Aar: the old term for Ger. Adler (adel ar) and means ‘eagle’: Frid dictus [called] Ar, near Konstanz 1258. See Ahr. Aaron


Maa(c)k (freq. in Hbg.): LGer. sh.f. of Markward, see there. Patr. Maacken(s). A related name is Wittmaack: the white (flax blond) Markward. Make (Markward)Strus, Lüb. 1348., Make (Markward)Parkentin, Lüb. 1349, Make Grim, Hbg. 1297. Also Langmaack.

Maag (freq. in Switz.; Baden, Würt., Franc.); rarely Moog, Mogk; MHG mâc (mâge) ‘blood relation’. Heinrich dictus [called] Mag,Weilderstadt 1281, Seidel Mag,Eger 1366, Lienhart Mag,Konstanz 1512.

Maas, Maaß, Maßmann: N Ger. nickn. for Thomas (the apostle), patr. Maassen (freq. N Rhine). Mas Rode = Tomas Rode, Ro. 1397, Mas Kusel, Stralsund 1333, Mas Mases,Greifswald 1412.

Maasch (Hbg.) = Maske = Thomas!

Mach (Sil.), Mache, in U.Sil. Macha (also Machotta, Macholla, Machule, Machura, Machnik, Machon, Machoi) is the Czech nickn. Macha for Matthias [Matthew], like Stacha, Lacha, Jacha for Stanislav, Ladislav, Jan (Johannes). Cf. Mach (Matheus) Budischer, Iglau 1362, Mach holczheger, Mies 1374, Macho Snyder, Glatz 1432, Heinrich Mache,Glatz 1370. For Machner cf. Jachner, Hachner, for Machnik cf. Jachnik, Hachnik; Macholl became the Germanized form Machold, then Macholz, analogous to Racholl: Rachold, Racholz (Rach = Radislav).

Mach(e)leidt, Mach(e)let, Mach(e)lit (UGer.): [make sorrow] for someone who insults, harms other people. Sifrit Macheleit,Worms 1352. Similar sentence names from occupations: Machemalz [make malt], Machemehl [make flour], Machewurst [make sausage], Machenwagen [make a wagon], Machenpflug [make a plow], Machemist [make manure]. See also N Ger. Macke-

Macher(t): from Machern near Leipzig, like Teucher(t) from Teuchern.

Mach(h)old, Machholz see Mach.

Machleb (Thur.) is one of the Thur. pl.ns. ending in -leb(en);see Briegleb, Memleb, Witzleb, etc.

Mächler (UGer.): = MHG mecheler ‘broker, middleman’. Michel Mächler,Moravia 1396, Hans Mächler,Konstanz 1476.

Machner, Machnik, Macholl, etc. see Mach. Similarly Machold, Macholz, Machals (Joh. Macholt,Thur. 1598). But for Machthold see Mechthild.

Machtolf, Magdolf (UGer.): Germanic pers.n. (Hainr. Mahtolf near Stockach 1296.) Also in pl.n. Machtlfing in Bav.

Mack, Macke, patr. Mackens (freq. in Hbg.) see Maack, Maackens. But UGer. Mack(el) is a nickn. for UGer. Mackart, Mackert = Markhart.

Mackel, Mäckle (UGer.): nickn. for Mackart, Mackert = Markart, Markhart, Markwart. Cf. in Tauber-Bischofsheim 1620-24: Mackhart = Marckhardt;in Villingen Mack, Mackli around 1500; in Ansbach: Makel Neugebaur.

Mack(en)roth, Mack(en)rott: pl.n. Mackenrode (3 times near Göttingen, Nordhausen).

Mackensen: pl.n. in Han. (old: Mackenhusen). Cf. Mackendorf near Helmstedt, Mackenrode near Göttingen.

Mackenthun (Hbg.): pl.n. in Han.; Mackenstedt.

Mackeprang (N Ger.) = ‘make conflict’, cf. UGer. Hebenstreit; also simply Prange. Similarly Mackedanz (Magdanz) [make dance], Makedust (make dust), Makeblide (make happy). Mackerey (councillor in Malchin 1400): ‘leader of a round dance’.

Ma(d)daus, Maddey, Madey (Wendish like Mattausch) = Matthäus [Matthew]; also Maduschke.

Mader, Mäder (UGer.): MHG = ‘mower’, also Mahder, Mähder; Heumader [hay mower], Grasmeder [grass mower]. Meder(le). Meinhart Mader,Eger 1380, L. Mäderl,Tyrol 1453.

Madler, Mädler (UGer., Bav., Aust.): from pl.ns. and loc.ns. like Madl, Madlau in Bav, Cf. field n. Madlach in Würt.; Sybot Medler,Moravia 1374, from pl.n. Meedl (Medel 1344); Henni Madler,Breisach 1385. Similarly Madl, Mädl (Aust.). In Thur. cf. the pl.n. (river name) Madel (nowadays Magdala!) S of Weimar: related names are Andr. von Madela,Erfurt 1392, Hans von Madel,Jena 1533.

Madlung, also Magdlung: pl.n. Madelungen on the Madel River in Thur.; cf. Hellrung: Heldrungen on the Heldra. For mad ‘wetness’ see Bahlow ON, p. 315; for names ending in -ungen see Bahlow, Norddeutsches Korrespondenzblatt 1961.

Madsen (Schleswig) Matzeen, see Matthäus.

Maffert (Sil.) See Meffert.

Magdalena: the biblical Mary Magdalene ‘from Magdala’, see Bahlow VN.

Magdanz see Mackedanz.

Mä(g)defessel (Thur.) see Methfessel.

Mägdefrau: probably the mistress of a group of maid(en)s.

Magdolf see Machtolf.

Magens (Hbg.): Fris-Danish pers.n. Mage, in Stade around 1330 patr. Maghens, Maghensone.

Magerfleisch (Wismar): derisive nickn. [lean meat] for a butcher, like Magersupp [thin soup] for a cook.

Mägerl(ein) (UGer.) like Megerle means a thin person: = Mager, cf. Magerkurth, Magerhans, Magermann (Lüb.); Mageranthals [skinny at the neck], Augsburg 1349. Also Magerhals, Ro. 1279. Abraham a Santa Clara’s real name was Ulrich Megerle.

Magg, Migglin: UGer. for Mack, Mäckle, see there. Magg der Truhtlieb, Ulm 1373, Mäggel Schnider, Herrlingen in Würt. 1359. Cf. Sigg, also Sick.

Magirus: Humanist name for a cook; Johann Magirus = Johann Koch [cook], Würt. 1544.

Magnus, Magnussen (Hbg., Sil.). Danish- Swedish king’s name, after Magnus, the son of St. Olaf of Sweden, who took Charlemagne (Carolus Magnus) as a role model. Sometimes also a Humanist n. for Groß [great, tall], Grote. For S Germany see Mang (St. Magnus, Apostle of the Allgäu).

Magsame (MHG mage ‘poppy’) see Mohnsame. Surname for a poppy farmer or oil miller? Hanman zedemMagsamen, Freiburg 1388 (house n.).

Mähl, Mählmann (freq. in Hbg.): LGer. form like Möhl, Möhlmann for Mühle [mill], Mühlmann [miller], from dwelling place or occupation. Cf. Tormählen, Zurmühle [at the mill], Mählenbrock, Möhlenbrock. Also Burmähl; Mählen.

Mahlau see Mahlow.

Mählck: = Mählich, Möhlich ‘burdened with trouble, hard to get to’. Cf. Lord Evert Moyelke, Lüb. 1413, Hinrik Moylike, Oldenburg 1301.

Mähler: Rhine form for Mahler, Maler [painter]. In the Middle Ages, painter and glazier were related occupations (in the same guild), insofar as both made stained glass windows. In Jewish use, Mahler occasionally stands for Levy.

Mählich: LGer. (also Mölich) = MHG müelich ‘burdened with trouble (Mühe)’, also ‘difficult to get along with’. See also Mölich, Mülich,

Mahlke (E Ger-Slav.) like Mahlich, Malek, Malicke, Malke ‘the little one’. Cf. Malekendorp near Lüb. Similarly Mahle, Mahling, Mahley (= Slav. Maly); Mahlan(d).

Mahlmann: a miller’s assistant, like Mahlknecht, as opposed to Maldmeister [master miller]. See also Mählmann.

Mahlo(w) likewise Mahlau: E Ger.-Slav. pl.n. Malow, Mahlow like Ba(h)low (mal ‘mud, mire’, bal ‘swamp’). Cf. Mahlstedt (Malstede), Mahlpfuhl, die Mahlmecke (Malenbeke), etc. (Bahlow ON, p. 316).

Mahn, Mahn(c)ke (LGer.): in the Middle Ages popular nickn. for Manegold, see Mangold. The knight Mangold von Estorf was also called Maneke mit der barden [with the halberd] (14th c.). Patr. Mahnken. Similarly Mahns, Mahnsen.

Mahndach: (LGer.) see Montag [Monday]. Herman Mändach, Ro. 14th c.

Mahner: cf. pl.n. Groß-Mahner near Salzgitter Manati, like Fahner: Vanari: man like van = ‘swamp’ (Bahlow ON, p. 315).

Mahnkopf, Mahnkopp see Mohn.

Mahr becomes clear from Andermahr: = ‘by the swamp; cf. the ‘Maare’ [deep round lakes of volcanic origin] in the Rhineland (Eifel); Middle Dutch mare ‘lake, swamp, stagnant water’ (see M. Schönfeld, Waternamen, p. 192). N Ger. mar is also sometimes related to mer ‘swampy lake’, cf. Marwede (Merwede).

Mahr(en)holtz: pl.n. Mahrenholz in Han. (Heinrich von Marholte, Hamelin 1407). For Mahrhold, Marold, Marloth, cf. also the (rare) pers.n. Marold(us) in Lüb. 1223, Hensel Marolt, Prague 1402.

Mahrlock see Morlock.

Mai, May (freq. everywhere): [= ‘May’]; for clarification refer to Maibaum (Maibohm), Maiblüh, Maibusch, Maidorn, Mayenschein, ­reis, -zweig, -thau, -rose, -blum, -blust, -kranz, Mayendanz, Maienknecht, mostly referring to the joys of this delightful month; sometimes (e.g. on the Rhine) also going back to house names or house signs, cf. Johann zemMeigen, 1344; the meaning is clear in Henzel Mayenpreys [praise of May], Prague 1398 (cf. Lobensommer), where also Otto May, 1343; Niclas Meye, Liegnitz 1429. There was also a rent payment ‘meienbete’ (e.g. in May chickens). In Wirt. 1295 a knight named his sons Mai and Herbst [‘harvest,’ fall]!

Maichle (Würt.) see Mauchle.

Maier: Mayer (UGer.), also Meyer, Meier (thus especially in Westph.-Han.): originally the majorvillae or villicus, in the ancient Frankish empire the steward of the (noble or spiritual) landlord, who farmed the principal estate; later also the administrator or tenant of smaller estates, responsible for overseeing the payment of peasants’ rents; finally also a hereditary tenant. In Hesse only Grebe (count) is used, in central E Ger. (from Franc. to Sil.) only Hofmann, Hoffmann. There are also numerous compounds (a good survey in H-C., p. 346): Linsenmaier, Habermaier, Gerstenmaier; Bichelmaier, Lochmaier, Pfitzmaier, Lettenmaier; Brinkmeyer, Brockmeyer, Lohmeyer; Begemeyer, Dütemneyer also Labermayer, Vilsmayer (from rivers). In Bav. names with -maier also contracted to -mar, -mer, as in Stromer, Sellmer, Wimmer, Hummer, Hiebmer, Hanselmar. Hence Kretschmar, Kretschmer, corrupted to Kretschmaier, Dittmar to Dittmaier.

Maierhofer, Mayrhofer: name of Salzburg emigrants (mostly in E Prussia), from the pl.n. Maiorhofen in Aust.; also a person ‘from the Maierhof estate’; Berchtold ze demMaierhof, Tyrol 1369.

Maierl, Mayerl (Aust., Tyrol) = Maier.

Maifahrt see Meifert (Meinfrid).

Maindl see Meindl.

Maisel (UGer.) see Mäusel.

Maisenhölder: pl.n. Maisenhälden on the Jagst River.

Maiser (UGer.): from Mais in Tyrol; see also Meiser.

Maißl see Meißl.

Maiwald (Sil., Upper Lausitz): from Maiwaldau in the district of Schönau on the Katzbach, Meyenwalde in old documents, hence also Meiwald, Mehwald, Möhwald.

Malcher(t), Malcharek (Upper Sil.) see Melchior.

Malchow: pl.n. (Meckl., Pom., Brandenburg).

Malicke, Malek, Malke, Maluck, Malottke, see Mahlke.

Malkomes(ius): from Malkomes near Hersfeld.

Mall (UGer., freq. in Munich): probably ‘strange, eccentric’; der Malle, Munich 1310, Cunrad Mall, near Durlach 1341.

Mallmann (Mallknecht), see Mahlmann.

Mallon, Mallasch, Malluschke, Mally, Mallach (E Ger.-Slav.) see Mahlke.

Malsbender, Malzbenden (Düss.): from Malsbenden on the Kermeter in the Rhineland (‘swampy meadows’, mal-s as in Malsen in Gelderland, Malseca in Flanders).

Malsch: pl.n. (Wiesbaden, Karlsruhe), malsk ‘muddy, swampy’, cf. Malsbenden. But Malschner is E Ger.-Slav., cf. pl.ns. Malschwitz in Saxony, Maleschau in Bohemia, Malschendorf in Saxony.

Malskat: E Pruss.-Lith.

Malter(er): UGer. ‘manufacturer of grain measures’, from MHG malter ‘a measure of grain’. Konrad Malterer, Freiburg 1303; cf. Henneke Malderleip, Wetzlar 1330.

Mal(t)zahn (Hbg., Meckl., Pom.), also a name of nobility: pl.ns. Molzahn near Ratzeburg and Moltzahn in Pom., cf. Molzow in Meckl. Ölegart Moltzahn, Meckl. 14th c.

Mälzer, Melzer (esp. Sil.-Saxony): MHG melzer ‘maltster’, a “relative” of a brewer; cf. Henlin Machemalcz, Görlitz 1416, also Quellmalz, Malz(korn). Further details in Bahlow SN, p. 112. UGer. also Melzner, Melzler, Melzl. LGer. cf. Molter, Multer; Upper Pal. Mulzer.

Mamero(w): pl.n. in Meckl.

Mammen, Mamminga: Fris. patr. from the n. Mamme, derived from baby talk; cf. MHG mamme, memme (Lat. mamma) ‘mother’s breast’, mammende ‘gentle, sweet-tempered’; Memme ‘coward’. In Friesland: Mamme Ymmen, Tyark Mammeken, 16th c. UGer. cf. Heinrich Mammo, Würzburg 1185, Mammenknecht, Urach 1383.

Mammertz (Rhine): Saint Mamertus (an “ice saint”) [one of three saints whose days in mid-May are said to mark the end of frosty weather].

Mampe, Mampel, Mompel (UGer.)- nickn. for Memprecht (Memprechtshofen!) = Maginbrecht, Meginbrecht, Meinbrecht like Hampe, Hempel for Hemprecht and Rampe, Rempel for Remprecht.

Mandausch: (Slav.) see Mendausch.

Mandel [almond]: several meanings, cf. pl.n. Mandel near Kreuznach and Dortmund, pl.n. Mandeln near Dillenburg, Mandelkern (Han. 1312) is a shopkeeper’s name (like Muskat, Kanehl, Zimt, Ingwer, Kardemom, etc.), also Mandelmann (Ingelheim 1336). UGer. Mandl = small man or Hermann: Mandel Rubeyn 1408, Peter Mandl, Moravia 1399. Cf. also Mendel like Randel: Rendel.

Mander: pl.n. Mandern (several places in Hesse and Rhineland), from the prehistoric river n. Mandra (Belgium, France: Bahlow ON, p. 318); cf. Manderscheid, Manderbach, Manderfeld. The pl.n. Mander in Holland was Man-heri ‘swampy woods’ in 797.

Mandler (Bav., Thur.): patr. from Mandl, like Meindler from Meindl; but MHG mandeln ‘to smooth in a mangle (pressing iron)’. Hannes mandler, Prague 1408.

Mandt, Mandtke see Mante.

Manecke see Mahnke.

Manegold see Mangold.

Manesse (Zurich): name famous through the minnesinger manuscript of the Zurich knight Rüdeger von Manesse around 1300; probably to be interpreted as ‘man-destroyer’ (a raging warrior) like Manfraß (Manfrast, Manfrost) and Manbiß. A corresponding name in LGer. is Lodewig Maneter, Stemmen on the Lippe 1507. Cf. Rinder-esse, Bohn-esse, Eisen-esse, Für-(Feuer) esse. Mamphrasius is a Humanist name.

