Aar: the old term for Ger. Adler (adel ar) and means ‘eagle’: Frid dictus [called] Ar, near Konstanz 1258. See Ahr. Aaron


Faas, Vaas (U.Rhine): In Baden and Würt. = Gervasius, martyr, patron saint of Breisach on the Rhine; Swiss Fäsin. Vasius (Gervasius)of Pfor, 1526. Cf. Fr. Gervais. But patr. Faasen, Vaasen, Faesgens, Vaeskens in L.Rhine area = Servatius, patron saint of Maastricht, an “Ice Saint” [one of three saints whose days in mid-May are said to mark the end of frosty weather], also Servaes, Zerfas, etc.

Faasch (freq. in Hbg.), originally Fasche (cf. Braasch: Brasche). Clearly corresponds to the Fris. Vasche,Stade 1336, Vasseke,Bremen around 1300. Vaceke,Lüb., Ro. around 1350. Cf. Fris. Vasbern (analogously: Esche, Eseke,sh.f. of Esbern).Also Vaake like Eske.

Fa(a)tz, Facius: sh.f. of Bonifatius [Boniface], the “Apostle of the Germans” (actually Winfred the Anglo-Saxon), whose cult was based in Fulda. Still found in the 16th c.: Facius Erbeis, Jena 1539. But cf. Servatz in L.Rhine area.

Fabarius: Humanist name for Boneß (from Lat. faba ‘bean’).

Fabel see Fabian.

Faber: Humanist name for Schmidt [Smith], like Fabri for Schmitz in Rhine area; expanded to Fabricius (with reference to the famous Roman family): a master Phil. Fabricius in Dortmund in 1561, as a witness in court, called himself D. Philips Smidt.

Fabian: saint’s n., from the martyr Fabianus under the Emperor Decius, Bishop of Rome around 250; also Fabion, Fabigan. Also sh.f. Fabel (UGer.), Fabig, Fabisch (E Ger.-Sil.), Fabianke (U.Sil.), Fabianek, with Slav. -ek,(Bahlow SN, p. 57).

Fach(e): sometirnes a pl.n. (Vacha on the Werra: Henne Fache,Kassel 1459, Hans Vacher,Würzburg 1409), sometimes a loc.n. (Vach, Fach ‘swamp water’: Bahlow ON, pp. 131-132). For Sil. Fach(e) beside Wach(e) = Waczlaw, Wenzel, see Bahlow SN, p. 76. Cf. also Vach.

Fack, Vack (UGer.): MHG vake ‘pig’. Merkelin Vacke,farmer in Würt. 1350, Jekel Vack,Bohemia 1381.

Fackeldey: old field n., like Mackeldey, Hinckeldey, etc., see Dilthey.

Facker(t): UGer., from facken ‘to break hemp or flax’. Hans der Facker,Augsburg 1414.

Facklam (freq. in Meckl., also Schwerin, Wismar): Wendish pl.n. like Anklam.

Fackler (Würt.), Fäckler: not a torch (Fackel) maker (as Brech. says); rather = Facker.

Faden: [thread] MHG vadem. Surname (indirect occ.n.) for a tailor; cf. Seidenfaden, Spitzfaden; Petzefadem (Worms 1331, phetzen = ‘pull, tug’); Fadenpeiß etc. Wilhelm Fädemlin,Konstanz 1477.

Fadenrecht: MHG vadem-recht ‘plumb line, guideline’, also one living in accordance with this. A Fadenricht in Iglau 1425.

Fager (UGer.): cf. pl.n. Vagen at the Mangfall. Bahlow ON, p. 132.

Fahje (freq. in Hbg.), Faje: is clearly Fris.

Fahl, Fahle (LGer.): a pale, light-colored person (with regard to skin or hair color), cf. Valepaghe (‘dun or fallow horse’) old Lüb.; Johann Vale,Hbg. 1274. Johann Valemeyer,Han. 1325. The corresponding UGer. is Falb(er).

Fahland: MHG vâlant ‘devil’ (the fierce Hagen in the Gudrunlied is called “valant aller künege” [devil of all kings]).

Fahlbusch, Fahldieck, Fahlkampf (Westph.) from fal ‘swamp’ (Bahlow ON, p. 133).

Fähling: a Westphalian. Cf. Westfehling, Westfälinger.

Fahlmer: cf. Fallmer, Fellmer (for Fallheimer, Fellheimer, like Bullmer, Rügmer, Stockner, etc., all SW Ger.-Baden-Würt.).

Fahnenschmidt see Fahn.

Fahnert, Fahner: from Fahner north of Gotha (Vanari in old documents, from van ‘swamp’: Bahlow ON, p. 133). Also the field n. “Am Fahnen” [by the swamp] in Westph. (Vane 1250), FN Fahn, also Fahnenbrok, Fahnenholt ‘moorland woods’.

Fahning (Hbg., Rostock): see Fahn, Fahner.

Fähn(d)rich: a development, appearing about 1500, of MHG vener, venre (OHG faneri) ‘flag bearer’, cf. also UGer. Fenner, Venner.

Fahr, Vahr: MHG vare ‘ferry place’ (an dem fare [by the ferry], Worms 1361, von der var [from the ferry], Kassel 1390), also pl.n. Werner Vare,Würt. 1317, cf. Fahrer (C. der Varer,Stuttg. 1329), ‘one who lives by the ferry’. LGer. Fahr (Han.) from MLG var ‘bull’. Herman Var, Osterwieck 1314, Gereke Var, Magdeburg 1469.

Fahr(en)holz: common field n. and pl.n. in Westph.-Han., Vornholtin old documents, like Fahrenhorst (Vornhorst),Fahrenkamp (Vornekamp),also Vorenbrok. For the bog and swamp word vor, vorn (die Vorne, a creek and region in the Netherlands), see Bahlow ON, p. 502.

Fahrenkrog, Fahrenkrug (freq. in Hbg.): pl.n. in Holstein.

Fahrer see Fahr.

Fahrion, Farian (Stuttg.): Humanist name for Häring (Kapff, p. 95).

Fahrke see Fehrs.

Fahrner (U. Baden): from Farn near Oberkirch or Farnau near Schopfheim (A. Götze, p. 35 and 105). Johann Farnower,Freiburg 1460, Hans Farner,Black Forest 1485.

Fahs (Hbg., Ro.): = Faas (Servaes)!

Fahsel see Fasel.

Faig(le): Swab. ‘a timid, fearful person’ (MHG veige).

Failer (Switz., Würt.) = Failenschmid (Würt.): MHG vîler ‘file cutter, file maker’. Also Fail(n)er and Feil(n)er. For the occasional ai for ei (î)cf. also Sayfrid, Eger 1395 (Schwarz, p. 295).

Faist (UGer., freq. in Würt.): MHG veiß ‘fat, corpulent’ = LGer. fett; the UGer. feist was once used also in Sil., having been transmitted via Bohemia and Moravia: Heyne veiste,Liegnitz 1380, Fornefest [fat in front] Liegnitz 1435, in contrast to LGer. Fornefett,Göttingen 1437. Also related is Faistle (Swab.), Faistl (Bav.). A cleric Johann Faistripp in Kirchheim/Teck in 1365; Conrad Veistbacke 1287.

Falbe(r) (UGer.). a pale person (MHG val, valwes ‘pale, blond, light-colored’), see Fahl. Werner der Falbe Eßlingen 1329; Steffan Valwehenne, Falbhenne,Schlettstadt in Alsace 1420.

Falch (UGer.) = Falk.

Falchner = Falkner.

Falger (UGer.): MHG valgen ‘to plow up’, cf. Peter Falgacker Würt. 1473, Cunr. Falger,Tyrol 1417. Falge (OHG falga) in Bav. = ‘fallow land that has been plowed up’.

Falk(e): sometimes a surname of a falconer, who trained falcons for knightly hunting amusements (hawking) (cf. Vogel for Vogler). In 1356 King Edward III of England thanked Count Heinrich of Holstein for sending him a falcon. In MHG poetry the falcon is a symbol of the beloved. Cf. also Güldenfalk (probably a house n.), Astfalk, Baumfalk, Praunfalk, Preinfalk, Breinfalk (‘grain falcon’): Diecz Bryfalk,Würzburg 1409. A Jewish woman Valkenouge,Cologne 1200.

Falkner, UGer. also Falchner, see Falke. Freq. in Nbg., Lpz., Munich, Vienna. With umlaut: Felkner, Hermann Velkener,Kassel 1399, Johann Velkener, Lüb. 1318.

Faller (freq. in the Black Forest area): sometimes from pl.ns. Ober-Fall and Unter-Fall near Triberg, sometimes from loc.n. Fall: Berschi Faller,Furtwangen 1397, Thoman Faller from the Valgrund 1564; in Tyrol: Melchior Faller,occupant of the Fallhof [Fall Farm] 1547.

Fallmer(t) see Fahlmer.

Fallmerayer (Tyrol): from the farm Valmarai (1386) = ‘Muhr Valley’ near Brixen (Tarneller, p. 39).

Falser (Tyrol): Hans Valser,resident at Vals 1426.

Falter, Faltor (Bav., Würt.): from the dwelling place by the portcullis (NHG Falltor, MHG valletor, valtor, valter ‘a door, consisting of a grating, that falls shut of itself’) of the village pasture; cf. Ester: am Essischtor. Nikolaus an deine vallethore,Ingelheim 1336.

Faltin, Falten = Valtin, see Valentin.

Fandrey means Slav. Wandrey = Andreas [Andrew], cf. Polish Jandrey; similarly Fandrich like Jandrich.

Fandt (UGer.): MHG vant ‘natural produce from the land’. In competition with Fendt (freq. in Augsburg and Munich): Ulrich Vant (Vent), Augsburg 1309-11, where also Ulrich Fende 1250 (MHG vende ‘boy‘).

Fangauf: sentence name (snatch up – the ball), like Schnappauf etc. Probably means a ball player (at fairs), LGer. Ballschmieter; or (animal) catcher: FN Fänger (Hühner-, Vogel-, Krähen-, Star-, Hasenfänger [chicken, bird, crow, starling, or hare catcher]) Cf. Fanghänel.

