Aar: the old term for Ger. Adler (adel ar) and means ‘eagle’: Frid dictus [called] Ar, near Konstanz 1258. See Ahr. Aaron


Iba: from Iba on the Iba River (former Ibaha), tributary of the Fulda, cf. Ibra on the Ibra River; for the prehistoric water word ib see Bahlow ON, p. 233.

Ibach: several creeks and places of that name in Baden-Würt. Hence the FN Ibacher.

Ibe, Iben (Bremen, Hbg., Ro.): Fris. pers.n., still around 1780 a skipper Ibe Rode (Ro.). Ybo de Frisia 1301. Cf. pl.n. Ibendorf in Meckl. As fem. name: Yba, Hbg. 13th c., Ybika, Westph. 1275. See also Iven(s), Iwen. Ibing is the patr.: Jacob Ybing, Hbg. 1266. The sh.f. Ibbeken (Oldenburg) derives from the full form Ibbers. But Fris. Eybe (Heringa) means the pers.n. Eilbert. Godeke Yben (filiusYbonis = son of Ybe), Stralsund around 1300.

Iberg see Iburg.

Ibl, Ibler (Bav.) see Übel, Übler.

Iblacker see Übelacker.

lblher see Übelherr.

Ibscher see Übescher.

Ibsen see Ipsen.

Iburg: place of springs in the mountain range Teutoburger Wald; a castle Iburg existed near Driburg; i is an old water word, contained also in Iborn, Ihorst, Iberge (hills in Westph.), and in the name of the hill Ith (I-ath mons). Bahlow ON, p. 233.

Icheln (Hbg.): pl.n. like Schweicheln, see Icker.

Icke, I(c)ken: Fris. pers.n.; a knight Yco de Ossehovede in Holstein 1298. The name occurred freq. in Ro., Hbg. around 1260. Still 1571 Iko v. Kniphausen. Patr. is Ickes (compare Ackes).

Icker, Ickert (Hbg.): probably from the pl.n. Icker near Osnabrück or Ickern near Dortmund; for the water word ik see Bahlow ON, p. 234.

Ide, Ihde (freq. in Hbg., Bremen), patr. Iden, Ihden, Iding: LGer.-Fris. pers.n. (the same word stem as in the fem. name Ida; see Bahlow, VN, p. 62). Metr. is Herman filius Ide, Hbg. 1295 (also a female Ideke is documented there 1248); UGer. cf. Idtensohn, Itte(n), Ittmann.

Iffert, Iffahrt: probably from Iferten (Yverdon) in Switz.

Iffland (Hbg.), Iffländer (Hbg.): dissimilated form of Livländer. Name is known through the 18th c. actor August Wilhelm Iffland.

Ift: cf pl.n. Ifta in Ringgau area on the Werra River, old form. Ipede (collective noun from the river word ip, cf. the Ipf River, likewise Helfta: Helpede on the Helpe River).

Igel, Igl-: [hedgehog] a surname for a “thorny” person; as early as around 500 A.D. a priest of the Goths signed with the name Daniel Igila. Hence Igelhaut [hedgehog skin], Feldigel [field hedgehog], Haarigel [hair hedgehog], Holzigel [wood hedgehog], Staudigel [shrub hedgehog]. But Igler (in Kulmbach) and Iglisch derive from Iglau in Moravia (cf. Iglauer, Olmütz 1378). For Iglisch cf. Leipisch, Glogisch, Krokisch. A pl.n. Igel near Trier.

Ignatz, Na(a)tz (UGer.-Bav.): Catholic f.n.; taken from the founder of the Jesuit Order, Ignatius of Loyola (died 1556), who called himself after the martyr Ignatius, bishop of Antiochia around 100. In the Middle Ages the name was still uncommon.

Ihde (freq. in Hbg., Bremen, Ro.), patr. Ihden see Ide, Iden.

Ihle (Hbg.), Ihlemann: von der Ihle, a tributary of the Elbe, which runs NE of Magdeburg (not far from the Ehle River); in old documents: Ilina, Ilene (‘mud river’, compare the prehistoric river name Imene: Ihme, see Bahlow ON, p. 235). Cf. Ihlbrock, Ihlpohl near Bremen; ofm Il denotes a wet meadow in Allendorf (Hesse). Also Ihlenfeld in Meckl., Ihlenburg. But UGer. Ihle = Ühle = Ulrich! Greek and Slav. il = ‘mud’. There are rivers by the name Ile also in England and Scotland. M. van dem Yle, E Frisia 1378, “In dem Ylen” (a swamp near Aderstedt).

Ihm(e), =Ihms, Ihmke, Ihmels, also Imcke, Imken: Frisian variants of the pers.n. Imo (still today e.g. in Ihmo Ihnen), with double m also Imm(e), Immecke, Immenga; from Germanic Irmin: ‘huge, mighty’ (surname of the Germanic sky god). Cf. Imel Kenesna 1372, Mamme Ymmen, 16th c. Hence Immel; however Immelmann, according to old documents, must be seen in connection with the river name Imene: Ihme: a tributary of the Leine near Hanover (Ymelman =Ymeneman = vanderImen, Han. around 1400).

Ihns (Hbg.), Ihne(n), Ihnken: Frisian patrs. from Ihne; still used as f.ns. today (Ihno v. Freden, Hamburg; Ihmo, Ihnen). Ino Cankena 1433, Ine Juelffs 16th c., Yneke Oneken 1527 (cf. Fris. Ihntje). Also as fem. f.n.: Ina (Seidel, the writer), Inken (Sommer). Ihne is also the name of a tributary of the Lenne; cf. the Ihna River near Stargard; hence pl.n. Ijnen in the Netherlands. (993 A.D.: Ine).

Ihr(c)ke (Hbg., Meckl.) is most likely a variant of Fris. Ehrke (Eerkes, Eerts), cf. I(h)rens besides Ehrens, Irp besides Erp.

lken see Icken.

Ilchmann, Illichmann = Gilg(mann): Ägidius.

Ilg, Ilges, Illig (U.Rhine area) = Gilg, Gillies, Gillig = Ägidius, see there and Gilg.

Ilgner, Illgner, Illner (Sil., Sax.): likewise Tilgner (Tillner), metr. of Ottilie (Odilia), a popular fem. saint in the Middle Ages; (the patron saint of the Alsace: note the convent Odilienberg); sh.f. Ilge (Tilge): e.g. Frau Ilge von der Heyde around 1500 and Frau Ottilia Logau and several others (Bahlow SN, p. 61). Hence Hans Ilgener, Freiberg in Sax. 1444, also there Bartel Ilgen 1483 (but cf. Ilg). Ilge, Ilgen also in Görlitz, Ilgenfritz in Nbg. and Neiße.

Ill(i)es, Illig, Illige, Illgen (cf. the town St. Ilgen), Illmann (cf. Gillmann) are derivatives of Ägidius in W Ger. and UGer. regions.

Illguth see Ellguth.

Illing(er), Illiger: from the pl.n. Illing or Illingen (Würt., Baden, Saar).

Ilner see Ilgner.

Ilm: tributary of the Saale in Thur. (note the town Ilmenau), in old documents: Ilmene (Bahlow ON, p. 236). Cf. the Ilmenau River near Lüneburg, the Ilm River near Insterburg, Ilmen Lake in Russia. Ilmer (Tyrol) is a name of origin: Pernhard IlmervonIlmach 1311.

Ilper (Hbg.): cf. pl.n. Ilp near Elberfeld, Ilpe near Meschede and the Ilp River in the Netherlands.

Ilse, Usernann: from the small Ilse River in the Harz Mts. (prehisteric Ilsene, with the Ilsenburg Castle, from the water word il-s, cf. il-m); Ilsemann is formed like Huntemann, Wesermann, Elsernann (all from NW German rivers). A town Ilse near Minden. Cf. Ilsede near Han. The fem. f.n. Ilse (cf. Ilsebe: FN Ilsebey) was thought to be the sh.f. of Elisabeth (see there), however was most likely a mythical water nix (like Else).

Ilsung, Illsung: hero of the Dietrich legend; in one part of it, the Rosengarten, a monk by the name of Ilsan appears. Ilsungus around 1320 in Lüb.; Ulrich Ilsung, Augsburg 1360.