Mang (Baden, Würt.): dialect form of St. Magnus (Mangnus); Mang Kraft, Rottweil 1451, Mang Machenschalk, Füssen 1474, with umlaut: Jakob Meng, son of Paulin Mang, Freiburg 1570.

Mangels (freq. in Hbg.) like Mangholz = Mangold’s (son); cf. Mangelsdorff (freq. in Hbg.), pl.n. in Brandenburg; Mangelsen (Hbg.), Mangelshorst in Brandenburg.

Manger (Rhineland Mangers); usually Menger: MHG mangaere (Lat. mango) ‘trader, peddIer’. Also Eisen-, Stahl-, Fett-, Fleisch-, Fisch-, Futter-, Honig-, Stroh-, Tuch-, Wad-, Pferde-, Ziegenmenger [iron, steel, fat, meat, fish, feed, honey, straw, cloth, wad, horse, goat dealer]. See also Menger.

Mangold (Manegold): ‘having power over many’ like Greek Polycrates (OHG manag, MHG manec ‘many, much’, cf. mannigfaltig ‘manifold’) popular f.n.. in noble and knightly circles in the Middle Ages in both south and north, with nicknames Manz (UGer.) and Mahnke (Mahn) (LGer.), see there. Maneguld, Kraft and Rorich (brothers) of Grifenstein (knights), Wetzlar 1274, Count Manegolt, Würt. 1174, Mangold Wielant, Würt. 1448, a knight Manegolt von Ostheim, Bav. 1261, a knight Manegolt von Estorp (also Maneke mit der barden [with the halberd]), Han. 1314, Manegoldus filius domini [son of sir] Manegoldi Slichten, Lüb. 1301.

Manke (freq. in Hbg.) see Mahnke. But cf. Maniko, near Glatz 1410, and Manikowski.

Mankmus: Slav. pl.n. in Brandenburg, also Mankmoos in Meckl. (Nik. Mankemuß, Greifswald 1372.).

Mann [= ‘man’] (freq. everywhere): sometimes ‘competent fellow’, sometimes ‘vassal, estate official’ of a feudal lord, cf. Niclas Gotke, unsers herren desKunigesvonBemenman [of our lord, the King of Bohemia’s man], Sil. 1372; Heincze von Waldau, Man known as Captain of Ottmachau, 1472.

Männel, Männle (UGer.): of small stature (Nic. Mennel, Brünn 1348, Alb. Mennelin, Würt. 1292).

Mann(e)s (Hbg.) = Hermannes (cf. Fris. Manno and Lutet Manninga 1428).

Mannfras(t) see Manesse.

Mannhardt: a popular UGer. (less frequently LGer.) pers.n. in the Middle Ages. Uolr. called Manhart (a peasant), Upper Rhine around 1200, Merklin Mannhardt, Eßlingen 1342, Wilhelm Manhart, Hbg. 1293. Also in pl.ns. like Mannharts-Berg, Mannersdorf. Contracted: Mannert.

Mannhaupt, Mannkopf = Mohnhaupt, Mohnkopf, see Mohnhaupt.

Mansfeld(t): pl.n. near Eisleben (also Prignitz).

Manske, Manski, Manntschke (E Ger-Slav.) = Schimansky, like Monski = Schimonski: = Simons!

Manssen (Manssen) = Hermanssen, like Frenssen = Lafrenssen (Laurenzen).

Manstein (von): old Prussian nobility.

Mante: cf. Mante Spelking in Hildesheim 1590. See also Mente.

Mantel see Mäntler.

Manteuffel (von): a noble Pom. family, originally LGer. Mandüvel (as in Stralsund 1322 and still 1590), a ‘devil of a fellow’.

Manthey: probably E Ger.-Slav. like Mantyk, Mantot.

Mäntler, Mentler (UGer.-Sil.): ‘old-clothesman, dealer in old coats’; in Breslau a street of coatmakers. Hensel Bösewort der menteler, Liegnitz 1348, Berchtolt menteler, Bohemia 1297. Uolr. Menteler, Eßlingen 1279. Also as surn.. Johann Mentelin in Strasb., printer; Conrad Mantel, Bohemia 1350; Hainrich der Langmantel, Augsburg 1292; Sibenmantel, Freiburg 1460 (like Sibenrock); also Kurz-, Roth-, Weiß-, Regen-, Wintermantel [short, red, white, rain, winter coat]. But Zuckmantel (also a loc.n.) means ‘highway robber, robber’ (MHG zucken = ‘snatch away, rob’; zucker ‘robber’). Cf. LGer. Tückemantel.

Manz (UGer.): in the Middle Ages a popular sh.f. of Mangold, see there. Manz (Mangolt) von Hornstein, near Sigmaringen 1305, Mantz Schnellysen, Freiburg 1471, Manz (Mangolt) der Offenburger, Riedlingen 1316; Henni Mantz (Mentzelin), U.Rhine around 1300. But E Ger. Manzke, Mantzeck, Mantze are Slav., cf. pl.n. Man(t)zow.

Manzel, Manzelmann (E Ger.) see Menzel.

Marahrens (Hbg.), Marheineke, Marhenke, Mahrkordes, see Ahrens etc. Mar- = Meier- in the Eastphalian dialect. Several occurrences in old documents in Hildesheim: Hans Marheinecke 1558 = Hans Meigerheine 1556; Hans Meyerheinen (Marheincken), widow, 1635-55 (R. Zoder, in: Alt-Hildesheim, 17, 1938, p. 61).

Maraun see Maruhn.

Marb (UGer.): ‘crumbly, tender’ (Jörg Marb, Augsburg 1484).

Marben (Hbg.) is derived from Merwin like Garben from Gerwin, with LGer. sound shift -er-: -ar-.

Marbert, Marpert: old Ger. pers.n., as early as 739.

Marckmann (Hbg.) see Markmann.

Marcks = Markus, see there. Cf. Marx.

Marcus (sometimes Jewish) see Markus.

Mardach, Mardich: (Hbg.) LGer.-Fris. pers.n., like Aldach etc. Mardich Buschman, Hbg. 1393.

Mardag (Hbg. 1291) see Aldag.

Marek: E Ger-Slav. pers.n., nickn. for Maroslaw. Cf. Maresch, Marschner.

Marg(g)raf(f) see Markgraf.

Margret see Grether. Also Bahlow VN, p. 70.

Marheineke, Marhenke (Hbg., Han.) see Marahrens.

Marien: metronymic, also from the dwelling place ‘at St. Mary’s’. Hinrik Marye, Bremen 1473.

Märker see Merker.

Markert (UGer.) = Markhart or Markwart, see Mackert.

Markgraf, Marggraff: an official of a margraviate [German border province]; sometimes also an (illegitimate) son of a margrave, thus in old documents Heinzman Marggraf, Schopfheim 1371. Cf. also Cuntz desmargravensun, U.Rhine 1358. LGer. Markgräfe: Joh. Marcgreve, Greifswald 1308.

Märklin, Mark(e)l (UGer.). nickn. for Markwart or Markhart and Markolf. Cf. Märklin = Marquard Bernauer, Ravensburg 1338.

Markloff (UGer.-CentrGer.) = Markolf (Markolf Rudel, Wetzlar 1348). Cf. the MHG collection of poems SalomonundMarkolf and the Shrovetide. play Marcolfus (Lucerne 1546).

Markmann (freq. in Hbg.): person ‘from the Mark’ [i.e. Brandenburg] (Hildebrand Markman, Ro. 1300, Greifswald 1325).

Marks see Markus.

Markscheffel becomes clearer in the variant Marktscheffel (Jena 1406), a grain measure.

Markus, contracted to Marcks, Marx, also Marcus, patr. Marcussen: the Evangelist, like Lukas, not until the 15th c., a biblical name fashionable at the time of the Reformation. Marx (Marcus) Elsener, Liegnitz 1558. UGer. also Merx: Merx Gyser in Würt. Cf. Slav. Markuske, Kuske, Kuschke.

Markward(t), N Ger. often, also Markword(t), rarely dissimilated to Markwald; also Marquardt (freq.); patr. Marquardsen (Schleswig-Holstein, Hbg., Bremen): ‘border guard’. Cf. also UGer. Markhart. LGer. nickn. Maack (Make), see there. UGer. Märk(lin), Merkel: Merklin (Marquard) von Niuvar 1327, Märk (Marquard) von Schellenberg 1400, Merk Glungk, Würt. 1523 (Nied, p. 10).

Marl: pl.n. (on Lake Dümmer and on the Lippe: in old documents Mer-lo ‘swampy lowlands’).

Marner (UGer.): MHG = ‘sailor’ (MLat. marinarius). Also a MHG poet around 1275 called himself the Marner. (A. Götze in: Zeitschrift für deutsche Philologie 53, 1928).

Marolf see Moroff. In Wetzlar 1319 Henr. Marolf, wepling.

Marschall, Marschalck: originally ‘stable hand, groom’ (OHG marah-scalh, cf. Ger. Mähre [mare]) then ‘equerry, master of the horses’, a court official in the Middle Ages (like Truchseß, Schenk, and Kämmerer), responsible for the stables and their staff. Cf. Luther von Lemberg (Löwenberg), Marschalk of Duke Heinrich, Liegnitz 1401. Slavicized: Marschallek, Marschollek (U.Sil.). Dialect form Marschlich like Gottschlich from Gottschalk.

Marschmann see Maschmann.

Marschner (Sit., Sax., Bohemia): patr. from Czech Maresch, nickn. for Maroslav, or metr. from Marusch (Margarete). Hensel Marschner, Prague 1383, Johann Marschner, Crimmitschau 1490. In Brünn 1365 Marscho, Merschl, in Prague 1397 Maresch, innkeeper. For the form cf. Machner (Mach = Matthias [Matthew]). Marschler, Marschke, Marschel (like Porschke etc.) are also found.

Marsteller = ‘groom, stable hand’: Peter marsteller, Liegnitz 1372, Hermann marsteller, Würzburg 1409, Elbel Marstaller der kürsner [furrier], Eger 1378. See also Marschall.

Martag: pers.n. Mardag, Martag, Hbg. 1291 (like Adaldag, see Aldag).

Marth: pl.n. on the Leine (S of Göttingen), except where = Marthen (= Martin). Cf. the Martfeld, Martbäche, etc. (Bahlow ON, p. 344).

Marth(e), Marte, Marti, see Martin.

Martin: Saint Martin (Bishop of Tours, 4th c., patron saint in the western part of the Frankish empire), who is said to have shared his cloak with a freezing begger. Also popular among Protestants because of Martin Luther (born on the eve of St. Martin’s day, November 11). Further details in Bahlow VN, p. 71-72. The umlauted form Mertin was used by the common people in UGer-Sil. LGer. Marten, Martens(en), with patr. -son, -sen, L.Rhine Marti(e)ns(s)en. Lat. patr. (Humanist) is Martini (UGer.). Also many dialectal variants: Merten(s), Mehrtens, Mertgen (Rhine), Märtl(huber) (UGer.), Marti, Marty (Switz.); Marthe(n), Morthe; Mörtl (Bav.). Cf. Martschke, Martschick, Mertsching (E Ger.-Slav.).

Martius see März.

Martsch(ke), Martschick: Bohemian nickn. for Martin (Marzik salczmesser, Prague 1376).

Maruhn, Mahraun (E Prussia): Lith-Old Prussian pers.n. (Miklosich 73), also in pl.ns. such as Maraunen, Mahrunen.

Maruschke see Marek, Maresch, Marschke.

Marwede(l) (Hbg.), pl.n. E of Celle, corresponds in form and meaning to the pl.ns. Barwedel near Gifhorn and Harwedel on the Oker: in old documents Meri-widi, Beri-widi, Heri-widi 888 all mean ‘swampy, muddy woods’. Also related is Marwege (like Ipwege in Oldenburg, ip = ‘bog’).

Marwitz (von der): pl.n. (Pom., Brandenburg).

Marx see Markus. (Cf. Lux: Lukas). Patr. Marx(s)en (Hbg.), cf. also pl.n. Marxen S of Hbg. (formerly Markhusen).

März, Merz: generally the name of the month [March]; cf. Mai, Jänner. Lat. Martius. Also related is Märzkorn [March grain] as a farmer’s name (Hans Merzkorn, Eßlingen 1370).

Marzahl see Morlock.

Marzahn: Slav. pl.n. (twice near Berlin).

Marzolf: German-Alsatian form of Marcellus (‘little Marcus’), saint’s name Marzell, cf. Alsatian ‘Marzolf der bobst’; corrupted forms Marzluff, Merzluft [March air]!

Masbaum (Hbg.), Mastboom: LGer., ‘oak or beech tree’, ‘fruit used for fattening pigs’, recorded e.g. 1536 in a dispute “umme de mastbomme, de by eren walde stahn und de de Buerschap mede geneten wolde” [about the feedtrees which stand near their woods and which the peasants wanted to use] (Mittelniederdeutsches Wörterbuch).

Masch, Maschmann (LGer., freq. in Hbg.): contracted from Marsch(mann) like Kasch (LGer.) from Karsch, cf. Maschmeyer alongside Marschmeyer; from the habitation ‘Auf der Masch’ (Marsch = ‘damp, rich grazing land in lowlands near rivers and by the sea’). Dierck uffrMasch (also Maschmann), Ammerland 1653-81. In the original form: Mersch(meyer), Merschjohann, Mesch(mann), Vandermersch (Herman opder Mersch, Lippe 1380). Cf. also pl.n. Masch in Westph., Maschen in Han.

Maschke (E Ger.) = Tomaschke (Thomas), like Maschek (Slav.) = Tomaschek. Cf. Kaschke = Lukaschek. Similarly Maske, Masek.

Mäschle See Mäßtle.

Maser(kopf): MHG maser ‘mug of maple wood,‘ [kopf originally = ‘cup‘].

Masius = Thomasius (Masius Nortich, Cologne 1416).

Maspfuhl, Maspohl (LGer.): pfuhl clarifies the meaning of mas, namely ‘swamp, bog, dirt’, cf. the Maslinge in Westph. (like the Gropelinge: grope ‘dirt’), Mas-fen, Mas-lar, Mas-apa: the Maspe River, tributary of the Aller.

Maßelter, Maßholder (UGer.): living by maple trees, MHG maßal-ter.

Massing: pl.n. in Upper Bav.

Maßmann, Maß, Mas, Maßens, Masius, etc. are N Ger. forms of Thomas, see Maas. Also Masmeyer (Westph.).

Massow: pl.n. near Stettin.

Mästle, Mäschle (Würt.) = Mast: a ‘well-fed’, corpulent person. Cf. the knight Heinrich Mestelin, Würt. 1238. Also LGer. Vodermast, Bokmast [fodder mast, beech mast].

Masu(h)r, Masurek: from the tribe of the Masur in E Prussia.

Matern, Mattern, Mathern (freq. in Sil.): the legendary Saint Maternus (‘the maternal one’). Maternusgrüczenschryber, Liegnitz 1380; as late as 1532, Matern Weygker, Liegnitz.

Mathilde see Mechthild.

Matschke, Matschek (Sil.): nickn. for Matthias [Matthew], with Slav. k-suffix. Maczke czydeler, Liegnitz 1387. Maczke = Matthias, Brsl. 1360. Also Polish Matschuck, Matschoß, Mattschas.

Matt, Matte, Mattlin (UGer.) become clear from Andermatt ‘living by the sloping meadow’. Also Matter, Mattler, Mattner, Mattmann, Mattenmeyer, Mattenmüller; Mattenschläger (Holzschlag, a field n.!). Riedmatter; Dürrenmatt (Switz.).

Matt(a)usch see Madaus.

Mattenklodt (N Ger.): ‘lump of cottage cheese’ (Mattenkloet, Mattenkloth, Han. 17th c.). Cf. Botterklot, Schneeklot, Lehmklot.

Mattern see Matern.

Matthäus, Mattheus: the evangelist, patron saint of customs officials and tax collectors, not always easily distinguished from Matthias and often confused with him. Also Mat(t)hes (freq.), Lat. Matthesius (Luther’s dinner companion), Matthäi; Matthesen, Matzen, Madsen (patr., Schleswig), Mattheessen (N Rhine), Matthesing (patr., LGer.), Matthäser (Bav. patr.); expanded forms Matthewes, Mathebus. With loss of initial syllable: Thewes, Tews (LGer.), patr. Thewissen (N Rhine genitive), Theus(sen), Deus(sen); E Fris. Thees, Theesmann, Theesginga. UGer.-CentrGer. Thebus, Thebes(ius), Debes, Dewes. E Ger.-Sil. Matz(ke), Matschke, Mätschke, Metzke, Metzi(n)g; Wendish Mattausch, Madaus; Mattke, Mattek; Vogtland Motthes, Mottes, Modes. UGer. Matz(e)l also from Matthias.