Fangerow see Vangerow.

Fanghänel, Fankhänel (Ore Mountains): freq. in Sax. (Chemnitz).

Fanny: English nickn. for Franziska.

Fanselow see Vanselow.

Fanter (Hbg., Ro.): H. Fantere,Stralaund 1347.

Fanz (UGer.): MHG vanz ‘rogue’. Val. Fanz,Freiburg 1606.

Färber, Ferber: MHG verwaere ’dyer’, also ‘painter’, cf. Michel Farbenschaber,Dux in Bohemia 1400; LGer. Farber in Hbg. 1559, Farver in Flensburg.

Farch (UGer.): MHG varch ‘pig, piglet’. Eberhard Varch (Wepeling), Hesse 1336.

Farke(n): LGer. (MLG verken) = ‘piglet’. Cf. Puttfarken ‘puddle piglet’. Hermann verken,Stralsund 1342. See also Drückeferken. Verkenesser ‘piglet eater’ 12th c. Cologne.

Farklas, Farclas (Hbg., Lüb.): pl.n. Verklas near Dömitz on the Elbe, with LGer. ar for er.

Farner see Fahrner. But Johann Farner,Lüb. 1300, corresponds to Rad. Ferner,in Soest 1289!

Farr, Farrenkopf (UGer.): MHG var(r)e ‘young bull’. Cf. varrenleder (Brsl.). Bertsch Farre,Worms 1350. Similarly Ochsenkopf, Mollenkopf.

Farsbotter (LGer.): = ‘fresh butter’; ‘butter dealer’, like Sötebotter [sweet butter], Hübotter [hay butter]. A. Farschebotter,Greifswald 1674. Cf. the Verschebeker [fresh baker], Barth 1328.

Farsche (Kiel): MHG versch = ‘fresh’.

Fasant, Vasant: MHG (Lat. fasianus) pheasant; MLG foisan (in Stralsund Voyzan, Phaysan, Feysan, Phesan, Vasan, 1277). Heineze Fasant,Frkf. 1377.

Faschang (Aust.): MHG vaschanc means carnival time (with its masquerade and fancy dress). Hence probably a high-spirited person. As a FN nowadays usually Fasching (freq. in Vienna, also Munich, Graz). Abel Faschang, Krain 1592.

Fascher (UGer.): probably related to Fasche (MHG vasche ‘band, bandage’).

Fäsecke (Hbg.) see Fesecke.

Fasel, Fahsel, Vagel (UGer.): MHG vasel ‘breeding animal’, also ‘young animal’, Hans Vasel, Augsburg 1424. Cf Quadvasel (like Quadflieg): LGer. quade ‘evil, bad’!

Fäsi (Switz.): attested as a sh.f. of Gervasius. See also Faas.

Fäskorn see Feskorn.

Fasold, Faselt, Vasold: reminiscent of the legendary epic of Dietrich of Bern (Tyrol, Styria about 1200-1300), in which in the MHG Ecken-Lied [Song of Ecke] a gigantic youth Vasolt (the brother of Ecke),originally a wind spirit, is defeated by Dietrich. As a f.n. in Styria as early as 1257, Würt. 1274, Wetzlar 1266; as surname: Ingelheim 1269, Ro. 1285 (where also Bitterolf), Liegnitz and Brsl. 1348, Görlitz 1475 (Bahlow SN, p. 36).

Faß(e), Faßen see Faas (= Servatius).

Faßbender, Faßbinder [barrel binder]: esp. Rhine area and LGer. (cf. Vatebender) = cooper. See also Bender, Binder, Büttenbender, Bodenbender. Similarly Faßhauer [barrel hewer] (Vatheuer, L.Rhine); but Faßzieher [barrelpuller] (Brünn 1357, Alsace 1442) means a loader, Johann vatesellere, Ro. 1279, means a barrel seller. See also Vietor.

Faßhauer see Faßbender.

Fäßler, Feßler (UGer.): producer of small wooden containers (Fäßle), cf. Hans Väßli, Saulgau 1405, Heinrich Vesseler,Eßlingen 1301. Similarly Fässer. Cf. Noldenvesser,Liegnitz 1372, Noldenvessel (needle case) old Brsl.; Methfessel (corruption of Mägdefessel) in Thur.

Fast see Fastert.

Fast(el)abend (LGer.) = UGer. Fastnacht [carnival, Shrove Tuesday]. Vastel-avent,Duderstein 1397, Münster 1576. Heinrich Vasenacht,Basel 1268; nowadays Faßnacht (Switz., Würt., Bav.).

Fastenrath: L.Rhine pl.n., like Hastenrath, Herkenrath (-rath = -rode).

Fastert, Fasterding (Westph. patr.), Vasters, sh.f. Fast, Fastje (Fris., old form Vasteke),Fasting, Fastring (old form Fasterding): in the Fris.-L.Sax. area from Holstein to the Netherlands, names with Fast [firm, steadfast] were popular from early times; cf. Gothic fastan ‘hold firm, keep’. Fastida was the name of a king of the Gepiden as early as about 550, Fastrada wasa wife of Charlemagne, Fastrad was a saint (abbot in Brabant around 1160). Vastrat, Vasthart, Vas(t)bern in Hbg. around 1260, Vasbern in Stade, Vastmar in Hbg.-Bremen (squire Vasmar Bolland). Cf. also nickn. Vasseke old Bremen, Vasse in Hbg. See also Fester. As early as 1238 in Bremen Vester(us),1426 Diderik Fester!

Fath, Fathke, Fathmann: in Main Franc., Fath or Vath in old documents = Faith = Voit ’governor, steward’ (Nied, p. 154), cf. Stuhlfath. For LGer. cf. vat ‘vat, barrel’: vatebender ‘cooper’.

Fathschild: LGer. sentence name “take hold of the shield”; a shield bearer. Vateschild, Hildesheim 1355, Fatschild, Kammin 1670.

Fatz, Fatzer, Fatzmann (UGer.), with short a, from MHG fatzen ‘tease, kid’ (still found in Wieland’s works: “ein Nachtgeist, der ihn fatzte“ [a spirit of the night, which teased him]). Paltram der Vatz, Vienna 1294, Bentz der Fatzer,Allgäu 1451, Welti Fatz, Zurich 1357, Heini Fatzmann 1515.

Fätsch(er) see Fetsch(er).

Faude (freq. in Stuttgart): Faude (also Faudach, Fadach) in Swab. means ‘grassy island in a swamp’. In Upper Alsace there is also a mountain called ‘die Faude’.

Fauerbach (Hesse): pl.n. in Wetterau, in old documents Vurbach ‘bog creek, moor creek’ (Bahlow ON, p. 152).

Faul, Faull: MHG vûl, voul ‘frail, weak; lazy’. Also as a surn. of ruling lords: Otto der Faule,Margrave of Brandenburg, 1351.

Faulbaum (Brsw., Magdeburg): loc.n., from the house n. LGer. Fuhlbohm.

Fauler (UGer.): from a house by stagnant water (loc. n. Faule, in den Faulen).

Faulhaber (UGer.): old, widespread surname for a farmer who raises oats. As the name of a knight (Vulhavere),nearMainz 1270; Werner vulhaber,U.Rhine 1299. Cf. Firn-, Frisch-, Gries-, Kiff-, Resch-, Schlicht-, Vielhaber, also simply Häberlein. LGer. Oldehaver, Brüsehaver.

Faulstich see Stich.

Faupel, Vaupel: Hose. dialect form in addition to Vopel, sh.f. of Vol(k)brecht.

Fauser, Faunser (Swab.) see Pfauser (Switz. Pfuser: a puffed-up person, from MHG phusen ‘snort, puff oneself up’).*

Faust [fist], UGer.-Swab. Fäustle, Feistle, LGer. Fust, Füsting (Hardevust: Hartfaust [hard fist]): one whose fist is to be feared! Ludolf mit der vust [with the fist], Stralsund 1278, Wende mit der vust,Holstein 1348; Henr. Vustman,Han. 1301 (fist man), Rudolf Vastli,U.Rhine 1329, Feustel,Prague 1377.

Faut(h), Vauth: UGer. (Main Franc-Rhine-Hess.) dialect form for Vogt [governor, steward], clearly apparent in Stuhlfauth, Hühnerfauth, Kirschenfauth; as late as 1738 “die Chur-Fürsten von Mayntz als Oberfauthe erkieset” [chose the Electors of Mainz as principal stewards]. Herte Faut,Frkf. 1387, Heinz Faut,Würzburg 1409. Usually the agent of a landowner, also simply an overseer (Nied FFN, p. 154; Bahlow DN, p. 141).

Fechner, Fechtner, Fechler: living in the Sil. area, esp. around Grünberg-Sagan, formed like Machner (from Slav. Mach = Matthew), hence a patr., clearly from the Slav. Fech (Vech)as sh.f. of Venczlaw, Fentzlaff (Bahlow SN, p. 57). Attested: Michael Vechner,Prague 1385, Heinrich Fechner,Sprottau 1457, Melchior Fechener,Freystadt 1507, David Fechtner,Lüben 1571, Daniel Vechner,Goldburg 1600, J. G. Vechner,Schwiebus 1520, Albrecht Fechner,Berlin 1479.

Fecht (von der). freq. in Hbg., from the river and pl.n. Fecht, Vecht,or Vechta (a boggy place and boggy rivers on the NW Ger-Dutch plain). (Cf. Bahlow ON, p. 504 for full details.) Fechtmann is also related. Christoffel von der Fechte,Goslar 1575. There is also a Fecht River (old forms Fechene, Fachina) in Upper Alsace. For UGer. Fecht (freq. in Stuttgart) cf. Fech, Vech,Würt. 1448: MHG vêch ‘multicolored furs’, i.e. a furrier.

Fechteler (Kiel) is the pl.n. Vechtlere (Vechtel in Westph.): vecht ‘bog’, see Bahlow ON, p. 504.

