader, e.g. Heinr. Belzwerk, MHG Franconia 1330; Hans Beltzner, Schwäbisch-Hall 1553; J. Beitzlin, Reutlingen 1513. E. Beltzer, Zurich 1357. Berth. Belz, Franconia 1293.

Bemmann: may be a contraction of Bennemann (Cologne), referring to LGer. benne peat bog, swampy meadow’. (Bahlow ON, p. 32-33.)

Benck (LGer.) = Behncke = Beneke (Bernhard), see Behn.

Benda, Boneda (E Ger.) = Benedikt, see Bendig, Bendix.

Bend(e)1 (UGer.): s.o. who deals in ribbons (“Bändeln”) or decorates hirnself with ribbon. Also Bendler. Alb. Bendel, Böhringen/Würt. 1286.

Bender (freq. in Cologne, Frkf., Mnch.): = Binder = Faßbender, Faßbinder ‘cooper’. A guild of coopers (Bender) recorded in old Frkf.

Benfeldt (Hbg.): pl.n. near Plön.

Bendha(a)ck (LGer.), Benthaack: peddler of hoops (for barrels), which were manufactured by the Bendheuer (Cologne) or the Bendschneider (Hbg.). Cf. Semmelhaack etc. Joh. bentsnidere, Ro. 1290.

Bendig, Bendix, Benditt (Banditt): EGer. = Benedikt. Patr. Bendixen in Schlesw.-Holst.

Bendleb (Thur.): pl.n. Bendleben, likewise Memleb, Biegleb.

Bendler see Bendel.

Bendschneider see Bendhaack.

Bendt (Hbg.) likewise Bendtsen; see Bente.

Bendtrodt: pl.n. Benterode/Thur.

Benduhn (E Pruss.-Lith.) = Benda = Benedikt; see Steppuhn.

Bene(ke), Beneking (LGer.) see Behn(ke); also for Benemann.

Benesch (freq. in Vienna): Czech for Benedikt. See Bähnisch.

Benfer, Benver, Bänfer (Cologne): from the town Benfe (or Banfe near Laasphe), deriving from Ban-apa ‘swampy stream’ (Bahlow ON, p. 25).

Benfey (Jewish): = ben-Fey ‘son of Phoebus’.

Bengehals (Brsw.) = Windehals [turn neck]. Heyncke B., 1333.

Beng(e)l, Bengler, Benglmann (UGer.): bengel ‘heavy stick, cudgel’, or for a person: ‘crude fellow, boor’. Burkh. Bengel, a serf, Würt. 1282. Also pl.n. in Moselle area and Bavaria.

Benger(t): from Bengen/Rhineland.

Bengs, Bengsen = Swed. Bengtson: ‘Benedikt’s son’.

Benholt, Benholz: point to names of locations like Bensiek and Benhorn.

Bening (patr.) see Beneke, Behn.

Benkeir(t): freq. in Mnch. Derives from the pl.n. Benk, which occurs in Bavaria several times. However Herburt bencker, Frkf. 1387, may derive from MHG benken ‘to manufacture benches’. See also Beinker.

Benn, Benno, Bennen, Bennocke, Benning (LGer.): sh.f. and patr. of Bernhard. Docum. are: Benno qui et Bernhardus, dux Saxoniae [Benno also Bernhardus, ruler of Saxony], 11th c. Ludolf Benning, Strals. 1288. Hans Benne, Han. 1523. (See however Bennemann.)

Bennemann (Cologne): named after dwelling place (LGer. benne = ‘peat field’). Hans Benne, Selz/Alsace 1367.

Benner (UGer.), Bennert: maker of bassinets (“Bennenmacher”), (MHG benne ‘bassinet’). Joh. Benner, Schwäbisch-Hall 1432.

Benninger (UGer.): from Benningen/Würt. (twice).

Benrath: pl.n. near Düsseldorf. Also pl.n. Bennrath on the Sieg River (ben ‘swamp’, Bahlow ON, p. 32-33).

Bensch: see Benesch, Bähnisch.

Bense, Bensemann: from Bensen near the town Hamelin (older: Benhusen, compare Winsen: Winhusen; ben, win ‘swamp’).

Bensel (UGer.): MHG bensel, pensel ‘brush’, i.e. ‘paintbrush’; for a person: ‘an opinionated twit’. Hugo Bensel, Gmünd 1563.

Benseler (Westph.): also Ben(t)zler: apparently deriving from an old pl.n. ending in -lar ‘moist soil’ like Manzlar, Winzlar; cf. Bentler from Benteler in Westph., Methler from Metheler in Westph.

Bensieck, Bensieg: name of location in Westph. See Benrath. (Siek indicates a swampy place.)

Bensing (Westph.): patr. of Bens(o), likewise Mensing of Menso. Unless B. = UGer. Benzing, Bensinger is different from Benzinger. See there.

Bente (freq. in Hbg.): along with Bent, Beint, B. is Fris. sh.f. of Bernt (Bernhart) (F. Stark, p. 130, Ruprecht, p. 7). Cf. Meint, Ment sh.fs. of Meinhart. Compare also Fris. Bentjen(s), Bentinek and Bendt, Bendtsen, Bentzen.

Bentele, Bentli(n), Bentl (UGer.): sh.f. of Pantaleon, see Bantele. (Cf. K. Bentele, Gesch. d. Familie B. [History of B. Family], Ulm 1941.)

Bentfeldt: pl.n. (Holst., Han.). Compare also Bentfurt, Bentheim, Bentlage, Bentwisch (bent = ‘swampy heath, plain’, freq. in the NW, especially Westph.: a peat bog called “Bent” near Hiddesen) (Preuß, p. 95).

Bentha(a)ck (freq. in Hbg.) see Bendhaack.

Benthien, Bentien (freq. in Hbg.). pl.n. Bentin near Gadebusch/Meckl.

Bentinek see Bente.

Bentlage: pl.n. in Westph., see Bentfeld.

Bentler, Benteler: pl.n. Benteler near Beckum in Westph.

Bentrup: pl.n. in Westph. (-trup = -torp ‘village’; Ger. “Dorf”).

Bentwisch: pl.n. near Rostock, Stade and Perleberg (‘swampy field’), see also Bentlage, Bentfeld.

Bentz see Benz.

Bentzen (Hbg.), Bentsen, Bentzen: patr. of Bent(e). Cf. in Flensburg 1593: Carsten Bentzen, Bonnick Bentzen.

Bentzien: pl.n. Benzin (several times in Meckl.-Pom.).

Bentzler see Benseler.

Bentzmann: from Benzen near Soltau. Cf. H. Bentzeman, Haldsl. 1388, where also Nuntzman is recorded as “van Nuntz” [from N.]

Benz, Bentz (UGer.): in the Alem. area it used to be the most frequent sh.f. of Berthold (rarer: of Bernhard), became popular through the Dukes of Zähringen and their family. Cf. Benz Berthold von Hilfingen, 1331-48. Bentz Berchtold also in the Aargau 1344-47. See also Betz and Bertsch.

Benzin see Bentzien.

Benzi(n)ger: from Benzingen/Würt. (-iger for -inger is an Alem.-Swiss variant). Also Benzing, likewise Hirbling from Hirblingen.

Benzler see Benseler.

Beranek (freq. in Vienna): Slav. = ‘lamb’.

Berard(t): = Berhard = Bernhard. Berhardus (Bernhardus) Honech, Pom. 1255. Berardus,Hbg. 1264.

Berber: possibly from the pl.n. Berber near Kevelaer.

Berberich (Franconia): from Ber-berg, likewise Herbrich, Hubrich (Hoberg!), Hirsbrich (Bahlow SN, 87, 122).

Berbig see Berwig.

Berchern: from the pl.n. Berchem/Luxembg. (like Bachem, Aussem).

Bercht, Berchtold see Berthold.

Berchtel(mann): cf. C.Berchtelmann, Worms 1303, see Berthold.

Berck- see Berk-.

Berdel: pl.n. in Westph. (points to old word: Ber-lo ‘swarm, flats’).

Bereit(or), Bereuter: Bav.-Tyrol., like Anreiter and similar names, derives from name of location ending in -reut ‘clearing’.

Berend(t), Berends, Berendsen see Behrens.

Berg: named after the place of habitation in or by a mountain (or hill); therefore numerous in southern and western parts of Germany (LGer. variant = Barg). Also Bergmann, Berger (also Sil.): Peter Berger = P. der uf dem berge, Brsl. 1385. (Bahlow SN, p. 79.)See also LGer. Barg.

Bergande(r), Begander (Brsl.): Slav., likewise Machande(r), Mach = Matthias.

Bergel: pl.n. in Bav.

Bergemann (freq. in Hbg., Cologne): refers also to pl.ns. like Berge (freq. in Westph.) and Bergen. This is indicated by FNs “von Bergen, v. Bargen”.

Bergham(m)er (Bav.): from Bergham (Bergheim) as in Kohlhammer, Hundhamer, Berghofer, Bergmaier, Bergmüller: all occur freq. in Bavaria.

Bergler (Mnch.): from Bergel/Bav.; or from Berglern/Bav., likewise Riezler(n); or the FN derived from the pl.n. Bergle: D. Bergler, Rottweil 1441.

Bergmann see Berg.

Bergner (UGer., also Jewish): from the town of Bergen (freq. pl.n. in Bav.).

Bergold, Berggold; Bergtold: see Berchtold. (Berhdolt Biederich, Baden 1336).

Bergsträßer (UGer.): from the Bergstraße (area N of Heidelberg).

Bergs(t) Berges, L.Rhine = Berghus (like Backe = Backhus).

Bergunde(r): Sil.-Slav. like Bergande(r).

Beringer (UGer.) see Behringer: Cf. C. von Beringen called der swarz Beringer, Würt. 1525 (indicates the pl.n. Ried-Böhringen). (Nied, p. 31.) In some cases the Germanic pers.n. Bern-ger may be the origin (documented in UGer. and LGer. areas): Berngems, Würt. 1245; Beringerus Nüßlin, Brüx 1281; Beringer v. Catzenfurt, near Wetzlar 1345; Berengerm, Ro. around 1250 (also present in the pl.n. near Ro.: Bargeshagen: Berengereshagen, 1128); Ulusch Bernger, Bohemia 1388.

Berisch see Behrisch.

Berke; Berkernann, Berkemeier (Westph.): LGer. berke = “Birke” [birch], cf. Berkenbusch, Berkenkamp. Westph. birko, berke also meaning ‘stream, brook’. Also according to the place of habitation: J. in den Borken, 1617. Concerning Borke also see pl.n. Berka (Thur. and Hesse).

Berkel(mann): from the town Berkel (Berk-lo) near Sulingen or from the Berkel River (in Gelderland). See Rintelmann, Bockelmann, etc.

Berkemer (freq. in Stuttg.): from Berkheim near Stuttg., likewise Mannemer = ‘from Mannheim’.

Berkha(h)n (freq. in Hanover) = Birkhahn [black grouse]. Joh. Berchane, recorded as early as 1296in Hbg.

Berkholz: Birkenholz, Birkengehölz [birch forest, b. stand], freq. pl.n. in Brandenburg (in the NW: Barkholt).

Berl(e) (UGer.) like Behrle; see Beer: There is also a pl.n. Berl in Westph.

Berlage: pl.n. in Westph. (Bahlow ON, p. 35).

Berlepsch: pl.n. on the Werra River (documented as Berleibeshusen), more freq. around Kassel. Cunr. de Berleibessen, 1233.Well known family of the aristocracy. Cf. Berleb, Berlep (Mnch.).

Berlichingen: pl.n. in Würt.

Berlin (freq. in Hbg.): also a village near Segeberg in Holstein. As early as 1283 in Ro. and 1300 in Strals.: de Berlin.

Berling: Westph. patr. as in Berlinghoff, Berlinghausen in Westph. There is also a pl.n. Berlingen (2in the Rhineland).

Berlt, Berlet, Berlitt: Thur.-Franc. form for Berthold, likewise Arlt for Arnold. Berlt = Bertold Tute, Mühlhausen 1383-81; Berlet Schrötter, Gotha 1588. Cf. Gutberlet “der gute Bertold” [‘good Bertold’].

Bennbach: pl.n. (Thur., Hesse).

Bennel: pl.n. in the Rhineland.

Bermter, Bermitter (UGer.): = Pergamenter (MHG permin(t) ‘tanned hide’). Parchment was still used for writing around 1400. A tanner (“gerber”) Hensli Bermpter isrecorded in Villingen 1408. Berthold bennender, Frkf. 1382.

Bernauer (UGer.): pl.n. Bernau in Bav., Würt., Baden. Agnes Bernauerin, daughter of an Augsburg barber around 1450, became famous.

Berndt (freq. in Hbg.): LGer. form for Bernhard (see also Behrend), likewise Arndt for Arnold (bern ‘the bear’, hard ‘bold, brave’). Bernhard and Arnold were the most popular pers.ns. in the LGer. area 1200-1300. Bernd Botel, Arnd Botel, in Hamelin still in 1458. In Sil. and the Lausitz area the name derives from Wendish Bernat.

Bernecker: from town Berneck (Franc., Würt.), likewise Rienecker from Rieneck.

Berner, Bernert: name is of different origins. In Sil. it comes from the pl.n. Berna (Lausitz, twice), likewise Kuhnert from Kuhna and Börner from Borna. Cf. “von der Berne”, Görlitz 1551, also Berner, 1449. LGer. berner (= brenner ‘burner’), der silverberner [silver smelter]. Compare also tegelbemer (tegel = Tiegel ‘saucepan’). Tyle Bernekote, 14th c. Berner = Brenner ‘arsonist’, hence Mottberner (= Mordbrenner) ‘perpetrator of murder and arson’, Rügen 13th c. Pl.n. Bernewater [burnt water], Stettin 1345 (now Barmwater). Bernewyn (= Branntwein) ‘brandy’, Ro. 132 1. Berneblas (burning torch), Lüb. 1319. Cf. Barner. In the UG area: s.o. from Berne. May also derive from the old pers.n. Bemher: Bernherus miles [knight] de Wil, near Zurich 1259.

Berngoß: rare pers.n. like Meingoß, Adalgoß. Goplo Berngoß, Herbstein/Hesse 1374.

Bernhard(t): ‘brave like a bear’; besides Arnold, B. was the most popular Christian name in N Germany in the Middle Ages. Several offshoots have developed: Berndt, Behrend, Behneke, Behn, Benno, etc. Alem. forms are Berni, Bernlin. In Würt. Berthold was more popular (sh.f Benz). Saint Bernhard of Clairvaux, founder of the Cistercian monastic order, was very influential. The name Bernhardy in the Rhine and Danube areas reflects a Lat. genitive form.

Bernhelm: rare Germanic pers.n.: Wigand fil. [= filius, ‘son’] Bernhelmi, Midda 1252.

Bernhöft (LGer.), Bernhöwet: in Hbg., Lüb. etc., höved = Haupt [head] (denotes also the head, spring of a river, cf. pl.n. Bornhöved, Bornhöft). Likewise Bredehöfft and Breithaupt [big head]. Cf. LGer. Hardehovet, Mildehovet. “Birenhaupt” like Bernschädel [Bern = bear, Schädel = skull], Heidelberg 1502. Conr. Bernhowbt, Saxony 1144.

Bernhold (UGer.): Germanic pers.n. Bernold (Bern-walt). Bernold Nötzel, Regensburg 1320 (father: Pernold N.); Bernold Spitzebauch, Nassau 1299.

Berni, Berny (Switz.): see Bernhard. Bern, filius: Bern (Würt., 12th c.).

Bernicke (freq. in Berlin): sh.f. of Bernhard in Brunsw. Berneke Dodendorp, Haldsl. 1340. Patr. of Berne-: Barneking.

Bernier (Meckl.): Slav. and stressed on final syllable like Bannier, Hallier, Polthier.

Bernitt (Meckl., freq. in Ro.): pl.n. near Ro., likewise Bornitt/E Prussia (stressed on final syllable due to its Wendish origin); brn- ‘swamp’, cf. Brno = Brünn.

Bernlo(c)her (Würt.): pl.n. Bernloch, Bernlohe.

Berns (Cologne): = Berens (Bernhard) like Arns (= Arnold).

Bernsdorf (Görlitz): pl.n. from U. Lausitz (1310 Bernhardi vi11a).

Bernstein: ‘amber craftsman or amber dealer’. Hermen Bernsteen, Ro. 1385 (Lüb. 1438, Stettin 1528).

Bernutz, Barnutz (E Ger.-Slav.).

Berold, Bärold (Bav.), Beerhold, Bierhold: Germanic pers.n. Berold von Ottindf., Brsl. 1373. PI.n. Beroldisdorf: Bärsdorf/Sil.

Berodt: pl.n. Berode/Hesse (twice).

Berringer (UGer.): like Beringer derives from a pl.n. ending in -ingen.

Bersch see Bertsch.

Berschamp: = Bierschimpf [beer shame], name of a drinker. Carsten Ber-schamp, Hbg. 1511. Cf. Ludeke Ber-swale, Hildesheim 1386, nowadays Bierschwale: MLG ber-swalch ‘boozer’.

Berschneider (UGer.), Bersauter (Swab.) likewise Berstocher (LGer. Barensteker): mean ‘castrator’ of the boar, other names are Schweinschneider, Gelzer, Heiler, Suböter.

Berser (MLG): ‘s.o. who goes stalking deer, hunter’. Peter Berser, Kiel 1339; Bernd B., Kamin 1364; Herman Berse, Lüb. 1318; Gerd Berse, Soest 1390; but Olrik van Bersene, Bremen 1425 (Ro. 1266, Riga 1287) derives from the pl.n. Bassen near Bremen.

Bertel(mann): sh.f. of Berthold in Sil.: Hs. Bertelmann, Görlitz 1483.

Bertels(en) see Bartels. Bertelsnum, Bertelsmeier: Westph. = Bertels, Berteldessen, Kiel 1554.

Bertermann (Sil.): stands for Bertram as Gundermann for Gundram and Sindermann for Sindram (Bahlow SN, p. 34).

Berthei(mann) see Bertelmann.

Berthold (LGer. Barthold, Bartels), Austr. Perthold, Bav. Berchtold (Bergdolt!), Alem. Bechthold (Biehtold); UGer. sh.fs. are Bertsch, Benz, Bechtel. Name was once popular in Baden-Würt. through the dynasty of the Zähringers, also in Franconia and Bavaria. (Bahlow VN, p. 14.)

Bertling, Bartling: LGer.-Westph. patr.; documented: Bertholding. Also pl.n. Bertlingen in Westph.

Bertog see Bertuch.

Bertolf, Bertloff, Alem. Bechtolf, Bechtloff- rare Germanic pers.n., therefore it was replaced by the popular name Berthold (bercht means ‘shining’). Bertolf Schaf, Cologne 1135; Bertoffia, Liegnitz 12th c.

Bertram, LGer. Bartram, Sil. Bertermann, Fr. Bertrand (de Born): Bechtram (Hess.) pers.n. like Wolfram, Dietrain (rarn = ‘raven’: the bird of the Germanic god Odin!). Name occurs freq. in the LGer. area, also its sh.f. Bethke (see there, also see Bethmann).

Bertsch, Bersch: Alem-Swab. sh.f. of Berthold and quite freq. in that area since it was the favorite name of the dynasty of the Zähringers. Bertholdus qui dicitur Berschi [B. called Berschi], Saulgau 1251; Bertschi (Berchtold) Verwer, Basel 1280-81; Bertschman (Berchtold) von Reinach, 1356; Jeckli Bertscheler, 1414.

Bertuch, Bertog (Thur.): in Erfurt around 1300: Bertoch(us), Berthogus, also in Hamelin 1191-1330 freq. used as pers.n. (Germanic Berht-hoch, like Ger-hoch, Adel-hoch). Name became well-known through the author Friedrich Justin B. from Weimar and his Bilderbuch ftr Kinder [picture book for children], 1790-1843.

Bertz see Bertsch. Cf. Hug Bertz = H. Bärtsch, Stuttg. 1350, J. Bertzeman, Worms 1336. There is a village Bertz near Düsseldorf. Cf. Joh. Bertze, Ro. 1275 (probably derived from pl.n. Barz in Meckl.).

Berwald: pl.n. Bärwalde (Mark, Sil.), Beerwalde (Sax., Thur.).

Berwart, Beerwarth (UGer.): rare pers.n. like Herwart, Heerwarth. Uolrich Bervart, Villingen 1353.

Berwig, Berbig (Sil.-ContrGer.), Barwig (LGer.): Germanic pers.n. (ber = ‘the bear’, wiz = ‘battle’). Berwig, steward in Liegnitz 1255; P. Berbig, Görlitz 1350.