Matthias (Hebrew ‘gift of God’): the apostle (not to be confused with the evangelist Matthew). His cult was centered in Trier, hence freq. in the Rhineland: patr. Matthies(sen), Thieß(en), Tyssen, Theißen; Thywissen (Aachen); LGer. Thies(ing); UGer. Theis(mann), Deiß(mann). In Bav. popular names are Hias, Hiesl (Räuberhiesl), Heisel. UGer. Matz(e)l, E Ger-Sil. Matzke, Metzke, Wendish Mittasch, Mittak. Bohemian Mach, see there. (Cf. Matthias, King of Bohemia.)

Mattke, Mattausch, Mattuscheck, etc. see Matthäus and Matthias.

Mattner (UGer.) see Matte.

Matz (UGer.-E Ger.) = Matthäus, Matthias; also Matzke (Sil.), Matzat, Matzeit (E Pruss-Lith.), Matzkeit. Matzner (Sil.): patr. from Matz. But cf. Metzner Matz(e)l (Bohemian-Bav.): Nic. Maczel, Bohemia 1359, P. Motzl, Moravia 1412.

Mau (LGer.): surn. for a dandy or follower of fashion, from MLG mouwe ‘wide sleeve’ (of expensive material, with ornamentation); cf. Kretschmer, Trachten der Völker, p. 159, 221, also the Flemish poem ‘Riddere metterMouwen’ [knight with the sleeve]. ‘Blue, green, red sleeve’ are also recorded: Blawenmouwe, Stralsund 1282, Gronemouwe, Hamelin 1388, Rodemouwe, Kiel 1472, Kortemouwe, Holstein, Langemouwe, Meckl. 14th c.; Scuddemouwe ‘shake the sleeve’, Xanten 1383. Mouwe, Demmin 1319, Lüb. 1334, Westph. 1398, Barth 1348, Lüneburg 1375.

Mauch, Mauchle, Maichle (Würt.): evidently ‘glutton, epicure’, like Brauch, Brauchle. As early as 1317 in Villingen: Rudolf Mouch, 1347 Johann Mouch. On the other hand, Muchenheim, Mauchenheim (from much ‘rotten, rottenness’, Swiss mauch) in the Pal. was called Mouchenheim as early as 1312. Also Maucher: pl.n. Mauchen on the Mauchach (Muchach) = ‘foul water’. Cf. also Michel Muchel, Mauchel, Moravia 1414 (MHG mûchen ‘to be secretive’).

Mauder(er), Mauderle (UGer.): probably a grouch, morose person; cf. maudrig ‘sullen’. Johann Mauderle, Grüß-Bottwar 1634; Maudrer, Moravia 1414. Ulrich Muderer, Durlach 1400. But Maudrich probably = Wendish Mudrik ‘wise guy’.

Mauer, Mäuerle become clearer from Andermauer [by the wall], Aufdermauer [on the wall], from the dwelling place. Mauermann also = ‘bricklayer’.

Mauke, Maukisch are E Ger-Slav. like the pl.n. Mauken on the Elbe.

Maul, Mäule, Maile (Swab.): with a prominent mouth (MHG mül), cf. the Maulbertsch, Maulhans, Würt. 1550 (“on account of his excessively large mouth”, Zimmersche Chronik 3, 380), and the Tyrolean Duchess Margarete Maultasch around 1340 (FN Moltaschl in Vienna). Also Breitmaul, Krummaul, Froschmaul, Karpenmaul, Rindsmaul [wide, crooked, frog, carp, cow mouth], Swab. Hasenmaile [rabbit mouth, tiny m.]. Muhl (freq. in Hbg.) is LGer.: Herward Mule, Ro. 1262, also Johann Scardemule [notched mouth, harelip].

Maurenbrecher [wall breaker]: MHG mûrenbrecher ‘siege engine, battering ram’ (cf. also Blide). A cannon Maurfell in historical folksongs.

Maurer see Meurer, Mührer.

Mauritz, Mauritius, see Moritz.

Mäusel, Meusel, Meisel, Meißl (UGer.) ‘little mouse’, LGer. Mu(u)s. Ulrich Müselin, Bamberg 1147, Chunrad Meusel, Tyrol 1381 (L. Meisl, Tyrol 1573).

Mauser: ‘mouser’, also Mouser, Muser (Alem.). Goßwin Muser 1268.

Mäusezahl = ‘mouse tail’ (MHG zagel, cf. Hasenzahl, Rübezahl). Also Mus-ouge [mouse eye], Mus-or [ear], Muse-nibbe (LGer. = ‘little mouth’), Mus-tüttel [nipple], Musenest [nest], Muse-dot [dead], Museküttel [droppings], Mus-hund [mouse dog], Mauskönig [mouse king] (Musekuninc, a knight, Ulm 1231), Musejeger [mouse hunter], Ro. 1257.

Maushack, Mußhack = ‘buzzard’, cf. Meißgeier (Aust.).

Mausolf: a sly person, a deceiver (from MHG mûsen ‘to sneak, to deceive’, like MHG triegolf: from triegen ‘to deceive’).

Maut(n)er (Bav.-Aust.) = MHG mûtaere ‘toll collector, customs official’. Also Mauthe. Also in pl.n. (‘toll place’): Hohen-Mauth, cf. Sibot von Mautern, Upper Aust. 1264. Nik. Mautel, Moravia 1414, Wernusch Meutner, Bohemia 1355.

Max: = Maximilian (early Christian martyr, apostle of Carinthia, cult center was Passau; Emperor Maximilian was named after him in 1459. Picture of Emperer M. by Dürer. Further details in Bahlow VN, p. 73.

May, Maybaum, see Mai.

Mayer see Maier.

Mayffarth see Meinfried, Meifert.

Maywald see Maiwald.

Mebes, Mebus, Mebius (UGer., CentrGer.) and LGer. Mewes = Bartholomäus [Bartholomew] (‘son of Tholmai’, Aramaic), patron saint of butchers, tanners, and vintners. See also Mewes, Möbus, Bartel, Bartsch.

Mechler (UGer.) = LGer. Mekeler ‘broker, middleman’.

Mechtold means Mechthild (still a Catholic fem. n. today, a saint’s name, cf. the mystic Mechthild of Magdeburg around 1230). Mahthild (loving ‘might’ and ‘battle’), in the Middle Ages in dynastic use always latinized to Mathilde: thus the mother of the Emperor Otto the Great, the wife of Henry the Lion, etc. (see Bahlow VN, p. 72). As metronymic: Thielman ver Machtildensone [son of the Lady M.), Dordrecht 1293, Hadeward filius Mechtildis [son of M.], Bremen 1302, Joh. Mechtildis, Ditfurt on the Bode River 1300; cf. Mechtold (!) filia fratris Brunsteni [daughter of Brother Brunstenus] (Lüb. around 1320). In Quedlinburg around 1589: Mechthold, Mechteldt, Mechtild, Mechtels as FN. LGer. nickn. was Mette, cf. Vermette, UGer. Metze, the frequency of which later led to pejorative usage (‘prostitute’).

Mecke, Meckes, Mex: Fris. pers.n.; Mecke Rummena, Oldbg. 1418, Nommo Meckena, Emden 1464.

Meckel: recorded in Hesse (Wetzlar, Frkf.) as a nickn. for Mechthild. VerMeckel (= Lady Mechthild), Wetzlar 1345, Meckel (Mechtild), Frkf. 1282 ff. Cf. also pl.n. Meckel near Bitburg in the Eifel.

Mecker (UGer.): from pl.n. Meggen (Würt., Switz.), formerly Mecken, like Mecking from pl.n. Möggingen, formerly Meckingen (Johann von M. 1275); cf. Hainrich Mecker, Aarau 1508 (Rottweil 1525).

Mecklenburg, also Mäckelburg, Mekelburg, Mechlenburg: name of place of origin, from the land or village of Mecklenburg (from “to der mekelen Borch”: by the great citadel) near Wismar. As early as 1387 in Osnabrück: Franko Mekelenborgh.

Meckler: LGer. mekeler ‘broker’, see Mächler. Johann mekelere, Lüb. around 1325.

Meden (von der), likewise Meede (van der): from the LGer.-Dutch water word med (variant of mod) ‘mud, bog’ (see Bahlow ON, p. 325) in Medebeke, Medebach, Mede-lo, Medefeld, Medenwald, Medingen, etc. The Meede River is a tributary of the Oste. Contracted form Meeh, cf. Mede-: Mehfeld, likewise Mehdorf. Meeden in Holland. Cf. Tile vonMedehem, Göttingen 1383.

Meder, Mederer (Grasmeder), see Mäder. Hainrich derMeder, Donaueschingen 1314.

Meding (Hbg.): pi.n. Medingen near Bevensen, see Meden.

Meemken: Fris. patr. (nickn.) from Megin-: Meinbert (Tade Memeken, 16th c.), cf. Memmo, Memmen.

Meene, Meenen, Meenken, Meenenga, Meents, Meendsen, Meenzen are Fris. variants of Meine(n), Meinken, etc., see Meinhard, Meinward.

Meer (van der), Ter Meer, Vermeeren (L.Rhine, Dutch): from place of habitation or origin; meer = ‘lake, swamp’, cf. under Marwedel. Also Meerkötter (Westph., like Marschkötter, from kotte = ‘cottage’). But Arnd Merkatte (Hamelin 1491) = “Meerkatz”, probably a house n., like Rulman Merswin (‘guinea pig, dolphin’), a Strasb. mystic around 1350. Merochse, Liegnitz 1348.

Meerbott, Meerbothe (UGer.), see Merbt. Cf. Meerbodenreut.

Meerländer: a Person from Moravia.

Me(e)rsmann, Merskämper (Westph.), see Maschmann. H. Merseman, Greifswald 1380.

Meerwein (UGer.): a knight Merwin von Sickingen. Cf. Merbt.

Meese (LGer.) = Meise [chickadee]; for Meeske (Meseke) cf. pl.ns, Mesekenhagen near Greifswald, Mesekendahl. But in Mesenbrink, Mesenbrock, Mesenholl, the old swamp word mes is probably present, as in Mesenhusen, Mesenhard, Mesenbeck, Mesewinkel, Mesehern (see Bahlow ON, p. 332). Meessen is L.Rhine = Bartholomäus’ (son).

Meester see Meister.

Meetz (Hbg.): cf. pl.n. Meetzen near Gadebusch.

Meffert (Sil., Lausitz, Sax., Thur., Hesse), dialect form Maffert (pl.ns. Meffersdorf near Lauban and Maffersdorf in Bohemia), is derived from the old Ger. pers.ns. Mahtfrid, Mechtfiid, Meffrid (freq. in Hesse 8th-13th centuries). There was also a meistersinger called Meffrid around 1400. Peter Meffried near Bingen 1348. H. Meffridi, Wetztar 1347, Mechfrid, Gotha 1197, K. Meffard, Römhild 1520, P. Meffert, Liegnitz 1572; in Hadamar as late as 1543: Meffard Loenstein.

Megerle see Mägerlein.

Meggers (Hbg.): LGer.-Westph. dialect form of Meijers, cf. eggere for Eier [eggs] (1385); see A. Lasch, Mittelniederdeutsche Grammatik, paragraph 347.

Mehl [flour]: surname for a Melber or Mehlmann, Mehlführer, Mehlstöter,’flour merchant’, or for a miller. Also Mehlsack [flour sack], Mehlhose [flour pants], Mehlhase [flour bunny], Mehlstäubl [flour dust]; Mehltretter [flour treader] (derisive nickname like Blumentreter, Rosentreter). Also Machemehl [make flour], Kaufmehl [buy flour], Steubmehl, Stobmehl [flour dust]. Melhant [flour hand], Melhöupt [flour head].

Mehlan (F, Ger.-Slav.) see Mihlan.

Mehle is a pl.n. near Elze (Mede-lo: ‘boggy lowlands’, see Meden).

Mehlem: pl.n. near Bonn (mel ‘dirt’).

Mehler (Rhine-Hesse) see Mähler (= Maler ‘painter’), with Umlaut like Bäder for Bader. Cf. Heineze meler, Frkf. 1378. For Mehlert cf. also pl.ns. Mehla near Greiz and Mehler (Mehlra) near Mühlhausen.

Mehles (L.Rhine) = loc.n. Mehlhus, like Backes, Berges, Ohles, etc.

Mehlhop, Mehlhorn are NW Ger. loc.ns. [horn ‘corner’, hop ‘hill’; mel ‘mud, dirt’), cf. Mehlbeck, Mehlen-Berg, Mehlbusch (Bahlow ON, p. 326). Analogous: Ahlborn, Uhlhorn.

Mehlhose see Mehl.

Mehlkopf: MLG Mel-kôp ‘flour merchant’, cf. Littkopf, Wienkopf

Mehlich, Mehlig, see Mehlan and Mählich.

Mehliß: pl.n. in Thur.

Mehlmann see Mehl.

Mehlsack [flour sack]: for a miller or baker. Tideke Melsak, Ro. 1382.

Mehnert (freq. in Hbg.): LGer.-Fris. = Meinert, Meinhard (see there), like Ehnert for Einhard. Also as nickns.: Mehne, Mehnke (Meine, Meinke), cf. Mene Hyllers (a Frisian). Similarly Mehner (Hbg.) = Meiner (Meinher). But UGer. Mehner(t) = MHG mener ‘drover’.

Mehr (rather freq. in Hbg.) freq. pl.n. (like Meer, see there). Also Mehre near Ülzen. Also Mehrmann.

Mehrens (freq. in Hbg.): evidently a Fris. patr. (cf. Mehrings, Mehrke, Mehrkens) from Merolf, Merbod, etc. Harrynk Merynges, a Frisian, 16th c.

Mehrer: MHG merer ‘breeder’. Nickel Merer near Eger 1395. Cf. Mehrenschatz. Merenschaden.

Mehrholz: pl.n. ‘swampy copse’.

Mehring: pl.n. Mehring (Bav., Rhineland), Mehringen (Hoya, Aschersleben). But for Mehrings (patr.) see Mehrens.

Mehrländer: from Moravia (Ger. Mähren). Mehrle(in) see Merle.

Mehwald (Sil.) see Maiwald. Thammo Meynwald, Liegnitz 1367, later: Tobias Mewalt (Mehewaldt, Liegnitz 1575).

Meibo(h)m see Maibaum.

Meiche (Sax.): from Meucha near Altenburg, like Beiche from Beucha.

Meichelbeck (Bav.): i.e. Müchelbach = ‘rotten creek, foul water’, cf. the Muchelgruben, Würt. 1305; Bentz Müchelbeck, Füssen 1373 (later Meichelbeck).

Meichner: from Meuchen near Leipzig.

Meichsner see Meißner.

Meick see Meyke.

Meier, Meijer, see Maier.

Meif(f)ert, Meiferts, Meivers (LGer.) = Meinfrid (Maginfrid, Meginfrid ‘strength’ and ‘peace’). Cf. Burgrave Maginfred of Magdeburg, 1080. Corrupted in modern CentrGer.-UGer. to Meyfarth, Mayffarth, Maifahrt, like Seifried to Seyffarth. Hermann Meyfahrt, Gießen 1590. Meginfrid was quite common in the Fulda area 800-1150.

Meimerding (Westph.): patr. from Meimbert (Maginbert, Meginbert, Meinbert: ‘shining with strength’); cf. the pl.ns. Meimerstorf near Kiel, Meimbressen near Kassel, Meinbrexen near Höxter. Exactly the same as Reimerding from Reimbert. Cf. also Meimbern: Reimbern (Lüb., Ro., Bremen). Memmert: Remmert is Frisian; also Memmen, Mehmen, Meemken, like Remme, Remken.

Meinburg see Mey(en)burg.

Mein(e)cke, Meineken, patr. Meineking as well as Mein(e), Meinen, Meins, Meinssen: LGer. derivatives of Meinhardt, Meiner(t), Meiners, like UGer. Meinel (cf. also Meinhold). Menke, Mehnert etc. are Fris., likewise Mens, Menssen, Mensing. Meyneke (Meynart) Schulow, Stralsund 1300, Meineke (Meynardus), Stettin 1311, Meyneke (Meynold) Gosoghe, Hbg. 1285, Meyneke (son of Meynburg), Lüb. 1332, MeyneMeynen, Barth 1415; Henr. Meyneking, Han. 1311.

Meinders, Meinertz (L.Rhine) = Meinhards. Mein(d)l, Meinel: UGer. nickn. for Meinhard, Meinhold, like Reindl for Reinhard, Reinhold and Weindl, Weinel for Weinhold. Peter Meindl, Pilsen 1418, patr. Nicusch Meindier, Deutsch-Brod 1386.