Fechter (UGer.), one whose occupation was to fight duels, either for legal purposes or at fairs. Further details in A. Schaer, Die altdeutschen Fechter und Spielleute [Old German Fighters and Minstrels] (1901). See also Schirmer.

Feck, Fecke, Fecken, Fekkena (E Fris. patr.): contracted from Feddeke,which is attested as a nickn. for Fre(de)rik 1420 (F. Stark, p. 185). Cf. Fris. Decke, Dekena from Dedeke = Dederik.

Fecker (Würt.), Feckler: said to mean jobbing tailor, mender (Brech., p. 438). Peter Vecker 1435; I. Feckler 1599.

Fedde, Feddeke, Feddinga, Feddama (patr.), all Fris., = Feddercke = Frederik (Friedrich). Cf Feddeke (Frerick)Uninga, Friesland 1420, Feddo Hommius 1514, Popke Feddama 1422.

Fed(d)eler (LGer.) see Fiedler. Hermann Feddelere,Hbg. 1249 C. Veddelere,Lüb. 1328.

Fedder(s), Feddersen (freq. in Brem., Hbg., Holstein) corresponds to Broders, Brodersen in the same area: Vetter (= relative) and Bruder (Broder) [brother] were also used as f.ns. by the Frisians: Fedder Brun, Flensburg 1593. But Feddern is related to Finnern, Seggern, which are simply boggy or swampy places, cf Fedderwarden in Jever, Federwerd in Holland (Bahlow ON, p. 135).

Feder: usually = Federer ‘feather dealer’ (like Federmann); also a name for a farmer (from Federvieh [feathered creatures, i.e. poultry]); sometimes also from Federschmuck [feathers as decoration]: Feder in dem hute [feather in the hat], Brsl. 1350. Also related is Federle: Ulrich Vederlin,Konstanz 1276. Heinrich Gensevedere,U.Rhine 1316; Konrad der Federer,Stuttgart 1328; Herburd Federe,Frkf. 1328. Fedrer = Federl,Kolin 1387. Cf. Federangel,Tübingen 1419, Bohemia 1331, Vederkengel,(quill) Echterdingen 1281.

Federspiel (UGer.): MHG vederspil ‘bird trained for hunting’, a falcon, hawk, or sparrow hawk; hence n. of a falconer. Konrad Federspil,Stuttgart 1500.

Federwisch [feather duster] (freq. in Thur. and Erfürt): MHG vederwisch is a name of the Devil. Embricho Federwisch,Mainz 1213.

Fedkenheuer (Rhine area) see Pfettenhauer. Similarly Fedtke.

Feege, Fege (LGer.): coward (Dutch veeg).

Feeken see Fecken.

Feese, Feeser see Fese.

Feest see Feist.

Fegebank, Vegebank means a plunderer (Lat. spoliator in old documents). Heyndl Vegpank,Iglau 1360. Near Han. in 1599.

Fegebeutel (UGer. Fegbeitel): dial. fegen = ‘plunder, rob’. Nicolaus Fegebüdel,Hess. 1352, cf. Vegengast, Vegesack (also inn name), Fegekorn, Fegemist. But Feghelm (like Vegenknopf, Vegeborde)means a cleaner, cf. Schwertfeger, Harnischfeger.

Feger (UGer.), as well as Fegerlein, correspends to Schwertfeger, a weapon maker, armorer literally sword cleaner; Rhine area has Fegers, with -t: Fegert.

Fehland(t), Fiehland, Vieland (all in Hbg.): Veh is a LGer. form of Vieh [cattle]. The meaning is the swampy pasture land near Bremen: related to MLG vi ‘swamp’ (cf. Viebrock, im Vieh, name of several places).

Fehlbier, Fehlbeer: (LGer.) ‘a lot of beer’, name of a beer tavern owner, like Feinbier, Suhrbehr [sour beer], Dünnbier [thin beer], etc.

Fehl(e): freq. in the Wupper area, L.Rhine, Frkf., hence probably relates to the pl.n. Fehlen (Vehlen) in Westph., Lux., Westerwald (Fehl); vel means ‘swamp’ (Bahlow ON, p. 505). Also related is Fehl(e)mann.

Fehleisen (Würt.) means a file maker, = Felenschmid in old documents (Brech., p. 439). Similarly Fehler = Feiler [filer].

Fehlhaber (LGer.): in old documents Velehaver,Lüb. 1331 (‘many oats’, i.e. a rich farmer who grows oats; cf. veleschap, vele-ber. Fehlbeer, Vehlbehr = viel Bier [much beer]). UGer. Vilhaber,Bohemia 1386.

Fehlhauer see Fehleisen.

Fehfing (freq. in Hbg.): a “Phalian” (East or Westphalian). Veling,Han. 1333, Locze Feling,Frkf. 1387.

Fehmel (rare): cf. in addition Femilyope and Hanyope in old Breslau, as well as Yope, Yopil, and Lyninyopil. Femel (Fimel, cf. the Fimmlergasse [Fimmler Alley] in Liegnitz) means a type of hemp: the superior, male hemp (Reichert, p. 116). A Wolfgang Fehmel,Wurzen in Sax. 1518; G. Femmler,Tübingen 1595.

Fehmer(ling), Femerling: from the island of Fehmarn. Henneke Vemerling = Johann de Vemeren,Stralsund around 1290. Cf. Henning Vemerman in old Wismar.

Fehn(s): Fris. fehn, Dutch veen ‘swamp, bog’. Cf. ter Vehn, van Veen. Also Fehnemann, Fehnendahl.

Fehr (UGer.-Swiss) means ferryman: MHG ver(e),also verje, verge (ferryman). Common in Zurich, where there was a journeyman of the sailors’ guild by the name of Feer in 1468. Also MHG vere: hence Fehr(mann) also in the (North Sea) coastal area, as well as Fehre. Betzold Fere,Franc. 1390.

Fehrentheil, Ferntheil (Hbg.): MLG verden-dêl ‘the fourth part’; Henrich Verdendêl pistor [baker], Wismar around 1290. Butter, for example, was often sold in ‘verndeelkrucken’ [quarter pots] in Bremen.

Fehring = Verding (LGer. for Vierdung), a coin [cf. E. farthing]; “drê veringe to wordgelde” 1393; “3½ verding den gérenden (for beggars),” Reval 1370. Cf. Johann Sevenvering (verling), Soest 1395.

Fehrle, Fehrlen (Würt.): in old documents Verlin,i.e. MHG verlin = verhelin ‘piglet’ (cf. Ferlinshaut);a piglet dealer is what is meant. Cf. in Freiburg 1432-35 Peter Verler (= Verlein),in the house at the sign of the black ‘Verlin’. A Heintze Verlin,Speyer 1354, Cunr. Verlin,Hondingen 1307. Albert Värli,Konstanz 1241; Johann der Verler,Freiburg 1292; H. Bäder, known as Ferlinshaut,Feuerbach 1478.

Fehrs (freq. in Hbg.), Fehres, Fehrens, Fehrensen (also Vehrs, Veers, Vehrens), with k-suffix Fehr(e)ke, patr. Fehring, Vehring, all in the Fris. area (Holstein, Dithmarschen, Hbg.), contain the rare Old Fris. pers.n. Fero (like Hero);thus also Fereko (Hbg. 1290) like Hereko.Also Verest (Hbg. 1264), Verst (Lüb. 1320), Ferst, Feerst (Kiel 1533), with st-suffix is typically Fris., e.g. Brunest, Meynest, Sigest. The LGer. dialect poet Johann Hinrik Fehrs from Holstein is well-known.

Fehse see Fese. Similarly Fehsenfeld.

Feicht, Feicht(n)er (Swab.-Bav.-Tyrol) are variants of Feucht(ner) = Fichtner: from the dwelling place by the ‘Feuchten, Feichten’ [spruce trees], by the spruce woods. Cf. also Feuchtmayer, Feichtmayer, Faichtmayer (sculptor of the Rococo period); Feuchtenbeiner, Feichtenbeiner: from Feuchtenpoint in Aust. (OHG fiohta, fiuhta).

Feick(e): several instances in Hbg., hence perhaps Fris. Feiko, see Fecke (Stark, p. 185).

Feidt see Veit.

Feierabend, Feuerabend [leisure time after work]: probably a derisive nickn. for an idle person, common everywhere from an early period as a farmer’s and artisan’s name. Burchard Virabent,farmer, Ettlingen 1290, Hannus Vyerabund,Liegnitz 1383. Similarly Feiertag [holiday]: Hensel Veiertag,Bohemia 14th c.

Fei(e)rer (UGer.) see Feurer. Similarly Feierlein.

Feierfeil see Feuer.

Feifel (Swab.): a farmer’s name, MHG vivel (MLat. vivolae) ’Feifel’, a glandular disease of horses. Hans Vifel, Rottweil 1442.

Feige, UGer. Faig(le): a fearful person, a coward. Feige as a FN is common in the E Ger. area, where the language of Luther’s Bible caused the word to spread. Cf. also the fruit [Feige = ‘fig’] (Feigenbaum, Feigenstengel, Feigenbrödel, Feigenbutz). The Sil. Feike has little connection: it is related to Slav. Voike.

Feigenspan for Fiegenspan see Fügenspan.

Feigl (UGer.) = MHG vîol ‘violet’, cf. Veigelmeier, old forms Violmayer, Vigelmayer. Conrad Fyol,Frkf. 1451. Hans Feigel (Feyel),Odenwald 1560, Nicolaus Feygl,Prague 1365.

Feike, Faika (Glatz, U. Sil.) is related to Slav. Voike,Woit(k)e (=Vojslav, from voj ‘man’).

Feil, Feyhl, etc. (freq. in Stuttgart) see Feigl. Sometimes it may mean ‘Feil(en)hauer’ [a file cutter or maker], UGer. also Feiler, cf. Rinkefeil ‘clasp filer’. Johann Feil,Prague 1370, Feiltrager,Zurich 1358.