Berwin, Bärwein, Perwein: Germanic pers.n. (win = ‘friend’).

Besch, Bösch: UGer.-Würt. sh.f. of Sebastian (see also Best, Bäst). Other forms are Bäschli, Beschtli. Cf. Conr. Besch, near Saulgau 1425; Balth. Besch = Bösch, 1568. Heinr. Bescheli, Schliengen/Baden 1314 (Nied, Heiligenverehrung, p. 53).

Bescheiden: reflects an older meaning (MHG ‘to be informed, experienced’). Cf. well known 13th c. epic, Freidanks Bescheidenheit = F’s wisdom and knowledge.

Beschnitt, Behschnitt (Sil.): Slav., similar: Beschednik; Beschine/Sil.

Beschor(e)n, Beschorner (Bav. Pschorn, Pschorr): ‘the shaved one, monk with tonsure’. H. Beschome, Strals. 1293; H. Hochbeschom, near Glatz 1416; S. Bschorn, Augsbg. 1486.

Besecke see Bäsecke.

Bes(e)ler: UGer. = Baseler, s.o. from Basel. In the LGer. area however from LGer. beseler = (Basel) ‘dagger’! H. Beseler, Greifsw. 1330; but P. Beseler, Frkf. 1382.

Besemer: (= MHG ‘broom maker’). Joh. der Besemer, Eßlingen 1323. Wiczel besemer, Frkf. 1387.

Besenbiel see Sagebiel.

Besetzer (UGer.): ‘paver (of streets)’. A new rule for the steynbeseczer was recorded 1388 in Liegn. J. J. Besetzer, Freibg. 1555; cf. C. wechsettere (=Wegsetzer ‘street paver’), Han. 1366.

Besold (Franconia) see Betzold.

Besse: pl.n. near Kassel/Fritzlar (Bahlow ON, p. 36).

Bessel(mann): Col., Hbg., like Hessel(mann) probably derived from a pl.n. or river name. Engelke Bessel, Han. 1545.

Besserdich: Kiel, Hbg., Meckl.; old sentence name (used in the initiation ceremony for journeymen) meaning ‘improve yourself’.

Besser(er): freq. in Würt.; MHG besserer ‘collector of fines’. Jörg Besserer, Ulm 1212.

Best, Beste, Bestmann (freq. in Hbg.): from the Beste River, old form: Bestene (tributary of the Trave, also in Latvia), (Bahlow ON, p. 36). Names of similar formation: Huntemann, Begernann, etc.; cf. documented Traveneman. Also pl.n. Besten in the districts Lingen and Teltow.

Best(gen), Bestges (Rhineland): sh.f. of Sebastian. See also Bistle, Besch (Würt.).

Bethke, Beth(mann): LGer. sh.f. of Bertram (sometimes Bertold), thus numerous in North Sea area. Beteke (Bertram) Schele, Hbg. 1223; Betentan (Bertram) Sconekind, Hildesh. 1309; Beteman (Beteke, Bertold) Bertoldi (Bartels), Lünebg. 1300. Berteke (Bertram) But, Oldenburg 1430-47. The name Bertram is also Jewish; as early as 1292 a Bertrammus judeus de Hbg. was documented.

Betsch, Botschel(mann), Betschold: UGer.- Alem. = Betz, sh.f. of Bernhard and Berthold. J. Betschelin, Strasb. 1497, F. Betschold, Straob. 1471, B. Betsche, Würzburg 1327, H. Betschelmann, Würt. 1467.

Bettziech, Bettziche, Bettzüge (UGer.-CentrGer.): der Ziechner (= MHG ‘linen weaver’). J. H. Bettziech was a well-known journalist 1813-76 (pseudonym: Beta).

Betz (Thur.-Franc.): sh.f. of Bernhard (sometimes Berthold), see also Betsch. Betz Rücker = Bernhard R., Schweinfurt 1388; Betze Risse, Fulda 1451. Enlarged form: Betzold (L. Beczolt, Merseburg 1489) = E Ger. Petzold (= Peter!).

Bett (Hbg., Ro., Cologne) see Boye, Boysen. For Beuck (freq. in Hbg.) see Boyk (under Boysen).

Beuckenhauer (Westph.) = Böckenhauer.

Beuckmann, Beucker (Westph.) see Böckmann. (Büchmann).

Beundtner (UGer.) see Baintner. For biunde cf. E. Schröder, p. 224 (according to Kranzmayer).

Beust, von (old nobility in the Altmark): pl.n. Büste, district of Stendal.

Beuster: pl.n. in the Altmark.

Beuteführ see Böthefür.

Beuth (freq. in Cologne), also Beutgen.

Beuthner (Sil.): from Beuthen (twice in Sil.). There is also a pl.n. Beutha in Sax. N. v. Bewthim, Liegnitz 1395.

Beutin, Beuthien (Meckl., Hbg.): pl.n. Boitin near Lüb. See Beythien.

Beutler, Beitler; Beut(e)l, Beitl (UGer.): ‘bag maker’ (there was a “Beutlergasse” [bag maker street] in Danzig). The bags were mostly made of leather, hence the name büdelsnider, Ro. and Strals. 1250 1270. Cf. Joh. Büdel, Lüb. 1318, also Siebenbeutel (like Siebenrock), Czwevachbeutel, Liegnitz 1385. H. Biuteli (Bimtelär), Kürnbach/Würt. 1257.

Beutnagel see Nagel.

Bever, Bewer (LGer.) = ‘beaver’, probably surname of a beaver trapper (beaver pelts were used by furriers); cf. H. Bevernest [beaver nest], Haldsl. 1458.

Bevermann: from the river name and pl.n. Bever(n). Jorden Bevermann, Haldsl. 14th c.

Bewernick: pl.n. in E Prussia.

Bewig (Hbg.): pl.n. (Bedewik) like Ewig, Lo(de)wik in Westph.

Bey, Boye (freq. in Hbg.): with unrounded vowel from Fris. Boy(e), popular pers.n. Documented in old Hamburg as early as 1250: Beyo, Beyko; in old Lübeck: Beieko. Cf. Winkler, Friesche Naamlijst, pp. 29, 43, has Beye, Beyko alongside Boye, Boyko. Concerning Beye(ke) see Aye(ke), Hayek(e), which are all Frisian.

Beyer see Bayer.

Beyerle (Swab.): an unrounded form of Beuerle ‘the little farmer’ (“Bäuerlein”): Claus Burlin, Speyer 1425. Similar: Seyerle: Surlin.

Beyerkarre (Hbg.): = Bierkarre [beer wagon]. Cf. beyerdreger, beyrsack, beirfründ.

Beyhl, Beiel see Beil.

Beland (Hbg.): Otto von den Bylandt, Rheydt 1550.

Beyn (Hbg.) see Bein.

Beyschlag (UGer.): MHG bistac = ‘bastard, illegitimate offspring of a nobleman or ruler’.

Beythien (Lüb.): like Beuthien, Beutin from Boitin (2 villages of that name between Lüb. and Ro.). As early as 1300, de Boytin was documented in Lüb., Ro., Strals., Greifsw. Compare Moitin: Meytin.

Bezold see Betzold. Bez see Betz.

Bialke, Bialek, Biallas: E Ger-Pol. like the pl.n. Bialla Bialken/E Pruss. (Slav. bel-, Pol. bial- ‘white’).

Bibernell: an herb and medicinal plant. Name for an herb dealer, druggist, pharmacist.

Bichel, Bichler: UGer., especially in Bavaria Bichel stands for Bühel ‘hill, rise’, freq. in field names and pl.ns. (cf. Biehler, Biegler besides Bichler). Cunr. Bichel, Main River area 1294, U. der Bichler, Würt. 1380. Various compounds like Aichbichler, Kitzbichler, Hirschbichler. In Bav. and Austria many Bichelmayrs, Pichelmayrs. Bichleder (Austr.) from the town Bichlöd.

Bick (UGer.): MHG bicke = ‘pickaxe’; also name of dwelling: Herbord zum Bycke, Mainz 1315.

Bickel (UGer.): MHG bicke = ‘pickaxe’ (the Humanist Conrad Celtes was originally called Pickel). Cf. Joh. Isenbickel, 1482.

Bicken(bach): pl.n. Hesse, Rhineland (Bahlow DN, p. 38).

Bie (UGer.): MHG bie ‘bee’, surname for a beekeeper: Hans Bie, Würt. 1499.

Bieber (LGer. Bewer): animal name [beaver] and house name, also in pl.ns. and river names, cf. Bieber on the Bieber River near Gießen, Biebern/Hunsrück (mountain area) (Bahlow ON, p. 39).

Biebl, Biebler (UGer.) contains an old water word bib-l as apparent in the pl.ns. Bibelsbach, Biebelried/Bav. (Bahlow ON, pp. 38-39).

Biedebach: pl.n. Biedenbach/Schwalm (Hesse) and Bav.; Biedebach near Hersfeld (Bahlow ON, p. 40).

Biedenkapf: pl.n. Biedenkopf on the Lahn River (kapf = head of a mountain). Compare Biedenbach. (Bahlow DN, p. 40.) Herm. Biedenkap, Kassel 1390.

Biedenweg (N Ger.): name of locality (Carsten Biedenweg, Greifsw. 1695).

Bieder(er) see Biedermann.

Biederich: “ghost town” near Waldkirch: Berhdolt Biderich, Waldkirch 1336 (Bahlow ON, p. 40).

Bieder(mann): MHG biderbe ‘honest, upright’. Duke Leopold der Biderbe, 14th c.; Biderbeman sacerdos [priest], 1262.

Biegel, Biegler (UGer.): variant of Bühel, Bühler, Bichler, Bichel [‘hill, knoll’ or ‘person living on/by a hill’]. Heinr. von Biglen = Bigler, Bern 1359. Compare Kornbiegler, Kornbichler, Kornbühler. Wartbiegler, Wartbichler. Nußbiegel, Nußbühl.

Bieger: = MHG for ‘quarreller’.

Biehl (freq. in Hbg., also Biel): in LGer. bil ‘hatchet’ (= Beil) may appear in Bilmeker, Bilhauer (also compare Klinkebiel). But a now unknown, obsolete word for swamp: bil (still extant in Lith-Russ.), appears in Bielenberg near Glückstadt (the hills Bielen-Berg and Riuschenberg near Höxter); Bilisele: now Bilsen/Stormarn, Bielefurt; Bileheim: now Bilme in Westph., Bielefeld, Bilwijk; also Bilene: now the field name Bille near Hbg. A plain “Auf der Bielen” in Lippe. E Ger. pl.ns. like Bielen, Bielau, Biehla may be involved, see Biehler. UGer.: Bie(h)l = Bühel ‘hill, hillside’.

Biehler: UGer. = Bühler, also Koßbiehl, Koßbühl, Guggenbiehl, Guggenbühl; Biehlmayer, Bühlmayer, freq. in Stuttg., Mnch. Different is E Ger. Bieler(t).

Bielmayer see Biehler.

Bielstein: pl.n. and mountain name in Hesse; see Beilstein.

Bielnann (Hbg., Ro.), older form: Bienemann (cf. Biemüller): Biene, Bienen are pl.ns. in the Ems-Rhine area. See also Bien.

Bien: in Hesse field names like Bien (name of a creek and meadows near Jossklein), Bienholz, Bienacker, Bienberg, Bienkopf, also Biening (a wooded hill W of Fritzlar), all refer to ‘swampy’ terrain. UGer. probably also for the beekeeper (= Bioner, also called Imker or Zeidler).

Bieneck, Bienk-. E Ger.-Slav. sh.f. of Benedikt.

Bienengräber: s.o. who digs the honey of wild bees from trees. Cf. UGer. Biener ‘apiarist, beekeeper’, Zeidler in some areas. Cf. Bernh. Bin, Nagold 1503. One H. Binestock [beehive], Überlingen 1532; Clawes Benehonig [bee honey], Lüneburg ca. 1350, P. Bynheckel, Görlitz 1508.

Biener(t): E Ger., related to Slav. pl.n. like Bienau (Bienowitz).

Bie(n)wald: E Ger.-Sil., cf. also pl.n. Binenwalde (Brandenbg.); M. Bynewalt, Liegnitz 1522.

Bienz, Bienzle (Würt.): variant of Benz, likewise Dientz of Denz. Bientz = Benz Swab. 1379; Bientz = Berchtold Swelcher, 1364.

Bier: name means beer brewer or beer dealer (Biermann), also the man who pours beer (Bierschenk). Cf. Bierwirth [Wirt(h) = ‘tavern owner, host’], also Bierzapf [Zapf = ‘tap’], Bierhake (LGer. Höker = ‘peddler’), Bierschröder (Schröter = ‘loader, shipper’), Biereyge (see there). Cf. Bierdimpfel (Bav.), Biertümpel is a name for a tavern owner; Bierbauch (LGer. Bierbuk) [beer belly], Biersack (see there), Bierwagen [Wagen = ‘wagon’], Bierhals [Hals = ‘neck, throat’], Biermordt (Mordebier ‘guzzle the beer’); Biermaul (LGer. bermule, Ro. 1270) [Maul = ‘mouth of an animal, muzzle, big mouth’], Bringebier, Mögebier [mögen = ‘to like’], Schluckbier [schlucken = ‘to swallow’], also Dünnbier [dünn = ‘thin’], Faulbier [faul = ‘bad, spoiled’], Frischbier, Sauerbier (LGer. Suhrbehr), Süßbier [süß = ‘sweet’] (Sötebeer), Warmbier all mean brewer or bartender or bar owner. Bierenbrodt = ‘beer and bread’ (like Kisenbrot, Milchundbrot, Wasserundbrot).

Bierbaum (LGer. Beerbohm): birbomm, MLG bêrbom ‘pear tree’. Named after the dwelling place, also name of dwelling: Götze zum Birbome, Frkf. 1344. Hinr. Berbom, Lüb. around 1350.

Bierdimpfel (Bav.): down-to-earth name for a tavern owner (Biertümpel, likewise Milchtümpfel for the milkman).

Bierenbrodt: ‘beer and bread’, likewise Bierenkraut ‘beer and kraut’, Bierenkäse ‘beer and cheese’.

Bierer (UGer.): MHG ‘pear dealer, fruit dealer’. Konrad der Birer, Rottweil 1315. Also Birnstiel, Birnstengel [Stiel, Stengel = steml, Byrenmus [Mus = ‘(pear) butter, mush’], 1432.

Bierey(g)e (freq. in Thur., Erfurt): MHG bieroug = a citizen who is licensed to brew his own beer. Joh. Biereug, Bierayge, Jena 1461.

Biermann (LGer. Behrmann) = ‘beer dealer’, see Bier. See Weinmann. Werner der Biemm, Würt. 1349.

Biernath (Biernatzky): E Pruss.-Pol. for Bernhard. Also Kunst for Kunrad.

Biersack: means bartender, beer drafter. Also dwelling name: Gebehard zu dem Birsake, Frkf. 1284, Wernher Birsac, Beirsach, Frkf. ca. 1300, Mixo Birsak, Prague 1381, cf. Byrkegel, Byerklocz (Bohemia).

Bierschwale: ‘(beer) boozer, drunk’ (MLG ber-swalch). Ludeke Bereswale, Hildesheim 1386. Also Joh. Berscamp, Hbg. 1366 (schamp = ‘shame, disgrace’).

Bierwagen: surn. for a beer dealer. Cf. Beyerkarre (= Bierkarren) ‘beer wagon’ in Hbg. Similar are Krüdewagen and Smerwagen.

Bierwirth, Bierwerth: = (beer) bartender. C. Biruirt, Birwert, Kassel 1448.

Biese (LGer.) = ‘rush, bulrush’, for a broom maker. See also Beese. Cf. pl.ns. Biesewig, Biesenkamp, Biesenbach (Rhine area), also Biesen in Lippe area and in Brandenburg. Hence Biesemann, Biesmann (Rhine area, Gutbier, Dutch border area). A Biese River near Bismarck (Altmark).

Bieselt (Sil.) see Piesold.

Bieske see Bischke.

Biesterfeld: pl.n. in Lippe and Oldenburg areas. FN Biester is probably related to the MHG pl.n. Biestern in E Prussia.

Bietendüwel: LGer. for ‘bite the devil’ (also Schietendüwel = ‘shoot the devil’).

Biewald (Sil.) see Bienwald: As to H. Biwalt, Speyer 1148, compare the forest named Bien-Wald near Karlsruhe.

Bigalke: E Ger.-Pol., like Michalke.

Bigge, Biggen: pl.n. in Westph.

Bild ‘picture’: occurs as house name in Frkf.: Fulcze vor dem bilde, Frkf. 1387; in Speyer (Wernher zum Bilde, 1307) and Mainz (zum Bilde, 1296).

Bildhauer (Brsl.): name means sculptor and occurred as early as 1565 in Liegnitz: Casp. Trauschke ein Bildhauer [a sculptor].

Bilfinger: from Bilfingen near Pforzheim.

Bilk (L.Rhine area, Westph.): pl.n. near Düsseldorf.

Billeb: pl.n. Billeben in N Thur.; also pl.ns. Auleb, Memleb.

Biller, Billert: UGer., same as Biehler, Bühler; FNs like Millbiller, Gansbiller in Austria. In Würt. the above names, also Bill, probably from MHG bil(le) ‘sculpture, work of a stone cutter’, billen ‘to cut stone’.

Billerbeck: pl.n. (Westph., Han.), also Bilderbeck.

Billig (freq. in Col.) pl.n. near Col.

Billroth: from Billroda (Thur.).

Billung: name became known through Hermann Billung, Duke of the Saxons around 950 A.D. Concerning the ending -ung cf. Amelung, Balmung, Weisung, Esung (all from Germanic heroic poetry). Formerly also popular in the S (1100- 1200: Socin, Mhd. Namenbuch): documentary evidence: a farmer Walther, called Billung, Würt. 1274. MHG billuno means ‘envious or jealous person’.

Bilse: probably means the medicinal plant henbane.

Bimpage or Bindpage: LGer. page ‘horse’, thus name probably means groom. See Bütepage (horse dealer; buten = ‘to exchange, barter’).

Binckebanck: means blacksmith. Also Pinkepank. H. Binkebank, Prague 1405.

Bindenuum: from Binde in the Altmark area.

Binder, Bender: means ‘cooper, tub maker’. Also Büddenbinder, Bodenbinder, Bodenbender. UGer. Pinder, Pinther. One Kuvenbinder in Lüneburg 1386, kambinder in Lüb. ca. 1350. 1625 the occupational name Kleinbinder was still used in Prenzlau. Bindernagel = ‘cooper’s nail’. Also Bindhammer: Giselb. Binthamer, Hem 1317. Bindenkabel, Ravensburg 1330.

Binding (Hbg.): MLG binding ‘tape, ribbon, binding’. However E Ger. Bindig (Brsl.), Bendig as well as Binda, Benda are related to Benedikt.

Bindseil: MHG rope for tying, name means ‘rope maker’. Also Bintreme, Frkf. 1387.

Binge(mann): compare pl.ns. like Bingen(heim), Bingum, Bingeberg on the Eder River, C. von Binge, Frkf. 1387; they all indicate a swampy location (Bahlow ON, p. 43).

Binnewies (Hbg., Han.): = binnen weise [wise inside]. Herman B., Hbg. 1374, Henr. B., Han. 1324. Cf. the FN Binnebös [bad inside] (Han.).

Bin(t)z: see Bienz (= UGer.). E Ger. variants like Binzek from Benedikt. However Uli von Binz, 1357 near Zurich, indicates a pl.n.

Binzwanger: from the pl.n. Binzwangen, Binswangen (Würt., Baden, Bav.).

Bippen (von): pl.n. in the bog area of the Hase River; cf. pl.n. Beppen near Verden (Bahlow p. 44).

Birch, Bircher, Birchner (UGer.-Swiss), Pirch(er): are related to pl.ns. or names of localities like Birch (Aargau), Birchen, etc. (MHG birche = ‘birch’). Others are Birchegger, Birchmoser, Birchmeyer, etc.

Birck, Birckmann, Birkner, Birkigt, Birckholz: all derived from the dwelling place [near a birch or birch stand]. Documented: Rüdeger zu dem birke, Eberbach 1334, Birkenstock (Rhine area) like Bintzenstock, Holderstock.

Birgel: a pl.n. in the Rhineland (Herm. von Birgel, Frkf. 1379).

Birkle (Würt.): unrounded form of Bürkle = Burkhard. Joh. Barcklin (Bircklin), Waiblingen 1552-1555.

Birlinger: from pl.n. Bierlingen (Würt.).

Birnbaum (LGer. Beerbohm): named after the dwelling place [near a pear tree]. See Bierbaum. A town named Birnbaum in the area of former Posen.