Meinfrid see Meiffert.

Meingoß (Mengôß), corrupted form Menges: UGer, pers.n., originally Germanic Magingaut, Megin-gôt (Meingot), i.e. ‘strength’ and ‘Goth’; Meingotus, an estate official, near Kassel 1143, Meingôß dictus [called] Goße, Worms 1344, Hans Mengoys (Menges), Speyer 1360, Pesl Meyngôß, Prague 1353, C. Mengôß, Meßkirch 1297. See also Adelgoß, Algoß. The ending -gôß is also used appellatively in MHG wuote-gôß ‘ruthless tyrant’.

Meinhardt, LGer. Meinert, Meiners: Germanic pers.n. Maginhard, Meginhard (‘strength’ and ‘brave’). Freq. among the Counts of Tyrol around 1250-1350. Meinhart Swindel, Eger 1317, Meinhart messerer, Breslau 1360. See Meineke, Meins, and Meinel.

Meinhold is a reinterpretation of Meinold, Germanic Magin-wald, Megin-wald (‘powerfully ruling’), like Reinhold from Reinold: Raginwald, Reginwald. Cf. Meynold (Meyneke) Gosoghe, Hbg. 1285. Around 1600 it was “transformed to High German” as Meinholz (like Reinhold to Reinholz; Weinhold to Weinholz).

Meink(e) see Meineke. Similarly Meinking.

Meinlach, Meinloch (like Gerlach, Gerloch): only in Würt., as a f.n. and FN, thus the minnesinger Meinloh von Sevelingen around 1200. Cf. Meginlach von Obrigheim 1142, also Menczel Meynloch in Schweidnitz.

Meinlef see Melf(sen).

Meinolf, Menolf. Germanic pers.n. (e.g. among the Westph. nobility in the 9th c.; in Hbg. 1250).

Meinrad, Menrad (only Alem.-Swiss): a saint of E Switzerland (a count’s son in the 9th c.); Germanic Magin-rad, Megin-rad (‘strength’ and ‘counsel’ of the gods). Still used today as a f.n.: Meinrad Inglin, a Swiss poet. Men- for Mein- is Alem.-Swab., cf. Menold, Menolf, Menhart, Menwart.

Meinrich (rare): Germanic Maginrich, Meginrich (‘powerful ruler’), cf. dominus [lord] Meynricus Vredelant, Lüb. 1367, dominus Meinricus, Ro. 1270.

Meins (freq. in Hbg.), patr. Meinssen: LGer.-Fris., from Meine (Meinhard), see there. Also Meinz (Hbg.): cf. Joh. filius [son of] Meinzen, Hbg. 1266. (z = s). See also Menssen, Mensing. Meints, Meents (Fris.).

Meinward (rare, in LGer. coalesced with Meinhard): Germanic Maginward, Meginward (cf. Megenwart as a farmer’s name in the MHG works of Neidhart around 1240; Wernher Meinwart, Breisgau 1245; Meinwardus, Bremen 1242, Lüb. 1325).

Meis(e) [chickadee]: the songbird, sometimes surnames for a bird dealer, like Zeisig [siskin], Stieglitz [goldfinch], Fink [finch], Wachtel [quail], Vogel [bird]. In Saalfeld in Thur. in the 16th c. more often Meyse, Meys, Meyße, Meiß. Also Meisenzahl (Meisenzagel) ‘chickadee’s tail, like Hasenzahl, [hare’s tail], Lämmerzahl [lamb’s tail], Entenzahl [duck’s tail], Mäusezahl [mouse’s tail], LGer. Meßenzahl from LGer. Meese.

Meisel (UGer.) see Mäusel. Cf. Meisgeier [buzzard].

Meisen (Cologne, Düsseldorf): patr. from Meis = Remigius (Romeis), like Theisen from Theis = Mattheis, Matthias.

Meisenbug: a Hessian family of knights, known from Malwida vonMeisenbug: as early as 1305 a squire Guntram Meisenbuc, i.e. ‘chickadee’s knee’ (MHG buoc ‘joint, knee’). In Brsl. Meysenkny. A LGer. squire Mesenbuck, Hamelin 1492.

Meiser: cf. the knight Berthold Meiser, Mainz 1196; it is not clear whether it refers to the bird name [chickadee] or the field n. Meis. See also Maiser.

Meisezahl: see Mäusezahl.

Meißer (UGer.): from the field n. Meiß (MHG = ‘area where trees are felled’, meißen = ‘to hew, cut’); similarly Meiß, Meißl (except where = Meisel) probably means a chiseler or carver; MHG meißel also = ‘penis’.

Meißner, Meisner, Bav. Meichsner,

Meixner, in Glatz [in Sil.] Mechsner, Mexner: from the city or principality of Meißen (Slav. Misna ‘swampy place’, cf. the Meiße River, Mißaha, in the Harz Mountains and near Celle). Also as an appellative ‘cloth merchant’. Jacob Mysener, Liegnitz 1372 (Görlitz 1408); Meyßner (cloth maker!), Leitomischl 1402; but Mertl Meyxner, Budweis 1411. Cf. the map in E. Schwarz, Sudetische Familiennamen (1957), p. 207: “Meißner: Meixner”.

Meister [master]: (Lat. magister) usually = ‘master of a trade or guild’; also (as originally) a form of address, a title for learned persons, especially physicians (meister Peter der bader [“physician”], Liegnitz 1399; meister Jorge der schulmeister [schoolmaster], Liegnitz 1397; Nitsche Vrümeyster, Liegnitz 1372). LGer. Me(e)ster. Also Meistermann, Mestermann. Meisterknecht, Meesterknecht (chief journeyman). In Westph. Meistering like Möllering, Meyering. Also many compounds: Bacmeister, Küchenmeister, Gildemeister, Baumeister, Hagemeister, Hofmeister, Burmeister, Bürgermeister, Bliedemeister, Werkmeister. A Henr. Mestersang, Han. 1340.

Melber (UGer.): ‘flour merchant’ (MHG melwer), still today in Bav. Peter melber, near Eger 1395, P. melwer, Worms 1304, Brimelwer, Überlingen 1295, Habermelwer, Zurich 1504. Also Mölber (Bav.), Melbert, Mölbert. See also Mehl.

Melcher(t), Melchers = Melchior (Hebrew ‘King of Light’), one of the three holy kings (Kaspar, Melchior, and Balthasar); did not become popular as a f.n. until around 1500, still in Catholic use today; with Sil. -a-: Malcher, Malcharek (Upper Sil.), Malchior burger, Liegnitz 1491.

Melde (UGer.), likewise Melder = ‘braggart, traitor’ (MHG melde ‘bragging, slander’, also pomp; vrou Melde ‘Lady Rumor, who reports everything’). Conrad Melde, Ravensburg 1279, a knight Albertus Meldelin, Würt. 1271.

Melfsen, Mellfs (Hbg.): Fris. Melf = Meinlef (Magin-leib, Megin-leib ‘powerful offspring’) or Meinolf; cf. Lülf (Ludelef: Ludolf), Jalff (Tjadelef- Detlef. Dietleib). Meleff, Friesland 1435; see also Melle.

Melis(s): recorded as a f.n. on the L.Rhine, like Mellies, Melius = Amelius (Brsl. 1250, Lüb. 1320), quite popular in the Middle Ages as n. of the martyr Amelius (story of the friendship of “Amicus and Amelius”!). Henne and Clese Melius, Frkf. 1387. Further details under Millies.

Melk (LGer.) = ‘milk’: a milk seller or a milker (Johann melkere, Ro. 1303, Johann melcfole ‘milk foal’, Lüb. 1316). Cf. Sötmelk, Kernmelk.

Mellahn (Meckl.) see Millahn.

Melle (von), Mellmann (freq. in Hbg.): from Melle nem Osnabrück (in old documents Mene-lo, like Mellage: Menelage ‘swampy lowlands’, see Bahlow ON, p. 328) or from Mellen on the Lenne. But Sicco Mellema 1443 is a Fris. patr., cf. Mello Synada 1427, see Melfsen.

Mellwig, Mellewigt: pl.n. in Westph.

Melms (Hbg.): probably a loc.n., cf. melm ‘dust, sand’.

Meltz, Meltzian, Melz, Melzig are E Ger-Slav., like the pl.ns. Melz in Meckl., Melzow in Uckermark.

Melzer, Meltzer; Melzner, Melzler (UGer., also Melzl), see Mälzer.

Membold (Würt.) is the rare Germanic pers.n. Maginbold, Meginbold: Meinbold. (Bernh. Memboldt, Ehingen 1580). Cf. Memprecht, Mempel, Meinbert.

Memleb: from Memleben on the Unstrut River, like Hemleb from Hemleben. For pl.ns. ending in -leb(en) see Bahlow DN, p. 93. For the water word mem, mim: Bahlow ON, p. 328.

Memling: pl.n. Mömlingen near Aschaffenburg, home of the painter Hans Memling, 15th c.

Memme: nickname for Fris. Memmert Meinbert, Meginbert).

Memmen, Memmert (Fris.) see Meimerding and Meemken.

Memmler, Memmel (UGer.): cf. pl.n. Memmelsdorf near Bamberg. Without umlaut: Menloch known as Mammel, Würt. 1432 (probably a ‘soft person, weakling‘). Cf. Mem(me)ler, Brsl. 1396, also mitdermemmen (with the mother’s breast!). H. Memmenslik, Kolin 1378.

Mempel, Mämpel (UGer.), also Mampel, Mampe, may be a nickn. for Memprecht (pl.n. Memprechtshofen near Bühl), i.e. Maginbrecht, Meinbrecht, like Hempe(l), Hampe(l) for Hemprecht (Haginbrecht, Heimbrecht). See also Meimerding.

Men(c)ke see Menke.

Mende (Sax., Upper Lausitz, Sil.): can be interpreted as the contraction of am + Ende: am-ende, which means ‘living at the end (of the village, of the street)’, since similar cases are recorded in the same region, cf. e.g. Heyno Moyes (from: am + Oyas), Liegnitz 1354, Peter Moywyn (from: am + Oybin near Zittau), pl.n. Mohorn in Sax. (‘at the maple tree’). Also Michel amEnde, Liegnitz 1438, Peter Amende, Friedland 1381, Vicenz Mende, Liegnitz 1559, (de) Mende, Meißen 1452. But Mendach, Mendisch, Mendausch, Mendyk, Mendrzik point toward the Slav.

Mendel: a popular f.n. in the Moravian-Bav.-Aust. area around 1300-1400, sometimes in old documents = Meindel (Meinhard), like Rendel = Reindel, sometimes from Hermann (cf. Johann der Hermendel, Aspern in Aust. 1363, but Peter Me(i)ndl, Pilsen 1418). Also dialect form Mandel (like Rendel: Randel; Hendel: Handel): Mandel Rubeyn, Moravia 1408, also Mendel Spieß in the same place in 1414, Mendel tendler, Brünn 1365, Mendel Swellenpeck, Linz 1381.

Mendelssohn [Mendel’s son] (Jewish): Mendel means Manuel, Emanuel.

Menden: pl.n. on the Ruhr (Mene-dene ‘damp lowlands’: Bahlow ON, p. 329).

Mendt, Mendte (Hbg.) see Mente. Cf. pl.n. Mendt near Siegburg.

Menge (freq. in Hbg., Bremen, freq. in Han., also Sax., Sil.): Hermann Menge, Johann Menge, Lüb. 1340, Mathis Menge, Liegnitz 1384. Cf. Haufe, Schar [meaning ‘group of people’, which is also one meaning of Menge]; but perhaps = menger ‘dealer’ (Lat. mango), cf. stalmengere, iserenmengere [iromnonger] (Lüb., Ro.); similarly Koop (buy) exists alongside Köper (buyer). In UGer. (Bav., Franc., Hess.) Mengel and Meng(e)ler stand for Menger ‘dealer’: Hencze Mengel, Kassel 1361, but Mengelo de Nuenheim (Nauheim), Hess. 1288 (cf. Mengotus, also Hess.). Stephan Mengler, Bernheim 1465. In the Rhineland: Menges (Fettmenges [fat dealer], Pferdmenges [horse dealer]), but this can also stand for Meingoß (see there) in the SW (Speyer). Meng, however, is an Alem. variant of Mang (saint’s n. Magnus), see there. Menger ‘dealer’ see Manger. Conrad Menger, Memmingen 1433; also NGer.: Radolf yserenmenger, Ro. 1267, Ditmar stalmenger, Lüb. around 1330. Cf. also the sentence names: Mengebir, Görlitz 1443, Mengwein, Ohrdruf 1633, Mengwasser, Cologne 1423.

Menhardt, Menrad, Menward, see Mein-.

Menk(e), Menken (freq. in Hbg.), also Menck(e): see Meineke. Cf. Renke, Renken. Menke Koylenberg, Kassel 1355, Henne Menken, Kassel 1403.

Menn, Menne, Menne(c)ke, Menneking, Menning, Mennenga (Fris.-LGer.), like Menke, Meinke, come from Meinhard (Meinward, Meinold, Meinrich).

Menn(e)rich (Hbg.) see Meinrich. For Menneking (Westph.) cf. Enneking, for Menno (Meinhard): Enno (Einhard). A Menno Simons (a Frisian) founded the Mennonite sect (Anabaptists).

Mensch, Menschel (UGer.): MHG mensch [a person], especially in a position of service, a serf, servant. Johann dictus [called] Mensche 1350, Hs. Mentsch, Würt. 1400. But LGer. Mensch (Hbg.) comes from Menseke (Meinhard), like Hinsch from Hinseke (Heinrich), Lensch from Lenseke (Lorenz). Also LGer. patr. Mensching = Menseking), freq. in Han.

Mense, Mensing (freq. in Hbg.), also Menssen, Menssing, is a nickn. or patr. from Meinhard, Meinward, Meinrich, see also Meins, Meineke, Menn. The ending -s is Fris. Cf. Menso Alting (a Frisian) 1595. For Mensing cf. Rensing. Menseke (Greifswald 1322) is nowadays Mensch, see there.

Ment(e), Menth(e): LGer.-Fris. nickn. for Meinhard, Meinrich, like Bent(e) for Bernhard; cf. without -t: Meno, Beno. See also Mante.

Mentlein, Mentel, Mentler, see Mäntler.

Men(t)z (freq. in Hbg.), also Menze, Menzen: LGer. nickn. (cf. Fris. Mense) for Meinhard, Meinrich, like Hentz(c), Henzen for Heinrich, Menzo, Mentzeke in Greifswald, 1305 etc., Mence, Menso, Ro. 13th c. But from the pl.n. Menz in Brandenburg: Johann de Mentze, Pom. 1321. Mainz, too, was called Mênz in the Middle Ages: Heile vonMencze, Frkf. 1387.

Menzel, Mentzel, patr. Menzler; also Menzelmann: Sil.-Sax.-Bohemian nickn. for Hermann, probably influenced by the Czech Hermanec (-etz); in Bohemia, Hermann was also a saint’s n. influenced by Wenzel and Stenzel. Cf. Urbanzl and Urbanietz. Equivalents in old documents: Hermenczel, Brsl. 1363, and Hermenchen, Hermanchen (Reichert, p. 14); Johann Hermenczel, Liegnitz 1344; Menczel Habelust, Brsl. 1351, Menczel Meynloch, Schweidnitz 14th c., Menczel Meyssener, Liegnitz 1426; Henlin Menczel, Würzburg 1409, Donat Menczel, Freiberg 1429. Cf. Hiersernenzel. Man(t)zel is a dialectal variant, like Wantzel alongside Wenzel: Achim Mantzel (Mentzel), Meckl-Strelitz 1592/86, Marx Mantzel (Mentzel) in the same place 1569/81. A rare UGer. form is Mentzelin Mantz = Mangold, see Manz.

Menzemer: = Menzheimer, UGer. n. of place of origin, like Bansemer, Herxemer.

Menzer, Mentzer, Meinzer: from Mainz (formerly Celtic Mogontia [Magenza]: Bahlow ON, p. 316). Johann Fischart also called himself Mentzer. Syfrit Mentzere, near Darmstadt 1321.

Menzing(er): UGer. n. of place of origin (pl.n. Menzingen in the district of Bretten, Menzing near Munich).

Meppen: pl.n. on the Ems, also in Drente, cf. Heppen, Beppen, all meaning ‘boggy place’. Also Meppen-siefen, Meppelhop, etc. (Bahlow ON, p. 330).

Merbold: old Ger. pers.n., cf. Merbot. (Merbolt near Stuttgart 1350).