Feiler, Feyler, Feuler (UGer.), also Feilner, Feulner (Franc.): ‘file cutter, file maker’, MHG vîlenhouwer, vîler.See also Failer. Cf. Filisbas ‘file it better’ and Kloppfil, Brsl. 14th c.

Feilke (Meckl.) may be related to Vileke (i.e. Vilenhauer, Feilenhauer [file maker]): John Vileke, Riga 1301, but may also = feil [wrong] (“ein feyl, boise mynsche” [a wrong, bad person]), even Luther says feil for fehl. Jost Feyleken, Offensen 1585, Clawes Feyle, Lüneburg 1367. Further details in Bahlow NN, p. 163.

Feilner, Feulner see Feiler.

Feilnreiter, Feilmoser (Tyrol) are unrounded forms of Feulnreuter, Faulnreuter, or Faulmoser.

Feine: a pl.n. Feine near Syke, but also Berg-Feine in Westph. (Fegene in old documents) in N Ger.

Fein(e), Feinle, Feinmann: ‘fine, elegant’ (in behavior and dress); MHG fîn, first reached the Rhine area around 1200 along with the practice of knighthood, from France via the Dutch fijn; cf. Arnoit Vin,Cologne 1159, Konrad Fynlin,Würt. 1419, Fyngeselle,Trier 1419.

Feinaigle (Swab.) = Feinäuglein [pretty eyes].

Feind(t) [enemy]: cf. also Bauernfeind, LGer. Niefind, Mötefindt, etc.

Feiner (UGer.): related to MHG finen ‘make fine, polish’. Cf. the printer Konrad Fyner in Würt. around 1475.

Feinkohl (LGer.) means ‘fine cowl or hood’ (MLG kogel, MHG gugel, kugel, from Lat. cuculla); cf. Linnekohl, Rodekohl, Schlapkohl, Riefkohl, etc.

Feinler (UGer.) see Feiner. Conrad Vyneler (Veyneler),Salach in Würt. 1429.

Feist (UGer., CentrGer.), also Feest, Fehst (E CentrGer.), see Faist. For Feistel, Feistle, Feustel, see Faust. Feistkohl, Feisthamel, Feistkalb, Feistkorn are farmer’s names; Fornefeist is another form of LGer. Fornefett.

Feistritzer (UGer.): from Feistritz in Aust. (also Weistritz, Bistritz, Slav. for a swift-flowing woodland creek).

Feith, Feidt: cf. MLG feit ‘neat, handsome’; H. Feythe, Hbg. 1269; Feiteblome, Ro. 1272.

Felbel: probably dun-colored (horse); a pale, light-haired person.

Felber (UGer.): from the dwelling near willow trees (byden felben),related to MHG velwe ‘willow’. Wernher Velwer,U.Rhine around 1200.

Felchner (UGer.) = Falchner, like Felkner = Falkner. Cf. Felchlin.

Feld [field], zum Felde and similar names: from the dwelling place. Baldewin an dem felde,Frkf. 1345; Petrus in dem velde,a farmer in Mengen in 1280; Ticze vom felde,Brsl. 1390.

Felder, Felderer (UGer.): sometimes from the dwelling [feld = ‘field’], sometimes from the place of origin (pl.n. Feld, Felden). Cf. Feldner. Compounds: Haberfelder, Heufelder. Günther der Velder,Stuttg. 1308, C. Felderer,Tyrol 1581. See also Feller.

Feldewert, Feldebert (LGer.): ‘living towards the field’.

Feldhusen, Feldhaus(en) etc.: names of several places.

Feldle (Würt.) see Feld. A farmer Cunrad Veldeli 1306.

Feldmann, Feldmaier, Feldmüller, etc.: all from the dwelling or activity (on the field, in the field mill, etc.).

Feldner, Fellner (UGer.): from the name of several places Felden, Velden. Cf. Seefeldner: from Seefelden; Leinfellner: from Leinfelden. See also Feller. Of little significance is MHG veldener: a kind of bondsman. Nicolaus Veldner,Budweis 1387.

Feldten see Felten.

Felgenhauer, Felgenheuer, Felgenheyer: UGer.-CentrGer. = MHG velgenhouwer ‘one who carves the rims of wheels‘, a wagon maker or wheel maker. Stephan Felgenhawer,Olmütz 1351 , P. Felgenheyer,Hainichen in Sax. 1588. Similarly Felgendreber (reinterpreted: -träger, [carrier] from LGer. -dreger ‘turner’, also -­träbe(r) from LGer. -drewe or -treff); occasionally, north of Jüterbog, the pl.n. Felgentreu is involved! For the reinterpretation cf. Urban Felgedrewe = Felgenträger,Plötzkau near Bernburg 1556-69; Felgentreff in Quedlburg: Felgenträger after 1700. See also Felgner.

Felgenträger (freq. in the LGer. area of Magdeburg) see Felgenhauer.

Felgentreu: pl.n. north of Jüterbog; like the latter, obviously of Slav. origin, Velgendrewe as early as 1285 (Österly, p. 713). Cf. Jakob Felgetrewe,city councillor of Jüterbog 1395, Andreas Velgedrewe from Luckenwalde 1626. For reinterpretation cf. pl.n. Felgenau near Danzig, Wielglowo in old documents. For Felgentreff see also Felgenhauer.

Felgner (from Hesse to Sil.) = Felgenhauer. See there. J. FeIgner,Delitzsch 1553.

Felhölter: Westph., ‘from the boggy woods’.

Felix (Lat. ‘fortunate’): a local saint in Zurich (like St. Regula), otherwise rare in the Middle Ages. Felix Becker, Brsl. 1349, Jos Felix,Breisgau 1393.

Felke: E Ger. sh.f. of the Slav. Velislav, Velimir.

Felkel, Velkel (Glatz): unrounded form of Völkel = Volkmar. Felkel Klingeler, Glatz 1373, Velkel Sparbyr, Glatz 1350, M. Felkel = Fölkl,Kolin 1390.

Felkeneuer, Felkeneyer: = Felkenauer, like Felkner = Falkner. Pl.n. Falkenau (Sax., Bohemia). For umlaut vs. unrounding cf. Haseneier and Hasenauer, for reinterpretation as Felkenhauer or Felkenheuer see Hasenhauer, Schwarzenhauer.

Felkner see Falkner.

Fellbrich (Sil.): dialect form of Fellberg, Fellenberg, like Hirschbrich for Hirschberg; Ziesbrich for Zeisberg; Hubrich for Hoberg; Herbrich for Herberg; Weißbrich for Weißenberg. For the development of -berg to ­berig, -brig see Behaghel, p. 130.

Fellechner, Fellehner (Tyrol): Lechner, Lehner = ‘farmer holding a feudal tenure’ (see Tarneller, p. 174).

Felleisen (UGer.): ‘a wandering apprentice’s traveling bag’, reinterpreted from MHG velîs (Fr. valise). Hans Fellisen,South Baden 1471.

Felle(n)baun [fell the tree] (Görlitz 1452): sentence name for a woodsman, like Fellnast, Fellenzweig, Görlitz 1446. Cf. the giants Schellenwald, Rumenwald, Fellenwald.Fellenwald (‘fell the trees’ etc.). Cf. Fell(en)giebel.

Fellenz: probably = pl.n. Veldenz on the Mosel (a prehistoric creek name like Ellenz: see Bahlow ON, p. 505).

Feller (UGer.) = Felder, like Fellerer = Felderer and Fellner = Feldner. Cf. Rockefeller from Rockenfeld in the Rhineland, Buchfeller alongside Buchfellner. Martin Feller,Reutlingen 1489, and earlier G. Velder,Stuttg. 1308.

Fellgiebel (Sil.): sentence name, in old documents Fellengibel,Liegnitz 1491, from MHG gebel ‘skull, head, gable’. Cf Zerr(en)giebel (Görlitz 1404); Rossegebel, Gaißgebel, Schwitzgebel, etc. See also Fellenbaum, Fellenast, Fellenzweig.

Fellguth see Vellguth.

Fellmann: probably not MHG velleman ‘skinner’ (of dead livestock), but rather a dealer in skins, likewise Biermann, Weinmann, Eiermann, Schuhmann [dealers in beer, wine, eggs, shoes]. Velköufel,Brünn 1345.

Fellmer: from Vellmar near Kassel, like Fillmer from Villmar on the Lahn, both pl.ns. Vilimar in old documents, belonging to the group of prehistoric names in -mar,‘swampy area around a spring’ like Weimar, Geismar, Schötmar. For further details see Bahlow ON, p. 509. Cf. Heinrich Velmer,Kassel 1526.

FeIlmeth (Baden, Würt.) is reminiscent of UGer. Grumeth, Öhmet, where -met = mâd [a cut, mowing (of grass or grain)]! Johann Felmedt (Fellmieth),Stuttg. 1581.

Felmy is a misleading way of writing Völmy,a Swiss nickname for Vol(k)mar, with unrounding ö: e.

Fellner see Feldner.

Fels [rock, cliff] (UGer.), also Feltz, like Felsmann: Feltzmann and Felser: Felzer (cf. Hochfelzer: Lindenfelser): from dwelling place and place of origin. Also Felsner (Sifrid Velsener,Bohemia 1303).

Felsch(e): as an E Ger. name probably identical to Felske (Felski, cf. Felskowski), from the Slav. pers.ns. Velislav, Velimir (velij ‘big’), cf. Velisch, Fehlisch. But see also Fölsch(e).

Felschle (Swab.): ‘false person’. Felschelin,Lahr 1356, Diepold Velschelin (Valscheli),Kirchheim/Teck 1284.

Felten, Feldten, Velten, see Valentin.

Felter see Falter. Kuni Velter,Würt. 1461.

Feltzin: E Ger-Slav. pl.n. like Weltzin (Meckl.-Pom.).

Femerling (Hbg.) see Fehmerling.

Fem(m)el, Femmler see Fehmel.