Ilten (von): pl.n. near Han.; Jordan v. Ilten 1227.

Iltis: [polecat] probably surname of the polecat trapper. Also as a house name in Freiburg 1343: zudemyltis. Thomas Etteis, Moravia 1414.

Imbeck (freq. in Hbg.): pl.n. like Imstedt.

Imcke, Imken see Ihmke.

Imhof: Westph-L.Rhine, named after the dwelling place [in the court yard, on the farm], likewise Imholz [in the (little) woods], Imhorst, Imkamp, Imsieke, Immoor, Imhülsen.

Imlauer (Mnch.): pl.n. Imlau in Austria.

Imle, Immelen (Würt.): = Immo cf. Imli, Walburg 1325, Cunr. Ymmeti, Würt. 1329.

Imme, Imm (freq. in Hbg.) see Ihme. A fem. name is Imme, Hbg. 13th c. For the fem. n. Imma (Emme) cf. Frau Ymmika, Ruhr area 1150, Immiche, Frkf. 1345 and Frau Imel Melber, Würzburg 1409.

Immel, Immelmann see Ihme.

Immer(mann): from Immer in Oldenburg (old name for bodies of water, e.g. Limmer, see Bahlow ON, p. 237). The writer Immermann was from Magdeburg.

Immisch (E Ger., with Slav. suffix -isch): probably = Irmisch (unless derived from Imislaw).

Immler: Joh. Imeler, Limburg 1357; very likely is metr. of the fem. f.n. Imel (several times in Würzburg e.g., around 1400).

Inden: town on the Inde River near Jülich (prehistoric river name).

Ingher: MHG variant of Ingwer [ginger]; surname of a spice dealer. Dietmar Ingeher, Speyer 1244.

Inge(borg): female figure in the Old Norse FrühjofSaga; a domina [lady] Ingeburg in Schleswig 1365. Became a popular f.n. with B. Kellermann’s novel Ingeborg (1906). See also Ingebrand.

Ingebrand: Germanic pers.n. (rare, in Westph. also Engebrand), related to the tribal god of the Ingwäones (Ingwio), also to Ingo, Ingold, Ingram, Ingmar, Ingward, Ingeborg; brand = ‘flaming sword’. Cf. Ingebrandus filius Ingebrandi [son of I.], Mainz 1311, Ingebrand (man of a castle), Gießen 1255 (also Engebrand, squire, Gießen 1346).

Ingelmann: from Ingeln near Han., unless a variant of Engelmann.

Ingen-: the L.Rhine dialect form for “in dem”... [in the …] Ingensandt, Ingenleuf, Ingenlath, Ingenbrock, Ingengarden, Ingenwerdt. Cf. Ingerfurth = In der Furt [in the ford, crossing].

Ingerl (freq. in Mnch.): probably Engerl, Engerling (Swiss Inger).

Ingram: Germanic pers.n. (ram = ‘raven’), like in Wolfram, Sindram, Gundram, cf. G. Freytag’s novel IngoundInghraban. Occurs only in the UGer. area (Alsace 1190: Ingram; as FN in Eger 1399: Niclas Ingram, near Stockach 1240: Hainrich Ingram). Also Ingold is mostly UGer. (also in pl.ns.: Ingeldingen in Würt.).

Ingrid: Scandinavian f.n. like Astrid, Sigrid (rid ‘female rider’, name of a Valkyrie).

Ingwersen (freq. in Bremen, Hbg., Kiel, Flensburg), also Ingwers, Ingwertsen: patr. of the Germanic pers.n. Ingward (cf. Adalward, Agilward: Eilward, Volkward, Markward, Rikward, Hildeward, Sigward, all occur in the Frisian North Sea area). For interpretation see Ingebrand.

Inselmann (freq. in Hbg.): from Insel near Soltau or Stendal.

Intemann (Hbg.): from Inte in Oldenburg.

Intveen: becomes clear through the name Inhetveen (near Kempen in L.Rhine area): ‘in the bog’.

Ipfelkofer (Bav.): pl.n. ending in -inghofen.

Ipsen (freq. in Hbg., also in Flensburg); Ibsen see Iben.

Ipser (Bav.) see Gipser.

Ipwege: pl.n. near Oldenburg; Ipwege Bog (ip ‘bog’), cf. Marwege, mar ‘swamp’.

Irber (Mnch.) see Erber. Cf. Irlach = Erlach.

Ircher (UGer.): MHG = ‘tanner, who tans goatskin or kidskin’ (Celtic irc’buck’); 1344 in Augsburg wiß-ircher, in Brünn and Nbg. there is an Irchergasse (I. Lane.) Heynel ircher, Iglau 1372, Joh. Ircher, Basel 1303; Richard erchmekere, Lüb. 1321.

Irene (Greek goddess of peace): noble f.n. imported from Byzantium.

Iring see Eyring.

Irion (Waldshut): probably a Humanist name like Farion, Herion (Würt.).

Irle: an old term for swamp, bog; Cf. the old name Irle in the Wetterau area; Irlahüll, Irlbrunnen in Bav. are dialect variants for Erle [alder tree], cf. Irlach: Erlach, Irlbeck (Mnch.): Erlbeck.

Irmen (Rhineland): sh.f. of the pers.n. with the Germanic component Irmin: ‘huge, mighty, great’, tribal god of the Irminones (originally the surname of the sky god Tiwas); cf. Irminrich (Ermenrich, king of the Goths), Irminfrid, last king of the Thuringians), Irmingart, Irmintrud (Irmtraut). See also Irmler, Irmisch.

Irmer (freq. in Mnch.): = Irmaier (Iglau 1367), cf. Sellmer, Stromer, Huebmer.

Irmgard (Ermgard) see Armgardt. For more information see Bahlow, VN, p. 54.

Irmisch, Irmischer see Ermisch: cf. Alisch(er), Hielscher. A female Irmusch, Brsl. 1352. Similar: Gerusch from Gertrud.

Irmler (Sil., Sax., Sudeten area): metr. of Irmel, sh.f. of Irmeltrud (Irmentrud). Hedwig Irmeler, Liegnitz 1428, Peter Yrmel, near Friedland 1381; Irmeltrud Weber, Liegnitz 1384. See also Irmisch, Ermisch, Ermler.

Irmtraut (Irmentrud) (see Ehrentraut) Irmen, Irmler: A popular f.n. in the Middle Ages as opposed to the more prestigious Irmgard (Ermgart). (Germanic trud ‘strength, force’, cf. the Nordic Valkyrie Trudr; was later equated with “traut” [dear, loving] from MHG trut). Cf. Gertrud (Gertraut), Ortrud.

Irp(s): Fris., see Erp, Arp.

Ir(r)gang (LGer. Ergang): MHG irreganc ‘unsteady gait, aimless course’, name of a tramp e.g. 1392 in Bav.; Ulrich Irrganch, Augsburg 1300, Hannus Irregang, Liegnitz 1437, Joh. Erreganc, Hbg. 1301.

Irtenkauf (Würt.): MHG ürte ‘tab in a tavern, of a carousel’ (ürtenmeister: drinking captain of a (artisans’) guild).

Isa(a)k (Hebrew, ‘he will laugh’): biblical name which was also used by non-Jews in the Middle Ages; cf. Isaak Propst of Weißenstein near Kassel 1181, but Ysaac judeus [Jew], Brsl. around 1300.

Isbarn (freq. in Hbg.), Isebarn (Isberner): Fris. pers.n. Is-bern (like Isbrandt), cf. Fris. Esbern (Ro., Greifswald 1263), Osbern (see Ausborn), Albem, Wigbern, Wulbem; -ber(n) means ‘the bear’, is- = isen- ‘iron’, cf. Isengrim, Isenhart, Isentrud. Wulf Isenbrant was the leader of the peasants’ revolt in Dithmarschen in the battle near Hemmingstedt (1500). Isengrim (FN Isegrei) is also the name of the wolf in animal fables, see Eisengrein. Isenhart see Eisenhard. Isentrud see Eisentraut. Sh.f. Isecke (Bremen 1374, Henne Yseke, Kassel 1421).