Merbt, Mörbt, Mirbt: from Franc. to Sil., contracted from Merbot, like Seibt from Si(g)bot; UGer. Meerbott, Meerbothe. A Frankish king’s name as early as 300; famous from the king of the Marcomanni Marbod: Merobaudes. Also in pl.ns.: Meerbodenreut; Meribodonhagen: Mertenhagen, Martinhagen in Hesse. Among the Sil. nobility. Merboto von Czettritz 1242, von Hugwitz 1369, von Czedlitz 1439. A count Marbot, Merbot von Bregenz around 1100. A Wenczel Merbot, Budweis 1385.

Mercator (Lat.) = ‘merchant, shopkeeper’. A famous geographer: Gerhard Mercator, actually Kremer (1512-94).

Merck see Merk.

Merfort(h), Merfert, Merfart, Mehrfert (freq. in Neustadt in U.Sil.): corruption of MHG mer-vart ‘sea voyage’, a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, a crusade; hence a surn. for one who had returned home safely. Cf. Herforth, Herfert = her-vart. “The Viennese mervart,” a well-known MHG poem. A Lazarus Öbermer, Liegnitz 1400.

Mergard: a woman’s f.n. in the Middle Ages, thus in Ro. 1258, Hbg. 1293, Westph. 1279, Worms 1196 (Sifridus Mergardis filius [S. son of Mergard]), near Würzburg 1214 (Cuonr. filius Mergardis).

Mergel, Mergler (UGer.): from the field n. Mergel (Mergelkuhle), Lat. margila ‘limestone, limy soil’, MHG mergeln ‘to fertilize’. Heinz Mergeler, Frkf. 1396.

Merian (Basel, Zurich, Bern): famous through the engraver Matthäus Merian from Basel, whose ancestor came from Muriaux in the Jura.

Merk, Merck, Märki: Alem. nickn. (also Marck) for Markwart, see there. Merk Doschenschein, Würt. 1542. Märk Sonderdorf, Isny 1473.

Merkel, Merkle, Märklin (UGer.-Swab.-Alem.) see Markward. Cf. Märklin Berolf, Eßlingen 1356, Markele (Father Marquardus), Wetzlar 1350, Merkel Grasevinger, Brsl. 1298, Merkel Röder, Eger 1395. Compounds: Brotmerkel, Daubemnerkl.

Merken(s) see Mehrkens.

Merkenschlager: UGer. field n. Merkenschlag [Schlag = ‘tree felling area, clearing’), cf. Weidenschlager, Feichtenschlager, Gerstenschlager, Luttenschlager; merk = ‘soft dirt’, cf. Merkenbach.

Merker: UGer. = MHG ‘watchman’ (also in the songs of the meistersingers) but also ‘dwelling within the boundaries of the village’ (cf ‘von dem Gemein Merke’). But Märker, a person from the Neumark! See also Markmann, Markgraf.

Merkwirth see Mark-wart. (Marckwirt, Liegnitz 1558).

Merl(e), Merlin, Mährlen, Mehrlein (UGer.): a nickn., probably for Merbot, Merwin, etc. (Merlin Pragel near Rottenburg 1428; a FN Merlin, today Mährle, in the same place in 1570). Cf. Herlin, Herle for Hermann. In Brsl. in 1371 Merlin = Margarete. A magician Merlin in the Arthurian legend. But cf. also MHG merle = ‘thrush’ (Lat. merula); P. Merleke, Lüb. 1340.

Mers(ch)mann, Mers(ch)meyer, Mers(ch)kämper (LGer.-Westph.) see Maschmann.

Merten(s): LGer.-Rhine = Martin. Similarly Mertin (CentrGer.-Sil.). Also Mertgens (Rhine area), Mertel, Martl (UGer., Polzmärtl, Märtlhuber), Mertke, Mertig, Merting, Mertsch, Mertsching (E Ger.-Slav.). See also Methner.

Mer(t)z see März.

Merx, Märx, see Marx.

Merzler (UGer.) = ‘merchant, shopkeeper’ (MLat. mercellarius).

Mesch (LGer.) = Mersch (like Kasch = Karsch), see Maschmann.

Meschede(r): from Meschede in Westph.

Meschke (E. Ger-Slav.) probably = Metschke, like Peschke = Petschke (Peter).

Meseck(e), Mesech: E Ger-Slav. pers.n. (cf. Mesekenhagen in Pom.), see Mieske.

Messer (UGer.) = Messerer = Messerschmitt, Messerschmidt [knife smith, cutler], cf. Niklaus Messer (Messerer), Freiburg 1369. Also Messerle. Peter messersmidel, Iglau 1385. Johann Melczer dermesser, Brsl. 1370, Fricze messerer (messersmit).

Messikommer (UGer.): = Messingheimer, cf. Vollkommer.

Messing: ‘brass bester’ (one who works the cold metal), like Kupfer = ‘copper beater, coppersmith’. Also Messinger (thus in Old Brsl. as well as messingsloer). Cf. Fricz messinkcziher, messinkslaer, Prague 1378, Rolf missingslegere, Lüb. 1317.

Meßmer, Mesmer (Alem.-Swab.) = Meßner, Mesner (MLat. mansionarius): ‘sexton, church servant’; Bav. Mößmer, Mößner. The form with m is the result of analogy with ns. of origin ending in -mer for -heimer, cf. Mannemer (Mannheimer), then also Stettemer (from the pl.n. Stetten in the Lörrach distriet), esp. in Baden (A. Götze, p. 36). Heinrich Mesmer in Ottobeuren as early as 1180.

Meßwarp, Meßmacher, see Mestwarb, Mestwerdt.

Mester see Meister. Mesterharm (LGer.) = Harm (Hermann) the Master, cf. Meßterjahn.

Mestner (UGer.-Sil.): ‘one who uses a measure’ (thus in Old Brsl. as well as mestener); MHG meste ‘measure of capacity’ (Salzmeste [salt measure], Mehlmeste [flour measure], still today used in dialect); hence probably a manufacturer or a checker of such measures.

Mestwerdt (LGer., werht = worhte ‘worker, maker’) = ‘knifesmith’, cf. glasewerte, bekerwerte, stenwerte (Lüb.); from Mestwarte (Hamelin 1415) was derived Mestwarb (by labialization) or Meßwarp. Also Mestemacher (mestemaker, Bremen 1393, Flensburg as late as 1602). Cf. mestwert, Hbg. 1278 (Lemgo 1430), also mestwerkere 1269 (like salwerkere, lichtwerk: Lichtwark). LGer. Stekemest, Stekemetz ‘dagger’.

Metelmann (freq. in Hbg.): from Metel near Wunstorf or Metelen near Ahaus. cf. Hamelmann, Rintelmann, Uffelmann. Johann deMetele, Han. 1344.

Methfessel (UGer.), [fessel = ‘a small barrel’] reinterpreted as Mä(g)defessel [maid fetters] (Jena), means Methsieder [mead boiler] or Metgeb [tavern owner who pours mead] (metgeb, Regensburg 1357, metsider, Brünn 1343), MHG also metbriuwe ‘mead brewer’, Metbreyer (medebruwer, medemecher, Frkf. 1263). Also Methsaft [mead juice], Methschnabel [mead beak]. A tavern owner “zum Methfäßlein” with a (house) sign showing a mead barrel, Wörd in Franconia 1775. In Saalfeld Methfessel, Metfessichen, 16th c.; in Nbg. Veit Metfießlein, 1580. Cf. Albert Methfessel, a composer. Similarly Schönvessel, Noldenvessel. But Meth, Meht (Lausitz) and Methe (Lübben), as well as Methner (Sil., Lausitz), are probably related to the Sorbian Mjeto = Mertin. Cf. also pl.n. Methau in Sax.

Methler: pl.n. near Dortmund (Metlere 819, like Mit-lere, Wit-lere = ‘damp lowlands’). Cf. Metelen on the Vechte, FN Metelmann.

Methling (Hbg., Meckl.): pl.n. Groß-Methling near Gnoien (Meckl.).

Metje(n), Mettjes, see Mette. Luder Metken in Oldenburg 1509, pl.n. Metjendorf in Oldenburg.

Metschke (E Ger.-Slav.) like Matschke = Matthias (Matthew); cf. pl.n. Metschkau in Sil. and Lith. Metschies (like Jokschies: Jakob).

Mett(e), Mettke: LGer. nickn. for Mechthild, see there. As late as 1595 in Flensburg: vorMette van Alevelde, cf. FN Vermette (like Vernaleken). Mette (Mechtild) filia [daughter of] Joh. Papenhagen, Stralsund 1334, MetteMetteke freq. in Ro. around 1275. Johann vernMetten, Han. 1358. For Metten, Mettenius, cf. also pl.n. Metten in Westph. (deMette, Ro. 1277).

Metternich: n. of two places in the Rhineland.

Met(t)ler (Görlitz, also Mettner): probably patr. from Metel, nickn. for Matthias. Niczek Metler, Leitomischl 1404, Metlin Maidvogel, Olmütz 14th c., Methel Chrenel, Pausram 1414. Cf. FNs Matel, Motel, Metel, also Matzel, Motzel, Metzel in Bohemia or Moravia (E. Schwarz, p. 203).

Mettner (Lausitz, Sil.), likewise Methner: patr. from Sorbian Mjeto (Mertin or Matthias, cf. Mettausch, Mattausch). Caspar Mettner, Liegnitz 1547.

Metz (freq. in Hbg.): from metz (MLG meste) ‘knife’, cf. Metzmacher, Stekemetz ‘stabbing knife, dagger’.

Metze, Metzen: in the Middle Ages Metze was so common as a nickn. for Mechthild that in the end (around 1500) it was debased so that it also meant ‘whore’. As a metr. cf. Hainrich Meczensun, Rottenburg 1323, Mecze, wife of Ramvold von Gersdorf, Görlitz 1390. Cf. LGer. Mette and Hess. Meckel.

Metzel (UGer.): like Matzel = Matthias, Matthäus. Eberhard Metzel (Metzelin), Bruchsal 1342, Nic. Meczlini, Moravia 1382. See also Matzel.

Metzer (UGer.): from Metz in Lorraine. Conrad Metzer of Hagenau, Strasb. 1295.

Me(t)zger: general UGer. term for a butcher (MHG metzjer, metziger, from metzjen ‘to slaughter’, metzje ‘meat counter’, also metzeler: from Lat. macellarius [butcher] and macellum ‘meat counter, market’). Cf. in Zurich 1258 Burch vorderMezzje, in Konstanz 1259 Conrad hinder dermezzje.

Metzing (Hbg.): pl.n. Metzingen (Celle, Lüneburg). But Metzinger (Reutlingen 1410) from pl.n. Metzingen in Würt.

Metzke (E Ger.): nickn. for Slavic pers.n. Metzlaff (Miecislav), like Tetzke from Tetzlaff. But see also Matzke (as well as Matschke, Metschke).

Metzler (Würt., Middle Rhine: Frkf.) see Metzger. (Also Hundemetzler, Frkf. 1314).

Metzmacher: ‘cutler, knife maker’ (MHG metz ‘knife’).

Metzner (freq in Sil. and Sax., also Bav., Aust.): MHG metze is a small dry measure for corn, flour, and the like (in contrast to the larger Mutte or Scheffel [bushel]). Hence an occ.n.: a maker of metze [measures]; also a miller’s helper, who used a metze to measure out the miller’s payment for milling, was called Metzner (see Bahlow SN, p. 112). A Peter mitdermetzen, Glatz 1356; Nic. Sander meczner, Brsl. 1397, Petsche mecznere, Liegnitz 1372. Similarly Mestener and mitdermesten, Brsl. (meste = metze). Occasionally the nickn. Metze (Mechthild) may be involved, cf. the metr. Jüttner from Jutte. Matzner has dialectal -a-.

Meuer: cf. pl.n. Meura near Saalfeld.

Meulen (Ter Meulen): L.Rhine = ‘at the mill’.

Meumann (Westph.): cf. Meubrink; meu = = möde, mod ‘bog, swamp’. Cf. Mödebek, Möde-: Möwick, field n. Mode; Modgau.

Meurer see Mührer, Maurer.

Meusel See Mäusel.

Meuser see Mäuser.

Meuslahn, Meislahn: E Ger-Slav. Myslan, cf. Meuselwitz (Myslowitz), Meußließen, etc.

Meuter see Mauter.

Mew(e)s, Mev(e)s, Mevius: LGer. nickn. for Bartholomäus, see there and Mebes. Bartelmewes Buhrholdt, Angermünde 1652, Mewes Sarnekow, Greifswald 1359.

Mey, Meybohm, see Mai, Maibohm.

Meyboden: created as recently as 1907 out of Meyer and Bodenbender.

Meyburg (Hbg.): a female f.n., common in Hbg., Bremen, Lüb., Ro. around 1280-1330 (Meynburgis, Meymburgis, Meyburgis: from magin, megin ‘strength’). Cf. Reimburg, Wolburg, Wendelburg, Gerburg, Hildburg, Helmburg, Dietburg, Eilburg, Adelburg, Alburg.

Meyen is a patr. or metr. from Fris. Meye, a variant of Meyne (Meinhard or Meinburg), like Heye, Heyen alongside Heyne (Heinrich). Hermann Meyen in Lüb. as early as 1320.

Meyenburg (Hbg.): pl.n. near Bremen, also near Pritzwalk.

Meyer see Maier. Meyer as a Jewish n. is derived from the Hebrew Me-îr ‘illuminating’, as early as 70 A.D. in Josephus. Cf. Samuel benMeîr, 12th c., and Meyerbeer.

Meyerding (freq. in Brsw.) may contain a pl.n. (cf. Schneverding(en)) unless it is a more recent variant of Meyering.

Meyerhoff: a Westph. farm n., see also Maierhofer (UGer.).

Meyerinck, Meyering is Westph. patr. from Meyer, like Möllering from Möller. Cf. Hermann Meyerinck (Meyerman), Münster 1608.

Meyke, Meycke, Meik: Fris. nickn. like Meye (see Meyen), as a feminine f.n. Meyeke, Meyke, in Ro. 1282. See also Meyburg. Cf. Heye, Heyke.

Meyn (freq. in Hbg.), Meyne: like Meineke a LGer. (Fris.) nickn. for Meinhard, see Meineke, also Fris. Meene. Patrs. are Meynen and Meyns (freq.).

Meysel see Meisel.

Meysenburg see Meisenbug.

Meyser see Meiser.

Meywald see Maiwald, Mehwald.

Mezger see Metzger.

Michael (Hebrew, literally ‘who is like God?’): Michael, Gabriel, and Raphael are the three archangels of the Old Testament. As conqueror of Satan, Michael displaced the Germanic god Odin in the early Middle Ages, so that many of his cult sites were henceforth called Michelsberg [Michael’s Mount]. For further details see Bahlow VN, p. 74. Germanicized as Michel, Bav. Michl, with patrs. Michels, Michelsen (N Ger.), Michler (UGer.). Also (Lat.) Michaelis, Michabelles, L.Rhine Micheelsen. E Ger-Slav. Michalik, Michalke, Michalski, Michelk, Michlik, Michling, Michnik. Michan, Iglau 1369.

Micksch (Sil., Lausitz, Sax.): nickn. Mikusch for Mikolaj, Slavic form of Nikolaus. Cf. Mikusch vischer, Brsl. 1346, Mikusch Schoppe, Neiße 1414, Niclas Mikisch, Görlitz 1490. Also Nikusch: Nikisch. Also Micka (freq. in Upper Sil.), Micke, Mick, reinterpreted as Mücke [gnat] (freq. in Lausitz and Sil.), as well as Mückisch (Görlitz); also Mickan (like Pechan: Peter); Mickat (E Pruss.-Lith., as well as Mickeleit).

Middendorf (Hbg.): LGer. pl.n., several places in Westph. (Kort Middendorp, Lippe 1461). For mid ‘mold, dirt’ see Bahlow ON, p. 334; cf. Myddenhull in England, from midden ‘dung’. The surname of Hartmut ‘mittenindemDorf’ [in the middle of the village], Frkf. 1340, is different.

Miebe(s): E Ger-Slav. = Mebes (Barthelmebes), see there.

Miede(ke): cf. Slavic Mydeteche, Stralsund 14th c.

Mieg, Miege (Alem.-Swab.) = MHG müeje ‘trouble, distress‘, in old documents Müe, Müg, Mieg, Schlettstadt 15th c., Hans Müg, Rottweil 1441, Müge, Eßlingen 1309. Haintz Mieg, Allgäu 1396.

Miegel: E Ger.-Slav. spelling of Michel. Known from thr, poet Agnes M. from East Prussia.

Miehe see Mühe and Miege.

Mielke, Miehlke, Mielck: E Ger.-Slav. nickn. Milek from Milo-slav, Milobrat (mil = ‘dear, gracious’), see also Miltzlaff and Milbrecht. Also Miehle, with suffix -an: Milan, Mi(h)lan, Milhahn, Mühlan, etc., as well as Mielchen (Sil.). Cf. Milike, Ro. 1292, Mileko (Bureslai), Stralsund around 1300.