Fenchel [fennel] (UGer.): a spice dealer, from the spice plant (MHG venichel, from Lat. foeniculum). Hermann Fenchel,near Wetzlar 1347. Cf. the LGer. form Fen(ne)kohl, by assimilation to Kohl [cabbage], also Vennekohl, Vennekold, Fönnekold.

Fenck: a farmer who raises millet, from MHG venich, vench (phenic from Lat. panicum ‘millet, buckwheat’). Cf. Claus Fencher,Würt. 1410.

Fend(t), Fendel, Fenderl (UGer.): MHG vende, vent, vendel(in), ‘boy, pageboy’, ‘pawn’ in chess. Freq. in Augsburg and Munich: Ulrich Fende,Augsburg 1250, Rudolf Fende,Frkf. 1387. Cf. LGer. Grotefend.Lat. Fendius.

Fender see Pfänder.

Fendesak (Bohemian) see Pfändesack.

Fendler (Sil.) see Wendler.

Fengefisch (Hbg.): surn. for a fisherman, with i-umlaut.

Fenger: in Sil. clearly a variant of Wenger (in Polish = ‘Hungarian’), cf. Fengler alongside Wengler. But see also Fänger.

Fengler: in Sil. = Wengler ‘charcoal burner’ (cf. Polish Wenglarczyk). Further details in Bahlow SN, p. 83.

Fenn: loc.n., still used today in N Ger., ‘swampy, boggy, or marshy land’. Also Fehn.

Fenner (Rhine area Fenners), Venner: MHG venner ‘ensign, standard bearer’ (also as city official, e.g. in Bern: Tobler-Meyer, p. 105. Johann Venre,Cologne 1187, Bertold Vener,Swab-Gmünd 1277. In N Ger. consider also the form Fenn ‘bog’.

Fensch (E Ger-Slav.) = Fenske, Fentzke, Venzke = Fentzlaff: Saint Wenceslas. Cf. Venceke = Vencislaus of Nemitz, Pom. 1250; Nikolaus Venseke,Greifswald 1354.

Fenske (freq. in Hbg.) see Fensch.

Fenster(er): UGer. = LGer. Fenstermacher (Venstermeker)[window maker]. Also Fenstermann [window man]. A Fensterlin in Bohemia 1390, also Brsl.

Fent see Fend.

Fentbur = Ventur, see Bonaventura.

Fentrop: Westph. pl.n. ending in -torp ‘village’.

Fentzahn, Fentsahm: Wendish pl.n. like Maltzahn.

Fenzl: Sudetenlandic = Wenzel. Fenczel Kölbel, Kaaden 1467; Fenczl (Venczl, Venczlaw) Brunner, Krumau 1468. But for Wölfin Venczlin, Würzburg 1409, cf. MHG vanz, venzelin ‘rogue, joker’.

Ferber see Färber.

Ferbitz: pl.n. near Prignitz (Slav. vrba ‘willow’). Also Ferwitz, Werwitz. Cf. Ferbenz on the Eger.

Ferchland: pl.n. on the Elbe near Genthin, cf. Ferchesar and Ferch in the same area.

Ferckel [piglet]: see also LGer. Farken (Ferken). A dealer in piglets. Jacob Verkel,Liegnitz 1379, Nikolaus Ferkel,Zittau 1399. UGer. forms: Eberhard Varch (Wepeling), Hesse 1336, Alb. Värheli,Eßlingen 1303; Böseverkel (Liegnitz, Brsl.) ‘bad piglet’ like Bösefleisch [bad meat].

Ferdinand: unknown in the Middle Ages, since it was first imported to Austria by the Hapsburgs around 1500; hence very recent as a FN. Further details in Bahlow VN, p. 33-34.

Ferg, Förg (UGer.): MHG verje, verge ‘ferryman’. See also Fehr.

Ferk, Ferek (freq. in Hbg.) see Fehrke under Fehrs.

Ferl (UGer.) see Fehrle. Cf. pl.n. Verl in Westph.

Ferley: probably = Verley, in an old document in Wetzlar “son or spouse of the lady Lye, Leye” = Elisabeth. Gernand ver(n)Lyen (Lye, Leye),Wetzlar 1286, daughter: Lye.But L.Rhine Verley = VanderLeye like Verbeek, Vermeer, etc.

Fern(e): pl.n. Ferna near Eichsfeld: pl.n. Fernau, Fernow, etc.

Ferner: see Feme. But cf. also Radolf Fernere in Soest 1289, J. Farner in Lüb. around 1300.

Fernkorn: a farmer’s name, also Firnkorn, like Verngerste, Fernekäse, Firnwein, etc. (MHG virn, vern ‘old, from last year’).

Fernschild see Führenschild.

Ferntheil see Fehrentheil.

Fersch (Munich, Nbg.): meaning becomes clear from Kaulfers(ch) ‘club heel’ [club foot] (cf. Kaulfuß). K. Verse,Liegnitz 1369, E. Fersenfleck,Olmütz. Cf Ars(ch), Bars(ch).

Ferse see Ferschl.

Fersen (von): see Versen. (Bahlow ON, p. 506: Versen on the Eine).

Ferster (Aust.) see Förster.

Ferstl (Bav.): see Förstl, Fürst.

Fertig: MHG vertic ‘ready to travel, skillful, competent’. Also Förtig (Franc.).

Fertsch, Förtsch (Franc. rounded form like Fertig. Förtig) see Förtsch.

Fervers, Ferfers (Rhine area) = Ferber, Färber.

Fesche see Fesecke.

Fese, Fehse, Vehse, Feese (UGer.): MHG vese ‘grain husk, chaff, also ‘spelt’ [a variety of wheat]. Hermann Vese near Durlach 1271. Cf. the miller Johann Fäsenstaub,Zurich 1408; Heinrich Vesensack,Ulm 1304, H. Veseman,1290; Ulrich Veesenmaier,Konstanz 1394, Bientz der Veesenherr,Riedlitz 1354; also Fesenbeck(er), Fehsenmeyer, Fessenmayer; Feser, Fehser; Veeser. Feskorn; Fese(n)feld.

Feseke, Fäseke, Feesche, Fäsche, see Fese. Cf. “10 malter väseken; feseroggen.”

Feser (UGer.) see Fese.

Fess(e)ler, Fesser (UGer.) see Fässler. Similarly Fessel.

Fest see Feese, Feist. Cf. Fornefest,Liegnitz 1435, also Fornefeist.

Fester, Festersen (Holstein), also Vester, Vehster, Fehster, patr. Festerling, Vesterling: = Silvester, name of a pope. But see also Faster.

Fest(l): freq. in Munich, MHG vest ‘steadfast’. Nic. Feste,Liegnitz 1405.

Fetsch, Fetscher: Swab. Fätsche ‘swamp grass, reed’, also Fetzer probably means the same, likewise Fetschle; cf. Fetzenmoos, Fetzengraben, Fetzi, Fetzach, Fetzleacker, in der Fötzli, Fötzach. It is only from this pl.n. that the frequency of the name in the Swab.-Würt. area is to be explained.

Fett, Fette (LGer.) corresponds to the UGer.-CentrGer. Feist: a fat person. Cf. also Fornefett. Albrecht der Fette,Brsw. 1286, Hartwig Vette,Greifswald 1300, Johann de fette,Lüb. 1345. Hence Vetscholder,Cologne 1178, Vettekopp,Hamelin 1419, Fettback.Fetthake means a peddler of fat, Fettmilch [fat milk] means a milk dealer.

Fetter see Vetter.

Fetthauer, Fetkenheuer, Pfötkenheuer, see Pfettenhauer (a carpenter who makes the crossbeams of a roof truss). Fettke, Fedtke are probably related.

Fetting (LGer.-Westph.): patr. From Fett. Also Fettig, except in UGer.-Franc. where Fettig (= NHG Fittich) = MHG vetach, vetich ‘wing’ (Konrad Vettach,Würt. 1477, Henman Vettich,14th c. Alard Vetting,Stralsund 1280, Hermann Vetting (Pinguis), Westph. around 1250.

Fettweiß, Vettweis (L.Rhine): pl.n. Vettweiß near Düren.

Fetzer see Fetscher.

Feucht, Feucht(n)er, see Feicht.

Feuer, Feuerlein mean the same as Feurer (UGer.), a fire lighter, a stoker, probably also a blacksmith, (Fürschmid, U.Bav. 1463). Cf. LGer. Fürböter. In the Sonnenburg Monastery around 1350: Perthoft der feurer. Besides Feurer there also occur the unrounded forms Feirer, Feirle (K. Feirlin near Um 1425). For Feierfeil cf. LGer. Fürpiel ‘incendiary arrow’. Feuerhake (fire hook) [i.e. poker] and Feuerstacke (fire stick) [i.e. poker] are standard German renderings of LGer. Fürhake,Fürstake. The meaning of Feuerherdt [hearth] is obvious. Feuerstein [fire stone] (Stuttg.): Benz Fürstein (a farmer) near Rottweil 1347, Wernher Fürstein 1160. Feuersenger [fire scorcher] from a dwelling in a clearing made by fire.

Feulner (Franc.) see Feilner, Feiler.

Feurich (UGer.): the variant Feuring indicates a pl.n.

Feuß, Feußner (UGer.): meaning unknown. Cf. Faus.

Feustel see Faust. (Feustel,Prague 1377, Iglau 1387).

Fey, Feye(n): in the Middle Ages a popular nickn. for Sophie, honored as a martyr and saint (Bahlow VN, p. 93). Cf. “dy scone Feyge[the beautiful Feyge], Haldensleben 1330, “sin wip Veyge[his wife Veyge] Haldsl.; Fye several times around 1300 in Wetzlar, 1363 Vey. Cord Fyeken (metr.) in Oldenburg 1457.

Feyerabend see Feierabend.

Feyerherdt see Feuerherd.

Feyhl see Feil.

Feyler, Feyl see Feiler, Feil.

Fiand: LGer. = Feind [enemy]; Burvyant, Lemgo 1381.

Fibiger see Fiebiger.

Fichehnann = Viechelmann (pl.n. Viecheln in Meckl.).