Isbrecht, Isbert: UGer-Rhineland.

Ische, Ischen (Hbg.): really the sh.f. Iseke, see Isbarn.

Ischebeck: creek in the district of Schwelm, germanized form of Celtic Isca, cf. the Ijsche Creek (tributary of the Dijle in the Netherlands) and the Isch (tributary of the Saar River). Bahlow ON, p. 240.

Ise(c)ke see Isbarn.

Isele (Swab.-Alem.) see Eisele.

Iselstöger (Bav.-Aust.): person living at the Isel-steg [steg = ‘path, trail’], cf. Hochstöger.

Isemann: in the N Ger. area derives from the Ise River (near Gifhorn), hence Isenbüttel, likewise Hunternann from the Hunte River, Ilsemann from the Ilse. Cf. the Isebek Creek near Hbg.

Ise(n)bart (Hbg., Ro.) see Eisenbart.

Isenbrand, Isengrim, Isenhard, Isentrud see Isbarn.

Isen(n)ecker (UGer.): from Iseneck, cf. Rienecker, Bernecker.

Isenflamm [iron flame](like Flamm): surname of a blacksmith.

Isener (Alem.) see Eisner.

Ise(r)nhagen (Hbg.): pl.n. near Han.

Isensee (Hbg.): pl.n. near Basbeck on the Elbe.

Iserho(d)t: (LGer.) ‘iron hat, helmet’, name for a helmet smith, armorer; the old German word for Eisen was isam, isern. Albert Isernhot, Hbg. 1387.

Iser(n): ‘hardware dealer’. Cf. Tymme Isermenger, Ro. 1385 (menger = ‘monger, dealer’), Isernkrainer, Flensburg 1597, Ysernberner [iron burner], Lüb. 14th c., Isenvürer (carter, drayman), Danzig 1377, Arnold Iserhand (councillor), Riga 1287. Related are Övelysern (bad iron), Hbg. 1301, Crumysern [crooked iron], Osnabrück 1387, Pilisern [arrowhead], Meckl. 14th c., Vindisern (= Findeisen, see there), Lüb. 1337, Isenbuk (= Eisenbach ‘iron belly’), Unna 1370 (probably referring to the armor, cf. Stahlbuk ‘steel belly’). Isermann corresponds to UGer. Eisermann, see there.

Isey: Westph. creek name, likewise Elsey, Effey, Hülsey, Saley, Postey, all names of swampy bodies of water (Bahlow ON, p. 240).

Isfrid: Germanic pers.n. Ysfred of Lothere, Lippe area 1200, knight Isfrid Balke, Goslar 1370. Godeke Isfert, Reval 1550, Conrad Isfrid, Wehrheim 1535; patr. Isverding in Westph.

Ising (freq. in Hbg.), Isink: LGer.-Westph. patr. (like sh.f. Iseke) of the names with Is(en); see Isbarn. Cf. Westph. pl.ns. like Ising, Isingheim, Isingdorf, Isinc-torp: Istrup. For UGer. compare the pl.n. Ising in Bav.

Isler (Ißler): Alem. = Eisler ‘hardware dealer’.

Ismer (Ißmer): UGer.-Bav. contracted form of Ismaier, Ismar, likewise Zellmaier: Zellmer; Huebmaier: Huebmer; Stromaier: Stromer.

Israel: Hebrew ‘god’s fighter’, surname of the patriarch Jacob. In the Middle Ages freq. f.n. of non-Jews, in Westph. also knights’ name; Israhel, Cel. 1189, Lüb. 1301, Peder Israhel schuchwert, Frkf. 1400.

Issel(mann): von der Issel in Westph. (locality), cf. Hesselmann and others; pl.ns. Isselhorst near Gütersloh, Isselburg near Bocholt, Isselbruch near Rees.

Isserstedt: pl.n. near Jena.

Issle(i)b, Issleiber: from Eisleben (in old documents: Islevo, Islebe, Isleiben) or Eßleben (Isileiba). For Issleiber Cf Bubeleber, Fallersleber.

It(t)ensohn (UGer.): metr., ‘son of Frau itta (Ida)’, also Idtensohn; Eidenbenz (Itenbenz); Ellensohn, Gerensohn, Gutensohn, Nesensohn, all SW German-Swiss. Eidensohn; Arnold Ittensun, near Meergburg 1300, Hertel Idenson, near Ravensburg 1375. Hence Itt(en), Ittner (Nbg., Mnch.)

Itter (von): name of river and town near Waldeck; see Bahlow ON, p. 241.

Itzenplitz (von): Slav. pl.n.

Itzerott: Hessian pl.n. ending in -rode like Ascherott etc.

Itzig (Jewish) = Isaak, see there. Also Itzigsohn. A pl.n. Itzig in Luxemb.; pl.n. Itzing in Bav.

Itzke, Itzken besides Itze, Itzen is a Fris. f.n. and FN, with the Fris. tz for k, related to Icke, Icken (see there). Itzwerth (Hbg.) is a LGer. pl.n. like Itzstedt; cf. Berenswerth (wert = werder ‘island’).

Iven(s): Fris. patr. of Ive (Iv), also Iwe(n); cf. Iben(s). Saint Ivo was known as the patron saint of lawyers. Ywekeis the base form for the patr. Ywekana.

Iversen, Ivers (freq. in Hbg.): Fris. patr. (also Iwersen, Iwers) of Iver (still used in Scandin. as Ivar). Iver Petersen, Flensburg 1601.

Iwan: Slav.-Russ. = Johann [John]. Cf. Iwansky, Iwanow, Iwanoff and others, also Iwandt, Iwohn. Related (in some cases) Iban, cf. the Russian Yban, Silesia 1395. A “dominus Iwan” in Breslau 1301 probably refers to the Arthurian knight Iwein(lwan), which is obvious with the two noble brothers Iwan and Walwan of Proven in Silesia 1296. Variants are lban, Eiban, mostly in noble circles and knights families.: knight Eiban of Pilstein 1312.


Jaacks (freq. in Hbg.): as yet unclear, origin becomes clear when compared with Taaks; both have a Fris. base in the form Tjaaks, contracted from Tjadeke(s), sh.f. for Tj-adebern, Tjadeward (i.e. Dietbern, Dietward, cf. Tjaden: LGer. Dieden); Fris. Tjad- for Thiad- (Diot-) came about through a shift in stress. Likewise Fris. Jabben, Jappen for Tjabben (Tjabbern); Jarck(s) fer Tjark(s), i.e. Tjaderik (Diederich), Tjaards, i.e. Tjadeward (Dietward). Also cf. Jaleff Tyalffes (16th c.) from Tjadeleff (Detlef); Tyade Bogynks, 16th c.

Jaap (freq. in Hbg.): means Fris. Tjap-, Tjab-(Tjabbern), see Jaacks.

Jabbe(n) (Jeverland) see Jaacks: Cf. Onno Tyabbern, a Frisian 1576.

Jabelmann: from Jabel (Meckl., Prignitz).

Jablonski etc.: Slav. name of origin (Jablon: ‘a place with apple trees’); cf. Gablonz: Czech Jablonec.

Jabs (freq. in Hbg.) see Jabben and Jaacks.

Jach, Jachmaan (Sil., Lausitz, Bohemia): Czech sh.f. of Johannes, cf. “Johannnes alias Jacha”, Prague 1377, Nicclos Jachman, Liegn. 1380, Merten Jache, Freiberg 1465, Jachnig v. Popschicz 1393 near Grünberg; similarly Mach for Matthias, Stach for Stanislaw. For Jachan (Liegn.) cf. Pechan (Pech-mann) for Peter; for Jach(t)ner cf. Machner, Hachner. Besides Jachmann also Jochmann, for Jachalke cf. Michalke.

Jachenholz: UGer. loc.n. (‘decaying woods, swampy copse’), cf. Jachenbach, Jachenhausen, Jachenau on the Isar River (Bahlow ON, p. 243). Also Jagenholz.