Mier(c)ke: E Ger.-Slav. nickn. Mirek for Miroslav [miru ‘fame’]. Also Mirusch: Miersch (Mirisch, Meissen 1483). Cf. pl.n. Mirikau in Bohemia.

Miermeister (Stettin): = Müremester, Stettin 1326: ‘master mason’.

Mies, Mieser (UGer.), Miesbacher: from UGer.-Bav. field n. Mies ‘bog, swamp’ or pl.n. Mies, Miesau, Miesbach.

Mieske: UGer.-Slavic like Meske, see there. Cf. Wladislav fil. Mesiconis [son of Mesico], Pom. 1186, Meseke Crummedyk (a squire), Holstein 1356. Also (von) Miesitscheck.

Mießgang (Munich) see Müßiggang.

Mießner: E Ger.-Slav., see Mieske. Similarly Mießnick (Polish for Schwertfeger ‘armorer’).

Mieth(e), Miethke, Miethner (E Ger-Slav.), see Methe, Methner.

Miethsam (Munich): MHG mite-sam ‘sociable, companionable’, in old Brsl. Metesam.

Mietz(sch), Mietzner, Mietslaff, Mietzlaff, see Mitzlaff.

Mihlan see Mielke.

Mihle: cf. Slavic pl.n. Mihla near Eisenach.

Milbradt, Milbrodt, Milbredt, reinterpreted as Mildebrath, Mildbrett, Mühlbradt, Mühlbreth, Mühlbrett, also Millbrandt, Mildebrandt, are all derived from the Slavic pers.n. Milobrat (Miklosich, p. 289): milu ‘dear’, brat ‘brother’. Cf. Milobrat filius Nagos [son of Nagos] (1204), a member of the monastery of Trebnitz in Sil.

Milchsack: MHG = ‘shepherd’s purse’ (Johann Milchsack, Zittau near Prague, 1396); cf. Johann Milchtasch, Eisleben 1511. Also Hans Milchraym near Eger 1419. Also Milch, Milchli (Zurich 1293), Milcher (Prague 1344) = ‘milk seller’, likewise Buttermilch, Fettmilch, Sauermilch, Süßmilch (L Ger. Sötmelk), Schlegelmilch (MHG = ‘buttermilk’). But Milchling clearly means a young milky-faced person, thus Wernher and Milchling, sons of Wernher Cornygel, likewise a squire Conrad known as Milcheling near Wetzlar 1308.

Milde, Mildt means a generous or charitable person (in Thur. cf. also the pl.n. Milda). Markward mitdermildenhant [with the generous hand], Greifswald 1303. Markward Mildchovet, Hbg. 1285.

Mildebrath: see Milbradt.

Mildenstrey see Milstrey.

Mildner see Müldner; cf. Mildenau in Sax. etc.

Milek see Mielke.

Milhan see Milla(h)n.

Milkau: pl.n. in Sax.; for Milke also see Mielke.

Millahn, Millha(h)n, Mi(h)lan, Mildahn, Mühlan: nickn. with suffix -an (Milan) for Slavic pers.n. Miloslav, Milobrat (Milan, Stralsund around 1300). Cf. also Milek: Mielke, as well as Milbradt, Miltzlaff.

Miller (UGer.) see Müller.

Millfahrt (Sax.), see Mühlpfort.

Millies and Mellies = Amilius, Amelius, see Melis. Cf. Hans Mities (Milliges, Amylii, Millius) in Duderstadt around 1450, where as early as 1273 there was a city councillor Berchtold Amilii. Amilius (Amelius), Brsl. around 1250, Amilius (a squire), Wetzlar 1302; Cologne as early as the 12th c.

Millöcker: from the pl.n. Mühleck, Mühlegg, in Aust.

Milosch, Milusch, see Milek, Mielke, Millahn.

Milse: pl.n. near Bielefeld, cf. the Milsibach [Milse Creek] near Thulba, the Milseburg [Milse Castle] near Fulda, Milisungen: Melsungen on the Fulda River, from the prehistoric creek n. Milsa, Milisa (Milsapa: the Milpe in the Ruhr area, i.e. ‘swamp water’).

Milstrey, Miltztrey, Millstreich, Mildenstroy: Slavic pers.n. Milo-stroj ‘dear’ + ‘order’, cf. Dumstrey, Dohmstr(c)ich. A pl.n. Milstrich in Lausitz. Or Slavic Milo-strij ‘dear uncle’.

Milter: cf. pl.n. Miltern near Stendal.

Mil(t)z [= ‘spleen’]: cf. pl.ns. Milz in Thur., Milzau near Halle, Miltzow in Pom. But Hartmud Miltze, Frkf. 1363. Cf. Leber.

Miltzlaff (Pom.): Slavic pers.n. Miloslav, see Mielke.

Minde, Mindemann. from Minden in Westph.; also ‘von Minden’. Corrupted to Mindermann, except where this = MHG minder bruoder ‘minor friar’ = ‘Minorite’ or = Minderlein ‘of lower standing’. Minnemann (Hbg.) is a LGer. variant of Mindemann, like Linnemann from Lindemann.

Mindt (Hbg.) see Mint.

Mink(e), Minck(e): Fris. variant of Menke, with patrs. Minkema and Menkema, from the pers.ns. Meinhard, Meinward, Meinrich, see Meineke.

Minner: (UGer.) ‘lover’.

Minners, Minnert (freq. in Hbg.): Fris. variants of Mennert, Meinert, Meiners, see Meineke. Minnert Jaben, a Frisian, 16th c. Similarly Minning from Menning, Minnich from Mennich (Mynnyck 16th c.), Minssen (patr.) from Menssen (cf. Minno Hilläus 1494, Dure Minsen 16th c.). Minor (Lat.) = kleiner, minder.

Mint(e): freq. in Hbg., likewise Minten (patr.): Fris. variant of Mente, Meint = Meinhard, see Meineke. Cf. Rent, Rint, Reint: Reinbard.

Min(t)zlaff (Pom.): Slavic pers.n. ending in -slav ‘fame’, like Miltzlaff, Mitzlaff, Wentzlaff, Tetzlaff, Retzlaff, etc.

Minwegen (LGer.) = ‘meinetwegen’ [on my account, as far as I am concerned].

Mirbt, Mirbeth, see Merbt.

Mirow: name of two places in Meckl.

Mirsch, Mirek, see Miersch, Mierke.

Misch, Mischke, Mische, Mischer, Mischok, Mischak, Mischek (Sil., Lausitz): Slavic nickn. for Michael (F. Miklosich, Nr. 223, Bronisch, p. 181). Also Mischan(ek), Mischner, Mischnik.

Misselhorn (Hbg.) means ‘swampy corner’, cf. the Misselenbeke (Mißmecke) near Meschede, the Misselberg near Nassau, the Missefeld near Kassel; also in Würt.: die Missen [wooded swamps], Missenhardt, etc.

Misspagel (Hildesheim): ‘bad horse’; Tilke Myspage, Hildesheim 1598. Cf. Rönnpage(l), Strohpage(l).

Mitgau: E Ger.-Slavic pl.n., like Repgau, Repgow, etc.

Mitnacht = ‘midnight’.

Mischerlich, Mitscherling (Sax.): probably not ‘Wutschierling’ [hemlock], but rather Slavic, cf. Mittschrik.

Mitschke (Sil., Lausitz) = Nitschke (Nikolaus), with Slavic initial sound; cf. Nitsche (Mitsche) Ungeroten, Liegnitz 1389, Peter Mitschko, Liegnitz 1427. See also Micksch.

Mittag [noon]: in general, like Morgen [morning] and Abend [evening], the time of day (also compass direction: south), cf. Nikolaus Mittag, Freiburg 1461. However, the frequency in the Sax.-Lausitz area (Dresden over 60 times! as well as Mittasch) results from the Wendish nickn. Mittak (also Mittas, Mittasch) for Matthias. (Gottschald, p. 102).

Mittenzwey(g), also Mittenentzwey, is a surname (journeyman’s name in the carpenter trade) for wood splitters, board cutters and the like. Similarly: Rammenzweig: ‘split in two!’ Cf. Concz Mittenentzwey, Frkf. 1449, Bernhard Middenentwey, Han. 1302, Mittendrein probably like Haudrein = Haudegen, ‘mercenary soldier’. Nicclos Mittedryn, Görlitz 1413. But Heinz mittenimwege, Würzburg 1409.

Mitter(er): freq. in Bav. as a result of the farming settlement pattern; MHG mitter ‘in the middle, the one in the middle’, according to the location of the farm; cf. Mitterhofer (Kuonzli vondemmitternhof, Tyrol 1430), Mittermaier, Mittermüller (freq. in Bav.), Mitterreiter (Mitterreuter), Mitterwieser, Mitterwurzer, Mitteregger, Mitterhueber, Mitterkofler, Mittersteiner, Mitterrutzner.

Mitternacht, Mittnacht [midnight]: several possible meanings, like Morgen, Mittag, Abend; either from an occupation (night watchman), or from the location of a dwelling place (in the north); in Mainz 1347 a ‘Hof zur Mitternacht’ [Midnight Farm] and in 1320 Peter zederMitternacht.

Mittmann (Sil., Lausitz): = ‘a day laborer (MHG mietmann) who pays rent (for his cottage)’; Sil.-CentrGer. -i- corresponds to MHG -ie-, cf. Dittrich = Dietrich. Merten Mietman, Görlitz 1497, Peter Rudolff mittman, Liegnitz 1422. (Bahlow SN, p. 112).

Mittwich Mittwoch [Wednesday], like Knoblich = Knobloch; see Montag.

Mitzka: sh.f. of Slav. Mitzlaff (pers.n.).

Mitzlaff, Mietzlaff, Mietslaff (Pom.). Slavic pers.ns. like Titzlaff, Witzlaff, famous from Duke Miecislav (baptized 966), the organizer of the Polish church. (Literally ‘sword’ + ‘fame’).

Möbius, Möbes (Sax.), see Mebes.

Moch, Mocha: E Ger-Slavic, like pl.n. Mochau, Mochow ‘swampy place’.

Mock (UGer.), Möck(el): ‘clumsy, awkward person’ (MHG mock ‘clod’). Jeckl Mock (Mockl), Iglau 1359, Hans Trye known as Mock, Villingen 1478.

Möcker, Mocker: from pl.n. Möckern (Leipzig, Magdeburg) or Mockern on the Pleiße; Slavic mok-r ‘damp, swampy’, Wendish mokar ‘swamp dweller’. Also related are Mockry, Mockroß. Cf. also Hessian Mockegraben ‘swamp ditch’, Mocke also for ‘swamp flower’.

Modeke (LGer.): nickn. for Lutmod, Hartmod [mod = ‘courage in battle’]. Thus in Hbg. 1268 Modeko (Modekinus) as well as patr. Johann Modekonis, also fem. Modeka in the same place; there also Lutmodus (Lutmot) 1264, similarly in Stralsund around 1300 Lutmod and Modike. Cf. also Hartmod. In Westrum near Han. 1471 Hermann Moddeke.

Mod(e)l (UGer.-Bav.), Modlmayer, Modlmeier (Munich): MHG model ‘form, mold’, a former, one who gives form to something. But Mödl (freq. in Munich) could also be derived from MHG medel (madel) ‘maggot, little worm’. Cf. Käsmodel. Berthold Model, Reutlingen 1291; Model, Eger 1307, Bamberg 1357. Around Eger, ­o- is derived from -a-: there around 1395 Mader, Moder, Moderl as f.ns., = Mader ‘mower’! Cf. the field n. Madl, freq. in Bav. Modler in Bohemia/Sil., likewise Model (Görlitz), may come from the Slavic pl.n. Modlau (Bunzlau and Glogau distriet) or Modlan in Bohemia: Hans Model, Sorau 1381, Hans Modler (Modlan), near Außig 1328.

Moder(h)ack see Murach.

Modersohn (LGer.) = ‘mother’s boy’;. Known from the painter Otto M. from Soest. As early as 1279 in Ro.: Hermann Moderson.

Möding (freq. in Hbg.): MLG moding ‘wretched, evil person’ (mit schelwort se sprak: “du modhing!” [she uttered the insult: “you evil one!”]) Herman Modingh, Mulmsdorf 1497.

Modrak see Mudrak.

Modschiedler: from Modschied(e)l (Franc., Bohemia).

Möffert (Bav.) see Meffert.

Mögebier, LGer. Mägebeer: surn. for drunkards, like Schwenkbier, Schluckbier, or for tavern keepers; see under Bier.

Mogk see Moog.

Mohaupt see Mohnhaupt. Cf. Mohappl in Aust.

Mohl (Würt.): known from Robert von Mohl, political scientist; MHG mol ‘newt’. But cf. UGer. mohl ‘rotten’, OHG molwen ‘to go rotten’.

Möhl(e), Möhlmann (LGer.): one who lives or works in a mill; also Mähl(mann). Cf. Zur Möhle, Termöhlen, Tormählen. Utermöhl; Möhlheinrich, Möhlenpage, Möhlendor; Altmöhl, Niemöhl.

Möhler (freq. in Munich): Bav.-Franc. variant of Mehler = Mohler, Mahler, i.e. a painter. Cf. Meler pictorius (= ‘painter’) 1512, Möhler, Tauberbischofsheim 1579 (F. Nied, p. 104). Since umlaut -e- is not rounded [to -ö-] anywhere else, a derivation from ‘Mehl’ [flour] (MHG mel) or ‘mahlen’ [to mill] (MHG malen) would be more in accordance with phonology; cf. the malczmeler, Brsl. 14th c.

Mohme (LGer.) = MLG mome ‘aunt’. Cf. Moymken, Hildesheim 1396; Möhmking. See also Muhme.

Mohn, Mohns, Mo(h)ns(s)en (freq. in Hbg.), also Mohnen, Mo(h)neke, Mohnke: N Fris. pers.n. (J. Winkler, p. 264), nickn. or patr. of Mon-rad (Monradt is a freq. FN in Schleswig); Germanic-Gothic mun-‘thought’, cf. Odin’s ravons Hugin and Munin. In Stade in 1353 a farmer Monik (son of Henniken Sylemann), probably meaning ‘monk’, cf. Heyneke der Monike, Han. 1352. As a patr. cf. Moning (Henneke Moningh, Barth 1337). Monne, Monnen, and Monssen are also Fris.

Möhn: from the island Moen in Denmark. Joh. de Mone, Ro. 1266, Otto de Mone, Hbg. 1288, Ludeke de Mone, Strals. 1320.

Moh(n)haupt, Mohnkopf, Mohnsam, Mehnkern, Mohnsack, Mohnbüchse [poppy-head, seed, kernel, sack, box] are occ.ns. for a poppy gardener or dealer (cf. Hopfenhaupt: a hop dealer); from MHG mâhen, mân ‘poppy’, cf. Manhovet, Han. 1518, Mahinkorn, Fritzlar 1389, Mahenhaup, Eger 1389. LGer. Mahnkopp. In Freiberg 1362 Manheubt, 1429 Manbüchse, Monbüchse, Monsack, in Sil. without the nasal: Mohaupt (Moheupt, Liegnitz 1547), in Moravia: Magheupel, Brünn 1365 (MHG mâge ’poppy’), likewise “zemMagsamen”, Freiburg 1375. Cf. Mohappel in Aust. Moherndl (Moravia) = crescent roll (baker’s name), but Mohorn is also a pl.n. near Freiberg: 1350 Ohorn, Ahorn (= ‘from the maple tree’).

Mohr (freq.), Möhrle (UGer.), Mö(h)rke, Möricke (LGer.) mean a black person, Moor, as do Mohrenkopf, Mohrenhaupt, Mohrenkönig (i.e. one of the three wise men), sometimes acquired from house names, sometimes from journeys to the land of the Moors (cf. Russ: Reuß, Preuß). Otherwise probably also ‘person with black, curly hair’. But LGer. see Mohr(mann).

Mohrbotter, Mohrbutter (LGer.): a type of butter (surn. of a butter seller), like LGer. Sötebotter, Farschbotter, Hübotter.

Möhrenschlager (Munich) like Merkenschlager, see there.

Mohrenweis(er): pl.n. Moorenweis in Bav.

Mohrenstecher = ‘castrator’ (MHG môre ‘breeding sow’), cf. Bärenstecher’.

Mö(h)ring (freq. in Hbg.): patr. from Mohr, Möhrke. Cf. also pl.n. Mö(h)ringen (Stendal, Stettin). UGer. Möhringer from pl.n. Möhringen (formerly Meringen) in Würt.