Ficht(n)er, Ficht(e), Fichtmann. From dwelling and place of origin, related to the loc.n. and pl.n. (bei den) Fichten [by the spruce trees] (Würt., Bav., Aust.); see Feichtner.

Fick: freq. LGer. sh.f. of Friedrich (rarely Ficke), also Vick. Vicke Wesermann = Ficko (Fredericus)de Wesera, Lüneburg 1352, Vicke (Fredericus)Holestaf, Stade 1300. As late as 1560 in Ro.: Vicke Schorler, Ficke van Herverden.

Fickbohm (LGer.): probably a loc.n. like Fickmühlen near Bremen, Fickendey.

Fickenscher, Fickelscher, Fickentscher (UGer.): probably to be interpreted as ‘pickpocket’, especially since Vickelscherre is found around 1300 as a scoundrel’s name (thus in the MHG epic Renner,line 1696, by Hugo of Trimberg); Ficke ‘pocket’, however, is not found until around 1600; MHG has only vicken ‘rub’ (hence Vickewolle,Görlitz 1398). Cf. also Henne Fyckel,Frkf. 1387.

Fickenwirth, Fickelwirth (also Fiekenwirth, Finkenwirth).

Ficker(t): originally Ficker (J. Ficker,Sax. 1492), probably from MHG vicken ‘rub’. As Vicker in Brsl., Prague, Olmütz, Iglau, 14th c.

Fi(c)kus, Ficus: Lat. = ‘fig tree, fig’.

Fieback, Fiebek etc. (U.Sil.) see Fiebig (cf. Lieback: Liebig).

Fibelkorn (Hbg., Wismar, Ro.): grain infested with a beetle called Wiebel.

Fiebig: Viebig, corrupted to Fiebing (cf. Gerbing for Gerbig, Gerwig), expanded form Fiebiger: especially Sil.-Sax.-Bohemian for original Vieweg,i.e. one living by a cattle path; cf. by dem fiebege,Glatz 1418; Peter by dem vywege,Sorau 1381, Peter viweg,Liegnitz 1383; N. vyweger,Friedland 1381, B. Fibiger,Görlitz 1523. (Further details in Bahlow SN, p. 83.)

Fiebranz : E Ger.-Slav. like Kiebranz, Dobranz (pl.ns.).

Fiederer (UGer.-Swab.): from MHG videren ‘to feather arrows’.

Fiedler (common in the Sax.-Sil.-Bohemian area): the fiddler (cf. Volker der videlaere,the minstrel, in the Nibelungenlied)was later regarded as one of the “traveling people,” the village and town musicians, along with the piper and the drummer: a Merten Fideluff (‘play up: to the dance’), Görlitz 1506. Blasius Hübener, a blind fidler,Görlitz 1536; as a f.n. in Liegnitz as early as 1383; Peter vedeler der vorspreche [counselor, advocate]. (Statistics on distribution in Bahlow SN, p. 104, and Brech., p. 459.) A Fidelbogen (fiddle bow) in the Aargau 1507.

Fiegenbaum see Feigenbaum.

Fieger, Fiegert (UGer.) unrounded from Füger ‘arranger, supervisor’, also Fiegner as well as Füg(e)ner (MHG vüegen ‘arrange, make suitable’), cf. Fiegenschuh: Fügenschuh; Fiegenspan: Fügenspan ‘arrange, settle a dispute’. A Heinrich Fieger in Straßburg 1444. Also Fiege as well as Füge (MHG vüege ‘fitting, seemly, skillful’, LGer. Vöge): Berhtold Füge,Rottweil 1304, H. Fügeli,Göppingen 1303.

Fiegner: probably unrounded form of Fügner, like Fieger from Füger, Fiege from Füge, Fiegenschuh from Fügenschuh; see Fieger.

Fiehland see Fehland.

Fie(h)n: LGer. = UGer. Fein, see there. But Fiehnke, Fiencke points toward Slav.

Fielicke, Fielsch (UGer.) are nickns. for Slav. Fiezlaff (Velislav). Cf. Mielke: Miltzlaff (Miloslav).

Fi(e)litz: Slav. pl.n., cf. Vielitz near Neuruppin.

Fiendt (LGer.) see Feind. Cf. Mötefiendt.

Fiene(mann): from Fiene in the Mark, from the same (prehistoric) Slav. water word as in Fiener Bog, Fienerode, Fienstedt (Bahlow ON, p. 139).

Fierk(e), Fierek: E Ger.-Slav. like the pl.n. Fieritz, Vieritz.

Fiesel, Viesel, Fies(e)ler: an obscene n., MHG visel ‘penis’. Henneke Visel,Greifswald 1329, Heinrich (Tenne)visel, Neuenburg on the Rhine 1292, Herburd Fyselere, Frkf. 1330, knight Hartman Visilere,Aargau 1239. Cf. Swab. Mädlefiseler ‘skirt chaser’.

Fietense see Vietense.

Fieth see Vieth (Saint Vitus). Also Feidt.

Fietz(e), Fietzke, Fietzek: Sil. nickn. for Viecens (U.Sil.), i.e. Saint Vincent, formerly popular in Sil. because according to legend the martyr’s head is in Breslau (Convent of St. Vincent). As late as 1559 Vicencz Mende in Liegnitz, Vitze Junckfer, Liegnitz 1545; Vieczegk Skorasz, 1594. (Bahlow SN, p. 58.)

Fieweg, Fieweger, see Fiebig.

Figge, Figgen (Hbg.): evidently from LGer. Fige, Figen = Sofie, Sofien Sohn [Sofie’s son]. In Oldenburg 1457 Cord Fygeken.See also Fey. Cf. in Lippe, Hinke Fygen 1380, Henke Fyginck 1410, Fygener 1488, Fyggener 1533 (O. Preuß, p. 34). For gg cf. Nig(g)emann, Niemann; Frig(g)e, Frie.

Figur, Figuhr, Figura (U.Sil.): Slav. like Pachura, Machura; Figule like Machule; Figoy like Machoi; Figowski. (Bahlow SN, p. 67.)

Filchner (UGer.): probably n. of origin. The explorer Wilhelm Filchner came from Munich.

Fild (LGer.) = Fildhut, Filthut ‘felt hat’. See also Filter, Hotfilter.

Filderer: n. of origin, from the Filder (fertile elevated plains south of Stuttg., from the bog word fild;cf. the Filderbach [Filder Creek] in Baden. Bahlow ON, p. 138).

Filitz see Fielitz.

Filler (UGer.) MHG viller ‘flayer’ (from villen: to pull the skin off); also ‘tormentor’. Johann Viller,Coburg 1435. Cf. Mathes Vylnhund,Liegnitz 1370.

Filser, Vilser: from the river n. and pl.n. Fils, Vils (Bav., Würt.).

Filter, Vilter [felter] (LGer.): a felt hat maker; also Hotfilter (cf. Hotwalker). Luder Filter, Stralsund 1288, Johann Viltere (Vilt), Hbg. 1262-1273. Filthut, Fildhut, Fildhaut (Westph.), and Fild are indirect occupational names for a felt hat maker.

Filz (UGer.) may mean a felt maker (Hensel vilczer seteler, Brsl. 1364), just as LGer. Filt means a felter or felt hat maker; cf Filzhut and Filthot, also Hutfilz. The UGer. pl.n. Filz (Vilz) ‘bog’ is also involved, esp. with Filzer: cf. Hochfilzer (from Hochfilzen in Tyrol). Filz is also an old abusive term for a stingy person: grober, karger Filz [coarse, stingy felt]; MHG vilzgebûr ‘crude peasant’.

Fimmel, Fimmler: means a hemp farmer or hemp dealer (for Fimmelhanf see under Fehmel). There was once a Fimmlergasse [Fimmler Alley] in Liegnitz.

Fimmen (Fris., freq. in Jeverland): a patr. like Immen, Ommen, Hemmen, Mammen, Tammen; evidently a nickn. for Fridemar (nowadays Fremer, Fremers), cf. Femmo 1331.

Finck see Fink.

Findeis(en) [find iron]: in the Middle Ages a widespread name for journeyman blacksmiths, like Schmelzeisen, Haueisen, Zerreisen, Buckeisen (bend iron), Glüheisen, Spalteisen, Gareisen, Frischeisen, Firneisen, Raiffeisen, Stolleisen, Hufeisen; sometimes in sentence form, sometimes denoting types of iron or iron tools. Cf. the numerous names ending in -eisen in Heintze-Cascorbi’s book, p. 181. Here we mention the following instances only: Ulrich Vindeisen, Bozen 1242, Heynel Fineysen, Iglau 1377, Cuncz Findeysen, Prague 1381, Vindysen, Brsl. 1350, Hinr. Vindyseren, Lüb. 1337, H. Fyndysen, Würzburg 1409, Findeisen (blacksmith who shoes horses), Frkf. 1500. (The confusion with MHG vintûse ‘cupping glass’, as in Brech., p. 464, is entirely wrong.) Cf. also the names ending in -nagel for nail makers (Heintze-Cascorbi, p. 362).

Findekeller [find the cellar], Findewirt [find the innkeeper] are clearly derisive nicknames for persons who are fond of drink; Vintdenwürvel [find the die] 1296 for passionate gamblers. Johann Vinder, Cologne 1420. Frendel Finder, Bohemia 1371. Cf. Findensinn.

Finder (Finders in Rhine area): MHG vinder ‘inventor’.

Findling: means ‘foundling’, similarly Findl (Bav.), Findlin: MHG vindelîn. Konrad Findlin (Fündlin), Würt. 1455.

Findnutz (UGer.): one who always knows how to secure his own advantage. Walther Vindennutz, near Hechingen 1400, Henrich Findnuz, Haigerl 1464.

Finger (widespread): means not only people with prominent fingers (cf. Mund, Hand, Fuß, etc.), but much more often a finger ring and its maker, the goldsmith; for MHG vinger [finger] also = ‘ring’. Cf. Ludeman Vingermakere, Lüb. 1347. Ortolf Finger, Bav. 1160, Nitsche Vinger, Liegnitz 1380, Hensel Goltvinger, Liegnitz 1382; likewise Fingerle (freq. in Swab.), Fingerli (Switz.), also Fingerling. For Fingerlos (Vienna) cf. Dumelose, Liegnitz 1372.