Birner: LGer. and CentrGer. birnen was the word for ‘to burn, smelt’, as in gult birnen, silver birnen [smelt gold, smelt silver] (hence in Col. 1150: Heinr. Bimere = ‘the smelter’). Cf. Peter bimsmyd, Liegnitz 1382. What is meant here is the essayer or precious metal tester, coiner (LGer. bemer, salverberner). Bahlow Studien, p. 139 and Hagström, p. 305.

Birnstil, Birnstengel [pear stem] see Bierer: Cf. Birunstil, Geialingen 1281, Birenmus [pear butter], Donauwörth 1432, Bimesser [pear eater], Vaihingen 1450, Birnmenger, Frkf. 1387, Birenvras [pear gobbler], Col. 1271.

Birr, Pirr (Alsace): Pirrin (Gallic) = Bini (13th c.) = Saint Pirmin. Chr. Birr, Morschweiler (Alsace) 1599.

Birre(n)koven: pl.n. near Bonn.

Birt(h): pl.n. in the Rhineland.

Bischke, Bieschke, Bieske: E Ger.-Slav., compare pl.ns. Bischkowitz, Bieskau (Sil.).

Bischof(f), Biskupek (U.Sax.): to be interpreted the same way as Abt [abbot], Herzog [duke], Graf [count], Papst [pope], namely in the service of a bishop; or a tenant farmer of the church, etc. (a farmer Rud. Bischof, 1270).

Bismarck: after the town B. in Altmark (around 1200 = Biscopesmark = ‘borderarea of a bishopric’). Herbord of B., 13th c.

Bisping (Westph.), originally Biskoping: -ing means ‘belonging to’, see Bischof. Pl.n. Bispingen near Soltau.

Biss: UGer., a cutting, sarcastic person, cf. Joh. miles [knight] dictus [called] Biß [bite],Eberbach 1286. Concerning Bisse see pl.n. Bissen in Oldenburg and Rhineland.

Bitdendüvel (Braw.): LGer. ‘bite the devil’, cf. Schietendüvel [shoot the devil], Jagendüvel [chase the devil].

Bitsch: see pl.n. Bitsch, Lorraine. J. Bitscher, Alsace 1460. In Würt. the name Bitschlin occurs along with Batschlin, 1294, both derive from Burkhard. Likewise Birkle along with Bürkle. Documented: Hans Bitsch, Bretten 1463.

Bittcher: an unrounded form of Böttcher. See there.

Bittel (Würt.): unrounded form of Büttel ‘bailiff’; likewise Bittelbronn from Büttelbronn.

Bittenbinder = Büttenbinder, Faßbinder [cooper].

Bitter, Swab. Bitterle: a harsh, bitter person. A squire Göttschi of Eptingen, der Bitterli, Würt. 1347-60.

Bitterlich, Bitterling see Bitter.

Bitterolf, Bitteroff, Bittruff, Bitterauf: a hero of the medieval epic Thidrek’s Saga, cf. the MHG epic Biterof und Dietleib around 1250; shortly afterward B. appeared as FN: Gerhard Bitterolf, Ro. 1262, Conr. B., Erfurt 1212, Joh. B., Freiburg 1284. UGer. Pittroff (Nbg.): in Vienna 1216: Pitrolf

Bittner (Sil.-Bohemian): unrounded form of Büttner ‘cooper, tub maker’. In Bav-Aust.: Pittner.

Bittrich, UGer. Pittrich: MHG büterich ‘a belly-shaped drinking vessel’, also derisive nickname for an obese person; “stach im sin schwert in den püttrich” [stuck his sword into his belly], 1530 (Switz.). Ludw. Büttrich, Augsburg 1347, Jakob Patrich (knight), 1400.

Bittroff see Bitterolf.

Bitzer (Würt.): pl.n. Bitz near Balingen (also field name “in der Bitzi”). But Bitzle (Swab.) means Bützli (= Burkhard, thus documented in Alsace 1421).

Blaas, Blasse, Blaasch (Hbg.): sh.f. of Blasius (likewise UGer. Blaasl). But compare also MLG blas ‘candle, torch light’ (Berneblas, Lüb. around 1350).

Blache (E Ger.): also Blachy, Blachnitzky related to Slav. vlach ‘a person from Italy or France (in the Middle Ages)’; see Bloch from Pol. wloch.

Blaffert (LGer.): blafferl was a small coin (without the picture on the obverse), cf. also Dutch blaffaert ‘smooth face’; blaffertbrot [Brot = ‘bread’], blaffertnagel [Nagel = ‘nail’]. Joh. Blaffert, Ro. 1560. A pl.n. Blaffert near Gladbach.

Blage (Brsw., Han.): MLG bläwe: false, deceitful person; blawehant ‘counterfeiter, perjurer’; Henning Blinnund, Hildesheim 1407, Ludolf Bliwe, Brsw. 1258, Joh. Blâge, Dortmund 1230. A bläwe Beke (gozehoke), Hbg. 14th c.

Blahout: Czech pers.n.: Blahut der beme [B. the Bohemian], Glatz 1353; Blahuto, Budweis 1414.

Blaich- see Bleich-.

Blaikner: name of a farm in Blaiken (Tyrol).

Blameuser (Cologne): blamaser, coin from the L.Rhine area (cf. Wöste, journal Zeitschr. f. dt. Philologie 9, 476).

Blandow: pl.n. on Rügen Island. (Concerning bland see Bahlow ON, p. 47). A Blanda Creek in Lithuania.

Blank, Blanck: ‘shining white’, as in Blankehals [Hals = ‘neck’], Ro. 1278. Rhineland form is Blankhart, Blankarts, Blankertz.

Blankschän: (Hbg., Ro.) ‘shiny blade’ (as part of the armor).

Blapphart: MHG blaphart, a small silver coin (Switz., Swab.). Erhart Plaphart, Eßlingen 1397.

Blarer (Switz., Würt.), Swab, Blaurer: likewise Glotzer (Glotzauge) ‘goggle-eyed’. Berthold Blärer, St. Gallen 1268; Dietr. Blarrer, Würt. 1267.

Blaschke see Blosius.

Blasebalg [bellows]: means ‘stoker, boilerman’ or ‘blacksmith’. Blozehalc, Liegnitz 1383; H. Bloesbelger, Frkf. 1387 (probably the manufacturer of bellows). Henne Blaisbalg, Frkf. 1387.

Blasenbrei (Würt.): sentence name “blas den Brei” [blow on the porridge], name for a cook.

Blasius: once a popular saint and auxiliary saint (Abboy St. Blasien in the Black Forest is named after him). Numerous sh.fs.: Bla(a)s (Dutch), Bläsing, Bläsgen (Rhineland), Bläske (Dutch), Blasig (E Ger., like Brosig from Arnbrosius), Blaschek, Blaschke (related to Slav. Blazek), UGer.-Aust. Plaschke; Bläsi (Switz.), Blasl.

Blaskopf (UGer.): ‘bald head’ (MHG blas ‘bald’). Compare Blasbichel (Tyrol) ‘bare or bald hill’.

Blatt: (leaf) hence Enkelenblat. Einzelblatt ‘single leaf’, Holstein 1341, Lylgenblat ‘lily leaf’, Hbg. 14th c., Salvigenblat (= Salbeiblatt) ‘sage leaf’, Kiel; now Sophienblatt, Nettelblatt (noble family), Rosenblatt.

Blattgerste [Blatt = ‘leaf’, Gerste = ‘barley’]: farmer’s name. Hense B., Soest 1374.

Blatt(n)er: UGer., cf. uf den blatten, Konstanz 1383, FN from the dwelling place: on the rocky ledge; also pl.n. Platten (Switz.) and farm name in Tyrol. See also Platter.

Blatz, Blatzer (UGer., Würt.): from the dwelling. See Platz(or). But Heilman Blatz, Frkf. 1350 means ‘Blatzbäcker’ [baker of flat yeast bread].

Blau [blue]: (also Jewish, in that case a recent name), cf. Blauspahn, Grünspahn. But in the Middle Ages name was taken from the clothing: C. der Blawe [the blue one], Reutlingen 1378, Joh. Blawe, Stralsund 1321, also Blawerok [blue jacket or skirt]. Cf. Blawemouwe ‘blue sleeve’, Stralsund 1282, Blohose [blue pants] and others like Blohut [blue hat].

Blaufuß: a falcon species. Blavot, Barth (Pomerania) 1415.

Blaurock: indicating colorful dress and costumes of the Middle Ages. S. Heyle Blarock [blue jacket or skirt], Frkf. 1362, Hence Blaweroc, Stralsund 1279 (along with J. Blawe and Joh. Blawemove ‘blue sleeve’). Cf. Blakogel (‘hood, cowl of a monk’), Blawehut [blue hat], Haldsl.

Blech (also Jewish): in the Middle Ages Blechschmied [tin smith] (Blechschmidt), who makes tin ware. Also Blecher, Blechler, Blechner (UGer.). Lienhard Blech, Alsace 1567, H. Blecher, Konstanz 1390, N. Blechhentschuoch [tin glove], Salem 1500.

Bleck, Blecke, Blecken, Bleckmann (LGer.): from the dwelling, cf. field names “das Bleck” near Versmold, “auf dem Bleck” on the Twiste River, “am Bleck” near Gelsenkirchen etc. (For further information see Bahlow ON, p. 46.) See Bleckwedel.

Blecker (UGer.), Bleckert: MHG blecken ‘to show, show off’, cf. Egli Bleckenzan [Zahn = ‘tooth’], Feldkirch 1390. Bleckenzagel [Zagel = ‘tail’], Bohemia 1399. Berchtold Blecker, Backnang 1480.

Bleckwedel, Bleckwohl (LGer.): pl.n. in Han. province (there also pl.n. Bleckriede); corresponding: Barwedel, Marwedel = ‘a ford through swampy terrain.’

Blee(c)k, Bleeke (LGer.) ‘the pale, pallid one’. Bleke as early as 1262 in Ro., Lüb., etc.

Bleeker (LGer.) ‘bleacher of cloth, linen’. Adrian de Bleecker, Netherlands 1578.

Bleese (Hbg.): pl.n. in Meckl.

Blei, Bley [lead] (also Jewish): Joh. Bly, Würt. 1512, surname of a lead worker, Blighetere, old Lüb., Bligißer, Col. 1305. Tuckebley, Werden on the Ruhr River 1305, however, as telling name of a fisherman it indicates the fish “Blei” (with old Germanic ei) as in Joh. Bley, Greifswald 1306.

Bleibaum see Blöhbaum. Bleibimhaus [stay in the house] (UGer.): domestic, home-loving person. Bleibtreu [stay faithful] (to the new creed): Jewish.

Bleich see Bleek. Arnold Bleiche, on the Tauber River 1293.

Bleicher see Bleeker. Also Bleichert. Gregor Bleicher, Schweidnitz 1424 (Bahlow SN, p. 102); cf. uff der bleichen, Mainz 1297. Georg Pleychmeister, Zittau 1423.

Bleichröder: pl.n. Bleicherode (S Harz Mountains), FN Bleichroth; also pl.n. Bleichroden in Würt.

Bleichshirn, Plaichshirn (UGer.-Bav.): [pale brain] mocking name of a bald head.

Bleick, Bleicken (Hbg.) see Bleek, Bleeken.

Bleickhardt see Blicker.

Blei(de)meister (UGer.) see Bliemeister. Cf. Blidenmeister, Konstanz 1340, Bleymeister, Ulm 1590. Cf. the artists Pleydenwurff, Nbg. 15th c.

Bleidner see Bliedner.

Bleidorn (LGer.) see Blöhdorn.

Bleier, Bleyer: ‘lead worker’ (see Blei). L. Bleyer, Strasb. 1426. A MHG epic writer from Austria: der Pleyer, around 1250: = MHG bliuwer ‘fighter, bruiser’ (compare Preyer = Bräuer ‘brewer’).

Bleile see Bleyle.

Blender, Blendermann (Han., Bremen, Kiel): pl.n. Blender (documented: Blandere) near Verden on the Weser (prehistoric, see Bahlow ON, p. 47). But UGer. Blender is an occupation: B. Blender, near Stuttg. 1350. Concerning LGer. Blenner see Klünner = Klünder.

Blenker(s): Rhineland, blenke ‘bare spot’, also ‘make-up’.

Blenkle (Würt.) see Blank. Wernher Blankelin (Blenkelin), knight 1258.

Blenner see Blender.

Blesing, Bläsing: sh.f. of Blasius. Blasius = Blasing = Blesing, Blessigk, Jena 1540-50. Also UGer., in Freiburg e.g. H. Blessing = Plässi 1565. “Sant Bläsin” 1358! Hans Bläsin, Rottenburg 1411; Master Blesy 1427 = Blasius, Strasb. 1438.

Bless(e), Blessmann: compare “In der Blessen” = field name in Westph.

Bletz (UGer.) ‘a scrap, patch’ denotes the Bletzer, mender (tailor); cf. Bletzarsch [Arsch = ass, vulg.], Reutlingen 1567, Ulr. Bletz, Rottweil 1222, B. Blezzer, 1271.

Bleuel, Bleuler see Bleyle.

Bley see Blei.

Bleyle, Bleile, Bleiler, Bleuler, Bleul (UGer.-Swab.) means tenant of a pounding mill (MHG bliuwel ‘pounder’), documented in Reutlingen 1431. Cuntze Blüweler, Baden 1395. Heine Blüwel, near Schaffhausen 1363. P. Bleuwel, Liegnitz 1387.

Blicker, Blickhart, Bleickhardt (UGer.) corresponds phonologically to UGer. Swicker, Schwickert, Schweickhardt: both are old pers.ns. Swicker (Swigger) derives from Swidger, likewise Blicker (Bligger) from Blidger (MHG blid = ‘happy, cheerful’). Name of the noble family of the ministerial Bligger von Steinach (MHG poet around 1200, whose ancestral castle was on the Neckar); the names Bligger and Blickhart occur frequently in this area (Brech., p. 160). 1536 a Blickard Pestel from Plauen is documented; Joh. Blicker, Speyer 1529.

Bli(c)kslager (LGer.): ‘tinsmith’; sh.f.: Blick.

Blied(e): MHG blide ‘happy, cheerful’. (A woman Blideradis around 1300 in Lüb.) Hasso Blide, Hbg. 1271. Also Thid. Blidelevent [living happily] in Ro. 1279 and Sachtelevent [living easily]. Maskeblide, Ro. 1293 (see Bliemeister).

Blied(t)ner see Bliemeister. Cf. P. Blydener, Würzburg 1409, J. Blidner (Pleydner), Brüx. 1386. Bliedung: pl.n. Bliedungen in Thur. (See Bahlow ON, p. 48.). For the pl.ns. ending in ­ungen see Bahlow, Niederdt. Korrespondenzblatt (journal) 1961.

Blieffert see Blievernicht.

Bliemeister (LGer., Hbg., Wismar, Ro.): MLG blidemeister ‘gun leader’ (UGer. Bleidemeister), related to blîde ‘siege machine, heavy gun’, cf. Henne Blidenhûs, Frkf. 1387; Blidensmet [gunsmith]; F. Blidemeister, Eisleben 1441; Dethl. Blidemester (jactor lapidum [stone thrower]) Stralsund 1270. See also Bleidemeister and Bliedener.

Bliemel see Blümel.

Blies(e)ner (E Ger., Meckl.-Pom.) like Blies(e)mer: the Slav. pers.n. Blisemer (in Ro. 1262 and also Strals.) along with the sh.f. Bliseke, Bliese(ke). Compare also Bliesnak, Bliesekow. Likewise Sulimer, Suleke.

Blievernich(t): LGer. = ‘s.o. who does not stay’, unsteady person, vagrant. H. Blijhirnicht, Bodenteich 1380 (also in Dortmund 1388). Also Bleibnichtlang. Opposite: J. Blifalhir [stay around], Greifsw. 1329, and Blifir, Aachen 1400: hence Blief(f)ert.

Blinde, Blindemann, LGer. Blinne: blind man. Blinde Hensel, Brsl. 14th c.

Blinkmann (Hbg.): indicates a field name, Blink; cf. Brinkmann.

Blischke: see Plischke.

Bloch (sometimes Jewish, from Pol. Woch ‘a person from Italy or France (in the Middle Ages), a foreigner’; cf. “Ungar, Bloch und Zigeuner” [Hungarians, “Bloch” (foreigners) and gypsies]) UGer. “Block” = ‘square-built’, but also ‘jail’. UGer. sh.f. Blöchlin; Blochmann. Blocheli, Pforzheim 1256. See Block.

Block (see also Bloch): of heavy, clumsy figure, especially in N Germany (Bremen, Hbg., Stettin, Danzig). Dose, Hartwich, Volrat Bloc (pages), Dosen Blockes söne [the sons of D. B.], Holstein 1371. But H. Blockmaker, Flensburg 1574, and B. Blocksleher, Augsburg 1321, are occupations (Holzblock = ‘wooden block’). MHG block = ‘the stocks in jail’! A Winterblok in Stralsund 1330.

Blöcker (Hbg.): see Block. May also derive from field name or pl.n. Block. Cf. Blocken and Blockland near Bremen; Blocksiepen in Westph. Bloker, Greifsw. 1388.

Blöd, Blödel: ‘foolish, stupid one’. Blödel besides Klugel [smart one] in 14th c. Brsl.

Blödorn (LGer.), Bleudorn, Bleidorn: ‘blooming brier’, field n. like Schleedorn, Hagedorn. Cf. Bloibaum, Bleybaum, Blöbaum. G. bloyedistele in Lüb. Kopke Bloye, Kiel 1470. Now Blöhe.

Bloem (L.Rhine): = Blo(h)m ‘flower’: Likewise Blömke Blümeke. Blöniing (Westph. patr.): H. Blominc, Strals. 1346, Ro. 1287. Bloemkolk like Bloomvenn and Blomelage where Blom means ‘grassland, prairie’. Cf. Blomberg.

Blohm, Blom(e): freq. in LGer. area, like UGer-CentrGer. Blum(e). Also field n. referring to flowering fields, see Bloem. Cf. Diestelbloom (Netherlands). Lüdeke Blome, Hbg. 1258, Johann Blome, Strals. 1293, Blomentreder, Brunsw. 1381.

Bloibaum, Bleybaum, Blöboom (LGer.): ‘blooming tree’, cf. Blödorn. Kord Bloyeboem, Lüb. 1412. Name referring to dwelling like Nottebohm [nut tree], Beerbohm [pear tree].

Blomberg: pl.n. (near Detmold and Aurich). See Bloem.

Blömer see Blümer.

Blöming see Bloem.

Bloschke see Blaschke, Bluschke.

Blöß, Blöse (UGer.): rounded vowel [ö] as opposed to name variants Bleß, Blesi = Blasius. Cf. Blösy Keller in 15th c. Freiburg besides H. Blesy, Freiburg 1415.

Blöt(h)ner (LGer.) see Blüthner.

Blücher: pl.n. (Slav.) near Boizenburg on the Elbe. As early as 1214 Ulrich von Blücher. Cf. the brothers Johann von Blücheren, Godfr. von Boyceneborch, Conrad von Louwenborch, Lüb. 1339.

Blühdorn see Blödorn.

Blum, Bluhm, Blümel, Blümke, Blüming: LGer. Blohm, Blömke. in some cases probably surn. of a flower gardener, florist as in FNs Blumenstiel, Blumenstock, Blumenstengel, Blumensaat. In some cases from a house n. (as in Col., Mainz, Basel, cf. Nic. zem Blumen 1289). In some cases referring to floral decoration (in the dress) as in Blumenhut [flower hat] and a knight’s name Blümliglanz [sparkle of a flower], Thurgau 1378. Similarly Blumenschein. A Blumentrost in Schwäb.-Hall 1326. A peasant A. Blümeli 1280 near Lörrach. A person named Hauesblümel [chop the flower] around 1350 in Brsl. With unrounded vowel: Bliemel.

Blumentritt: like Rosentritt and Lilientritt were popular names 1300 to 1400, probably for a florist. Hannus Blumentrit, Liegn. 1368, Peter Rosentrit, Liegn. 1372, Nic. Plumentrit, Brünn 1343. Also Blumentreter, Rosentreter (Bahlow SN, p. 122): Joh. Blumentreter and Thid. Rosentreter, Magdeburg 1433, 1440, Joh. Rosentreder in Lüb. around 1340.

Blumhardt (UGer.): forest name (freq. in Würt.), known through the 19th c. Würt. ministers B. (father and son).

Blümner: from Blumenau (Sil., Sax.) like Reichner from Reichenau etc.

Blun(c)k (freq. in Hbg.): pl.n. near Segeberg. Known through the writer H. F. Blunck from Hbg.