Mohr(mann): freq. in Hbg., also Moormann, a person living or formerly living in a bog. Cf. Johann vandemeMore, Ladecop 1367. Also Mohrdieck, Mohrholz, Mohrhoff, Mohrbeck, etc. [dike, woods, farm, stream].

Möhwald see Mehwald.

Mo(h)winkel (Hbg.): LGer. loc.n. Modewinkel, like Glenewinkel, Mieswinkel, etc. [mod = ‘mire, mud’, cf. die Mode, Modgau, Modehorst, Modebeke, Modewik: Mowick].

Moje, Mojen (freq. in Hbg.): cf. Moyekop, Ro. 1282, Moyfink, Barth 1474 [moie ‘beautiful, elegant’].

Mokroß, Mokrosch, see Möcker.

Mölber (Bav.) see Melber.

Molch see Mohl.

Moldenhauer, Mollenhauer (freq. in Hbg.): LGer. a person in the lumber industry who cuts the wood for troughs and shapes them, especially the long baking and meat troughs. Similarly Möldner (moldener in Hildesheim), see also Müldner. Also related is Moll(e) when in the LGer. area, but see UGer. Moll.

Mölders see Mülders.

Moldt see Molter.

Molfenter (UGer.): i.e. ‘zum [at the] Olfenter’ (an old house n., MHG olbent, olbentier ‘camel’); cf. also MHG olifant ‘elephant’. Happel Molfentere, Wetzlar 1344.

Molitor (Lat.) = Müller. See there.

Mölk(e): pl.n. Mölke or Mölkau near Leipzig.

Molkenteller: from loc.n. Molkental, like Diefenthäler, Blumendeller (all UGer.).

Moll (UGer.): ‘stout, clumsy person’, cf. Swab.-Alem. Mollenkopf, Mollenschädel. Squire Stefan Mollenkopf, Baden 1436, Sifrit Molle, Konstanz 1233. But cf. N Ger. Molle (= Mollenhauer).

Möllendorf, Möllenbeck (LGer.): = ‘Mühlendorf, Mühlenbach’ [Mühle = ‘mill’]. Cf. Johan tor Möllen, Osnabrück 1540.

Mollenhauer see Moldenhauer.

Moller, Möller, (LGer.) see Müller.

Möllering: Westph. patr. from Möller, cf. Meyering.

Möllmann see Möhlmann.

Möllrich: pl.n. near Fritzlar (Conrad Melderich, Kassel 1400); cf. Mellrich near Lippstadt: Meldrike, from meld- ‘soft, boggy’.

Molsen (Hbg.): N Ger. pl.n. ending in -husen, -sen, like Holsen etc. (mol, hol ‘mud, bog’); cf. Mulsum near Stade.

Molt(mann): LGer. Like Molter, Mölter, also Multer = UGer. Mälzer, Melzer ’maltster’. Bertoldus Moltere, Hbg. 1300; Conrad Molt, Ro. 1281, Johann moltkorn, Lüb. 1327. Cf. moltmetere ‘malt measurer’, Lüneburg 14th c.

Moltke: like Field Marshall Count Helmuth von Moltke (born in Parchim), his name too comes from the Baltic area, and like Molt, Moltkorn, is apparently to be interpreted as a surname for a maltster (Molter, Moltmeter), especially since around 1350-59, besides Vicke and Henneke Molteke (Wokrent), Otto Molte also appears; a Molteke piscator (fisherman), Stralsund around 1320. (F. Witte thought of Slavic moltek ’hammer’.) Cf. pl.n. Moltekow near Stralsund.

Möltner (Tyrol): Hainz Meltner on the Meltenlechen 1406 (from pl.n. Melten on the Etsch).

Mol(t)zahn see Maltzahn.

Mol(t)zen (Hbg.) cf. pl.n. Molzen near Ülzen.

Mombert, Mommert, see Mummert.

Mommsen, Mummsen (Hbg., Schleswig-Holstein) is Fris. patr. from Momme, Mumme, also Mommen, Mummen, Momke, Mumke. Known from Theodor Mommsen (a historian) from Schleswig. Cf. Nikolaus Mumme (Mummonis), Hbg. 1290-1305.

Moneke see Mohn.

Monhaupt see Mohn.

Mönk(e), Mönkemöller, Mönkemeyer, Mönkeberg, Mönkediek contain LGer. Mönk (monik) = ‘monk’, UGer. Münch (MHG münich; Lat. monachus = ‘hermit’ [sic]). See also Barfoth. Gerardus dictus [called] Monik (a priest), Demmin 1320, Gobel Monik, Greifswald 1307. Occasionally probably also = ‘son of a monk’. Also Mönnich: Nikol. Monnik, Greifswald 1399.

Mönkeberg: (Hbg.), pl.n. near Kiel (‘place of the monks’).

Monne, Monssen, see Mohn.

Monschein, Mondenschein [moonlight]: name acquired through house names, cf. in Wöhrd near Nuremberg 1690 the innkeeper “zum guldenen Mondschein” [at the sign of the golden moonlight], in Görlitz 1493 Nikol. Mondenschein, in Breisach 1398 a house “zum Monen” [at the sign of the moon] (MHG mâne, mône). Haintz Mone near Stuttgart 1350.

Montag [Monday] (freq. in Thur., Sax., Sil.): like the other weekday names, probably from a required activity or service (e.g. with horse and wagon) or a tax duty on a particular day. LGer. Herman Mandach, Ro. 14th c.

Moog, Moogk (Thur., Hess.) = UGer. Maag ‘blood relation’. Andres Mog (Mogk, Mag), Jena 1406.

Moormann (Hbg.) see Mohrmann.

Moorlüder, Moorlühr (LGer.) = Lüder (Ludolf) in the bog.

Moos(er), Moosmayer, Moosbauer, Moosbichler, Moosbrugger, Mooseder, Mooshammer (Moosheimer), Mooslechner, Moosleitner, Moosrainer, all UGer., from moos ‘swamp, bog’. Also Deutelmooser, Ennemooser, Heigermooser, Rohrmooser, etc.

Mooshake see Möser.

Möpert, Möbert: (UGer.) = Mepert, Mebert = Meinbert, Meginbert, old Ger. pers.n.; also Meibert.

Morand (Switz.): a saint’s n. (patron saint of the Sundgau). Cf. the MHG epic poem MorandundGalie.

Morath (UGer.): originally Morhart (like Erath for Erhart), see there.

Moratz: Slavic pl.n. in Pom.; cf. also Moratschke.

Morawa, Moravek, Morawietz, Morawski: from the Slavic Moravia [Ger. Mähren]. Cf. Ger. Mährländer, Mehrländer, Meerländer.

Morche: MHG form of Möhre, Mohrrübe [carrot]; also = Morchel [morel]: cf. Morcher = ‘mushroom gatherer’.

Mordebotter: ‘devour butter‘, cf. Morde-ber [guzzle beer], Morde-win, Morde-rogge [swallow up the grain]. Mordebettere (governor), Brsw., Lüneburg 1406.

Mörder: everywhere as a surn. for accidental killers, also for robber knights, arsonists, and the like. Cf. Gothan Mordere, a knight in Pom. in 1243, and Gotan Mortbener, a squire in Rügen in 1322. Hannos Morder, son of Master Johann of Rothenburg the physician, Brsl. 1364. In addition, MHG mörder also means a villain in general. Mordebier, Morderanft, Morderogge are derisive nickns. in sentence form. Cf. Hasenmörder, Hünemörder.

Mordhorst (freq. in Kiel) refers to a loc.n. there.

Morell (Switz., Würt.): Saint Maurelius, cf. Orell (Switz.): Saint Aurelius. Andres Morell, Freiburg 1565.

Morf(f), freq. in Zurich, could, like Moroff, be contracted from the pers.n, Morolf (referring to the Mohrenland [the land of the Moors, Africa]); on the other hand, the early occurrence (Konlin Morff, Nagold 1467) and the nickn. Mörfel argue against this. A Wilhelm dictus [called] Morolf in Basel 1295, C. Morolf near Biberach 1402. Cf. the MHG minstrel epic SalmanandMorolf around 1190.

Morgen: field n. or farmer’s n. [Ger. field measure, approx. an acre], cf. Siebenmorgen. Morgenbrot, Morgenmus: peasant surname for a morning laborer (i.e. one who receives food in the morning and works in the morning). Morgenrot [dawn] (freq.), Morgenschweiß [morning sweat] (farming family in Siegerland), Morgenschein [morning light], Frühmorgen [early morning] mean an early riser (farmer, farm worker, servant). Morgenstern [morning star] (freq.) can also be interpreted as a house n. Leydestern 1327: the Pole Star (sailer’s name). Morgenbesser, Morgenweg, See Mornebesser, Morneweg.

Morhard(t): Baden, Würt., used as a pers.n. since the crusades, cf. Morhart and Albrecht, brothers, Baden 1251, Morhart Citvogel, Stuttgart 1286, Johann Morhart, Freiburg 1238. See also Morath.

Möricke, Mörke, see Mohr. Cf. Wicboldus socer [brother-in-law of] Moreken, Han. 1339.

Möring see Möhring.

Moritz (also Jewish for Moses), patr. Moritzer (UGer.), Moritzen (Sil.): also Mauritz, i.e. Saint Mauritius (a Christian Moor), said to have fallen in battle near St. Moritz, Switz. Churches of St. Mauritius in Cologne, Münster, Magdeburg, etc. Favored as f.n.. by a dynasty in Saxony (Prince Elector M., 16th c.).

Mörl (Bav.), Mörlein: see Mohr. Cf. also Merl. (Simon Mörl, Tyrol 1420, Morlein, Bayreuth 1386.)

Morlock (Baden, Würt.), like Morschoph (Augsburg 1294) and Morhaupt (Schwäbisch-Hall 1573), as well as Morhoved (Haldensleben 1350), probably means ‘negro head’ = ‘a person with black, curly hair’. Cf. Konrad of Mindelheim known as Morlock, Neuneck, Black Forest, 1465. But Mahrlock and Marzahl [zagel ‘tail’] mean a shaggy shock of hair, disheveled by the ‘Mahren’ [tormenting nocturnal spirits], MHG mar (nightmare), Polish mora ‘alp’. Cf. Heintz Marlock known as Isenbiß, near Konstanz 1426. [The pathological condition of the hair known as plica is still known as ‘Marlocke, Mahrzotte, Mahrzagel’ in W German dialects.]

Mornebesser, now usually Morgenbesser (esp. Sil.): a sentence n. meaning ‘do it better tomorrow’ which was given to a journeyman (of a trade) in the guild hall at his initiation (promotion from apprentice to journeyman) (like Lernesbas ‘learn it better’, Liegnitz 1372). Hans Mornebesser, Liegnitz 1433, Michael Morgenbesser, Brieg 1589. A Morgenbesser wrote the history of Silesia.

Morneweg, Mornewey, Morgenweck: ‘gone again tornorrow’, surname for a drifter, a traveler. Jacob Mornunwech, Uri 1270, Heintz Mornenweg, Würt. 1350, Hans Morgenweg, Mährisch-Trübau 1420, Morneweck, Brsl. around 1300. Cf. P. Schnellenwegk, Augsburg 1430.

Morolf, Moroff, see Morff.

Mörsch(ner): UGer. n. of origin, cf. pl.n. Mörsch (Baden, Pal.), Mörschenhart (Baden), Mörschwang (Aust.), all containing Mersch-’swamp’(Lat. mariscus) in old documents, cf. Wiesen ‘an dem mersche,’ Würt. 1307.

Mortensen: Danish for Martensen (Martin’s son).

Mörtl, Mörtlbauer (Bav.) = Mertl, see Merten.

Mosapp: from Mooshappen in Bav.

Mösch, Möschl (UGer.), Möschler: cf. Möschelbach ‘swamp creek’. Ulrich Mösche 1264, Möscheli, U.Rhine 1290, Hans Mösch 1381, Hainrich Möschlin, Würt. 1441 (said to mean ‘inferior fur’). But cf. Mös, Mösl, Mösler.

Mösch (Hbg.), Mösche, Möschke: see Müsch.

Moser (UGer.) see Mooser. Also related are Mösbauer (freq. in Bav.), Mösl, Mösler: living in the Mos [swamp, bog], Rud. in dem mose, Würt. 1269, Hainrich indemMos, Tyrol 1379.

Möser (LGer., Hbg., Bremen) = ‘vegetable dealer’: Radolf Môsere 1363, Hinrich Mûsere, Bremen 1372. Similarly Mo(o)shake (LGer.) ‘vegetable vendor’, MLG môskorf ‘vegetable basket’. (Justus Möser came from Osnabrück.)

Moß, Moßbeck, see Moos.

Mosse (Jewish) = Mose (Moses).

Mößmer, Mößner, see Meßmer, Meßner.

Möst see Most. But the High Möst in Thur. is a swampy plateau.

Most (UGer.) means a cider maker; similarly Sauermost, Mosthaf ‘cider pot’, cf. Ölhaf, Schmalzhaf. Also Mostert, Mustert; Mößt(el). Bentz Most, Villingen 1399. Nic. Möstl, Brünn 1358.

Mötefiendt (LGer.), corrupted form Medefindt: ‘meet the enemy’. Surname for a courageous person (from LGer. möten ‘meet in battle’, ‘meet’). Cf. the knight Mötemedüvele [meet with the devil] in Holstein around 1300 (also Hbg. 1294), Bertram Mötepape [face the priest], Hbg. 1254.

Moth(e)s, Mottes, Motl (UGer., Vogtland), also Modes (Valten Modes: in an old document in 1644 = Valentin Matthesius) see Matthäus. Also Mothejus. With Slavic suffix: Mottek, Mottig.

Motschiedler see Modschiedler.

Motsch(mann), Mötsche(l): like Swiss Mötsch, Mutschi = ‘a stubborn person’. Hans Motsch near Sonthofen 1396.

Motz (UGer.), likewise Motzer, Motzler = ‘a messy, lazy person’, from Swab. motz ‘dirt’, motzen ‘to wallow in dirt’. Cf. also Mozart. Gebhard dictus [called] Motze, Würzburg 1314, Eberhard Mötzlin, Eßlingen 1353, Fritz der Motzler near Stuttgart 1350. But Heintz Motzenesser near Stuttgart 1350, Albrecht Motzenesser, Cannstatt 1409, is a mocking term for a baker (like Fladenesser, Eßlingen 1386): Motzen, Hess. Mutzen is a long loaf of bread.

Moykop(f) (Hbg.): ‘beautiful head’. Herman Moyecop, Ro. 1282, Mogekop (councillor), Malchin 1300. MLG moie ’neat’; see Moje.

Mozart: a name native to the Augsburg area (like the family of the great composer). There as early as 1331 Heinrich Motzhart, 1551 Stoffel Motzhart. From Ehingen 1522 Lorenz Mozhart (Motzer), son of Michel M. Cf. Nic. Moczer, Brünn 1365. Hensl Muczhart, Iglau 1359. Thus either = ‘a messy person’, like Plunzhart: ‘a crude person’, or a field n. like Ramhart, Lußhart, Murhart ‘swampy woods’ (see also E. F. Schmid, ZeitschriftfürMusik 1951, p. 634).

Much: pl.n. in the Sieg district (much ‘moldy dampness’, cf. Muchensiefen in Westph., Muchriede [like the Seckriede] ‘muddy water flow’. Further details in Bahlow ON, p. 323.). Also Muche. But Mucha is Slavic, as in pl.ns. Muchau, Muchow in Meckl.

Mücke (freq. everywhere): probably a surn. for bothersome persons. In Sil., especially Upper Lausitz, the Slavic nickn. Micka = Michael is involved, cf. Mückisch alongside Mikkisch, also the pl.n. Mücka in Upper Lausitz. UGer. is Mucke, Muck, Muckle, Muggli (without umlaut like Rucksack, drucken, etc.), LGer. is Mügge (cf. Müggenbusch, Müggenburg, Müggendorf, Müggenhausen). Also compounds such as Muckenhim, Muckenbein, Muckenfuß, Muckenschnabel, Muckenschweiß: Mackenfenger, Frkf. 1340. Muggensturm is a pl.n. (Baden, Thur.).

Müddepenning (LGer.): Soest 1430, Dortmund 1342, also Middepenning, Metdepenning; from MLG müdde (Lat. modius) ‘bushel’, Müdder see Mutter.

Mudrack, Mudrach, Mudrich: Wendish = ‘wise guy’, Polish medrek: Medrack. Cf. Barth. Mudrach (Modrach), Bautzen 1596, Thewes Modruch, Stettin 16th c., Muderich, Mutterich, Muthreich, Berlin 1569-82 (hence FNs Muthreich, Müttrich). Also Moderhack, Modrach, Modrak, Maudrich, Mudra, Mudrow.

Muff, Muffel, Muffler (UGer.): ‘a sullen, sulky person’ (MHG mupf, muff ‘drooping mouth’). Nik. Muffel, Nuremberg 1387. Müffelmann, Müffling.