Jack, Jäck (UGer.) = Jakob: Name occurs with various suffixes: Jäckel (Lausitz, Sil., Bohemia): Jekel (Jocob) Bewgentancz, Liegn. 1381; Jäckl(e)in, Jäckle (UGer.-Swab.), Jackl, Jöckl, Jockel (Bav.), Jäggi, Jäggli (Swiss-Alem.); patr. Jackler. With Slav. suffix: Jack(i)sch (Sudeten, U.Lausitz), Jokisch (Sil.): Jakusch (Jakobus) Krösel, Iglau 1397, L. Jokisch (Jokusch), Liegn. 1435. See also Kube, Kopisch, and Köpke. Patr. is UGer. Jackner, Jackler; Jacke = Jack, but cf. Jackensticker [jacket embroiderer], Duderstadt 1438 (Jacke [jacket, coat] appears as loan word around 1400).

Jacob, Jacober, Jacobi, Jacobs, Jacobsen, Jacobsohn see Jakob.

Jade: pl.n. in Oldenburg (at the Jade Bay, name of the river J.), originally Gade ‘dirty water’ (Bahlow ON, p. 255).

Jäde, Jädecke (LGer.) = Gäde(ke) = Göde(ke) = Godefrid.

Jadwizak: from Pol. Jadwig = Hedwig (Hadewig), a fem. f.n. Jadwiga, Brsl. 1354.

Jaffé, Jaffa: Hebr. japheh ’nice, pleasant’. A rabbi Mardochai Jafe (Jafa), Prague 1530-1612.

Jaffke see Jaffe.

Jagdspieß: surn. of a hunter, MHG jagespieß; cf. Jaghethus ‘hunting lodge’, Barth 1409. A journeyman smith Jagysen [chase the iron], Heilbronn 1449.

Jagemann: may mean ‘hunting assistant’ (cf. Jagemeister). For Jage see Jagusch.

Jagenlauf (Bav., Aust.): probably loc.n. like Jagenholz. Ulrich der Jogenlauf (vintner), Regensburg 1405.

Jage(n)teufel: a devil of a man, Nicol Jaghendüvel [chase the devil], Ro. 1270. A mayor of Stettin around 1400: Otto Jage(n)teufel. Cf. Bitendüvel, Schietendüvel, Schreckendüvel [bite, shoot, scare the devil], etc.

Jager: UGer. form for Jäger, especially in Aust. (Tyrol). See also Jagdspieß. L.Rhine Jägers. Lat. Venator. Compounds: Gambsjäger, Hasenjäger, Hühnerjäger [chamois, hare, fowl hunter], etc.

Jägg(l)i see Jack.

Jago(w): E Ger., Slav. pl.n. (Pom., Brandenburg). Also Jagau.

Jagusch, Jagosch: Slav. pers.n. like Bogusch, Jakusch. Cf. Jagalla, Jagalski, Jagielski, Jagla, etc.

Jahn: LGer. = Johann, also Jahns (freq. in Hbg.). E Ger.-Sil.-Bohemian Jahn like Jahnke represents the Czech Jan (Jana) = Johann or Janek. Cf. Jano de Beckern, Liegn. 1342. LGer. compounds: Fuhljahn, Grotjahn, Guderjahn, Mesterjahn, Schaperjahn, Strackerjahn.

Jähne, Jähnel, Jähnke, Jähnicke, Jähnichen, Jähnig, Jähnisch, Jähner (also without the h): Sil.-Sax. sh.fs. of Johannes. Without umlaut: Jahnel (freq. in Neiße area) beside Jahndel, like Jähnel: Jähndel, cf. Hähnel: Hähndel (Händel): Hahnel; also Jahner beside Jähner (Görlitz); Jahnisch, Jähnisch like Hanisch, Hänisch. Also cf. pl.n. Jahna in Sax. (FN Jahner).

Jä(h)nisch (Sil., Lausitz): derives from Janisch, Janusch, Slav. ah.f. with suffix -isch, -usch from Slav. Jan = Johann.

Jahn(c)ke, Jähnke: E Ger.-Slav. form of Johannes (Czech Janek), also Jan(c)ke, like Stahnke, Stanke = Stanislaw; also cf. Hanke. For Jänke also see Jenke.

Jahr (Hbg.), Jahre, Jahrmann, Jahrke: LGer.-Fris. variants of Gehr(e), Gehrmann, Gehrke, sh.f. of the names with Ger-(Gero, Gereman, Gereward, Gerbern, Germar, already in 1260 also Jermar, Jerieward, Jerbern, etc.); er changed to ar since around 1300.

Jahreis: dial. form for Gareis.

Jahrmark(t): a vendor at fairs or a clown, buffoon. A Jarmark in Iglau 1369.

Jaißle (Joußlin) see Jauß.

Jakob, Jacob, patr. LGer. Jakobs, Jacobs, Jacobsen (freq. in Hbg.), UGer. Jacober, Lat. Jacoby, Jakobi: Hebr. (‘heel holder’, of his brother Esau at birth: Genesis 25.26). The Christian f.n. in the Middle Ages is not the patriarch’s name but that of the apostle Jacobus, whose grave in Spain became the site of pilgrimages: Santiago di Compostella (hence the FN Kumsteller!); the pilgrims were called “Jakobsbrüder” [Jacob’s brothers]. Still a f.n. in Switz. (Jakob: Köbi). Several forms developed: UGer. Jack, Jäck, Jäckle, Jäckel, Jäggli, Jackl, Jockel, Köbi, Rhineld. Köbes; LGer. Köpke, Köppen, etc., E Ger.-Slav. Jack(i)sch, Jockisch, Kopisch, Kupke, Kube, etc., Lith.-E.Pruss. Jakschtat, Jackstadt, Jakschies, Jogschies, Jacobeit, Jacobasch. UGer. patr. is Jakober.

Jalaß: Wend. like Golas, Hollas = ‘bald head’. Hence Jalan(dt) like Golan, Holan(d); Slav. gol- ‘bare’, also bare heath. Cf. Jalow, Jaletzky.

Jammer, Jammermann beside Jambor: E Ger.-Slav. like Tschammer beside Tschambor: cf. Jam(b)rowski.

Jander: Pol. form for Andreas: Jander Bowlcze, Liegn. 1437. Jandirke Hamicz, Liegn. 1394. Hence Jandrey (like Wandrey), Jandrich (like Wandrich, Handrich).

Jane(c)ke see Janke, Jahnke.

Janert see Jahner: Jähne.

Jänicke, Jähnke see Jähne. Likewise Jänichen (Sax.), Jänchen.

Jänisch, Jänsch like Hänisch, Hänsch is based on Slav. Janusch = Johann (Jan). Freq. in Sil., Lausitz, Sax. Also see Jentsch. Likewise Janisch.

Jank(e) see Jahnke.

Jankowski: Pol. ‘from Jankow’ (place of Jan, Janko).

Jankuhn (Lith.-E Pruss.): = Janke, cf. Steppuhn, also Jankunas.

Jann (LGer.): = Johann [John]; cf. Steinjann etc. Hence patr. Janning(s) in Oldenburg.

Jannasch, Janneck, Jannack, Jannusch(ek): Slav.-E Ger. = Jan = Johann [John].

Jannssen see Janssen.

Janoschek see Jannuschek.

Janotta: Pol.-U.Sil.: = Jan.

Janowski: Pol., ‘from Janow’.

Jänsch see Jünisch, Jensch.

Jansen, Janssen (freq. in Hbg., Holstein) beside Jans: patr. of Jan = Johann [John]. Cf. Hansen, Johannsen, Claussen, Petersen, Paulsen, Nielsen, Frenssen, Thomsen, Andersen, Carstensen, all LGer. patrs. common in Schleswig-Holstein, derived from church or saints’ names.

Jantke see Janke (like Hantke = Hanke).

Jan(t)zen (freq. in Hbg.) beside Jan(t)z = Janssen.

Janusch(ek), Janus(ke): Slav. sh.f. of Jan (Johann); also Janoschek, Janoske (Noske).

Japp (freq. in Hbg.), Jappe, Jappen, Jap(p)sen, Janke: Fris. sh.f and patr. instead of Tjapke, Tjabben, see Jabben. Cf. Ummo Jappen, Frisian, 16th c. For Tjabeke: Japke cf. Robeke: Röpke; Habeke: Hapke; Sibeke: Sipke.