Bluntschli (Alem.): ‘a fat, plump person’, from MHG blunsen ‘to bloat’ (Bav. plunzet ‘plump’), cf. Seydel Plunczel, Iglau 1374, Wolfram Plunzhart (like Motzhart!), Bamberg 1180, Blonschlin, 1381 near Tübingen (likewise B. Blenschelin, a knight in Bretten 1288), F. Bluntschli, chronicler in Zurich 1581, J. C. Bluntschli, a jurist, Zurich 1805.

Bluschke (Sil.): = Bloschke = Blaschke, sh.f. of Blasius. Cf. Bloschko polonus [B. the Pole], Liegn. 1354, Bloschek Bartke, Brsl. 1420.

Blüthmann (Hbg.): from Blüthen in Prignitz.

Blüthner: probably name for a florist [Blüte = ‘blossom’], cf. “Blütnerei” = ‘flower shop’ in Sil. Note the name of the Nuremberg poet Hans Rosenplüt around 1450. An O. Plütel in Brünn 1356. Blüthgen in Rhineland.

Boas (Würt.): referring to Boas of the Old Testament who married Ruth, the gleaner. Melchior Boas, Schwäb.-Hall 1500.

Bobardt see Bobbert. H. Bobard, Hamelin 1461.

Bobbe: pl.n. in Anhalt.

Bobber: pl.n. Bobbau near Dessau.

Böbel (Würt.) see Bebel. H. Böbel, Würt. 1480.

Bob(b)ermin: (Pom.) see Wobbermin.

Bober (E Ger.): Slav. bobr- ‘beaver’, also river n. in Sil.; cf. pl.ns. Bobrow, Boberau.

Boberg (Hbg.): pl.n. east of Hbg.

Bobertag (E Ger.): J. G. Bobertag, Kressen 1750.

Bobrowski (E Ger.): from Bobrow; see Bober.

Böbs (Hbg., Lüb.): pl.n. near Eutin, doc. Bobes.

Bobsi(e)n, Bobzi(e)n: numerous in Hbg., Meckl., from Bobzin, place in Meckl. (near Parchim and Hagenow).

Boch(e), Bochinski, Bochnik (E Ger.-Slav.): cf. pl.n. Bochow (Pom., Brandbg.)

Bocher, Bochler, Böchli, Bochtler (Würt.): names for a stubborn person (from verb bochen ‘to insist’). C. der Bochler, peasant in Kinzig Valley 1315, J. Bochly, Solothurn 1559, K. Bochter, Eßlingen 1342.

Bock (numerous): [buck] in some cases from old house name as in W. zu dem Bock. Schlettstadt/Alsace 1424. Otherwise from a personal quality. UGer. also Böcklin, see this.

Böck: UGer. = Beck ‘baker’: Markus Böck (Beck), Mengen/Würt. 1506-07. But LGer. derived from the field n. and pl.n. Böcke, Böcken: ‘place with beech trees’. Freq. pl.n. (and FN) Böck in Pom. Cf. Böckmann = Büchmann.

Böckel: pl.n. in Westph. (FN in Hbg.).

Bockel(mann): in Hbg., Meckl.pl.n., derived from Bockel, freq. between Bremen and Soltau.

Böckenhauer: ‘beech cutter’

Böcker (LGer.): see Bödeker, Böttcher. In Westph. sometimes from pl.n. Böcken (Büchen).

Bockfell: MHG vel ‘hide, parchment’.

Bockholt (LGer.) = UGer. Buchholz: Freq. pl.n. (referring to a beech forest).

Bockhorn (LGer.): freq.pl.n. (Han., Holstein, Oldenburg).

Bockhorst: pl.n. in Westph.

Böcking: Westph. like Böckmann: living near a beech stand. Cf. Bökemöller, Bökenbrink, Bökenkamp, Bökenholt, etc.

Bockisch see Bocksch. Böekler, Bäckler (LGer.): in old documents Bokeler (MLG) = ‘shield bearer’ (from MHG buckeler ‘shield with a metal boss’). Note the biblical text (Psalms): “de herre is min bokeler” = ‘the Lord is my shield’. A. Bokeler, Ro. 1280, Holste bokeler, Greifsw. 1307, Did. Bokeler 1456 near Hamelin, bokeler Barth 1453, Carsten Bäkeler, Prenzlau 1628 (from Meckl.; compare Däibler for Döbler, Bädeker for Bödeker, KiWer for Köhler). See also Bückler.

Böcklin (UGer.): = ‘buck, small buck’, name of an old Strasbg. family, there as early as 1278 Ulrich Bokelin, with Alem. diminutive Suffix -lin for ­lein; cf. the painter Arnold Böcklin.

Böckmam (LGer.) = UGer. Büchmann: From the dwelling under trees or from Böcke(n).

Bockmühl: pl.n. Bockemühl in L.Rhine area.

Boksch, Bokisch, Bogsch: like Bogisch sh.f. of Bogislaw (FN Bockstaf).

Bockshammer, Boxhammer: for a person from Boxheim in Bav., likewise Forchhammer from Forchheim.

Bockwitz: freq. pl.n. in Sax., Sil., also near Torgau.

Bockwoldt (LGer. freq.): = UGer. Buchwald [beech forest].

Bodamer see Bodmer.

Boddi(e)n: pl.n. (twice in Meckl., also Prignitz).

Bode, Boden (Bohden): freq. N Ger. = pers.n. Bodo, cf. Henr. Bodensone = H. filius domini Boden [son of B.], also H. Bodonis, Hbg. 1248-58. See also Bade. For Bodemann also note the Bode River in the Harz Mtns; compare Bestemann, Huntemann. Only rarely is the word “Bote” [messenger] involved, cf. LGer. Burbode ‘town messenger’.

Bodeck (Hbg.): LGer., UGer. Bottich [tub, vat], see Bödeker. Cf. Bodekholt, Bodekstaff, Bodekmann.

Bödeker, Böddeker, Bädeker: LGer. for Böttcher [tub maker, cooper]. Son of a tub maker in Rathenow (1384) e.g. Stephan Bodeker, bishop of Brandenburg (see Brech., p. 170).

Bodelschwingh: pl.n. near Dortmund (old: Budels-wich); also Bolschwing. As early as 1275 Gisbert of B.

Bodenbender (LGer.): also Büddenbinder = Bödeker ‘tub maker, cooper’ (LGer. büdde = tub). In Fritzlar 1332, 1383; Bodenband, Budenband, in Kassel 1349: Bodenreif, in Lüb. 1320: Bodenswengel.

Bodendiek (Hbg.): pl.n. near Ülzen, now: Bodenteich. Also cf. Badendiek near Güstrow. In Barth, Pom.: Tid. Bodendik 1326, Andreas Badendik 1447.

Bodenschatz (Franconia, Sax.): MHG schatz = ‘taxes, tithes’, also ‘land rent’. Cf. abe-schatz, slegeschatz.

Bodensiek: Westph. loc.n. like Lehmensiek, etc. [Lehm = ‘clay’; siek = ‘swampy place’].

Bodenstab (LGer.): means ‘barrel maker, cooper’ (Böttcher), like Bodenschwengel, Bodenband, Bodenreif [Boden = ‘tub’; Band, Reif = ‘stave’]; Han. 1737, earlier: Bodeck-staff 1513.

Bodenstedt: pl.n. near Brunsw. Note the writer Fr. B. from Peine.

Bodenstein: pl.n. in U. Pal. (and near Brunsw.). Andreas Bodenstein (from Karlstadt), friend and adversary of Martin Luther.

Bodenwerder: pl.n. Bowick in Westph.

Bö(d)er (MLG): cf. bodern ‘to wash’; Heyne Boder, Haldsl. 1330 (Kiel 1394), her (sir) Harmen Boder, Hildesheim 1593.

Bodmer (Switz.): from pl.n. Bodmen near Zurich, Bodman on Lake Constance. Rudolf Bodemer, Überlingen 1249. The poet J. J. Bodmer was from Zurich. Also cf. Bodamer. In some cases MHG bodem ‘bottom’ may be involved (compare Gademer from gadem); “im Boden” occurs in Zurich. For Bodner (H. Bodener, Ohmen/Hesse 1385) compare H. of dem Boden 1499.

Bödung: pl.n. Bodungen on the Bode River in Thur., like Gerstung, Kauffung.

Böe (Böhe), Böer: Fris-Dan., see Boie.

Böer (Böder): Boder, Kiel 1394 (MLG bodern ‘to wash’).

Boer (LGer.) see Bu(h)r, Bauer.

Boethius (Holstein): Humanist (upgraded) form of the (common) Fris. pers.n. Boie (Böe), Boysen. Obvious in Boetius Boie 1562. Joh. Boethius, Holstein 1633. Boethius was a late Roman philosopher.

Bofer, Boffert (Würt.); Böferlin, Pöferlein: der Böferlin, Ulm 1421.

Bogda(h)n, Bugda(h)n: Slav.-E Ger. pers.n. (meaning ‘given by God’ like Theodor), cf. Bogumil, Bogislaw. The Woivods from Walachei were known by that name in the 14th c. Cf. even around 1900: Bogdan Krieger. Similarly Bogatz(ki).

Böge (freq. in Hbg.), Böe etc. see Boje, Boye. Boge Kost, Lüb. 1321.

Bögehold, Bögeholz: there is also a loc.n. Böge in Westph., hence Bögemann. (1590 Bogeholt ‘swampy woods’, in Lippe, like Beleholt etc.).

Bögel (LGer.) = ‘stirrup, bow, yoke ring.’ Cf. Bögelsack. Winand Bogel, Han. 1305, D. Boghel, Wesel 1376.

Bogentanz: old name for a minstrel (probably also meaning a dance teacher). Cf. Lobedanz, Schicketanz, Preisendanz. Bernhard Bogentanz, Col. 1528. Nitsche, Hannus, Jekel Bewgentancz, Liegn. 1368.

Bögl, Bögle (Bav., Würt.): means Bögler (both freq. in Nbg. and Mnch.) or Bogner, the archer or bowman, likewise Böger (Stuttg.). Cf. H. Bogelin, Ulm 1239, Bogeler, Freiburg 1341, M. Boger, Würt. 1288. A Tredeboge, Lüneburg 1389. Hence Scheibenbogen (‘avoid the bow’, like Scheibenpflug ‘avoid the plow’, UGer.), Fittbogen, Klingbögl, etc.

Bogisch (Sil.): sh.f. for Slav. Bogislaw, Bogumil, doc. Bogusch (like Berusch, Bartusch; also Bogsch like Bartsch). Bogusch Sebinwirt, Brsl. 1350.

Bogner, Bögner, Böger [bow maker]: see Bögl. There is a Bogner Street in Vienna. Boghener, Ro. 1269, Lüb. 1322; Hensel der bogener, Liegn. 1368, N. Bogener der töpper [potter], Brsl. 1399. (For more information see Bahlow SN, p. 102.)

Bogumil: Slav. pers.n. (‘dear to God’), like Wersemil, Susemil, etc. For Bogislaw see Bockslaf, Butzlaff. Bogu(h)n is E Pruss.-Lith. like Steppuhn.

Böhler: from pl.n. Böhle or Böhlen (both several times in Sax.), like Döhler from Döhlen.

Böhlke (freq. in Hbg.), Bölke and Bahlke derive from the formerly popular sh.f. Boleke (which stood for Fris. Boldeke) and are related to Botewin: Boldewin (Baldwin), quite common along the N Ger. coast around 1200-1400. Also just Bole (Bohle), patr. Bolen (Bohlen, Bohlens, Bohlsen); likewise Boleman (Bohlmann), Boleken (Bohlken), Fris. patr. Boling (Böhling), cf. Röhling, Latinized Bohlius, Bohlenius; Fris. also Bohlje, Bolesma. See also Bahl(ke), Bahlmann. Historically documented: Bole de Malchow, Ro. 1298, Bolo Ripperda, a 16th c. Frisian, Boleke stenwerter, Strals. 1322, R. Bolen(son), Strals. 1299, H. Boleman, Greifsw. 1323, Bolwin (Boldewin) de Cröpelin, Ro. 1258.

Bohlmann (LGer.) see Böhlke.

Bohm (LGer.): = Baum ‘tree’, from the dwelling at the gate (entrance barrier). Likewise Böhmer. In some cases probably from Bohmhauer ‘tree cutter’ (see Böhmke). J. Bomslüter, Stettin 1345, C. prope Bom, Ro. 1275.

Böhm (Sil., Sax. freq.), Behm: the Bohemian (Bahlow SN, p. 80); sometimes also indicating relationships with Bohemia: as Vogt (governor) Heinrich of Plauen “dictus Bohemus” [called the Bohemian] and his brother H. “dictus Ruzo” [called the Russian]! A Wachna Beme, son: Habel, Glatz 1397, Blahut der beme, Glatz 1353, J. Bemischman, Glatz 1378.

Bohmbach: freq. creek n. in Hesse (now also Baumbach).

Böhme see Böhm: Also cf. river and town Böhme (Bomene near Fallingbostel). (See Bahlow ON, p. 50.)

Böhmer (Westph.): = Bäumer ‘one living by the barrier, gate and working there’. See Bäumer.

Bohmgahren (LGer.): = Baumgarten ‘orchard’.

Böhmig (Sax.): Böhmisch see Böhm. Cf. Bömack ‘the Bohemian’.

Böhmke (LGer.): = Bäumchen ‘little tree’ (see Bohm), MLG bom also means ‘beam, joist’ (cf. Hanebom, Seebom) so that also the carpenter may be meant. Thid. Bomeke, Ro. 1281, Joh. Bomhowere, Lüb. 1331. Joh. Bernebom, Ro. 1278 means ‘arsonist’ (Berner), cf. Sengebalke (sengen = ‘to burn’).

Bohn(e), Bohneke: means bean grower, like Bohnemann, UGer. Bohner (cf. the medieval Ulrich Boner’s Edelstein). Hence Bohnsack [bean bag], Bohnenstengel [beanstalk], Bohnenblust [bean blossom] (UGer.), Boneß [bean eater]: (W. Bonesse, Zurich 1219, like Man-esse). Schelebone [peel the bean], Haldsl. 1350, Vettebone [fat bean], Grotebone [big bean]. L. Bone, Lüb. 1318, F. Boneke, Haldsl. 1460, H. Bone, Han. 1524, N. Bone, Worms 1304. A town Bone near Zerbst (and a family by that name).

Bo(h)nert = Bohner, see Bohn.

Bo(b)nhoff (Hbg.): Westph. loc.n.

Böhnisch see Bähnisch (Benedikt).

Bohrisch (Sil.): sh.f. for Slav. Boroslaw (Miklosich, Nr. 16), like Behrisch from Berislaw. Martin Borisch, Trebnitz 1203.

Böhrnen see Börnsen.

Boie, Boje, Bojunga, etc. see Boye, Boysen.

Böing see Boysen.

Boitin see Beythien.

Bokelmann: from Bokel (pl.n. in Han., Holstein, Oldenbg.). Cf. Brockelmann, Hamelmann, etc.

Bolay, Boley: Saint Pelagius (patron of the city of Konstanz), cf. “sant Bolaien tag” [Saint Polagius Day]. Still 1520: Bolai Egolff in Rottweil. A Bolay = Belay= Pelay Brenner, Konstanz 1417.

Böl(c)ke, Bölck, Bölicke see Böhlke.

Böldeke: see Boldewin, Baldewin under Böhlke. Boldeke (Bolte) Pistor [baker], Stettin 1344; Boldewin speghelmakere [mirror maker], Lüb. around 1350. Hinr. Boldewin, Greifsw. 1353. Cf. Dutch Baudewijn (Belgian Baudouin); already the Baroque writer J. Fischart knew: “Flemming heißen Baldwin” [Flemish are called B.]; it was also the leading name in the dynasty of the counts of Flanders. See also Boldt. UGer. cf. Böldelin = Reimbold Rebstock, Strasb. 1342.

Boldt, Bold, Bolte: LGer.-Fris. sh.f. of Boldewin (see Böldeke, Bölte, Böhlke).

Bölk(e) see Böhlke.

Bolke (Sil.) see Polke.

Bolkhart (Würt.): bolk ‘lumpish fellow’.

Boll, Bollmann: UGer. from the freq. loc.n. and pl.n. Boll ‘round hill, knoll’ (Baden, Würt., Switz.) as in Bettenbol, Binsenbol. Cf. H. am Bollen, Zurich 1500. But Boller = ‘noisy person, blusterer’: Hainrich der Boller, Rottweil 1314. Cf. Hainrich dictus. [called] de Bolle, near Salem 1261.

Bollag, = Bollak = Pollak ‘Pole’, see Pohl.

Bolland (Hbg.): pl.n. near Wismar in Meckl.

Bollmann see Boll. From N Ger. Bollen on the Weser, Bollmoor see Bahlow ON, p. 51.

Bollwahn, Bollwagen: N Ger., means Boldewan, Boldewin, see Böldeke.

Bols, Bolsen, Bolsmann (Hbg.) like Bohls, Bohlsen see Böhlke.

Bölsche: from Bolske (pl.n.), like Fölsche from Folske. Cf. Bolsken, Fallersleben 1561.

Bölsing: note the hill Bälsing near Rinteln on the Weser. (bols = bels, bils ‘damp, moist’.)

Bolster (UGer.): MHG = Polster ‘cushion’, also for an upholsterer. But cf. pl.n. Bolstern in Saulgau: R. der Bolsterer ‘the one from Bolster’, Würt. 1358.

Bolte, Bölte, Bölting = Boldt = Boldewin, see Böhlke: Around 1200-1400 from Friesland to Pomerania Bolte = Boldeke was a popular pers.n., Stettin 1344. Patronymic: Hans Bolting, Han. 1411. Joach. Bolte (chief miner in Wolgast) was knighted 1675 as Bolte von Boltenstern.

Bölter (Hbg., Stettin): MHG bolter = boltendreier ‘turner, wood worker who makes bolts for crossbows’. Conrad boltensnider [bolt cutter], Maastricht 1265.

Bolz, Bolzmann, Bolzen (freq. in Hbg.): spelling variants for Bols, Bolsmann, Bolsen (Hbg.), see these. But UGer. Boltz, Bölzli means bolt (for the crossbow), cf. Joh. Bolztmacher, Strasb. 1460, also LGer. Boltendreyer (Boltendrechsler = ‘turner’). Hans Boltze near Eßlingen 1381, H. Böltzli, near Zurich 1436, Bolczchen Breslau.

Bombach, Bombeck: numerous pl.ns. (also creek names) in Hesse, Baden, Han. See Bohmbach, Baumbach.

Bomheuer: see Baumhauer. Joh. bomhowere [tree cutter], Lüb. 1331; cf. bowmheuer, Breslau, Bomhouwer, Baden 1410; J. Bomheckel, Bomhecker, Guhrau 1434. (All mean ‘carpenter’.)

Bommer (Switz., Würt.): from Bommen in Switz. Cf. Bommern in Westph.

Bonde, Bondesen in Schleswig-Holstein: related to Dan.-Swed. Bonde = ‘farmer’ (LGer. Bunde).

Boneß, Bonneß (UGer.): ‘bean eater’, derisive nickname for the bean farmer. See Bohne.

Bongardt, Bongartz (Rhineland): = Baumgarten [orchard], see this. Bongratz see Pankratz.

Bonhoff, Bohnhoff. loc.n. in Westph., also pl.n. near Siegburg. Cf. Bonhorst, Han. 1450, Bonschlade near Gladbach. (For the bog word bon see Bahlow ON, p. 52).

Bonin: pl.n. in Pom. (occurs twice).

Bönisch (Lausitz): see Bähnisch (Benedikt).

Bonne, Bonnen, Bonnesen, Bonnick(sen), Bonnichsen: Old Fris. pers.n. with patr. like Bennick, Bennichsen. Compare also Fris. Sonnick(sen). Bonnick Bentzen, Flensburg 1603. Leo Bonninga, a Frisian, 1494; Bonno, a Frisian, 1534.

Bonsack see Bohne.

Bonsels, Bonse (Fris.).

Bontemps (Fr.): = ‘good time’.

Bonwetsch (Bomwetsch): UGer. bom, bon ‘tree’, cf. Wannenwetsch (Würt.).

Bon(t)z (Würt.): likewise Buntz = ‘vat, Barrel’ (Bunz, 1381; Bonz, Stuttg. 1515).

Boockmann (LGer.): = UGer. Buchmann [Buche = ‘beech tree’]. like Bookmeier ‘near the beech forest’. Joh. Bokeman, Greifswald 1316.

Boolsen, Bolsen (Fris.) see Bols.

Boom (L.Rhine area) see Bohm.

Boos (Col.): Dutch ‘angry’, also pl.n. (Bav., Würt., Eifel, on the Nahe River).