Mügge (freq. in Hbg.) see Mücke.

Mugler (Bav., Würt.), Mugele: a plump person (Erasmus Mugler, Dettingen 1551, Werndl Mugel, Budweis 1367).

Mühe see Miehe.

Muhl (freq. in Hbg.), Muhle, Muhlke: MLG mule ‘mouth’, see Maul.

Mühl, Mühle [mill], likewise LGer. Möhl, Mähl (see there), from dwelling place or occupation; cf. ‘von der, aus der Mühlen’ [from the mill], ‘zur Mühlen’ [at the mill]. Also Mühlmann (Mühlmeister) and Möhlmann, Mählmann.

Mühlbrett see Milbradt.

Mühl(h)an see Milhan.

Mühleis(en): Mangolt Mülîsen, Augsburg 1342.

Mühlensiepen (Westph.): pl.n. (siepen ‘swampy lowlands near a creek’, cf. Schade-siepen, Schmie-siepen and the like).

Mühlfahrt see Mühlpfort.

Mühlfenzl (Moravia) like Schwarzfenzl (Budweis 1391): Fenzel = Wenzel, cf. Fenzlaff for Wenzlaff.

Mühlich: MHG müelich ‘bothersome, burdensome, difficult to deal with’. Cunrad Mülich, Mainz 1211, Heinrich Mülich, Dresden 1328 (Brsl.), Hensel Müleich, Prague 1345. But Sil. Mühl(i)chen, Mülchen (Liegnitz) as well as Mielchen (Liegnitz) could, like Mühlke and Mielke, be Germanized forms [of Slavic words] (cf. Kliemchen and Kliemke: Klemens); thus CentrGer. -chen for Slavic -ke (-ek); from Slavic mil ‘dear’ see Milbradt (Mühlbrett). A pl.n. Mülchen in the Namstau district.

Mühl(p)fort, Mühlfährt, Milphorth (Sax.): one who lives at the mill gate (cf. Mühlgasse).

Mühlsteph, Mühlsteff. (UGer.), Steven from the Mill, cf. Mühl-fritz, Mühlhans, Mühlhens, etc.; also Mühlfenzel (Mühlwenzel).

Mühmel, Mume: MHG muome ‘mother’s sister, female relation’, muomelin ‘female friend’. See also LGer. Mohme. A Peter Mumenson, Bohemia 1390.

Muhr (freq. in Bav.): = MHG muor ‘bog, mire, swamp’, cf. Muhrbeck, Murböck.

Mührer, Mührmann (LGer.) = ‘mason’. Gherd Mureman, Bremen 1443; murmester, Oldenburg 1428.

Mülbe: n. of origin, cf. Dietrich vonder Milbe 1402.

Müld(e)ner, Mildner (Sil., Sax.): a trough maker, see LGer. Moldenhauer. Occurs early as a FN: Hensel muldener, Liegnitz 1372, sons: Nicclos and Matern muldener 1389; Peter muldener noldener, Brsl. 1385; Simon muldener, Crimmitschau 1495; Muldenhans, Görlitz 1482; Henr. Muldenbrecher, Erfurt 1288; Bertold muldenmecher, Worms 1299. With unrounded vowel: Hans Mildener, Görlitz 1478, Georg Mildner (Müldner), Görlitz 1565. But Mildenower, Brsl. 1350, is from pl.n. Mildenau.

Mülders, Mölders (L.Rhine) = Müllers, Möllers.

Mulert (L.Rhine-LGer. surn. Mulart): probably from mul ‘mouth’, hence ‘braggart’. A knight Nic. Lembeck called Mulert, Südtondern 1361; a councillor Jakob Mulaert in Bruges around 1300; Henrich called Mulart, Ro. 1291, Hermann Mulart, Greifswald 1299, Heinrich Mulert (prince’s councillor), Stettin 1510.

Mülhens (Cologne), likewise Mühlhans = Hens (Hans) in the mill. Cf. Rhine area Henssen, Hensmans.

Mull: (freq. in Braw.) MLG mul = ‘garbage, trash’.

Müller [miller], UGer.-Bav. Miller, LGer. Möller, Meller, with original n also Müllner (Vienna), Milner, Molner (Dutch Molenaer), from MLat. molinarius, OHG mulinari, MHG mulnaere, E CentrGer. molner: the frequency of this name is a result of the numerous mills in villages and towns; even (urban) mill owners and tenants could be called Müller, cf. also the night Conrad von Husen, called Müller Swab. 1282), who had feudal tenure of a mill. According to the type of mill cf. Grützmüller, Weitzmüller, Lohmüller, Pfannmüller, etc.; according to the location, Brockmüller, Heitmüller, Teichmüller, Künsemüller. Further details in Bahlow SN, p. 112-113; Heintze and Cascorbi, p. 358.

Mülling (Hbg.): from Müllingen near Han. (Henrich de Mullinghe, Han. 1336).

Multer (LGer.) see Molter. (Multer, Ro. 1295, Tid. Multere, Hbg. 1262.) See also Mulzer.

Multerer (UGer.-Bav.): from MHG muolter ‘trough’ or from MHG multer ‘miller’s fee’. Hans Multerer, Nuremberg 1530, Ulrich Muolter, Lindau 1334.

Multhaup(t) (L.Rhine-LGer.): reinterpreted from LGer. Mutthop ’mound of loose earth’ (the pl.n. Multhöpen near Hamelin is related); cf. molt-werf = ‘mole’.

Multscher, Multscherre (Wört.): MHG mult-schere ‘mole’. Hans Multscherre near Leutkirch 1405, Hans Multscher (a painter), Ulm 1427. But cf. muolt-scherre = Trogscherre [trough cutter].

Mulzer (Upper Pal.): Franc. (MHG) variant of Mälzer. Elbel mulczer, Eger 1382.

Mumm (freq. in Hbg.), also Mummsen, see Mommsen. The Mumme Beer of Brunswick was named for Christian Mumme (Brsw. 1492); (cf. Jochim Mumbrauer 1602, Mummekater, Mommekater, near Brsw. 1548). A Jakob Mum in Lüb. 1334, possible from LGer-Dutch mum, mom, ‘a disguised person’. But Nik. Mumme (Mummonis), Hbg. 1290-1305, is Fris.

Mumment(h)ey, Mommendey (N Ger.): field n. like Dauthendey, Dillendey, Doneldey, etc., see Dilthey.

Mummer, Mummert, Mummers, Mommer(t), Momber(t): MHG muntbor ‘guardian’ (a person who holds his hand (munt) protectively over someone), Lorrainian momber. Lotz Muntpar, Fulda 1390; Cune von Falkenstein, Mompar near Worms 1345; in Jena since 1557 Mumber, Mummer, Mommer. But Henr. Mummart, Cologne 1259, suggests LGer. mum ‘disguised person’.

Mumpf, Mümpfer (UGer.): from Mumpf on the Rhine near Säckingen, Peter Mumphe there in 1290. But cf. Mupfer (Würt.), from MHG mupfen ‘to grimace mockingly’.

Münch, Mönch, Münnich, Mönnich, Minnich (see also these), LGer. Mönk, Münk: ‘monk, monastic brother’, also sometimes for a former member of a monastery; occasionally indicating merely connections with a monastery (cf. Klosterbauer [monastery tenant farmer], Klostermüller [monastery miller]), cf. the farmer Albrecht Münch, Würt. 1204, knights were called thus: cf. the Basel knight Hugo dictus [called] Monachus (Münich) 1286 and the family of knights of the Münche of Rosenberg. A Münchmeyer (LGer. Mönkemeyer) is an administrator of a monastery farm; cf. Münchbauer.

Mund(t), Mündel: with a prominent or striking mouth. Cf. Hals, Nase, Öhrle, Bein, Fuß, etc. Friedrich mittenmunde = Friedrich Munt, Bav. 1160-90. Also Lachmund, Guldenmund, Rotermund, Kosemund, Sötemund, Rabbelmund, Schlatermund; in sentence form: Weggemund, Rürmund.

Münder (Hbg.): cf. pl.n. Münder on the Deister. In Hamelin 1260 Mundere.

Munderloh: pl.n. in Oldenburg.

Mundhenk(e), Westph. = Henke (Henrich) Mund, cf. Bierhenke, Düwelhenke, Strothenke.

Mundigl, Mundigler (Bav.): from Montiggl (Muntigl) in Aust. (Lat. monticulus ‘little mountain’).

Munding: pl.n. Mundingen (Baden, Würt.).

Munk, Münk (LGer-Fris.) = ‘monk’, cf. pl.ns. Munkmarsch, Münkenwarf in Friesland. Münx = Müncks. But UGer. Munk (Bav., Würt.) means an ill-humored person (1350 der Munke).

Munker, Munkert: from Munker in Bohemia (Hanusch Munker, near Außig 1399).

Münker (Siegerland): see DeutschesGeschlechterbuch, vol. 154.

Münnich see Münch.

Münsig: pl.n. in Bav.

Münsing: from Münsing or Münsingen.

Munster(mann): from Munster (Lüneburger Heide).

Münster(mann): from Münster in Westph. Münster(er), UGer.: from Münster (Lat. monasterium ‘monastery church’).

Munte, Münte, patr. Muntinga: Fris. pers.n. like Bunte, Bünte, Buntinga. But Muntenbruch, like Muntelo (Hamm district) and the creek Munte in Holland, contains the obsolete mun-t ‘dirty water’.

Münter (LGer.) = ‘minter, coiner’; Muntmeester = ‘mintmaster’. Henning Muntmester, Magdeburg 1294, Hermann Montere, Han. 1350, Hildeward Muntere, Bremen 1352.

Munz (freq. in Munich): cf. Utz Muntz, Urach 1383.

Mün(t)z: pl.n. Müntz near Jülich.

Munzel: pl.n. near Han. (in old documents Munes-lo, like Menzel: Meneslo and Lintzel: Lineslo, ‘boggy lowlands’; cf. the Munne near Mörs).

Münzer: see LGer. Münter. A minter or coiner, one authorized to issue coins; a moneychanger. Similarly Münzmeister [mintmaster]. His bookkeeper is the Münczschreiber (Kuttenberg 1395); cf. Thomas Münzer, Anabaptist and peasant leader (1525). For Münzer cf. Melz(n)er.

Mürdter see Mörder (MHG mürden ‘to murder’), cf. Mardochse, Würt. 1339, Mürdigel, Würt. 1298, Mürdisen, Würt. 1309; Mürtdengast, Baden 1378.

Mürmann (LGer.) see Mührmann, Mührer.

Murner (UGer.): Thomas Murner, the satirist and oppenent of Luther, was an Alsatian; his contemporaries interpreted his name as ‘tomcat’ (referring to the animal fable), deriving it from ‘murren[to grumble (Tomcat Murr); but cf. the pl.ns. Murn and Murnau, also the Strasb. patrician name Murnhart (from mur-n ‘bog’, hart ‘forest’, like Murrhard on the Murr River).

Murr (freq. in Munich): ‘morose, sullen person’, cf. Murrhaupt. Also Mürrle. Ulrich der Murre, Eger 1320, Appel Murre, Würzburg 1345 (Murrelinus, Würzburg 1231), Nic. Murrecht, Iglau 1369. But Mur(r)hardt is related to the Murr River (near Marbach on the Neckar): Bahlow ON, p. 383. Hartman vonM., Eßlingen 1301.

Mursch, Murschel (UGer.): ‘brittle, frail person’ (Mursche, Würt. 1286).

Musaeus: Humanist name for Meusel [little mouse], thus with Prof. Simon Meusel in Jena around 1550. Johann Karl A. Musaeus (Jena and Weimar) is famous for his Volksmärchen [Folk Tales] (illustrated by L. Richter).

Müsch (LGer.) = ‘bog, swamp’. Pl.ns. Müschen, Müschede in Westph., Müsch in the Eifel.

Muschick, Muschka, Muscholl, Muschalla, Muschallek are E Ger.-Slav. (musch has several meanings). Cf. also Mutschal, Motschal (Czech = ‘swamp’).

Muschler, Muschweck, see Mutschler.

Müsebeck (LGer.) ‘swamp creek’. Andreas Musebeke, Cologne 1415. Cf. Müsing.

Muskat [nutmeg]: a spice dealer, cf. Kanehl [cinnamon stick], Zimt [cinnamon], Saffran [saffron], etc. A meistersinger Muskatblüt in Bav. around 1500.

Muskulus: like Musaeus, a Latinized form of Meusel [little mouse], cf. the pastor Andreas Museulus (actually Meusel) in Meißen around 1550 and Wolfgang Musculus (Mäußlin), Reformer of Bern around 1550.

Musolf see Mausolf.

Mussehl (Hbg., Meckl.): Slavic like Possehl etc.

Mußnug (Bav.): MHG muos means ‘cooked meal, porridge, vegetable stew’, [g(e)nug = ‘enough’] cf. Else Mußintopp [a meal in the pot] near Zittau 1433. A muoßmelwer (flour maker) in Ulm 1361; Mußmel, Upper Pal. 1615; Muoskorb (vegetable basket), Villingen 1450; Müßli, near Balingen 1463. Mußhafen (stewing pot); Morgenmus, Pfannmuß, etc. A. Muosaffe, Brixen 1245.

Müßigbrod: ‘one who eats his bread at leisure’, cf. Müßig(mann), Müßiggang [idleness] (formed like Irrgang [maze]), with unrounded vowel (Bav.) Mießgang.

Muß(mann) see Muuß.

Muth [intent, courage]; surname for a courageous, resolute person; MHG muot also = ‘desire’, hence Muther: a covetous person. Hartmut Muot, Durlach 1312, Cuonrad Muoter, near Ravensburg 1297 (MHG muoten ‘to desire’.)

Müt(h)er (Hbg., Lüb.): ‘mutineer’. Henneke Mutere, Hbg. 1400, Helmich Mutere(lord), Riga 1300.

Muthorst (N Ger.) = Mudhorst (‘muddy woods’).

Muthsam (Munich): MHG muotsam ‘charming, cheerful, merry’.

Mutschler, Mütschler, Mütschel, Mutschelknaus (Würt.) mean Mutschelbäcker [a baker of ‘Mutschel’]: MHG mutsche, mutschel, mütschelin, mutze, mützel = ‘a long loaf of white bread, roll’. Aberlin Mütscheler, Würt. around 1350, Mütschelin, Stuttgart 1447, Mutschelbrei, Baden 1363, Mutschelbeck, near Eßlingen 1516. Cf. Haintz Motzenesser, near Stuttgart 1350.

Mutter, Mutterer, Mütter (UGer.): MHG mutte, mütte ‘bushel, grain measure’ (Lat. modius). Also Anzo modiarius, Mainz 1318, Konrad Mutter, near St. Blasien 1383, as (officially appointed) ‘measurer’; there were also salt measurers and grain measurers. Salzmütter and Kornmütter, see there. Cf. LGer. Müdder.

Mutz, Mutzl (UGer.) is ambiguous: sometimes probably = MHG mutze ‘white bread’, see Mutschler. But Wernher Mutzhart, Eßlingen 1366 (Iglau 1359), is probably from MHG mutzen ‘to decorate, adorn’, like smielhart from smielen ‘to smile’.

Mutzenbecher, also Mutzenbach (‘dirty creek’), cf. Isselbecher: Isselbach. Also Mutzenhardt [hard = ‘forest’]. Cf. im Mutzig (Motzach): motz, mutz ‘mud, swamp’.

Muus, Muuß (freq. in Hbg.) = LGer. mûs ‘mouse’, see also Mäusel. Herm Mus, Ro. 1281. Peter Museke [little mouse], Stade 1331. Mus-oge [mouse eye], Oldenburg 1483, Musenibbe [mouse nib, nose], Holstein 1359, Museknipe [mouse trap], Dortmund 1348, Mushunt [cat], Lüb. 1346, Musejeger [mouse chaser], Ro. 1257, Kellermus [cellar mouse], Dortmund 1351.

Mylius: Humanist name for Müller [miller] (from Greek myle ‘mill’).

  1. Anonymous (leach w. E. ?)

    -Anonymous, 1917. " Results of the South Australian Museum expedition to Strzelecki and Cooper Creeks. September and October 1916". p 490. Trans.
  2. Recherche bei Umlauten ggf. über ae, oe, ue suchen! Dasselbe gilt: Wenn mit „ß“ kein Ergebnis vorliegt, ggf mit „ss“ suchen! Bei den

    Recherche bei Umlauten ggf. über ae, oe, ue suchen! Dasselbe gilt: Wenn mit „ß“ kein Ergebnis vorliegt, ggf. mit „ss“ suchen! Bei den Signaturnummern gibt das letzte Kürzel (z.

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