Jarasinski: from Jarasin (Slav. pl.n.).

Jarchow, Jarchau: pl.n. near Standal.

Jar(c)k (freq. in Hbg.), Jarks beside Tjarks: Fris. Tyaryk (1420) = Tiadrik = Diederich (Dietrich). Cf. Tjaards for Tiadeward (Dietward): Tjart Jongama 1422.

Jafisch, Jarausch see Jarosch.

Jarling: Fris., = Gerling, Garling.

Jarmatz:Ghermatze, Barth 1356; presumably = Jermas = Jeremias (according to Witte, WendischeZunamen).

Jarmer(s): LGer.-Fris., = Germar(s), see Garmer(s). Sh.f. Jarmes like Garmes. Jermar e.g. Hbg. 1270. Cf. however Slav. Jaromir.

Jarmuth: LGer.-Fris. for Germod (fem. f.n., Hbg., Bremen, Ro., Lübeck around 1300), cf. Jarpurg for Gerburg.

Jarnach, Jarnick, Jarnuszak: Slav. pers.n.

Jarosch, Jarisch, Jarick: Slav. sh.f. for Jaroslaw, Jaromir. Cf. Borisch for Borislaw; Bogusch for Bogislaw; Jerosch for Georg or Jeronymus.

Jarr(e), Jarren, Jarr(e)s, Jarsen: Fris. sh.f. and patr. (cf. Jerre, Jerreke, Hbg., Lüb. 1250) belongs to the names with Ger-(Ger-, Jar-), like Gernand, Jarnand; Gering: Jaring; Gerold: Jerrolt, Garrelt (Jarrelt); cf. Harr(e) Harringa with Hero.

Jaschke (Sil.), Jaschek, Jasche: variants of Jeschke, Jeschek, Jesche, sh.f. of Johannes [John]; likewise Haschke, Hasche; cf. Raschke. Jaschke, brother of Derschke Laskowsky 1457. Likewise Jaschan (like Jachan), Jaschen, Jaschik, Jaschok.

Jäschner: see Jaschke, Jasche.

Jasmund: a peninsula of the island of Rügen (NE Ger.).

Jasper, Jaspers, Jaspersen: LGer.-Fris. form for Kaspar (Caspers, Caspersen), changed (g- to lenis j-) from Gasper. Still 1560: Jasper in Ranzow near Flensburg, Jasper Hiltrop near Dortmund.

Jaspis (Sax. theologian family): surname for a jeweler, gem dealer.

Jass, Jasse, Jassmann, Jassinski, Jassny (Berlin): of Slav. origin, cf. pl.n. Jassow. But Beste Jass, Ulm 1530 = “Sant Jas”, see Jost.

Jaster (Fris., also Jester) see Gaster.

Jastram (Gastram), Jestram: Slav. pl.n. Jastremsky, Jastreu. Pl.ns. Kloddram, Pribram, Pausram, etc.

Jatho, Jatow: Slav. pl.n., cf. Gatow in Brandenburg.

Jatzke: pl.n. in W Pom., cf. pl.n. Jatznik also there, from pers.n. Jatz, Jatzek, Jatzke. Jatzwauk see Wjatzlaw.

Jatzwauk: Serbian = Wjatzeslawek (pers.n. Watzlaw).

Jauch (UGer.; Würt., Switz.): from field n. MHG juch, juchart, jochart (a field measure), cf. 1564 “ein jauchart genant die Jauch” [a j. called Jauch]; C. imJuche 1330. Jörg Jauchlin 1479.

Jauck, Jauckens (Fris.) see Gauck: Cf. Hidde Gauchen 15th c. In Hbg. also Jauche(n).

Jauer, Jauert: Slav. pl.n. near Liegn. Nikolaus Großer from J. called himself N. Jauer (Prof. in Prague 1381). Wend-Czech javor = ‘maple’. Cf. Jaworski. Hence also Jauernick, Jauernig (Javomik): pl.n. near Görlitz.

Jaufer, Jaufmann: hobo, travelling entertainer (MHG jûfer, jûfkint). But Jaufner: from the Jaufen Farmstead in Tyrol (Rhaeto-Romanio juf = Lat. jugum ‘yoke’). Cf. Juffner.

Jauschke see Juschke.

Jauß (Würt.) see Jos, Jost. Jaus Vochentzer, Stuttg. 1520. Cf. Jausenhans, Josenhans.

Jaworski see Jauer.

Jebe, Jeben, Jebsen see Jepsen.

Jecht (E Ger.) beside Jech(e): probably a variant of Jach (Slav. sh.f. of Johann). Cf. Pech, Pecht for Peter. A pl.n. Jecha on the Wipper River.

Jeck (UGer.), Jeckel (Sil.) see Jäck, Jäckel.

Jedamski (E Ger.-Pol.): a variant of Adamski.

Jeddicke, Jedding, Jedde: Fris. variants of Geddeke, Gedding, Gedde, see there. Cf. Herman Gedde, Attendorn 1437, Gedeke, Stade 1337. For the doubling of dd cf. Ede: Edde. A Gedulf from Bruges listed in the Bremen Urkundenbuch [doc. register].

Jedele (Swab.-Alem.): based on Üedele = Uodel-, Ulrich, with a shift of stress from - to -e-, as in Jehle from Üele.

Jedeman (LGer.) see Gedemann. Corrupted: Jedermann (Hbg.).

Jeep (Fris.) see Jepsen, Jebe.

Jeffke see Geffke (Geveke).

Jeggli (Swiss) see Jack, Jakob.

Jeglinski: pl.n. Jeglinnen in E Prussia.

Jehle, Jehl (UGer., Würt-Baden) see Jedele.

Jehmlich (Lüb.) see Gehmlich.

Jehne, Jehnig (E CentrGer.) see Jähne, Jähnig.

Jehring (LGer.-Fris.) see Gehring.

Jeinsen (von): pl.n. near Elze, Hannover (doc. as Genhuson, from gen ‘dirty water’: Bahlow ON, p. 161).

Jeitteles (Jewish): formed like Pinkeles, Moscheles.

Jelinek (Jellinek), Jelonek, Jelinski, Jelen: all contain Slav. jelen ‘stag’ (Lith. eln ‘elk’). Jelke: Fris. f.n. (Geleke, Jeleke) see Gelke, Gelken (Hbg.). Reyneke Jelike, Stade 1300. Jelle, Jellerichs (Fris.): from Gelderich or Geldolf which occurred around 1300 in Westph., L.Rhine; geld- ‘to be valid, worth’). Still a f.n.: Jelle Tjaden, Hbg. 1965. Geldericus Crumminga, Emden 1614.

Jellinek see Jelinek.

Jeltsch: Slav. pl.n. near Ohlau, Sil. (vonJelcz, Gelcz, 14th c. in Brsl.).

Jendrich (Gendrich), Jendrach (Jendraszik), Jendrusch, etc.: Wend. forms for Heinrich (likewise Wendrich). Also Jindrich. Cf. Czech Jindrzich Binth, Leitomischl 1324, Gündersich Chalben, Glatz 1494.

Jenfeldt (Hbg.): pl.n. near Hbg.

Jenichen see Jämchen.

Jenisch (Sil.) see Jähnisch. Hence Jenischewski.

Jenke, Jenkel (freq.): E Ger.-Slav. sh.f. for Johannes, beside patr. Jenkner, also contained in pl.ns. like Jenkau, Jenkewitz. Cf. Jenco Pelca, U.Sax. 1316. Jenko furman, Görlitz 1472.

Jenne: UGer.-Alem. sh.f. for Johannes (Jennin = Johann Ritter, Basel 1290), also Jennemann; Swiss Jenni (fisher boy in Schiller’s WilhelmTell).

Jenner (Jennert): UGer. (MHG) = ‘January’. Wernli Jenner, Alsace 1406. Cf. Jennerjahn.

Jen(n)ewein (Tyrol), Genewein, Gendebien: Saint (In)genuinus was bishop of Brixen, Tyrol, hence the name still in use there as f.n. (Ingenuin Koch 1800).

Jenning (Hbg.): like Henning LGer. patr. of Johannes.