Bootz: pl.n. on the Prignitz River.

Bopp, Böpple (UGer., Würt.), also Bopf: old name from baby talk (cf. Poppo for ‘behind’), cf. Count Boppo of Wertheim (at the time of Emperor Frederick Barbarossa); a minnesinger (medieval poet) called himself der Boppe around 1280 in the Alem. area. Also Frid. Boppe, Offenburg 1359, H. Böppeli, Breisach 1412, der Böppel, Allgäu 1451, H. Bopf, Gmünd 1393. MHG poppe also means ‘indulger, braggard’.

Borchers (freq. in LGer. area): patr. of Bürchert (Borchardt, UGer. Burkhard), Westph. Borcherding (likewise Humperding, Sieverding). Concerning Borchers = ‘Borcher’s son’, cf. Ahlers, Ehlers, Elvers and others. Bosse is a sh.f., see this. Borchardus Soltman, Ro. 1288, Henneke Borchardesson, miner on Rügen Island, 1316. Patronymic Borchling (Hbg.) from Borcherding. From the L.Rhine-Westph. area Borg(h)ardt, Borgartz. Cf. Borgerding, Borgert.

Borck see Bork.

Borekert, Borckhardt (CentrGer.) see Borchers.

Bordeke (LGer.): sh.f. of Herbord (‘army’ and ‘shield’), popular name in the Middle Ages. Becomes clear from Herbordus Bordeken, Han. 1408; Herm. Bordeke, Stralsund 1346, Bordeke Bozepol, Stralsund 1340.

Bordewick: = pl.n. Bardowick near Lüneburg.

Bording, Bordich (LGer.): MLG = ‘barge,’ or name of a barge captain. Henr. Bordinc, Ro. 1290, Nik. Bording, captain in the Hanseatic League, Lüb. 1469.

Boreck see Bohrisch.

Borgeest, Bergeest (freq. in Hbg.): probably = Vergeest; see Geest.

Borgenicht: ‘I borrow nothing’, a miser. Joh. Borgenicht, Erfurt 1459.

Börger, Borger (LGer.): = ‘citizen, townsman’. Börger is also a pl.n. near the hills of the Hümmling.

Borges, Borgis see Börries.

Borggrefe, Borggräfe see Burggraf.

Borghardt see Borchers.

Borgmann (LGer.): = ‘man of the castle’. The followers of the lord of a castle were ealled “Burgmannen”.

Borgwardt: was formerly a popular pers.n. in the LGer. area (likewise Volkward, Adalward, Eilward).

Borgwedel: pl.n. Burgwedel (Han.). Borchwedel, Lüb. 1346.

Borho(c)h: UGer. living ‘very high’ (MHG bor ‘very’). In the U.Rhine area freq. documented: Borho (tenant farmer), Löffingen 1290, etc. (See Socin; Brech.).

Borisch see Bohrisch.

Bork, Borck (E Ger.): in somecases from the pl.n. Bork in Pom., Lausitz, or from Borek in U.Sax. (related to Slav. bor ‘fir tree’), or from Borek = sh.f. of Boruslaw (likewise Borsch from Boresch). Thus numerous occurrences of the name in Berlin. Cf. Borkow(ski): freq. in E Pruss. Von Borcke is an old noble family in Pom. As early as 1255, a Borko was recorded in Pom., 1311 a Nik. dictus [called] Borke, Pomeranian nobleman. Cf. also LGer. borke = ‘bark (of a tree)’: FN Borkenbrecher.

Börm, Borm (Hbg.): from Börm near Schleswig.

Bormann (Sax., Sil.): originally Bornemann (likewise Lehmann: Lehnmann), after the dwelling near the well (CentrGer. Born = ‘well’); “der do sitzet bi dem borne” [the one who sits by the well], Liegnitz 1368 (Bahlow SN, p. 80). E. bi dem borne = E. Bornemann, Duderstadt 1438. Cf. Val. Bormann (Bornemann), accountant in Sax. 1520 (Brech., p. 186). Also LGer.: Joh. Borneman, Hbg. 1293. A Hs. Bornemester, Han. 1491, Bornevorer [carter, waggoner, Haldsl. 1400. Cf. Bornträger [Träger = ‘carrier’], Borngräber [well digger], Bornewasser [Wasser = ‘water’], Bornsack, Bornschlegel.

Börner (Sax.): from Borna (near Leipzig, Pirna, Oschatz).

Borngässer (UGer.): cf. Emmerich Borngasse [Gasse = ‘alley, (small) street’], knight, Lorch 1384.

Borngräber (LGer., CentrGer.): = ‘well digger’.

Bornhöft, Bornhövt (Hbg.): pl.n. Bornhöved (Holstein).

Bornhold(t), Bornholt (freq. in Hbg.): name of location, cf. Bornhorst, Bomeholt, Lüb. 1331.

Bornhorst: pl.n. in Oldenburg.

Bornschein (freq. in Jena): ‘shining well or spring’.

Bornschlegel: cf. Mühlschlegel, etc.

Börnsen, Böhrnsen (Flensburg, Hbg.): Dan.-Norw. Björnson (björn = ‘bear’). Cf. Carsten Bornsen, Flensburg 1578, M. Borns, Flensburg 1587.

Bornträger: ‘well water carrier’. C. dialect for Busch [bush, woods]: hence the Borntreger, Witzenhausen 1589, Concze Bornczoger, Frkf. 1387.

Borowski (E Pruss-Pol.): related to pl.n. Borow.

Börries, Borries, Borges, Borgis: sh.f. of Liborius (patron saint of Paderborn, thus freq. in Westph.-L.Rhine area). Borius Ossenbrughe, Oldenburg 1490, Borges van Everse, Oldenburg 1348. Cf. Börries Baron von Münchhausen.

Borrmann see Bormann.

Börs, Börsch (freq. in Col.): old sh.f. of Liborius like Böres, Bories. See Börries. Concerning Borsch (Col.) see pl.n. Borschbach near Col. for Borsbach = ‘swampy creek’.

Borsche (Sax.), Porsche: according to the documents sh.f. of Slav. Borislaw. Cf. Boresch (Borsch) = Boreslaus von Riesenburg (Bohemia), Martin Borisch, as early as 1203 in Trebnitz, Boreslaw, minister, Bärsdorf in Sil. 1287. With a k-suffix: Borschke, Burschke; Porschke, Purschke; Pursche. With an 1-suffix: Borschel, Budweis 1348.

Borschemich: Rhineland like Brackemich (bors, brak = ‘swamp’ E. brackish). Borsig (E Ger.) see Borsche.

Börst, Borst (LGer., Stettin): = ‘bristle, brush’, a snappish person. Cf. also LGer. borst ‘breast’.

Borstel(mann): from Borstel (freq. pl.n. in Han. and Holstein). Herm. von dem Borstel, Hamelin 1441. Also Bostel(mann).

Borte: means border or ribbon weaver (Breslau). Cf. Bortner, Bärtler, Prague 1368, Borte, Brüx 1352, Silberbort (Hbg.).

Borutta (E Ger-Slav.): sh.f. of Boruslaw. See also Borisch, Borsche. Boruta, Stralsund 1284.

Börzel, Börzler (UGer.) see Bürzel.

Bosau (Hbg.): pl.n., in Plön Lake area in Holstein, where Rev. Helmold wrote The Chronicle of the Slavs around 1160.

Bosch (freq. in Col.), Bosche, Boschmann, Böschgen: all in the L.Rhine area, derived from the dwelling near the woods; cf. Achternbosch [behind the woods]. The painter Hieronymus Bosch was from Aachen. In Würt. the name occurs in the dialect form Busch [bush, woods]: hence FN Bosch in Würt. (zen boschen, 1266; Herm. Bosche, 1272).

Bösch: in some cases name derives from Besch, see this. Cf. Böschenbrok (Westph.), Böschmeier (Westph.). However in Würt. a competing FN is Besch, sh.f. of Sebastian. Cf. Balth. Besch (Bösch), Saulgau 1568-69.

Böse (UGer. Bös, Böß): as early as 500 A.D., a Frankish duke Guntchramnus Boso. Name occurs also in compounds: Bösehans [böse = ‘bad, angry;], Bösenickel; Bösehaupt [Haupt = ‘head’]; Bösewort [Wort = ‘word’], Böseferkel [Ferkel = ‘piglet’], UGer. Böspfenning (1398), Böspflug [Pflug = ‘plough’]; böse here means ‘bad’, as in Bösefleisch [Fleisch = ‘meat’] (name for a butcher). Concerning Binnebös [bad inside] see Butenschön [pretty outside]. For Bösewetter see Brausewetter.

Bösel (Hbg.): pl.n. in Oldenburg. (Bahlow ON, p. 53.)

Böser: ‘evil doer’ (bosen ‘to do evil things’). Hinrik Bozere, Ro. 1301, Heinr. der Boser (farmer), near Freiburg 1295.

Bösger: Alem. for Bösinger, likewise Öschger for Eschinger and Nöttger for Nöttinger in Baden, Switz. (see A. Götze, p. 32, Bahlow DN, p. 90).

Bosler (Hbg.): from Boslar near Jülich. Also Bosselaar. But Boßler in the Alem.-Swab. area means ‘ruffian, tough’ (similar = Bochler), from MHG bôßen ‘to hit, knock, push’, sometimes obscene. Boßolt = ‘penis’. See Boßhart, Bossert.

Bosse (LGer.): was a popular sh.f. in N Germany of Borchard (Burghard). Freq. in Hbg., Han., Magdeburg, Dortmund, Col. Also Busse, which is CentrGer. Documented: Bosse = Burchardus, Ro. 1282. Cf. Bosse Borchardes, Haldsl. 1393. Borchard Breyde and Bosse sin sone [his son], Holstein 1373. Also Bosseke (Bremen, Braw.). Hans Bosse (Busse), Jena 1425.

Bossel(mann): N Ger. = Borstelmann, Bostelmann.

Bossert (Alem.) see Boßhart.

Boßer (Würt.): MHG = ‘bowler’ (from bôßen ‘to hit’; cf. Boßhart).

Boßhaft, Bossert and similar names (Switz., U.Rhine area): surnames like Bolckhart, Motzhart and others, means (like Boßler) ‘ruffian, tough’ (also obscene); occurs in Zurich over 300 times! (Remains uninterpreted as yet.) MHG bôß ‘blow, punch, whack’.

Bost (LGer.): = ‘breast’.

Bostel(mann) see Bosselmann, Borstelmann.

Bötefü(h)r (LGer.): ‘make (or light) a fire’, = Fürböter ‘stoker, boilerman’ (today in E Fris. simply Böter, Büther). However Oldeböter, Oltböter means “Altbüßer” = ‘cobbler’ (MLG böten = ‘to mend, repair’), likewise in Ketelböter [ketel = Kessel = ‘kettle’], Grapenböter.

Both, Bothe (freq. in Hbg.): the frequency of the name in the LGer. area corresponds to the former great popularity of the LGer. pers.n. Bode, see this; (nowadays: Bodo, Botho). Cf. Fris. Botje.

Böthelt (Hbg.): cf. Botelt as a fem. Christian name in old Flensburg: Peter Rantzowen maget Botelt [Botelt, the girl or daughter of Peter Rantzow], Flensburg 1587. A pl.n. Böthel near Uchte, pl.n. Bothel on the Wümme River.

Böt(h)er (LGer.): see Bötefür.

Bothfeld: pl.n. in the district of Merseburg.

Böthling (Hbg., Hildesheim): MLG ‘ram, male sheep’. Thid. Botling, Han. 1313.

Bothmann (LGer., Hbg.): Friedr. Botman, Hbg. 1296, i.e. captain on the Elbe, cf. den Robeke Botmakere [boat maker], Hbg. 1293; Thid. Botmeker, Greifswald 1307. See also Both. Cf. Tid. Bote, Col. 1135; M. Bote armiger [arms bearer], Holstein 1375. Bertholt Both (farmer), Kalsow in Meckl. 1552.

Bothmer: pl.n. near Soltau (Ulr. de Botmere, 1174); bot (bod) means ‘swamp, marsh’ as in Bothfeld, Bothel (Bahlow ON, p. 54).

Botsch(e): UGer.-Würt.: Werner Botsche, near Wolfach 1380, C. Botze, Tauber River area 1269, der Bötzelin, near Stuttg. 1350, likewise Butsche, Butschle, Stuttg. 1480, related to butz ‘little fellow’ (C. dictus [called] Butz, Freiburg 1270). Cf. Hs. Botschner.

Bott (UGer.): = ‘messenger’, Briefbott [letter carrier], also Böttle: Hennchin Bott, a messenger, Stuttg. 1465. Böttcher, Bötticher, Böttger, Bötjer: ‘tub maker, cooper’, see Bödeker, Bädeker. Cf. NW Ger. Büddenbender, Bodenbender [of the same meaning]; and W Ger. and S Ger. Faßbinder; E Ger.-Sil. Büttner, Bittner.

Botter(mann), LGer.: means ‘butter man, butter dealer’, Botterhoke (= Butterhöker): Sifridus Botterman, Hbg. 1251. Cf. Botterbrot, Butterbrot [sandwich] (Hbg.), Bottersupp, Bottermund [Mund = ‘mouth’], Schmeckebotter [schmecken = ‘to taste’], Mordebotter (likewise Mordebier), Botterklot [butter ball, dumpling], Hbg. 1262, Bottertunne [Tunne = ‘vat’], Lüneburg 1309, Sötebotter [söt = süß = ‘sweet’], Ro. 1289.

Botz, Bötzle see Butz.

Botzenhardt (Würt.): name of location.

Bove (LGer.): = ‘rogue, slave’ (derogatory).

Bovende-er(d)t (LGer.-L.Rhine) see Babendererde.

Boxhammer: from Boxham in N Bavaria (Poxheim 1379).

Boysen (Schleswig-Holstein, freq. in Hbg.), Boyens, Bojens: ‘son of Boye, Boje’; still today a popular Fris. pers.n.; Bojunga, Bojung(s) is a patr. like Hayunga, Hayung(s) from Haye. With a k-suffix: Boyken, Boyk (sen), also Beuck (freq. in Hbg.). Infreq.: Boge, Bogen, also Bogena (gen. pl., belonging to the clan of Boge, like Ukena, etc.). See also Boethius. Cf. Boge Kost, Lüb. 1321. Frerik Bogen, Tyade Bogynks, Friesland 16th c., Boinck, Fris. chieftain, 1356.

Braack (Hbg.): pl.n. in Holstein, Han., also Brake in Oldenburg, Westph., Han.

Braasch (freq. in Hbg.): LGer. ‘racket Maker’ (MLG brâsch ‘noise’); still today Johannes Brasch = ‘a racket maker’ (Prignitz area). As early as 1300 Brasche occurred freq. in Lüb., Ro., Greifswald, Kiel.

Brabandt, Brabender: from Brabant in Flanders, which was famous for its cloth trade.

Brachmann (LGer., CentrGer.), UGer. Bracher: after the dwelling place near fallow land [brach = ‘fallow’].

Bracht: W Ger. old water word and/or name of woods (also pl.n. in Westph., Rhineland, Hesse). But also sh.f. of Gerbracht, Albracht, etc.: -bracht instead of -brecht is found in Rhinel.-Westph.

Brachvogel: N Ger. and CentGer. name for several birds (Cf. Teuchert, Mecklenburgisches Wörterbuch). Wolter Bracvogel, Pom. 1281, Hans Bracvogel, Balow in Meckl. 1389. The name is known through the novel Friedemann Bach by the writer Brachvogel.

Brack (UGer. Prack): means tracker dog: MHG bracke. Henne Bracke, Frkf. 1387. There is also a Brack River near the Neckar.

Brackel(mann): from Brackel (near Höxter, Dortmund, and Hbg.); Immo von Brackeln, 1218. Job. Brakelman, Hamelin 1376. See Brockelmann, Bockelmann, Hamelmann, Rintelmann.

Brackmann (LGer.), Bracker (Westph.): ‘living on moist, swampy terrain’ (cf. Bahlow ON, p. 55: Brackwede, Brackstedt, Brackede; Brac-bant: Brabant; Brak-lo; Brackel). See Ellerbracke, Ellerbrock. H. Bracman, Hbg. 1299. Likewise Brackmeier (Lippe area). Brackebusch. Brakvogel see Brachvogel. Brackrogge like Tapperogge, Olrogge. Brackweh(r): [shortened] from Brackwede.

Brackrog, Brackrock, Bragrock: “Brakroggen” (peasant name); Jac. Brackrogge, Plath near Strelitz 1571. Cf. Brackhahn (freq. in Han.).

Brade (freq. in Hbg.), Braden: MLG brade ‘roast’ is a name for a cook. Cf. Hasenbrade [Hase = ‘rabbit’], Schweinebrade. Splitebrade, Greifswald 1305, Bradegans [roasting goose], Bradenheket, Hbg. 13th c., Bradena(h)l [frying eel]. Bradhering [fried herring] (freq. in Meckl.), Greifswald 1349, Hildesheim 1387. A Wasmod Bradenehus [eating place for fried food] in Lüb.

Brader (LGer.): also Garbrader ‘fryer, cook’ (Garbrader, Stade 1312, Kiel 1378, etc.). Nic. Brader, Hbg. 1454. The coat of arms of the cooks’ guild of Hamburg showed 3 herrings, 1 sheep and 1 pig. Cf. Bradhering, Bratfisch, Bradeahl, Bradenheket.

Bradersen: (Ammerland) see Brodersen.

Bräger (Würt.): from the town Bräg (pl.n. Breg in the Black Forest; originally name of creek, see Bahlow ON, p. 59). Albrecht der Bräger, near Balingen 1372, Herman Bräg, 1361. Cf. pl.n. Bräg in Switz.

Brägler (Wülrt.): related to MHG breglen ‘to grumble, chat’.

Brahe: pl.n. in Westph.

Brahm (N Ger.): ‘swampy thicket’ (Bahlow ON, p. 55). H. im Brahm, Ruhr area 1747. Field “Am Brahm” [by the swampy thicket] near Varel in Oldenburg. See also Bram-.

Brähmer, Brehmer, see Bremer.

Brahms (LGer., Hbg.): = Abraham’s (son), likewise Dahms = Adam’s (son). Cf. E Fris. Abrams, N Fris. Abramsen, Bramsen. In Holland Bram is still a first name. See also Abraham. FN Brahmst (since 16th c.) shows an added, secondary -t. (See Zunz, Namen der Juden, p. 53).

Braig (Würt.): field name, also Breig, Breiger. Indicates swampy terrain.

Brake, Brakmann see Brackmann.

Bräker see Breker.

Brammer (Hbg., freq. in Kiel): pl.n. near Rendsburg (also near Verden). See Brahm. Compare also Brommer, Bram- occurs also in pl.ns. like Bramhorst, Bramlo (Bramel), Bramey, Bramfeld, Bramstedt.

Bransen see Brahms.

Bran, Branek, Branig, Branke: sh.f. of Slav. pers.n. Branislaw (bran ‘battle’). Cf. Laurens Bran, Stettin 1535, Branek Bohemus [the Bohemian], Brünn 1350. Concerning Branek: Branke see Janek: Janke; Hanek. Hanke; Ranek: Ranke.

Brand see Brandt, Brant.

Brandan(i): rare (Berlin) because name is of literary origin. Recorded as f.n. only for knights and patricians: Brandanus = Saint Brendan, whose fabulous voyage is told in MHG literature. A knight Heinrich Brandanus, Calsmunt in Nassau 1274; a herald Brandanus, Augsburg 1321; as late as 1545: Brandanus David (minister in Stettin). In Helmstedt 1693: Dr. med. Brandanus Behrens; in Buxtehude 1633: Brand. Pitzenius. Brandamus Lemmeke, Schwartow in Meckl. 1560.

Brandecker (UGer.): from Brandeck in Baden.

Brandeis: pl.n. in Bohemia.

Brandes (freq. in Hbg.): patronymic genitive of Brand = Hildebrand. Also Brand(t)s. Fris. Brandsma (patr.). See Brandt. But Brandis is a pl.n. (near Leipzig, Halle). In some cases B. is a Jewish name.

Brändle, Brandel, Prantl see Brandt (= Hildebrand). Doc.: Hildebrand (knight) called Brendelin, Würt. 1278; Brendelin (Brant) von Seinsheim, Würt. 1357; Brändli = Hildebrand, Engen 1353. Also occurs as field name: “im Brendli” (Switz.) indicates a burnt place or a clearing.