Fingerhut [thimble]: surname of a thimble maker or a tailor. Gerhard Vingerhut, Ro. 1298, Enderlin Fingerhut, Prague 1396.

Fink, Finck [finch] (freq. everywhere, Finkl in Bav.): in general, probably a cheerful, carefree person, or a high-spirited one, also sometimes probably a bird catcher (finch catcher, since Vogel [bird] for bird catcher is also attested). Walther Vinck, Zurich 1223, Johann Vinke, Stettin 1272. Cf. Finkenauge, Wetzlar 1349, Han. 1329, Finkenflügel, Finkennest, also Distelfink, Buchfink, Geelvink.

Finkbein(er): freq. in Bav-Würt.-Baden, reminiscent of Feichtenbeiner (Würt.), where ­bein means the UGer-Bav. -beunt ‘enclosure‘ (MHG biunde) in field ns. and pl.ns. Cf. Beinder for Beunter. Variant: Finkbohner (Würt.)!

Finkeldey (Westph.): evidently an old field n. like Hinkeldey, Dingeldey, Dauthendey, etc., all relating to bogs and swamps (see Dilthey); for the bog word vink cf. the loc.n. (pl.n.) Vinchselden (Vinxel near Cologne) like Worm-selden, Sik-selden, also Vinkebrok, Vinketh in Flanders, Vinke-veen, Vinke-polder in Holland, Finkley in England. An O. van der Vink,Wesel 1583.

Finkler see Fink. Familiar as the surname of King Henry I, the fowler or bird catcher (Lord Henry sits by the fowling floor,ballad).

Finn, Finne, Finnemann (NW Ger.): common field n. for wet, muddy, boggy areas. Cf. MHG vinne ‘foul smell’. Van der Finn (L.Rhine) pl.n. Vinn near Mörs. Finna NE of Bremen. Vinnum in Westph. Finn(ing)horst in Westph., Finnenbach, Finnenberg, Finnenkopf, etc. Finnsbruch (Vynbrok) near Höxter. (Further details in Bahlow ON, p. 139.)

Finneisen see Findeisen.

Finnern (freq. in Hbg.): pl.n. like Seggern (finne ‘mud’, segge ‘sedge, swamp grass’). Cf. Bahlow ON, p. 139.

Finners see Finders.

Finning: pl.n. in Bav.

Finsch see Fensch.

Finsler (Switz.): approximately = ‘ponderer, brooding person’ (according to Schweizerisches Idiotikon, I 871). Cf. MHG vinselwerk ‘toys, baubles’. Rud. Vinsler,Aargau 1439. E. the Vintzeler,Rottweil 1355. A Henne Vynsel,Okarben in Hesse 1392, P. Vintzel near Mainz 1362.

Finster [dark] (UGer.): the expanded form Finsterer (freq. in Bav.) points to the field n. Finster = ‘dark woods, pine woods’, cf Finsterbusch, Finsterholz, Finsterhölzl, Finsterwald(er), Finsternau, Finsterbach. On the other hand, Finsterlin, Finsterle may refer to a type of character: one who loves darkness, cf. Claus zum Angen, called Vinsterli,Kleinbasel 1345. Bertholt Vinster,Geislingen 1312, Hensel Vinster,Liegnitz 1381.

Fintel (von), Fintelmann: pl.n. Fintel in the Fintau (Wümme Bog); vin-t rneans ‘bog’, cf. also pl.n. Vinte near Bramsche. Fintel(mann) like Rintel(mann), in old documents Vint-lo, Rint-lo: ‘boggy depression’.

Fintler see Vintler (pl.n. Vint in Tyrol).

Finzel see Finsler. But cf. Finzel, Fenzel under Vinzenz and Wenzel respectively.

Firchow see Virchow (pl.n. in Pom.); Firchau: pl.n. in W Prussia.

Firmenich (Col., Aachen, Trier): pl.n. near Euskirchen.

Firneis(en): ‘old iron’, means a dealer in old iron or a blacksmith. Further details under Findeisen. From MHG virne ‘old’ comes also Firngerste. Firnhaber, Firnkorn, Firnkäs (Firmkäs, Fürmkäß), Firnwein, are all farmer’s names from Bav., Würt., Baden. But Firnrohr (Fürnrohr, Fürmrohr) in Bav. is a field n., cf. Firnholzer.

Firnsler (UGer.): said to mean varnish maker, varnish painter.

Firtzlaff: E Ger.-Pom.-Slav. pers.n. ending in ­slav, like Miltzlaff, Fielzlaff, Pritzlaff, Retzlaff, Tetzlaff, Fenzleff.

Fisahn see Fasan.

Fischart: the father of the satirist Johann Fischart from Mainz described himself in a document from around 1550 as “Fischer known as Mentzer”; in 16th-c. spelling, -er and -ert were frequently interchanged with -art owing to the uncertainty that had arisen from the sound changes -art: -ert or -er; and -er or -ert in pers.ns.; thus also the pers.n. Swikker (Swidger) became Schweicker(t) and Schweickart.

Fisch(e)l: UGer., generally means a fisherman or a fish seller, cf. Stephan Faulfisch in Budweis 1309 and Mertt Faulvischel (name among fishermen). Similarly Fisch, Stockfisch, etc. Bratfisch [fried fish] is a person who fries fish.

Fischer (Fischers in Rhine area): the frequency of the name (Berlin had over 3000 “Fischers”) is evidence of the former importance of this ancient occupation, primarily on the coast, in river and lake areas, especially in the East, where fishing and beekeeping were the main occupations of the Slavs. Also compounds like Teichfischer, Fronfischer, Hechtfischer. Fisser, Visser, Wisser are LGer.-Fris.

Fischmann, Fischmenger are ‘fish sellers’, similarly Fischkorb [fish basket] (cf. Brotkorb, Käsekorb). See also Fischel. Lat. Piscator. Cf. Blendefisch.

Fischhaber (Munich): said to mean Fischauer [probably meaning from a field near a fish pond. See Auer.].

Fischnal(l)er (Tyrol): farm name Vischnal near Innsbruck and Bozen.

Fischöder, Fischeder, Fischötter (Bav., Aust.): loc.n. Fisch-öd.

Fisser (Fris.) see Fischer.

Fissler (UGer.) see Fieseler.

Fist(er): UGer., an offensive name (MHG vist ‘fart’). Cf. Hensel Feistinssekkel,Deutsch-Brod. 1385.

Fitense (Meckl.) see Vitense (pl.n. NE of Gadebusch).

Fitschen (freq. in Hbg.): probably corresponds to Ritsche(n)in the same place, as a Fris. patr. From Friedrich: nickn. Ficke,or Rickart, nickn. Ricke. But Fitzen is a pl.n. in Holstein.

Fittbogen (LGer.). ‘Flitzbogen’ [a bow], hence a bow maker or an archer.

Fitz(e), Fitzke, Fitzka, Fitzek (U.Sil.) see Fietze.

Fitzer (UGer.) means ‘artistic weaver’ (MHG vitzen ‘to weave artistic patterns’), Hans der viczer,Engen 1381.

Fitzner = Pfitzner, Pfützner (cf. Fragnor: Pfragner). P. Ficzner,Prague 1399.

Fitzthum (Nbg.) = Vitztum (MLat. vice-dominus) ‘governor, deputy’.

Fix, Vix, Feix = Vitus, the saint. Cf. Fix (Veit)Anshelm, Strasb. 1540. Stanislaus Vix, 1375 in Brsl., where there is also a Fixsgasse or Vitusgasse [Vitus Alley].

Flach [flat] (Ger.) is a field n. Cf. Flachmeier, Flachmüller. In the Sil.-Bohemian area the Czech. vlach = MHG Walch ‘foreigner from a Romance-speaking country (Fr., Ital.)’ is also involved (see Bahlow SN, p. 83). Cf. Flachauer 1385 from the pl.n. Wlachow in Bohemia. Wenczel Flach,Chrudim 1399. Of interest is also Marti Flach the blacksmith = M. Flachisen the blacksmith, Allgäu 1498 (MHG vlachsmit = ‘coppersmith’).

Flachs(mann): UGer. = ‘flax farmer, flax dealer’, LGer. Flaß(mann); cf Flachsbart: Flaßbart; Flachshaar: Flaßhaar. Flachsland (UGer.), Flaskamp, Flasdiek (Westph.) are field ns.

Flack(e), Flackmann (N Ger.): from a dwelling place by stagnant, swampy water (in Dutch vlak still = ‘swampy’; Vlakven, Vlakwater).Cf. field ns. such as “In der Flakennear Haste near Osnabrück, das Flaken near Farenholz, Flakenholz near Hamelin (Bahlow ON, p. 142).

Flad(e), Flaadt (UGer.) means Flader(er), a baker of Kuchenfladen (flat, wide [sheet] cakes). Hesse der Flader,Freiburg 1283. Hermann Flade,Liegnitz 1369. P. Fledl,Prague 1402, Fladenknecht,Prague 1356, Fladenesser,Eßlingen 1386, Fladenmul,Hechingen 1435, Fladenschuver,Duderstein 1397. With umlaut, Fledener,Frkf. 1336.

Fladermann: in a swampy region (Swab. flader), cf. Fladerer, Fladrich.

Fladner see Flade.

Fladrich, Flädrich, Fledrich: cf. MHG vladeren, vlederen ‘flutter’. (But Czech. vladarik ‘commander’).

Fladung: pl.n. Fladungen in the Rhön Mtns. (flad ‘swamp’, cf. the Fladaha in Thur., the Fladapa near Olpe, pl.n. Fladen near Bleckede on the Elbe). Bahlow ON, p. 141. Hans von Fladungen,Würzburg 1409. Georg Fladungk,Gotha 1565. For the loss of ending cf. Breitung, Bliedung, Gerstung, Kauffung, Madelung, Hallung, Hellrung (Heldrungen) on the Heldra etc., all derivatives of water words (details in Bahlow , Niederdeutsches Korrespondenzblatt,1961).