Jennrich see Jendrich.

Jens, Jensen (freq. in Hbg., Holstein), also Jenss(en): popular sh.f. or patr. of Johannes (also cf. Jansen, Johannsen) in area around Hbg. up to Denmark. Jens Henningsen, Flensburg 1593. Jens Baggesen, Danish writer.

Jensch (Jenschke) see Jentsch.

Jentge(n)s (L.Rhine): patr. of Johannes. Cf. Johäntgen, Johäntjes.

Jentsch, Jentzsch (Sax., Lausitz): Slav. sh.f. of Johannes. As early as 1300: Jenscho (de Gorlicz, Brsl.). Also cf. Jähnisch.

Jen(t)z, Jen(t)zen (freq. in Hbg., Holstein): see Jantz, Jantzen.

Jepsen (Jebsen): freq. in Hbg., Holstein; patr. of Jepp, Jeppe, Danish = Jacob. Cf. Andreas Jacobesson (Jebson), Dane (1370 in Lübeck Urkundenbuch 4 [doc. register]). Hence Jeppe Schroder, Kiel 1446, Carsten Jepsen, Flensburg 1593.

Jerche (Jerke): Slav. form for Georg, cf. Jerchenthal = Georgenthal. Knight Jerke von Mussyn, Sil. 14th c.

Jerchel: Slav. pl.n. (3 times in Altmark, Brandenburg).

Jeremias (Jeremies, Jermis, Slav. Jermas, Jarmatz): Hebrew Jirmejahu ‘God gives’, prophet of the Old Testament. As a biblical f.n. not used before the Reformation.

Jerg(er): UGer. = Georg. Jerg Kächeli, Baden 1452.

Jericho(w), Jerichau: pl.n. near Tangermilnde.

Jering see Gehring.

Jerok (Gerok), Jeroch, Jerosch (Jeroschewitz); Jerisch, Jerich: Wendish sh.f. of Georg (see Jerche) or Jeronimus (Jeromin): pl.n. Jeroslawicz: Jerasselwitz. See also Gerok.

Jerratsch see Gerratsch.

Jerrentrup: Westph. pl.n. ending in -torp ‘village’ (Ger. Dorf).

Jerrolt (Fris.) see Gerold.

Jersch(ke): Czech sh.f. Jerzyk for Georg (Jersik Podiebrad, King of Bohemia). Cf. Kuba Jersicke, near Brieg 1596.

Jerxsen: pl.n. Jerxen near Detmold, Jerxheim near Helmstedt.

Jeschke, Jaschke (also Jesche, Jäsche, patr. Jeschner): freq. Slav.-Ger. sh.f. of Johannes, likewise Jeschek; U.Sil. Jaschke, Jaschek, Jasche. Cf. pl.n. Jeschkendorf near Liegnitz. Jeschke anezele (‘ohne Seele’= without a soul), Liegnitz 1372, Jesco Beme [the Bohemian], Liegnitz 1372, Jesco Cerstani, Liegrütz 1324, Jesco Dobirgost, Brieg 1320. Matthes Jeschke (Jaschke), Brsl. 1420. Jesko (Joh.) Piessek, near Zittau 1373. Further documentation (also for the variant Jeschal, Jeschar) by Eberhard Jeschal in JahrbuchderUniversitätBreslau 9, 1964, psp. 7-13). For Jeschonnek cf. Skowronnek.

Jeserich: pl.n. Jeserig (twice in Brandenburg), from Slav. jeser ‘pond’, cf. pl.n. Jeseritz.

Jeske see Jeschke.

Jesper(sen) see Jasper(sen).

Jess, Jesse, Jessen (freq. in Hbg., Schleswig-Holstein): Danish variant of Jens, Jensen = Johannes [John]. Jes Jürgensen, Flensburg 1604, Erick Jessen, Flensburg 1599. Cf. Jes Hardens in Th. Storm’s novella Schimmelreiter. A pl.n. Jessen (twice in Lausitz area) is of Slavic origin, cf. Jessenitz. The FN Jessel is related.

Jester, Jesterding (Fris.) like Jaster see Gaster.

Jestram, Jestrernski see Jastram.

Jestrich see Gestrich.

Jetzlaff (Pom.): Slav. pers.n., also -slaw ‘fame’ as in Jetslaw; similarly Retzlaff, Tetzlaff. Hence Jetzkewitz, Jetschke, Jetschat, Jetschmann.

Jeuck see Geuke.

Jeurissen see Jörissen.

Jeute (Bav.): = Jüte: Jutta; Jewte, Görlitz 1463. Friedrich Jeutensun [son of Jeute, Jutta], Bav. 1293. Jewtener.

Jeve (Hbg.) = Gave (Gevehard), see Geeve. Jeziorsky, see Jeserich.

Jhering (Fris.) see Gehring.

Jippe (Jibben): Fris. f.n., cf. Jipp.

Jilek: Czech-Wendish jil ‘loam, clay’, cf. pl.n. Jilove in Bohemia.

Jindrich see Jendrich.

Jipp (Hbg., Holstein) see Jepp and Jibbe.

Jiptner, Jüptner see Joppe.

Jirzik (besides Jirek, Jirak, Jirka, Jira): Slav. sh.f. of Georg. Cf. Duke. Georg (Jitzik) of Podiebrad; Girczik of Cunstadt, Glatz 1556. See also Jerschke.

Jitter (Jüttler) see Jüttner.

Joachim (Joachimi), LGer. patr. Jochim(s), Jochimsen, Jochens, besides Jochem, Jochum; today LGer. Jochen: name of a biblical king (Hebrew ‘God encourages’), did not appear as f.n. until the 15th c. with the prince electors of Brandenburg (Joachim I etc.) and subsequently spread with the Reformation (Joh. Fischart reports “Brandenburgers are called Jochim”). In Prenzlau around 1600: Jochim, Achim, Chim! (the variants are due to three different word stresses).

Joas (Bav., freq. in Mnch, Nbg.): dialect form for Joos = Jost, likewise in the pl.n. Joasschwaig in the Bav. part of Swabia; also Joast, cf. Joas Alpershofer, in the same area 1427.

Jobmann, Joh-: the biblical sufferer Job (since Luther’s Bible translation the German form of the name is Hiob; Lat. Joh, Hebrew Ijob); patron of lepers. LGer. Jöbken, Rhineld. Jöbgen, Jöbges.

Jobst, Jobs, Jobske, Jöbstl: combination of Job (Hiob) and Jost (Jodocus), cf. Duke Jo(b)st or Jodocus of Moravia around 1400; and Hieronymus Jobst in the work of Wilhelm Busch, DieJobsiade; also Luther’s friend Jobst Koch (Justus Jonas). Jobst = Jodocus Zenker, Zwickau 1471-83.

Joch (UGer.) see Jauch. Michel Joch (Jouch), Freiburg 1565.

Jochens (LGer. patr.) see Joachim.

Jöcher, Jocher (UGer.): dwelling near a mountain ridge or pass; Herman amJoch, Tyrol 1484, Chuonrad Jocher, Tyrol 1367.

Jochheim: corrupted from Jocham, Jochem, Jochim = Joachim. See there.

Jochim(sen) (freq. in Hbg., Holstein), see Joachim: Joachimsohn is Jewish, Joachimski, Joachimcek is E Ger.-Slav., also Jochintke (Sil.).

Jochmann (Lausitz area): a dialect variant of Jachmann, see there. Cf. Lachmann: Lochmann; Hache: Hoche, Jacof. Jokof.

Jochum(sen) see Joachim.

Jockel, Jöckl (UGer.-Bav.) see Jakob. Cf. Jokisch.

Jöde, Jödicke (LGer.) see Göde, Göedeke.

Jodeit, Jodies (Lith.) = Jodocus.

Joder (Jöderli): i.e. Theodor(us), patron saint of the W part of Switz. Cf. Wilhelm von SenteJoder, Basel 12th c. (see Socin); Jöderli, Baden in Aargau 15th c. (See also SchweizerischesIdiotikon, III, 12)

Jodocus see Jost. Jobst.

Jogschies (Lith.) See Jokisch.