Brandt, Brand (freq. in Hbg.): was a popular sh.f. of Hildebrand in N Germany (also of Sibrand, Gerbrand, Wolbrand, Albrand, Herbrand). Cf. S Ger. Brändle, Brandel. Hildebrand, the chief vassal of the Germanic king Dietrich v. Bern [= Theoderich of Verona] (who appears in the epics Nibelungenlied and Hildebrandslied), was still praised in the 15th c. as a popular legendary figure. LGer. sh.f.: Brendeke, see this. Doc.: Brand of Bremen = Hildebrand of Bremen, Hbg. 1277-84; a shopkeeper Brand in Stettin 1351 and his sons Brand and Brand. Brand Krekenoghe, Han. 1407; Brand Gerdes, in Ro. as late as 1570, Hildebrand Dergelo, Ro. 1563.

Brandtner (UGer.): from Brandten in Bav.

Branke see Bran.

Brannemann also Brandemann (LGer.): pl.n. Brande near Hbg.

Brannolte (Westph.): = Nolte (Arnold), Brand (Nolte Brandes, Lippe area 1590), likewise Tündernolte (Lippe 1590).

Brant, Brantl (UGer.) see Brandt: Cf. Sebastian Brant (author of Narrenschiff [Ship of Fools] around 1500). Brant von Seinsheim = Hildebrand v. S., 1343, 1328. Ulr. Brant, Strasb. 1276, Brant Klobelauch, Frkf. 1493. But also W. de Brant, near Zurich 1280, F. de Brande, Würt. 1289, which are related to the pl.n. or name of location [which is indicated by de ‘from’].

Brasch see Braasch.

Braschoß: pl.n. in the Sieg (river) district (Brachtschoß and Merschoß mean ‘swampy corner’). (Bahlow ON, p. 55.)

Bräse(ke) see Bröseke.

Braß, Brasse (L.Rhine, Ruhr area): = ‘broom’ [the plant] (cf. “am Brasberg, Braskamp, Braßhagen”, all occur in the mentioned areas).

Brasse (freq. in Han.): MLDutch brassen ‘to feast’, MLG bras ‘a glutton’ (“Prasser”). But MLG brasse ‘brooch, buckle’; Brassemaker, Bressemaker, Lüb. 1343. Diderich Brasse, Hildesheim 1522.

Bratranek (Vienna): Slav. bratr- ‘brother’ (nephew), cf. pl.n. Bratrikovice: Bratrigsderf 1250, later Brättersdorf in Moravia (E. Schwarz II, p. 213). The Goethe scholar B. was from Moravia.

Bratsch(ke): see Brattke.

Brathering [fried herring] (name of the fish fryer) see Brade.

Brattke, Brattig, Bratek, Bratka; Brat(o)sch: E Ger.-Slav. sh.fs. of Bratoslaw. Cf. Bratke, Meckl. 1579. However Gerlach Bratte, Ro. 1285, Lubbert Bratte, Lüb. 1318 mean ‘wool merchant’: bratte (Dutch) = ‘very soft wool’.

Brauch(le): Swab., ‘gourmet’ (MHG brachen ‘to enjoy, indulge’). Bruch(i), Bruchli, 14th c.

Brauchitsch (von): Sil. noble family (cf. pl.n. Brauchitschdorf near Lüben). Tyne Brauchatez, near Liegnitz 1457, Hans Brauchitsch von Brauchitschdorf, 1535, a court judge in Liegnitz. Wendish bruchacz ‘fat person’ (cf. Bulacz, Lubatsch).

Brauck- see Brock-.

Brauer (standardized form in LGer. area of MLG Bruwer, which changed to present-day LGer. Bruger): MHG briuwer changed to Breuer, Bräuer (Sil., Hess.) or unrounded: Breier, Breyer (cf. Wienbreyer, also Wienbräuer); Rhinel. forms are Brauers, Breuers, E Fris. Browers, Broyers; UGer.-Bav.: Breu, Preu, Brey (MHG briuwe). In the Middle Ages many burghers had the right to brew (beer), which accounts for the frequency of the FN (Bahlow SN, p. 103). Cf. Medebruwer (Metbrauer = ‘brewer of mead’), Frkf. 1263, Hoppenbreuer (L.Rhine), Gerstenbräu, Gerstenbrey [Gerste = barley] (Augsburg). Sauerbrey. Also Breymann = Braumann. Braumüller (Vienna, Mnch.).

Braun, Braune (UGer. without the -e): the brown one, regarding the color of the eyes, hair or beard (Peter Braunbart, near Prague 1378); Brunehannos, Brunenitsche, Brsl. 14th c.; Joh. Brune, Sagan 1381; Ulrich Brune, Würt. 1329. UGer.-Sil. also with strong ending (of inflexion): Brauner, Braunert (likewise Kahler: Kahlert), cf. M. Braun (Brauner), Liegnitz 1560-63. The frequent pl.n. Braunau in Sil., Sax., Bohemia must also be taken into consideration, cf. J. Brunower, Freiberg on the Saale River, M. Scheyner von Braune, Görlitz 1555 (likewise Gruner(t), Harter(t), Schoner(t), etc.). S Ger. variants are Bräunle, Bräunlein, Breinl, Breinlein: A Lienhart Brunswartz, Würt. 1435. Brauns (LGer., Dortmund, Han., Magdeburg) however was standardized (in the 16th c.) from LGer. Bruns (= Bruno’s son).

Brauneis (Vienna, Mnch.): Brun-isen is the name of a smith.

Braunger (UGer.) see Brun-ger (LGer.)

Braunholt, Braunholz (Hbg., Berlin): in the 16th c. standardized from LGer pers. n,. Brunold, like Helmholtz from Helmold and Weinholtz from Winold. Cf. Brunold Bruns, Hildesheim 1467.

Bräuning (UGer., Stuttg.): old pers.n. Brüning (from Bruno). Braning von Staufen, Würt. 1206 (in the vicinity of his castle: the town Breuningsweiler), Brech., p. 232: her Chunrat Brünink, Augsburg 1284. See LGer. Brüning.

Bräurding(er): UGer. pl.n. Bräunlingen in Baden.

Brauns = LGer, Bruns, see Braun and Bruns.

Braunwart (UGer., Alem.): old pers.n. Brunwart (cf. Braunger: Brunger). (Socin, Mhd. Namenbuch, p. 135, 686, 4). Cf. Peter Brunwarl, Ulm 1343.

Brausewetter [stormy weather]: a stormy person (in E Prussia FN of an overlord or burgrave). Cf. Henr. Schureweder, Wetzlar 1308. Also Bösewetter [böse = ‘bad, angry’], Faulwetter, Kühlwetter, Naßwetter [naß = ‘wet’].

Braut(lecht): MLG brûtlacht = ‘wedding’ (a Westph. country clan near Enger, Westph.: cf. Dt. Geschlechterbuch, vol. 82). Cf. Brautferger, Bräutigam [bridegroom]. Name probably indicates the man who in earlier times extended the wedding invitations to the the guests. An Arnd Brutschatte (= Brautschatz ‘dowry’) in Oldenburg 1502. A Brutluf (= Brautlauf ‘wedding’) in Eger 1320.

Brebbermmm: a person from Brebber near Verden (Bahlow ON, p. 56).

Brech. (Würt.): artisan who worked with wood and manufactured tools for crushing hemp and flax. Hans Seibold, waggoner and maker of crushing mills (Brech.), near Stuttg. around 1550. For more information cf. Brech. vol. I, 1957, p. 207.

Brecht, Brechtel, Brechtle: UGer. sh.f. of Albrecht. Bav.: Prechtl.

Breckling (Hbg.): pl.n. near Schleswig. See Breckwold.

Breckwold (freq. in Hbg.): = ‘swampy woods’, related to brick, breck ‘swamp, mud’, thus Helmold Brekwinkel [Winkel = ‘corner, small place’], Lüneburg 1386, Brickwedde (Breckwide 1240), Bricthorp, Westph. 1238, Brickensele 1088 (= Brexel in Westph.). Compare swampy Breckland in England. (Celtic em-brek-to ‘something soaked’). Also Brekelfeld in Westph., Brecklenkamp. Brekehorst, Kolberg 1423; cf. Hinrik Brekewold, Lüb. 1327, dominus Conrad Brekewold, Hbg. 1461.

Brede, Breede (LGer.): brede means swampy lowlands, like in pl.n. Breda (bog) near Lemgo; it means marsh in Brabant; cf. Bredelar near Brilon, Breden near Höxter (and in Flanders), see Bahlow ON, p. 56. Cf. Bredemann, Bredemeier; Bredebusch, Bredehöft, Bredehorn, Bredehorst. Brepohl, Breypohl (Westph.) show LGer. loss of the dental sound d between vowels, likewise in Breihold, Breiholz (= Bredeholt).

Bredehöft: (LGer.) = Breithaupt ‘broad head’. Volceke Bredehovet, Hbg. 1357.

Brederek(e): pl.n. Bredereiche near Templin.

Brederlow: pl.n. near Pyritz.

Bredow: pl.n. (in the Havel area and near Stettin).

Breede see Brede.

Breer = Breder see Brede.

Breese: pl.n. several occ. (also pl.n. Breesen in Wendland, Meckl., Brandenburg), related to Slav. bres- ‘ birch’. Breese in the Marsh [near Bremen]. Also Briese(n).

Breest: pl.n. near Demmin.

Brefdreg(h)er (LGer.): messenger, runner, who in the service of a city or an overlord carried and delivered news (written documents) and took the answers back (cf. Tuschebref), Han. 1324).

Brehm, Brehme (UGer.): ‘restless person’, related to MHG breme ‘gadfly, horse fly’ (cf. Hummel). Ulr. Breme, Bav. 1204, Hans Bremlin, Würt. 1485. Premunsnabel, Augsburg 1330. Cf. LGer. Brömse.

Brehmer see Bremer.

Breiding see Breiting.

Breier see Breuer, Brauer.

Breihold, Breiholz see Brede. Breil(mann): Rhinel. breiel = brühl ‘swampy lowlands’ (freq. in Essen and surrounding area). Rhein. WB., I, 1040.

Brein: Bav. form for Brei [porridge, mush]; grains used for porridge: millet, grits, hence Mahlebrein [grinding grains for porridge]. Breiner = Breinbauer [grain farmer]. Cf. Breinsack, Breinstampf [gristmiller], Scheichbrein [avoid the porridge] like Scheichenpflug [Pflug = ‘plough’], Scheichenzuber [Zuber = ‘tub’], Scheichnast [Ast = ‘brauch’]. Also in this group of names: Breinbauer, Breinhuber. Not however: Breiesser [porridge eater], Blasdenbrei [blow on the porridge], Schmeckenbrei [taste the porridge], all of which mean the cook. A Henke Bri-verderber [spoil the porridge], Frkf. 1334. A Rudolf Brimelwer, Überlingen 1295, see Melber.

Breinle, Breindle (Swab.): = Bräunle: the brown one. Cf. Breinlinger: unrounded form of Bräunlinger. Cf. Bav. Praundl (Prundlin). K. dictus [called] Brünlin (Preunlin), Würzburg 1329-41.

Breiser see Preiser.

Breisger (Brisger): the man from Breisgau (area around Freiburg, S Black Forest). Nic. Brisger, Freiburg 1284.

Breiting, Breitung: from Breitungen on the Werra River (or the S Harz Mountains). Chr. Breitung, Mühlh. in Thuringia 1526, P. Breyting, Ohrdruf 1463, Breiding, Witzenhausen 1636. See Fladung, Gerstung, etc. (For the Thur. names ending in -ungen see Bahlow, Niederdeutsches Korrespondenzblatt, 1961).

Breitkopf [broad head] (LGer. Bredekop, Merseburg 1493), Breithaupt, Breitschädel [broad head, skull] (UGer., Basel 1344).

Breitner (UGer.): related to the field name Breite (= lowlands), also pl.n. Breiten, Breitenau (more freq.), cf. Langner from Langenau.

Breitscheid: Rhinel. pl.n. (numerous occ.).

Breitschwerdt see Schwertfeger.

Breitsprecher (surname of the people from Mecklenburg, who have a “broad” speech).

Breitz(ke), Bre(i)tzmann: E Ger-Slav., likewise Brietz(ke), Britzmann.

Breker (Switz.): like Bräg(g)er from the village Bräg, Toggenburg area. Cf. Ulrich Bräker’s novel Der arme Mann im Toggenburg [the poor man in Toggenburg], 1735; also the sculptor Arno Breker was Swiss.

Brelie, Brelje (von der): from Brelingen (Han., where there is also a Breliendamm, = B. Street), likewise Delliehausen from Dellinghausen.

Bremer (freq. in Hbg.): from Bremen. Also Bremert. A noble family by the name of “von Bremen” is more recent (cf. Claus v. Bremen, Lüb. 1605). For the pl.n. Bremen and creek name Breme see Bahlow ON, p. 57 (brem means ‘swamp’, cf. Bremschlade on the Eder River, Bremenpfuhl (Alsace), Bremenkamp in Westph.).

Brendeke, Brenneke (freq. in Hbg.): LGer. sh.f. of Hildebrand, = UGer. Brändli, Brendle. See Brandt. Brendeko filius [son of] Hildebrandi, Lüb. 1350.

Brenke, Brenken: L.Rhine Terbrenken shows loc. name [= zur Brinken]. Cf. pl.n. Brank in Eifel area.

Brenker (L.Rhine-Westph.) = Brinker, living on the “Brink” [a raised grassland area in swampy surroundings). Cf. Brembrenker. UGer. Brencker (Ulm 1530) however is related to MHG brenken ‘to show off, show magnificence’.

Brenneke see Brendeke.

Brenneis(en): name of a smith.

Brenner: UGer., = CentrGer.-LGer. Berner, Birner: several meanings possible: arsonist; pitch maker, charcoal burner, collier or fine metal smelter. Walther Brennäre (Incendarius ‘arsonist’), Tennenbach in Baden 1219. Otte der Brenner, 1338.

Brenninkmeier (Westph.): Brenning is patr. of Brenneke (Hildebrand), see Brendeke. Cf. Benningmeier, which is related to Benneke = Bernhard.

Brennmähl, Brennmöhl: Brendemühl, pl.n. near Stettin.

Brentano: immigrated from the Brenta River (N Italy) in the 18th c. (see Brech., p. 213).

Brentz (UGer.): Henni Brentz, Schliengen in Baden 1396, Simon Brentzlin, Tübingen 1477.

Brenzger: Alem. form of Brenzinger, likewise Öschger for Eschinger. Cf. Michel Brenzger, Ulm 1484; Brentzinger, Eßlingen 1336 (Brech., I, p. 214).

Brenzing (Würt.): like Benzing, compare Brenzger. Jod. Brentzing, Eßlingen 1545.

Bresch, Breschke, Breske, Bresching: E Ger.-Slav., cf. pl.n. Bresch in Prignitz area. Breschine (Sil.); Slav. bres = ‘birch’.

Brese(mann): E Ger., related to Slav. pl.n. Bre(e)se (freq., = ‘locality near birches’).

Bressel, Bressler: Sil., from Breslau (dialect form: Brassel), cf. Hans Teichman, Breßler, Görlitz 1508 (Bahlow SN, p. 80).

Brestrich (E Ger.-Slav.): cf. pl.n. Pröstrich (Thur.); Bratrik and others. Also pl.ns. like Brestau, Brestik, Brestovac, Brest-Litowsk.

Bretsch: pl.n. in Altmark area.

Brett: sh.f. for Brettschneider.

Brettner: from Bretten in Kraichgau area; or from Brettnau (peninsula in Lake Constance): see Bahlow ON, p. 58.

Brettschneider [board cutter]: owner (or tenant) of a sawmill, sawyer. E Ger.-Sil.-Bohemian-Sax. Sydel Bretsnyder, Liegnitz 1372; cf. “hat Peter bretsnyder die bretmöle gemyet eyn jar” [Peter bretsnyder rented the sawmill for one year], Brsl. 1387. Likewise bretseger, Prague 1377, Bretbinder, Dessau 1733, Bretthauer [board chopper].

Bretzel, Bretzler: the pretzel baker.

Bretzmann, Bretzik see Breitz-.

Breu(c)ker see Bröker.

Breuel: L.Rhine for Brühl ‘swampy lowlands’ (from Celt.-Gallic brogilo), see Bahlow ON, p. 61. Cf. Breughel.

Breu(er): see Brauer.

Breuhahn = Broihahn (see there).

Breuning see Bräuning.

Brey, Breyer see Brauer.

Breyde (Hbg.): Fris. pers.n. (Brsw., Stralsund).

Breymann, Breymeier, Breypohl (Westph.): see Brede.

Brick(e): see Breckwold.

Bricks see Brix.

Briechle (Swab.) = Brüchle (see Brauchle). C. Briechlin (Brüchlin), near Kempten 1451.

Briede(n): U.Rhine area = Brigitte (E. Bride), “Mary of the Irish”. Alem. Bridlin, Styrian Preid. Also Breiden (= son of B.), cf. “Breidentag” [Bridget’s day]. Henni Briden, Speyer 1342. Ver Prid (Preid), Krems (Austria), 1316.

Brief(träger): see Brefdreger. Brieftregel, Zurich 1408. Albrecht der Brieff, Marbach 1319. Joh. der Brieftrager, Reutlingen 1382.

Brieger: from Brieg (Sil.): Heinke Briger der melczer = Heinrich vom Brige der melczer [the maltster, malt maker], Brsl. 1369.

Briegleb: pl.n. Briegleben (Thur.), likewise Memleb, Auleb.

Briel, van der Briele: L.Rhine = Brühl, see there. Also in Holland.

Briem(le): Swab. = Bremlin = Brehm, see there. Compare Bienz for Benz.

Briese (E Ger.-Slav.): freq. in E Ger.-Slav. pl.ns. like Briese, Briesen (Sil., Brandenburg) = ‘locality with birches’, also Brieske (Lausitz), Briesnitz (Sil.), Briest (Brandenburg).

Briesemeister (Brandenburg): Tias B., Kossate near Angermünde 1618.

Bri(e)tzke (E Ger.), also Brietz, Britz: pl.n. in Brandenburg, see Briese.

Brill (freq. in Hbg.): pl.n. Brill (E Friesland).

Brimmer: MHG brimmen = ‘to grumble’.

Brin(c)kmann, Brinck, Brinker: Westph., L.Rhine, = living near (on) a “Brink” [raised pasture land in wet surroundings]. Also in many compound names: Antenbrink, Krähenbrink, Kregenbrink, Steinbrink, Steinbrinker. Similar: Brenker, Brembrenker. Albrecht uppedembrinke, Stralsund 1341.

Brinkama, Brinkema (E Fris., patr.): from the Brink Family; -ma = -mann. Cf. Onnama, Ubbema, Scheltema, Edema, Wiggama (F. Stark, p. 174).

Bringezu (Hbg.): = LGer. Bringeto = Tobringer ‘squanderer’: Hartwig Tobringer (chief miner), Anklam 1387; Albert Bringeto (cleric), Lüb. 14th c. (Ro. 1302, Wismar 1432). Saying: “so wurmen, so tobrocht” [easy come, easy go].

Britz(mann): from Britz in Brandenbrug. Britzke, Brietzke, Britzkow.

Brix, Brixle, Brigsken, Brüxkes, Bricks: Saint Briccius.

Brock see Brook-.

Brode (Hbg.): pl.n. Broda in Meckl., Brodau in Holstein.

Brockel(mann): from Brockel in Wümme Bog [bog of the Wümme River], (Brok-lo).

Bröckel(mann): from Bröckel near Celle or Brökeln on the Weser.

Bröcker see Brook.

Brockhaus (Westph.): related to the pl.n. Brockhusen, Brockhausen (several).

Bröcking (Westph.): Derives from Brock, likewise Büsching, Hölting, etc.

Brodauf: unexplained as yet; Albrecht Brodup, Halle 1378, M. Brothauf, Delitzsch 1465.

Broder(sen), Broders, Bröers: Flensburg, Hbg., Kiel. Herrn. Brodersone, Lüb. 1289. Name of relative, like Fris. FN Feddersen. Also used as first name: Broder Brodersen!

Brodesser: ‘a boarder, s.o. in the service of s.o.; laborer, hired hand’.

Brodkorb [bread basket]: name of a bread vendor. Cf. Käsekorb, Kersekorf. Also Brodführer [Führer = ‘drayman, carter’].

Brodrecht (Thur.): Broderix, Slav., likewise Moldrecht, Moldrix. Cf. Brodek, Brode.

Brögel(mann): see Brühl. But Alem. forms Brögli, Broger: mean braggard, boaster (MHG brogen ‘to brag’), cf. Brogelin der Broger, 1236; Cunrat der Broger, Strasb. 1294, (city) councillor, Eßlingen 1350.