Johannes (Greek-Lat. form of the Hebrew Jochanan ‘God is gracious’): refers to John the Baptist (Matth. 2:11); all baptistries were dedicated to him. Numerous sh.fs. show that Johannes [John] was the most frequent Christian (baptismal) name at the end of the Middle Ages (thus “Hans and Grete” now like the older “Hinz und Kunz” fer Heinrich [Henry] and Konrad [equivalent to “Tom, Dick and Harry“]). For more information: Bahlow VN, p. 56. The FN mostly appears as patr.: LGer. Johannsen (Hbg., Holstein), Johanning (Johenning, cf. Henning), L.Rhine Johäntges. Hence Johann (Littjohann, Stammerjohann, etc.). Renkenjohanns (Fris.) is actually Johannes Renken (Reineken) 1681. Contracted: LGer. Jahn (Strackerjahn), Harmjanz (= Johannes Harmen 1681, patr. Jansen, Jensen (Schleswig-Holstein), Jantzen (L.Rhine area); also Hans (Junghans, Elsenhans), Hansen; UGer. Hansel(mann), Hensel, Hensler, Rhineld. Hensgen. Otherwise see the sh.fs. Henne, Henning, Henneke, Hähnel, Händel, Henle, also E Ger.-Sil. Hänisch, Jänisch, Hanke, Jahnke, Jänicke, Hentschel, Jeschke, Jaschke, Haschke, Jachmann, Jochmann, John. UGer. Hannemann, Jenne(mann), Jenner; Rhineld. Jonen, patr. Johnsen (Swed. Jönsson).

Johanning (Westph. patr.) see Johannes (Johann Johanning, Lippe area 1590).

Johannser (UGer.): from the pl.n. St. Johann (freq. occurrences).

Johler (UGer.): in old documents: Joheler, Jöheler (Konstanz around 1200), from Johel = Johann; Rudolf Joheli, Villingen 1225, Sigmund Johl, Iglau 1411. Johl Hassel, Mies 1402.

Johlke (E Ger.-Slav.) see Gohlke. Cf. Jühlke: Gühlke.

John (freq., mostly E Ger-Slav. but also LGer.): cf. Johns, Johnsen (freq. in Hbg.) = Johannes. Also Johnke, Jöhnk(e), likewise Sohnke, Söhnke, Fris. also Joontjes for Jonekes; L.Rhine Johnen; UGer. (Baden) Johner. Cf. Sil. Jone (Johann) of Boronicz, Bral. 1351. Peter Jone, Liegnitz 1404, Jone (Jenechin) von der:Rode, Görtitz 1330; Johnel, Görlitz.

Johst, Joisten see Jost.

Jok(i)sch, Jokusch (Sil., Lausitz area): sh.f. of Jokof = Jakob with Slav. suffix, Jokusch Redlicz, Öls 1467, Lorenz Jokisch (Jokusch), Liegnitz 1435. Also cf. Jack(i)sch; Lith. Jockschies.

Jolfs, Julfs: Fris. patr. of Jolleff 1420, i.e. Godlef (cf. Folef, Fulf = Folk-lef); related to Jülfs, cf. Lülfs (Ludlefs, Ludolfs).

Jöllenbeck: pl.n. (on the Jölle River, tributary of the Weser, S of Minden), as creek name (Julenbeke ‘dirty creek’) also near Bielefeld.

Jonas (Hebrew ‘dove’): biblical name which became popular during the Reformation (the prophet Jonah in the belly of the whale); as FN sometimes Jewish (especially in Vienna) and E Ger., where Slav. Jon- (= Johannes) is involved: cf. Jonasch, Jonischkeit (Lith.), Joneleit, Jonescheit, Joneweit, Jonat (all Lith-E Pruss.), Jonietz, Jonatzki, Jonek, Jonentz, and others; all these probably derive from Johannes [John]! Jonasson is Scandin. But Justus Jonas (Luther’s friend) was originally called Jobst Koch. For statistical survey of distribution see Brech., p. 777.

Jonathas (Jonathan, Hebrew = ‘gift of God’; son of Saul, friend of King David): name occurred already 1362 in Westph.: dominus [sir] Jonathas; otherwise Jonathan as in Jonathan Krause (composer of church hymns), Liegnitz 1701.

Jönsson (freq. Swed.): = Johannsen, Johannsson; like Erichson imported in modern times.

Joost, Joos See Jost.

Jopp (UGer.) see Jeppich: appears as f.n. in Augsburg 1486: Jopp (Job) Meutting.

Joppe, Juppe, Jüptner (Sil.): surname of jacket makers [Joppe = ‘jacket’; cf. Hensel mitderyopen = Hensel yope, Brsl. 1359, like Uotz mitderjuppen, Ertingen in Würt. 1335. In Brsl. also Sebenyope (Siebenjoppen = ‘seven jackets’), cf. Simeock (= Siebenrock; Rock jacket’) and Nitz Yopener 1385 (like Juppener, Merseburg 1508). Hence Juppenlatz (Latz ‘fly, flap’ on a garment).

Joppich (Sil.), also Jopke, Jobke: Slavic Jobek = Jakob (thus recorded in documents in Sillein 1424); Job did not come into use until the Reformation.

Jorbandt, Jorbahn see Jurban (Urban).

Jörck (Hbg., Ro.): Fris. = Georg. Cf. pl.n. Jork near Hbg.

Jorczyk, Jurczik: Slav.= Georg.

Jordan (sometimes Jewish); LGer. Jordans, Jördens: the name of the holy river became popular as f.n. through the Crusades. Count Jordan, Öls 1147, Jordanus, Col. 1159; around 1275 the name occurred freq. in Ro., Lüb., Hbg., Stralsund; Jorden, Jordens (a priest), Barth 1426. But Jordt (Hbg., Kiel, Flensburg) is probably Fris. like Gord (= Godert from Godehard).

Jores, Jöres, Jörs (Fris.), Jorissen (Rhineland), see Jürs (= Georg).

Jörg: UGer. (Alem.-Swab.) form of the saint’s name Georg, cf. Jörg Frundsberg (leader of mercenaries in the late Middle Ages), “Junker Jörg” (nickname for Luther when banned to the Wartburg castle), Jörg Wickram (town clerk of Colmar in Alsace). LGer. Jörgensen (Flensburg, Kiel, Hbg.) besides Jürgen(sen); Jörges see Jürges. Jörger is UGer.

Jörn, Jörendt, Jöhrens (Fris.): = Jörgen, likewise Jürn = Jürgen (Georg). Cf. JörnUhl, novel by Frenssen. Likewise Jörs = Jürs, see there. Jorre, Jorritsma (Fris.).

Jorsch, Jursch (Wendish) see Jurisch. Cf. Jorczyk.

Josenhans (Würt.) see Jost. Cf. Elsenhans.

Joseph (Hebrew ‘may God increase’): name of Saint Joseph (spouse of Mary) in use only since the Reformation (as Catholic f.n. not until the 18th c., see Bahlow VN, p. 57). However the Jewish f.n. in the Middle Ages is based on the patriarch of the Old Testament (son of Jacob and Rachel); hence Jewish FNs like Josephy, Josephson, cf. Jacobsohn. UGer. patr. Josepher, Fris. Josefs, Lith.-E Pruss. Josupeit, Josuweit.

Jost (L.Rhine Josten, Joisten, Jostes, Jösting; UGer. Johst, Joos, Jösel, Jostel; influenced by the biblical Joh: Jobst, see there): means Saint Jodocus (a Celtic name), a pilgrims’ patron saint in Picardie (St. Josse sur Mer near Calais), 7th c. Popular in the Middle Ages between L.Rhine and S Germany (also Bav. Joas, Alem. Joos, Swab. Jaus). Jost (Jodocus) Hosebendel, Liegnitz 1346. JodocusvulgoJos [J. commonly Jos] Reichlin, Konstanz 1380. For more information see Jost Trier, DerheiligeJodocus, 1924. Compounds: Jostarndt (LGer.), Jobstmeier, Josenhans (Würt., also Jausenhans), Hackenjos and others. See also Just.

Jovers see Govers.

Juchem(s) see Joachim. Likewise Juchheim (Jochheim).

Juch(h)off: Westph. farmstead name, likewise Braukhoff, Moorhoff, etc.; for the water word juch see Bahlow ON, pp. 244-45.

Juckoff (sh.f. Jucksch): Wend-Sil. Jokuff = Jakob. Cf. Juckel in Moravia.

Jückstock: Slav. pl.n. like Wittstock, Rottstock.

Jud, Judt, etc.: UGer. and Rhineld., an early surname also for non-Jews (probably pointing to relations with Jews), cf. Sigebot gen. der Jude [called the Jew], Bamberg 1178, Emicho Judeus (judge), Worms 1198. Also Jüdl. Compounds: Judenbart [Jew’s beard], Judenfeind [Jew hater], Judenfraß [Jews’ grub], Judenhut [Jew’s hat], Judenspieß [Jew’s lance], Judenherzog [Jews’ duke], Judenkönig [king of the Jews], Judenschwager [Jew’s relative, brother-in-law].

Judith (f.n. and FN): literally ‘woman from Jehud’; the biblical figure Judith, who sacrificed her honor in order to rescue her hometown by killing the Assyrian general Holofernes in his sleep, was a popular figure in literature as early as the 12th c. (also cf. the works of Hans Sachs 1551, Martin Opitz 1635, Friedrich Hebbel 1840). See also Jutta, Jüttner.

Jugler (freq. in Sax.): from Jugel in Ore Mtn. area.

Juhl, Juhls (Hbg., Flensburg): Dan. Juul, Juuls.

Jühlke, Jülke, Julke (E Ger-Slav.) see Guhlke.

Jühne see Jünemann.

Ju(h)nke, Junick: early Slav. Junek (Czech Jinek; Junosch, Jinosch).

Juhre, Juhrke, Juhrich: E Ger.-Wend. variants of Georg (Czech Juri). Also cf. Jur- and Gut- (Guhr-).

Jührend, Jöhrend (Fris.) see Jürn.

Jührs see Jürs.

Jülfs, Jühlfs (Fris.) See Jolfs.

Jülich, Jülicher, Gülicher. from Jülich in Rhineland.

Julius (f.n. and FN): as f.n. was used for the first time in the royal house of the Guelfs 1528, name was taken from Roman history (JuliusCaesar!) following the spirit of the Humanists (cf. Duke Heinrich Julius of Brunswick). Enlarged form is Julian (cf. the enemy of the Christians, Julianus Apostata).

Jülke see Jühlke.

Jumpertz (Rhineland) see Gumpertz.

Jumpfer see Jungfer.

Juncke, Jüncke, patr. Juncken(s), Jünken: LGer.Tris. (also Jönk, Jöhnke), pers.n. like Sunken, Söhnke, Sönksen.

Juncker, L.Rhine Junkers: MHG juncherre ‘young noble, not yet knighted’. Martin Junckherre, Olmütz.

Jundt (freq. in Basel): U.Rhine metr. (Junta = Judinta, Judith: for more information see E. Schröder, p. 73). Cf. Volmarus vronJunten = V. filius Junta [Volmar son of Junta], Basel 1290, Hamman Jüntlin, near Breisach 1434.

Jünemann (freq. in Hbg.): from Jüne (= Jühnde) near Göttingen.

Jung(e): [young] junior as opposed to senior, the father. UGer. also Junk. Latinized Jungius. Jungmann, Junghans, Jungnickel, Jungnitsch, Jungelaus, Junghahn, Junghänel, Junghenn (= Johann!), Jungandreas, Jungklaß (Jungglaß). Jungbluth. Jungverdorben [spoiled when young], (Frühverdorben, Ganzverdorben). Also Junger, Jungermann, Jüngst [the youngest].

Jungfer, Jumpfer: contracted from Jungfrau [young woman], i.e. ‘young (noble) lady’. Surname for people in the service of a noble lady (cf. Jungfrauwendienst [dienst =‘service’], Frkf. 1495, Juncvrowendiner [servant of a lady], Juncvroweczucht, a “Meistersinger”, both Brsl.), in some cases name for (illegitimate) son of a noble lady: Gotfrid derjuncvrowensun around 1200 in U.Rhine area. Henne mitderjuncvrowen, Holstein 1343. Dudo zerJuncfrowen (house name), Mainz 1293, Albertus Juncvrowe, Col. 1180, Arnold Juncvraue, Ro. 1284, Joh. Juncfrowe, Han. 1353, Vitze Junckfer, Liegnitz 1545.

Junginger: from Jungingen in Würt.

Jüngling: minor, son under age, cf. Hans Stoltz Jüngeling, etwas Jancke Stoltz nachgelassener Sohn [the son of the late Jancke Stoltz], Sil. 1497.

Junk see Junck and Jung. Junker see Juncker.

Junt, Jüntlin see Jundt.

Juppe, Jüptner see Joppe.

Jur, Jura, Juraschek, Jureit, Juretzka, see Jurisch.

Jurban (Wend.) see Urban.

Jürgen, Jürgens(en): popular LGer. form of Georg, see there. Also Jürr(i)e(n)s, Jürges; Fris. Jürs, Jürn. The genitive form ending in -en stems from combinations like St. Jürgen-Hospital and others. Jurgeit, Jurgschat are Lith-E Pruss.

Jur(i)sch (Dresden, Cottbus), Jurick, Jurich etc. are Wendish sh.fs. of Georg; see also Jur(at), Jurinke, Jurkschat, Jurkat, Jurkuweit (Lith.).

Jürjens see Jürgens. For the form cf. “St. Jurian (Jurien, Jurgen)” in Stettin.

Jürn (Fris.), Jürs (Fris., freq. in Hbg.) see Jürgen, Georg. Cf. Gecrius, Ghorius, Jorius, Jurius quite freq. in Ro., Lüb., etc. around 1250.

Jursch (Wend.) see Jurisch. Cf. Jursik Haldan, Prague 1378.

Juschke, Juschka, Juschkat, Juschkus (Tilsit): Lith. sh.f. of Georg, see Jurkat.

Just (Sil., Lausitz, Sax., also UGer.): a dialect variant of Jost (Jodocus, see Jost); “eine vart czu zende Just” [a journey to Saint Just], Glatz 1371, there also Just (Jost) Witwer 1440, Just (Jost) Brunner 1491. Cf. Jüstel (Bamberg). The Humanists changed it to Justus (hence Justus Jonas, Luther’s friend, whose original name was Jobst Koch); likewise Justus (Jodocus) Trautvetter. But Justus Möser (1720) and Justus Liebig carried the Latin pers.n. Justus (‘the just one’). Derived from it: Justin(us), martyr, a popular name with the pietists (Justinus Kerner 1786). The FN Justin derives from the pl.n. in Pomerania.

Jüterbock: Slav. pl.n. Jüterbog in Brandenburg; cf. Slav. pl.n. Mühlbock in Lausitz area.

Jütersonke (U.Sax.): from Pol. Jutrzenka ‘morning star’.

Jutta, Jutte, Mitte (LGer. Jütteke): around 1200-1400 very popular variant of Juditha (see Judith), especially in noble families and knights’ circles, subsequently also with the burghers (numerous cases in E. Thielecke, Die alttestamentlichen Pers. N., 1935, p. 43; for Silesia see Bahlow SN, p. 62). Julteke Sünders, Drübeck 1393, Jutta tunc meretrix [then a prostitute], Liegnitz 1341; as FN: Peter Jütte, Sorau 1381. Metr.: Hannus Jütten(er), Liegnitz 1438 (nowadays: Jüttner: freq. in Sil.), councillor Joh. filius (domine) Jutten [Joh., son of Lady Jutta], Ro. 1264, cf. Juttenhans, Lorsch 1512, Ebeling Jutteman, Han. 1451 (now Jüttemann).

Jutz (Switz., Würt.), Jutzy, Jütz: UGer.-Alem. for Jutte (See there). Cf. Jutz Foderlin, Jutz Lamprocht 1357 (women from Friedingen in Würt.).

  1. Anonymous (leach w. E. ?)

    -Anonymous, 1917. " Results of the South Australian Museum expedition to Strzelecki and Cooper Creeks. September and October 1916". p 490. Trans.
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