Bröhan, Broihan, Breuhan, Brühahn: ‘stew the hen’ (LGer. sentence name for a cook, esp. a chicken cook), likewise Brozekalf, cf. Henr. Broyehet (Broye) ‘stew hot’, Hbg. 1296, Detlev Broye, Lüb. 1341. Brogecalf, Stralsund 1278, Broydüvel [stew the devil], Cot. 1339, Henr. Broye, Ro. 1287, Job. Brogelant, Broielant, Ro. around 1250, Slibrogere, Hbg. 1250, Broygher, Han. 1428: Broyer near Hamburg.

Bröhl see Brühl.

Brohm (Hbg.) see Brom. Brohmann see Brom(m)ann.

Broich (L.Rhine) see Brook.

Brokate: (LGer.) “Bruchkate, Sumpfkate” ‘swamp cottage’ (a poor dwelling), cf. Rekate.

Brokmann, Brokmeier, Brokmöller see Brook.

Brokuff, Brokob: Bohemian-Sil. = Prokop, patron saint of Bohemia. Cf. Brokuff Rotbart, Freystadt 1505. (Bahlow SN, p. 72.)

Bröller (Würt.): ‘howler, cryer’.

Bröl- (pl.n. on the Sieg River) see Brühl.

Brom, Brohm, Brohme, Brohmann, Brom(m)ann, Bromfort, van den Brom: brom and bram occur in many pl.ns. and water words, indicating bogs (Bahlow ON, p. 61, 55), cf. brem. Gereke Brom, Stralsund 1340; J. Brome, Lüb. 14th c., de Brome, Ro. 1262. Val. Brom(e), Han. 1564. Cf. pl.n. Brome in the district of Gifhorn and Brohm in Meckl.

Brommund see Brummund.

Bröme (LGer.): ‘gadfly, horse fly’ (see also Brehm): L. Brömes, Lüneburg 1372.

Bronisch: sh.f. of Bronislaw, see Brunzel.

Bronner(t): from Bronnen (Würt., Bav.).

Brook, Brock, Brok: all occur also as compounds with -mann, -möller, -meier, Bröcker (in Westph.): also Bräucker as well as “im Brook, im Brauk” and others, all mean ‘settler in a bog area’, frequently in the swampy areas of N Westph. (occur also in the L.Rhine area, where “Broich” shows a lengthening -i-). See also Brockelmann. Joh. Bröker, Kiel 1367.

Brosamle (Zurich 1401 Brosemli): living on crumbs [Brosame = ‘crumb’], cf. LGer. Krumeneter.

Brosch, Broschek (Slav.), Broscheit (Lith.-E Pruss.): see Ambros(ius).

Brose, Brosig, Brosemann, Brosenius, Brosius: see Ambros(ius).

Bröseke (LGer.-E Ger.): sh.f. of Ambrosius, see there. Broseke (Brosius) Heinse, Stralsund 1270. Concerning Bröse compare pl.n. Brösa, Brösen (occurs several times in Sax.).

Brotbauch [bread belly], Brotsack, Brotwurm [Wurm = ‘worm’], Brotkorb [Korb = ‘basket’]: surnames of the baker.

Brotbeck (UGer.): contrast: Kuchenbecker [pastry baker]. Sifrit der brotbekke [bread baker], Harb 1285. For Brodesser (see there) note LGer. Broteter, Hornburg 1492. Contracted: Brobeck (Brech., p. 221) like Brobeil (Würt.) along with Brotbeil. A Henne Brot in der deschen, Frkf. 1368, an H. Brodtzan, Kassel 1417.

Brox (Bohemian-Sil.) = Prox, i.e. Saint Prokop, patron saint of Bohemia. Hans Brox, Liegnitz 1491, Merten Brox, Görlitz 1560.

Broyer (Hbg.): ‘stewing cook’, see Bröhan (Broyhan). Broygher, Han. 1428, Slibrogere, Hbg. 1250.

Bruchmann, Bruchmüller: CentrGer. ‘living near the bog’, Steffan von dem bruche, Frkf. 1387, sometimes Bruchmann stands for older LGer. Brockmann, Brockmöller. Also with umlaut: Brüchmann, Brücher (LGer. Bröcker), cf. pl.n. Brüchen on the Rhine. Stephan bruchgasse, Brsl. 14th c.

Bruck(mann): UGer. ‘living at the bridge’ (UGer. Bruck); Peder an der bröcken, Frkf. 1387, LGer. Brüggemann. The same meaning with UGer. Brucker, Brugger, Prucker (unless = MHG brucker ‘collector of bridge toll’). Cf. Bruckhei ‘bridge warden’ (likewise Holzhei: MHG heie ‘keeper, warden’), Bav. Prugghai.

Bruckschlägl (Vienna): MHG slegel ‘mallet, beater’ (Knight Heinrich called Bruckslegel, Burg Kirchberg, Würt., 1210). A Heinrich uf der brugge, Eßlingen 1270. In Bav. Bruck is a freq. pl.n. (Brucker!).

Brückmam: sometimes a different spelling for LGer. Brügmann. Concerning Brück see also pl.n. Brück (freq. in Rhineland) like Bruck in Bav.

Brückner (Sil., U.Lausitz, Sax., Bohemia; Austria: Prückner), also Bruckner, Pruckner (UGer.-Bav.): name is recorded in Sil. and Moravia 1300-1400 for the bridge repairman and street paver (cf. MLG brüggemann); see Bahlow SN, p. 103 (“dem bruckener” or pontifex!), bridges were also called stone roads or plank streets. Cf. E. Schwarz 69: eim prukner, daß man die prukk pessern mug”, Moravia 1414 [to a bridge worker that the bridge be repaired]. Sometimes also name for the man from Brückenau in Franconia.

Bruck(i)sch (Sil.): = Brocksch, Procksch = Prokop (Bahlow SN, p. 72).

Bruder [brother]: like LGer. Broder, form of familiar address. Is also the MHG word for a priest (of a monastery) or a pilgrim, e.g. LGer. der barfoten broder ‘the barefoot monk’.

Brüd(i)gam (LGer.): = Bräutigam [bridegroom]; also Brüdjam and Breitgam.

Bruger (LGer.): = standard Ger. Brauer [brewer].

Brüggemam, Brägmann, Brügger (LGer., esp. Westph.): living at the bridge, likewise Anderbrügge, Toderbrüggen (cf. Osenbrüggen for present pl.n. Osnabrück). Frequent pl.ns. are Brügge, Brüggen. FN may have the meaning ‘bridge warden’ in some cases. The bridge and street paver was called brüggentreder, Ro. 1268, Lüb. 1318, brüggenmaker, Lüb. 1325 (cf. Brückner).

Brugsch see Brucksch.

Brühan see Brö-.

Brühl see Breuel. Cf. pl.n. Brühl near Col., also freq. in Baden; concerning Brüel: pl n. Brüel, in Meckl. Freq. on the L.Rhine. Also name of locality: am brüle, tom breuel.

Bruhn, Bruhns, Bruns (LGer.): Bruno (Brun ‘the brown one’), a very old Germanic name, was the leading name of the ducal family of the Brunones around 900. Saint Bruno (Archbishop of Cologne) was the brother of Emperor Otto I.

Bruhnke see Brüning.

Brümmer (freq. in Hbg., Meckl.): LGer. = ‘grouch, howler’, also Brumm(e). Joh. Brummere, Lüb. 1339. Cf. Brummegrelle, Braw. 1369, grelle = ‘spike’ as in Schleppergrelle. A Brummelbar, Greifswald 1366. For Brummel however compare brum = brom = bram ‘bog, marsh’ as in the pl.n. Brummel (in Westph.: Brumlo) and Brümsel on the Ems River (Brum-seli), likewise Bramsel (Bram-seli, 890).

Brum(m)und, Brommund (Hbg.): = Brümmer.

Brümsi (Alem.) along with Brümser: ‘grumpy person’ (Brech., p. 231, Nied, p. 58, Tobler, p. 119). Giselb.

Bruneßere, knight, Rüdesheim 1250; H. Brümsi, Schaffhausen 1253; Heinr. Brümsi (Brümser), Villingen 1421-32. Michel Brumser, Frkf. 1387.

Brunckhorst (freq. in Hbg.): pl.n. in Gelderland, related to the Dutch word for swamp brunk, and to brunkel (Alsace, Hesse) as also in the pl.n. Brunkensen on the Leine River, pl.n. Brunkel in Waldeck area. W. Brunkel, Alsace 1261. (Bahlow ON, p. 62.) But Brunkow, Brunkau are Slav. pl.ns.

Bründel (Hbg., Ro.): from Bründeln near Peine. (Bahlow ON, p. 62.)

Brüne: cf. pl.n. Brünen near Wesel, Brüne near Hoya. There is a Brühne River in the Harz Mountains.

Brünger (Hbg.): Old Ger. pers.n. Brun-ger (rare). Occurs around 1250 in Ro., Lüb. Compare UGer. Braunger. Patr.: Brungers, Brongers. But Brüngger: from the pl.n. Brünggen (Switz.). Rud. Brüngger, 1344.

Brüning(s) (LGer., Westph.), Brüninga (E Fris.): patr. of Brun(o). Cf. pl.n. Brüninghausen (Westph.). Bruns see Bruhns. Hence Brunssen, Bruhnsen (= Brun’s son). Bruins is Fris., also Bruinsma. Cf. Brauns under Braun. LGer. forms with k-suffix: Bruneke, nowadays Bru(h)nke, Brünicke, still around 1600 up to 1860: Brunke Brunken in Friesland, now Brüntjen (like Röntjen), Briinjes, etc.

Brunke, Brunken (freq. in Hbg.) see Brüning.

Brunn(en)träger: like CentrGer.-LGer. Bornträger [meaning a carrier of well water]. H. Brunnentreger, Würzburg 1409.

Brunner (UGer.): like Brünner derived from the numerous pl.ns. Brunn (Brünn) in Bav. and Austria, esp. Tyrol. But Brunnemann: living ‘near the well’, 1260, ‘up from the well’, ‘at the well’, Würt. 1270.

Brunngräber see Borngräber.

Bruns, Brunssen (probably also Brunst: Hbg.): see Bruhns and Brüning.

Brunste(i)n (Hbg.): very rare Germanic pers.n. (like Nordic Thor-ste(i)n: refers to the hammer of the god Thor): brun was a surname of the god Odin. Documented in Ro., Lüb., Hbg. around 1250-1300: Brun-sten(us); Nik. Brunstene, Hbg. 1307.

Brunswieck, Brunswig = Braunschweig [Brunswick].

Brunzel, Bronzel (Sil.): sh.f of the Slav. pers.n. Bronislaw. Bruniczlaw de Goltberg, Brsl. 1371. Cf. the pl.n. Brunzelwaldau. (Bahlow SN, p. 56.)

Brüsch, Brüschke, Brüske (E Ger.), Brüß, Bruß; Brusky: Jac. Brus (Brusche), Stralsund 1300, derives from the same Slav. word stem as the pl.n. Bruschewitz in Sil., Brüsewitz in Pom., Meckl. Compare also Brüskenheide in Westph.: MHG brüsch ‘broom, brushwood’.

Brüsehaver, Brüsehaber (LGer., E of Bremen to Stralsund since the Middle Ages): means oats farmer [Hafer, Haber = ‘oats’] (likewise Faulhaber, Frischhaber and others) after a certain kind of oats, as also in the LGer. variants brimhaver, oldehaver, ruhaver, slethaver, spalkhaver, krullehaver, polehaver (Bahlow, Festschrift Wossidlo, 1939, p. 49). Cf. Brusehavere, Ro. 1262, Bremen 1290, Lüb. 1320, Stralsund 1280 (where also a knight Maghorius B. was recorded 1360).

Brüser (LGer.): a stormy person. Conrad Bruser, Stettin 1350.

Brust, Brüstle: person with a conspicuously wide (proud?) chest (compare FNs with Arm, Hand, Faust, Bein etc.). Cuncz mit der brust, Würzburg 1409; Rüd. Brüstelin, 1287 (in MHG the name also may have meant ‘cuirass, buckler’).

Brütsch(i), Brutscher (UGer.): grumpy, sulky, stubborn. Joh. Brütschi, near St. Blasien 1418. (A. Götze, p. 65.)

Brütt, Brüttmann, Brütting: like Britt, Britting are UGer. names.

Bub(b)ert, Bob(b)ert: LGer. ‘thickened eggnog’ (hence name of a cook), see Dähnert, Pom. Wörterbuch, 59a. Nicol. bubbard, Ro. 1298, H. Bobard, Hamelin 1461.

Bube, Buob, Bueb, Bübelin, Buberl (UGer.). MHG. buobe ‘hired man, servant in the retinue of a master’; or derogatory: ‘rake’. Compound names: Kleibub, Gutbub. Cf. Knight Joh. von Reischach, called Herr Bübelin, Würt. 1374.

Bubeck (freq. in Würt.): probably an old field name. Cf. Kath. Bubeckerin, Eßlingen 1477.

Bubendey (Hbg.): name of locality (field name with unexplained -dey) like Finkendey, Dauthendey, Momendey, Schimmedey.

Bubnick (E Ger.-Slav., Vienna, Dresden): ‘drummer’.

Buch: frequent pl.n. (esp. in Bav., Würt.): MHG. = ‘beech forest’. But also derived from “Buch” [book]. Bucher(t), Buchmann, Buchmaier, Buchmüller. With umlaut: Bücher (Rothenbücher), Büchmann. But the FNs Buchner, Büchner (UGer.) may also derive from the pl.ns. Büchen, Buchen(au). Büchler: from the locality name Büchle. Otherwise the names Buchner, Bucher(er) are arbitrarily recorded for the same person around 1500 (Brech., p. 238). Büchner is formed like Eichner [from Eiche = ‘oak’], Birkner [from Birke = ‘birch’], Lindner [from Linde = ‘linden tree, lime tree’], Weidner [from Weide = ‘willow tree’] (all are frequent names in Sil.): Nitsche Büchener, Liegnitz 1372, H. Buchener, Görlitz 1422. Also H. zu der buochen, Freiburg 1375. Büchler is also documented fer Büheler (in Berne 1429): bühel = ‘hill, knoll’ (cf. Steinbüchler, Steinbichler, Steinbühler); also Büchelmann, Büchelmeier, Büchelbauer.

Buchfeller, Buchfellner (Austria): from Buchfeld. See Rockefeller.

Buchhalter: UGer., ‘from the beech slope’ (1351 Buchhalder, Baden in Aargau). Cf. Winterhalder, Winterhalter; Beerhalter and others.

Buchheister (LGer.-L.Rhine): ‘young beech copse’, field name.

Buchheit: from Buchheide [Heide = ‘heath’], like Schönheit from Schönheide.

Buchhol(t)z: freq. pl.n. (= LGer. Bokholt).

Buchka (Upper Franc.): the name was distorted in documents: from Buchba (= Buchbach?), but originally was probably Buchta: Czech. buchta ‘kind of pastry’, also word for a little fellow.

Büchsel: ‘small box’ (for ointments), also name for a turner (woodworker). Buchsil, Brsl. 14th c. But Büchsenstein (Würt.), also büchsenmeister, Bohemia 1385, mean gunsmith.

Büchsenschütz, Büchsenschuß [Schuß = ‘shot’], Büchsenmann, Büchsenmeister, Büchsenstein, Büchsengießer [Gießer = ‘foundryman, caster’]: the rifle or shot gun was the common shooting weapon in the Middle Ages. Cf. Hinr. Büssenschütte, Barth 1468.

Buchstab: means the schoolmaster, cf. Joh. Buchstab, schoolmaster, Freiburg, Ü. around 1500; Hanek Pachstabl, Bohemia 1374. In Strasb. a house called “zuo den Buochstaben” [Buchstab(e) = ‘letter of the alphabet’].

Büchfing, Büchtmann, Terbücht, Terbucht (L.Rhine-Westph.): [Bucht = ‘bay’, ‘cove’] named after the dwelling. Concerning Büchtemann (Hbg.) compare the pl.n. Büchten near Soltau.

Buchwald: E Ger. pl.n., freq. in Sil. (Bahlow SN, p. 80-81), also pl.n. Buchwalde, in Pom. Hence FN Buchwalder, Buchwalter like Kiesewalter from pl.n. Kiesewald.

Buchweit (LGer.): = ‘buckwheat’.

Buck: recorded as sh.f. of Burkhard in the U.Rhine area, cf. Bishop Burkhart of Worms “qui et Buggo nominor” [also called Buggo], 1143. See also Bürk and Bürgi. Near Saulgau, 1346, documented: Werntz and Mantz, called Buggesun. Buck Senzli, Tübingen 1350. However in LGer. (freq. in Hbg.) the FN means ‘belly’ [= “Bauch”]. Cf. Roggenbuck [Roggen = ‘rye’], Smerbuk [LGer. smer = ‘fat’], Kortebuk [LGer. korte = ‘short’], Linsenbuck [Linse = ‘lentil’], Kolbuck, Kuchenbuck [Kuchen = ‘cake’], Bonenbuck [Bone = ‘bean’]. Simple form of Buk (Buc, Lat. venter = ‘belly’) was documented around 1300 in Hbg., Bremen, Lüb., Ro., Stralsund, etc.

Bücking (LGer.) = “Bülckling” [chubs, smoked herring] means fish dealer. H. Bukinc, Col. 1150. C. Bucking, Frkf. 1387, Hbg. 1350.

Bückmann (LGer.): from Bücken on the Weser River (see Bahlow ON, p. 63: buk = ‘bog’). Likewise Glissmann from Glissen on the Weser, Hoyemann from Hoya on the Weser. Concerning Buckmann, Bucke (Hbg.) compare pl.ns. Bucken (Holst.) along with the pl.ns. Buckhorn, Buckhagen; cf. Rhinel. Buckpesch ‘swampy pasture’.

Buckreis (Franc.): probably a sentence name: ‘bend the shoot or twig’ (MHG bucken ‘to bend’), likewise Pfropfreis ‘graft the shoot’ (Profferis, Frkf. 1383), also name for a gardener. Compare Buckeisen ‘bend the iron’ (the smith), Buckenschuh [bend the shoe] (Brsl.), Buckenleib [Leib = body].

Bucksch (E Ger.) = Bocksch, Bogsch sh.f. of Bogislaw (Bockslaff, Buckslaff). See also Bogisch.

Budach, Budig, Budan, Budisch, Budewan, Budeke: E Ger.-Slav. of Budimir, Budislaw (Budschlafl), also Budnik (compare Rudnik). A Budeke von Schybansdorf, near Liegnitz 1388. See also Baudach, Baudis etc. Concerning Slav. Budovan compare Moldovan, Radewan, Schirdewan.

Budde, Buddecke (LGer.): = ‘tub, vat’, means the cooper, Ger. Buddenbender, Büddenhauer or Böttcher. Alard Budde, Stralsund 1330, Chr. Budde, Lüb. 1349 etc. Hugo Budden, Ruhr area 1400. Hans Budde(ke), Barth 1398.

Buddenbrock, Buddensiek, Buddendiek (Westph.): all contain a hitherto unnoticed element: budde (bodde) ‘morass, dirt, mire’, likewise Buddanbrok, Budancumbe, in England 978, Budanfliet, near Bruges (Belgium) 961 (see Bahlow ON, p. 64).

Buder (Buderus, likewise Studer, Studerus): Würt., see Bauder.

Budel, Büdel (LGer.) see Beutler. A Lüder Büdel, Hbg. 13th c.

Budig, Budnik, Budweit (E Pruss.-Lith.), Budschlaff see Budach.

Buer (LGer.-Westph.) see Bauer (Buhr).

Bufe (Görlitz, Sax.): = ‘lad, hired hand’. H. Bufe, a robber, Görlitz 1389; “den bufen in den marstal” [the groom in the stable], Görlitz 1408. Henne Puoffe, fisherman, Frkf. 1388.

Buff (UGer.-Rhinel.): MHG = ‘push, shove’. Frid. called Buf, Andernach 1249. Wernlin der Bupf (Buff), Reutlingen 1393-99. Cf. Goethe’s Lotte B. from Wetzlar.

Büge (Stettin): pl.n., e.g. in Hinrich de Bughe, Wismar 1296, Stralsund 1325.

Bugenhagen: pl.n. in W Pom. The reformer B. from Wollin also called himself Doctor Pomeranus. Doghener Buggenhagen, Stralsund 1420, W. Buggenhagen, Greifswald 1278.

Büggel(n): Hbg., Westph.-Dutch name of location, related to bug ‘swamp, mire’, cf. Buggenholl, Buggensele, Bugge (Bögge in Westph.). See Bahlow ON, p. 64. But UGer. Buggle (Buckle) means ‘buckler (shield)’ (doc.: a house “zem Buggel, zem Buckeler”, Freiburg 1395). A. Bügglin, 1345. H. the Buggeler, Würt. 1377. See also Böckler.

Buggisch: sh.f. of Slav. Bogislaw (Bugslaff). See Bogisch, Bocksch, Bucksch.

Bühler (UGer.): after the dwelling place on a hill or knoll (Bühel) or from town of Bühl (Baden). Also Bühl, Bühlmann (freq. in Switz.), Biehlmann and others. Cf. Hainr. ab dem bühel [from the knoll], near Bregenz 1340.

Buhl: MHG buole ‘a relative’; Bertolf Buole, Col. 1178.

Buhmann (LGer.) = Baumann, Ackermann.

Bü(h)nemann: from Bühne (Westph., Harz Mountains, Altmark area), old creek name (Bahlow ON, p. 29).

Buhr, Buhrmann, Buhrmester (LGer.) see Burmeister.

Bührmann, Bürmann, Bühre(n), von Büren: from Büren in Westph. (several occurrences) or Bühren in Westph., Han., Oldenburg, where bur means ‘dwelling, settlement’.

Bü(h)ring (freq. in Hbg.): patr. of Buhr (freq. in Hbg.) ‘farmer, peasant’, likewise Grewing, Schmeding, etc. Cf. Tegtbühring (Tegtbuhr) ‘farmer who had to pay tithe’.

Buhse see Buse.

Buhk, Buuk see Buck.

Buhtz, Buutz (Pom.): Slav., related to the pers.n. Budislaw, Budimir, Budiwoj.

Bukow: pl.n in Meckl., Brandenburg.

Bulach: pl.n. in Würt. and Baden (Bahlow ON, p. 65: bul ‘swamp’, cf. Bulpitt, Bulen-strut etc.).

Bula(n), Bulik, Bulasch and others: Slav. bula, bulka ‘hard roll’, fat person. But Bulke (Sil.) = Bolko = Boleslaw: Duke Bulko of Oppeln, 1443 (Bahlow SN, p. 71).

Bulge: MHG ‘leather bag’. A Bulgenbüßer (mender), Freiberg 1412. Jacob Bulgenbloch, Offenburg (Baden) 1290. (Brech., p. 245).

Bulgrin: pl.n. in Pom.

Bül(c)k (freq. in Hbg.): old field name for swampy area with small springs, cf. Bulkehoved (Holst.) (also Bornhöved, Visselhöved), also pl.n. Bülk near Kiel, Bülkau near Hadeln, Bulkewurth, Bulkanpyt in England. Herm. Bulk, Han. 1350.

Bulck: MLG bulk ‘cod’. Diderik Bulk, Herford 1382, Herman B., Han. 1350.

Bull(e) (LGer. = UGer. Hagen ‘breeding bull’): means the cattle dealer, cattle farmer; cf. Henneke mittembullen [with the bull] (baker), Greifswald 1330, Ludolf Bulle, Hbg. 1268. Hence Bull(e), Ro. 1257, Bulleke, Lüneburg 1377, Bullenhals [Hals = ‘neck’], Brsw. 1380 etc. Concerning Bullmann (Hbg.): compare the farmers Segebant and Arendt Bulleman (also Bullenhagen, documented in the district of Boizenbg, Meckl. 1538.

Büll(e), Büllmann (Hbg.) see Bulle.

Buller (UGer.): MHG bullen = ‘to bark, bellow, roar’. Knight Eberhard Buller, Alsace 1329.

Bullerja(h)n (LGer., Pom.): documented: Bulderjan in Lüneburg = ‘blusterer’. -jahn = Johann. Also Job. Bulder (Buller) presbiter [minister], Kiel 1416, Wolter B., Danzig 1377; Bullerkiste, Maastricht 1389, Buldekarre, Magdeburg 1545.

Bullhorn: peasant name. Roloff Bullenhorn, Strasb. 1297.

Bullinger (UGer.): pl.n. Bullingen (Switz.). Swiss reformer: Heinrich B.

Bülow: pl.n. in Meckl. (several occurrences).

Bultmann, Bültmann, Bülte(meier), Bülthuis, Bülthoff, Bültenbrink, Bülter; zum Bült, upper Bulten (Lippe area): MLG bulte = ‘knoll, raised place’ (in swampy surroundings), also pl.n., especially in Oldenburg, pl.n. Bülten (Han.). Hence

Bulthaupt: likewise Multhaupt from LGer. hop ‘pile, heap’ (“Haufen”).

Bumann (LGer.), Buhmann: = UGer. Baumann ‘(crop) farmer’.

Bunde (LGer.): ‘free peasant’ (Dan.-Swed. Bonde). Job. Bunde, Ro. 1284, Gobel Bunde, Stettin 1305.

Bünde (UGer.): OHG biunda (Bav. Peunt, Ger. Beunde) ‘fertile pasture land’ (fenced for use), see Baintner. For more information see E. Schröder (and E. Kranzmayer), Dt. Namenkunde, p. 224 (on the basis of the Bair. Sprachatlas).

Bündemann: from Bünde in Westph. (Evert van Bünde, Lippe area 1507).

Bundschu(h), Puntschuh: the tied shoes of the peasants in the Middle Ages, later the emblem on their banner (in the revolt of 1525). Bahlow SN, p. 123. Job. Bundschu, Liegnitz 1339, Weigand Puntschuech, Tyrol 1459.

Bünemann (Hbg.) see Bühne-.

Bungaft see Bongart.

Bünger, Bunge, Büngener (LGer.): ‘kettle drummer’. M. Bunger (Bunge), Hbg. 13th c. Also Bungenstock, Bungenstab; Bungenstel [stel = ‘stem’], Hildesheim 1365. Less freq. UGer. (Brech., p. 247). Cf. also pl.n. Büngern in Westph.

Bunk(e): freq. in Hbg., there as early as the 13th c.: Gyso Bunke, Freder. Bunken. Obviously contracted (like Sunke from Suneke) from Old Sax.-Fris. Buniko, Bunikin (recorded in the Werden area on the Ruhr around 900), also Buno: cf. FN Bunsen, Bunne, Bunning.

Bünning, Bünnig (freq. in Hbg.): patr. of the Fris. pers.n. Bunno, without the -ing: Bunne (Bonne). Cf. Bunke, Bunsen. Bunne (Bonno), Friesland 1534 (Stark, p. 171). Bunning(us), Greifswald, Stralsund 1260-1300. For further information, see Bonne.

Bunsen: Fris., ‘son of Buno’, see Bünning, Bunke. Likewise Fris. Buns(mann).

Bünte, Bünting, Büntgens: Fris.-Lower Sax. pers.n. (unexplained); Strackerjahn, p. 30, also records from the Fris. Jeverland: Bundt, Bunten, Büntje, 1693, Bunting, Buntiges, 1428. Concerning Fris. Buntje compare Suntje, Ontje, Röntjen. Also Munte, Münte, Müntjes, Muntinga.

Buntrock: MLG bunt also means ‘fur material’; Büntner = ‘furrier’. Cf. Hans Buntfoder [fur lining], Münster 1598; H. Buntwerk, Berlin 1621; Buntweber, Görlitz 1348; a house named “zum Buntenmantel’ [fur coat], Mainz 1323. Buntmaker, Flensburg 1595.

Buntzen (Schleswig-Holstein): patr. Buntesen, likewise Bentzen: Bentesen related to Fris. Bunt, Bent. See Bünte. Jens Buntzen, Flensburg 1574, Bonnick Bentzen, Flensburg.

Bunz, Bünz, Bünzli (Switz., U.Rhine area): Alem. bunz = ‘small vat, barrel’, ‘little fat fellow’. Üelin Bunz, near Berne 1338, Rud. Büntzli, Konstanz 1401.

Bunzel (Sil.: Liegnitz, Görlitz, Bunzlau): was the dialect form of Bunzlau (i.e. the city of Duke Boleslaw, Bonczlaw). See Bahlow SN, p. 81. Cf. Niclas Bunczel (Bunczlaw) chancellor, Breslau 1408, H. Bunzel, Liegnitz 1452 and still in 1577: C. Weickert vom Bunczel in Liegnitz, Sometimes the name occurs as first name: Bonczel Schiraw, Liegnitz 1447. Germanization of the [Slavic] name evident as early as 1293: Hartung de Bunzlavia (Boleslavia).

Burandt: probably Slavic like Horan(d), Iwan(d), see also Buresch. Burda, Burde, Burdenski, Burdey (also Bordey; cf. Bordan, Bordiehn, pl.n. Borda in U.Laus.).

Burchard(t), Burchert see Burghard(t).

Burdach, Burdack: E Ger.-Slavic, likewise Buresch (Slavic) see Burisch, Borisch. Cf. Bureslaus (son: Thezlavus), Stralsund 1300.

Burfeind(t): LGer. = UGer. Bauernfeind [enemy of the peasants].

Bürgel (LGer.-Sil.): probably newcomer(s) from the town Bürgel near Jena or Bürgeln near Marburg or Bürgle, Bürglein in Bav. MHG bürgel also = ‘guarantor, sponsor’ (“Bürge”). Cf. Nic. Bürgsnel, Iglau 1385.

Bürgli(n) in Würt.-Baden and Alem. Bürgi may derive from Burghard; but there is also a pl.n. Bürglen in Baden. Cf. Count Burchart and his grandson Count Bürgi, 1316. Bahlow SN, p. 34.

Burgemeister: older form (W Ger. and UGer., still used by Goethe) of NHG “Bürgermeister” ‘mayor’, highest official in city government; cf. Dutch Burgemeester. LGer. however: Bertholdus Borghermester, Wismar 1372.

Burger, Bürger (the u-form is UGer., Bav., Austr.): [citizen] in some cases a name for country people who had citizens’ rights in a town or at least connections there; in other cases name for an inhabitant of a castle or a vassal of the lord of the castle [Burg = ‘castle, town’]. Burg is also a freq. pl.n. in Bav., Wärt., Baden, Rhineland; also Burgau. Cf. Rhinel. Bürgers, LGer. Börger, Borgers. Heino Burger de Sifridsdorf, Liegnitz 1347.

Burggraf (LGer.-Westph. Borggreve, Borggrefe): holder of the office of the judge in the realm of the castle, highest town judge. (“Er was lantgrâve übers lant, burcgrâve in der stat genant” [he was called landgrave in the country and burggrave in the city]: from the MHG epic Guter Gerhard by Rudolf von Ems, 1452).

Burgbard(t), Burkhard(t), Burchard(t) and others, LGer. Borchardt, Borchers: popular pers.n. in the Middle Ages, the name was favored in the Alem. area by the Dukes Burkhard (hence numerous sh.fs. like Buri, Bürk, Bürkle, Buck, older: Buggo, and Butschi); N Ger. and CentrGer. sh.fs. are Bosse, Busse.

Burgmann, LGer. Borgmann: Burgmannen [castle men] were the vassals of the lord of the castle. Cf. Joh. up der Borch, 1581, which corresponds to Borchmann in Ammerland 1653. Reinbot von der Burg, canon (cleric affiliated with a cathedral) at Worms 1372.

Burgmer: from Burgheim near Lahr in Baden, likewise Rüg(e)mer, Herxemer, etc.

Burgold, Burghold; Aust. Purgold: rare old Ger. pers.n. Burgold Warmut, Brsl. 1398.

Burhenne see Burschaper.

Burisch, Burike, Burat, Burandt: E Ger-Slavic, sh.f. of Bureslav (Stralsund 1300); see Borisch.

Burk, Bürki, Bürkle: Alem.-Swab. sh.f. of Burkhart (Burkert), the popular Alem. name after the dukes there. Cf. Burke Löffeler, 1336; Bürchi Küchler, 1417; Bürkeli = Burkart de Ramsporch, 1319-50; Burkhard Bürklin, 1451.

Burmann (LGer.) = Bauer [farmer].

Burmeister, Burmester (LGer.): freq. in Hbg., Ro. etc., means the town elder or the magistrate, mayor. Godeke Burmeister (of Kösterbek), Ro. 1265; as a FN in Ro. 1279: H. Burmester bodiker [cooper]. In Bülstring 1455 documented: H. Jorosse bumester and St. Husing schulte [mayor].

Burosse (LGer.) = UGer. Bauerochs [peasant ox]. See this.

Burow (Buro, Buroh): pl.n. in Meckl., Pom., freq. in Prignitz area.

Burr (Würt.): probably = Burrer: related to MHG burren ‘to buzz and whiz like a beetle’. Hans Burrer, near Eßlingen 1373, der Burre, Eßlingen 1362, Bertholt Burrarius, near Vaihingen 1298. But

Burrack, Burrasch are Slavic.

Burschaper (LGer.): shepherd of a farming community. Burmähl, Burmühl: near the mill of the farming community. Burhenne = Henne (= Johann) Bauer [farmer, peasant].

Bursch(e), Burschke see Borsche.

Bursian: Slavic-E Ger., related to Borislaw, cf, Borsig. Similar: Brosian Teschke, Thorn 1577, which is related to Ambrosius.

Burst, Burster (Würt.): bristly, surly (MHG burst ‘bristle’). Knight Ulr. Burst, Radolfszell 1265; Oswald Bürstli, Radolfszell 1423. But compare also Bürstel (Pürstl, Perstl) in Moravia 1366-80, which appeared with pürstenpinter, pürstner in Brünn 1365-1348 as the name of a brush maker. Hinr. Burste, Lüb. 14th c.

Bur(t)z, Bürzel (UGer.); Birzele (Swab.): ‘rump, buttocks, stump’, little fellow.

Burtzlaff: Slavic pl.n. near Belgrad in Pom., cf. Burzik, -ig, -ek, Burzinski.

Bury, Buri: when the name is of Alem. origin, it is a sh.f. of Burkhard: Bury (Burchard) Boungart, Switz. 1388. But E Ger. Bury see Buresch.

Busack, Busacker (Hbg., Meckl.): Buschak, Buschik, Buschatz and others are all Slavic; also Busat, Busas, Busian, Busies, Buske, Buschke, Buschkiel, Buschkühl; Busold; Buslar (pl.n. in Pom.); Busseel; Buscha (pl.n.); Bustik; Busau; cf. the o-variants: Bossack, Bossan(ek), Boschan.

Busboom see Buchsbaum.

Busch [mostly meaning woods, forest]: freq. pl.n. (Rhineland) and loc.n. as in L.Rhine Bosch: cf. Cüntzlin im Busch, Würt. 1381. Achternbosch, Zumbusch, Von dem Bugche, Büschgen(s), Büscher (Westph.). Also in numerous compounds (Heintze-Cascorbi, 1933, p. 160). See also Buschinger.

Buschack see Busack. Likewise Buschke and others.

Buschinger: UGer. name of origin from Busching(en).

Buschmann see Busch.

Buschor: Slavic like Buschora.

Buse, Buseke, Busemann (freq. in Hbg., Ro.): MLG buse ‘fisher boat’ (cutter) for catching herring. Hinr. Buse, Henneke Buseke, Lüb. 1318, Joh. Buse, Greifswald 1376, also P. Buseman, 1353. Still used today: “Büse”, “Heringsbüse” (Dutch buis, E. buss).

Buser (LGer.): ‘glutton’. Heyse Busere, Quedlinburg 1300.

Büsing: (Hbg., Wismar), perhaps = Buser, Busemann ‘high liver, gourmand’. Cf. “A bishop of Mainz was called Busemann because he liked to drink” (Limburg Chronicle), 1346.

Buske see Busack. Likewise Buslik, Busold.

Busse (Hbg., Han., Magdeburg, Stettin, Dortmund freq.): LGer. sh.f. of Burghard, as is Bosse, see this. But UGer.: Apel dictus [called] Busse, Tauber River area 1390.

Busse(n)maker (LGer.) = ‘gun smith’ (= “Büchsenmacher”, see also Büchsenschütz). Cf. Bussenschütte, Brsw. 1411, Barth 1468; Kiel 1546; Büssenschuß; de Bussenschmed, Kiel 1566. Albrecht Pustindebussen [blow into the gun], Göttingen 1322. But: G. Honicbüsse (honey box).

Bußhar(d)t, Bussard, Bussert (UGer.) see Bosshart.

Büssing see Busse.

Büterfsch, Bütepage see Page.

Bütefür see Böte-.

Butenandt see Butendeich.

Butendeich: LGer., doc. Butendik ‘outer dike’ (also pl.n.), likewise Butenkamp: LGer. buten ‘outside’. Cf. Butenandt (= butenan ‘outside at’), Butenbrink; Butenop [op = ‘up’ on top’], Butenuth [ut(h) = ‘out’]; Buteneaf, Greifswald 1353; Butenschön (Butenschön, Hbg. 1255): means ‘pretty on the outside’ (only). Compare Binnenbös [angry inside].

Bütepage see Page.

Büt(h)er (freq. in Hbg.), Büthe: MLG bute ‘booty, harter, exchange’, cf. vri-büter = Freibeuter ‘freebooter’. Thid. Butere, Wismar 1279.

Butigler: MHG ‘cupbearer’. Buteglarius, Ellwangen 1220. H. Putigler, Bamberg 1328.

Bütrich see Bittrich.

Butsch, Bütschli see Butz.

Butt, Buth (Hbg.), Buthmann (freq. in Hbg.), Buttmann: probably the fisherman, fish dealer (Steinbutt: stenbut: Heilbutt) [Steinbutt = ‘turbot’; Heilbutt = ‘halibut’], likewise Schlie(mann) [Schleie = ‘tench’], Stint(mann), Stör(mann) [Stör = ‘sturgeon’], Dorsch(mann) [Dorsch = ‘cod’], Cf. Butoghe [fish eyel, Hbg. 1270 (also Gosoghe ‘goose eye’). Buttfanger Oike Aalfänger ‘eelcatcher’) [Butt = ‘flounder’].

Büttel, Swab. Bittel: MHG bütel ‘bailiff, beadle, jailer’.

Butterbro(d)t: LGer. Botterbrodt (Han., Hbg., Bremen), meaning ‘buttered (slice of) bread’. Cf. Butterweck (Ruhr area, Westph., Hesse, Bav.); Botterklot [lump of butter], Hbg. 1262, also Botterman: Botterhoke [butter vendor].

Buttermann ‘butter dealer’; Butter, Bütterlin; Butterfaß (Worms) [butter churn]; Buttersack (Würt.); Buttermilch.

Buttgereit, Buttchereit, Buttkereit: E Pruss.-Lith. = Böttcher ‘cooper’ (Jokubs Butkereitis, Insterbg. 1799).

Buttlar, Buttler: pl.n. in the Rhön Mountains. However UGer. Mich. Buttler, Lake Constance 1496.

Buttmann see Butt. But the philologist B. was from Réfugiés: Boudemont.

Büttner (E Ger.-Sil.-Behemian), Bittner = Böttcher ‘cooper’: For more information see Bahlow SN, p. 102. Cf. “dem bötener vor eine nüe böte [to the cooper for a new vat], Görlitz 1408; Hannus Grosebäte [big vat], Brsl. 1380, also Dreyböte.

Büttrich see Bittrich.

Butz (freq. in Alem. area): mostly ‘little fellow, poltergeist’, as also in Butzmann (children’s song: “es tanzt ein Bi-, Ba-, Butzeinann …”), originally it must have been a sh.f of Burkhart (Nied, p. 108, 50; Brech. I, p. 259). A Butzenstengel was doc. 1490. Also Joh. Bützli, Baden 1392. Hans Butmann, Allgäu 1451. However Butzer (near Stuttg. 1383 and cf. Martin Bucer, Alsatian reformer) probably means s.o. who pushes and shoves (MHG butzen ‘to push, shove’). A Cunz Butz mirs Licht [butz here: from putzen ‘to clean’, thus: ‘clean or snuff the light for me!’], Frkf. 1525.

Butzlaff: Slavic pers.n. (Budslaw or Bogislaw), also pl.n. in Pom. Sh.fs. are

Butzke, Butzek, Butzier, Butzkies.

Buuck (freq. in Hbg., Ro. etc.): see Buck (Bauch ‘belly’).

Buxbaum [= “Buchsbaum”, ‘box tree’], LGer. Busboom, also simply Bux; Aust. Puxbaum.

Buxtehude: pl.n. near Hbg. The name is known through the organ player and composer Dietrich B. and through the fairy tale of the race between the hare and the hedgehog.

Byern, von: Hoinr. de Bieren, 1214. Herr Jan von Byer, Haldsl. 14th c.

  1. Anonymous (leach w. E. ?)

    -Anonymous, 1917. " Results of the South Australian Museum expedition to Strzelecki and Cooper Creeks. September and October 1916". p 490. Trans.
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    Recherche bei Umlauten ggf. über ae, oe, ue suchen! Dasselbe gilt: Wenn mit „ß“ kein Ergebnis vorliegt, ggf. mit „ss“ suchen! Bei den Signaturnummern gibt das letzte Kürzel (z.

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