Flägel see Flegel.

Flaig (Swab.-Alem.) ‘fly’ (for this dialect form cf. Schweizerisches Idiotikon, I, 1177). Figuratively, probably ‘restless person’. A Fleugenfank [fly catcher], Olmütz 14th c.

Flaischlen see Fleischer.

Flake see Flacke.

Flähmig = Fläming, see Flemming.

Flamm(e): UGer., attested in Freiburg before 1500 as a house n. (‘at the sign of the flame’), also a FN there. Otherwise Flamme [flame], like Funke [spark], is an indirect occ.n. of a blacksmith, cf. Isenflamm,Basel 1488, Flammeisen (Baden).

Flander (N Ger.): from Flanders. Cf. Hinr. Vlandervar,Lüb. 14th c.

Flanse (Liegnitz): Mathis Flans,Liegnitz 1546; see Flanz.

Flanz (UGer.): MHG vlans ‘twisted mouth’ (Flunsch). Johann Flanze,Überlingen 1331. But cf. Pflanz! (A vineyard der Flanzer,Würt. 14th c.)

Flaschner, Fleschner, Bav. Pflöschner: MHG vlaschener = ‘sheet metal worker’ (who produced tin bottles). Cf. LGer. Flaschendräger, Flaschenträger (turner): vlaschendreyger,Han. 1430. Also the short forms Flasch(e), Flaschel, Spundflasche. Flasch, Fleschel,Moravia 1414, also Flaschenpodem, Flaschensmyd.With umlaut on the U.Rhine: Johann Flesche,Alsace 1389; Fleschendrunk,Reutlingen 1489. Fleschriem = Flaschenriemen [bottle strap]. Fleschener,Frkf. 1400.

Flashaar (LGer.): with flax-blond hair, like UGer. Flechsenhar. Similarly Flasbart. Clawes Flashare,Stettin 1535.

Flaß: = ‘flax’, (LGer.). Wibbe Vlaßköper, Emden 1484, Hinrich Vlasberner, Strals. 1306, Hans Vlassleger, Prussia 1440, Hannus mit dem Flachse [with the flax], Liegn. 1422, Joh. Vlasmarket, Dortmund 1370.

Flato(w), Flatau: pl.n. Flatow on the Havel.

Flatscher (Tyrol): from the Flatsch farm.

Flatter, Flatters (Rhine area): cf. Flatterbinse [rush], from UGer. flader, flatter ‘swamp’.

Flattich: Swab. = ‘lappet on a skirt’. Aberlin Flattich,Würt. 1530.

Flaucher (Munich): ‘curser, swearer’. Hans der Flucher,Würt. 1392.

Flaum [down] (UGer.): MHG vlûm ‘downy feather’; see also Fluhme and Flumm.

Flebbe (LGer., freq. in Hbg.): ‘wide mouth’ (cf. Flabbe ‘harelip’). Bernd Flebbe,Han. 1449.

Flechsenhaar see Flachshaar.

Flechs(n)er see Flachsmann.

Flechsig (Sax.): probably Slav. pl.n. (Flessig, cf. Flessau), like Lessig, Krassig, Laußig.

Flechtner = ‘wickerwork maker’, cf. Henne flechtmecher,Frkf. 1387. Andreas Flechtener,Liegnitz 1369. C. huetflechter,Brünn 1365. (MHG vlechte = ‘wickerwork’).

Fleck: several meanings, in the Middle Ages both ‘patch, rag’ (hence tailor or cobbler), cf. Fersenflek,Olmütz 1375), and “Kuttelfleck” ‘tripe’ (cf. Salzenfleck: old Brsl., Brennfleck likeBrennwurst). Finally also ‘dirt spot, stain’ and ‘patch of land’. E. zum Flecke in Mainz 1323. A Konrad Fleck (knight) wrote poetry around 1200. R. im Wiesenfleck,Tyrol 1391.

Fleckeisen: a blacksmith’s name, see Findeisen.

Fleckner, Flecker (Tyrol): from the farm name Flecken; cf. ‘im Wiesefleck’ [in the patch of meadow] in Tyrol.

Fleder(er), Fledner = Fladerer, Fladner ‘a baker of Fladen’ [flat bread or cake], see Flade. Fleder,also Flader,Freiburg 1283; Fledener,Frkf. 1336.

Fle(e)ge (LGer.) = Fliege [fly], cf. Johann Bitevleghe,Stralsund 1385, Vlegenbiß,Hbg. 1254. Vlegenkrog,Lüb., knight Hinrich Vlegensnap,Dortmund 1393, Hinrich Vlegenvlucht,Strals. 1331 (vlucht = ‘wing’).

Fleetjer (Fris.): from LGer.-Fris.-Dutch Fleet ‘flowing water’ (esp. at the mouths of the Weser and the Elbe). Cf. pl.ns. Stockfleth, Bützfleth.

Flegel [flail]: actually a threshing flail, hence a thresher; cf. Swenkenflegel,Schweidnitz 1398, Scheuenflegel,Görlitz 1601; then also ‘a coarse fellow‘.

Flegerbein (Han.): MLG fleger ‘threshing flail’. Hans Flegerbein,Lühnde 1585.

Flehmig, Flehmke, see Flemming.

Flehe (LGer.): pl.n. near Düsseldorf, cf. the Flehbach [a creek] near Mülheim, Fleestedt near Harburg; Flehinghaus in Westph.; flê ‘swampy water’ (Schönfeld, p. 68). Vle, Fle,Lüb. 1322.

Fleige (LGer.) see Fleege.

Fleiner: from Flein in Würt. (from the bog word flin,also in Fleinbach: Flinebach [Bog Creek], cf. Bahlow ON, p. 142). A knight Cunrad Fliner,Würt. 1282.

Fleisch [meat]: Fleischle, Flaischlen (Swab.), mean ‘butcher’; Fleischer, Fleischmann, Fleischhauer, Fleischhacker, Fleischmenger. Pezolt Vleisch,Graupen 1331, Kunrad Fleisch,Basel 1286, Hans Flayshli,Würt. 1364; Vleyschimhuse, Anevleysch in Brsl. Also compounds: Bösefleisch, Gutfleisch, Faulfleisch, Magerfleisch, Sötefleisch, Pfefferfleisch, Kalbfleisch, Rindfleisch, [bad, good, rotten, lean, sweet, pepper meat, veal, beef) etc.; Kloppfleisch [beat meat] is a sentence name.

Fleischbein: a Frkf. family (Familie und Volk 1956).

Fleischer [butcher] is the E CentrGer. synonym, current from Thur. to Sil., of the S Ger. Metzger (Metzler) and the N Ger. Schlachter (Schlächter). Fleischmann was current in the Egerland and Franconia (Nuremberg), Fleischhaker (Bav.-Aust.) in Moravia, Fleischhauer in Central and N Germany. Cf. the informative map 13 in E. Schwarz, p. 20 and 93. Documented: Bahlow SN, p. 104: Nic. Kolbnow fleyscher,Liegnitz 1361; in Brsl. and Liegnitz as a FN as early as 1384: Peter Vleyscher textor [Lat.= ‘weaver’], Heynke Fleyscher wollenweber [wool weaver].

Fleischfresser [meat eater] is not a lover of meat dishes, but rather a derisive nickn. for a butcher, just as Hopfenfreter in old documents = Hopfenbauer! Cf. also Heinrich Flaischesse,Aust. 1180 (like Manesse, Bonesse).

Fleischhack, Fleischhäckel = Fleischhacker [butcher] (UGer.-Aust.), MHG vleischheckel (like zimberheckel = ‘carpenter’). Cf. the map “Fleischhacker” in E. Schwarz, p. 20.

Fleischhauer (CentrGer.): corresponds to the LGer. Knochenhauer [both meaning butcher].

Fleischmann (Nuremberg, Eger) = ‘butcher, meat seller’. Sarkander (Greek) as a Humanist name. Heinrich Lenke der fleischman,Eger 1379. For Fleischmenger (Lat. mango ‘dealer’) cf. Fettmenger, Fischmenger, Strohmenger.

Fleischner (freq. in Vienna) is a more recent variant of Fleischer, like UGer. Forstner from Forster, Höckner from Höcker, Tischner from Tischer.

Fleiser (Tyrol): Hainrich Fleiser mesner zu Sant Fleis,Tyrol 1487 (in Romance languages: Felice, Felix became Flis, Fleisin German usage).

Fleiß: MHG vleiß was current alongside vleisch, so that Fleißner (freq. in Vienna and Munich) is probably identical with Fleischner (freq. in Vienna). In the Egerland the pl.n. Fleißen is also involved.

Fleißig [industrious, dilligent] cf. Scheuenfliß,Liegnitz 1380.

Flemming: MHG vläming ‘Fleming’. Ilias Flaminc,Cologne 1135; Vleming,Lüb., Ro., Stralsund, Barth, around 1300. Flemish cloth was famous; Flemings came to Germany as clothmakers and dyers. Also Flähming, Flehmig, Flehmke, Flemisch, Flemmig, etc. A Dyle zum Fleminge,Frkf. 1333.

Flender: probably from flandern, flendern, ‘to flutter about’.

Flentje (Fris.): meaning unknown. Cf. Flenter and Flender.

Flesch, Flesche, Fleschner, see Flaschner. But cf. LGer. Flesch = ‘meat’: Bernd Vlesch,Greifswald 1358; Erasmus Vlesch, Anklam 1458. Also Sötevlesch, Magervlesch, Kovlesch, Rindvlesch, Revlesch, Wildvlesch (butcher) [sweet meat, lean m., cow m., beef, deer m., venison], Hbg. 1374; Weschbode etc.

Fleschutz (Bavarian Swabia) means Utz (Ulrich) Flesch, cf. Utz Brästel known as Fläschutz,1415 (like Schadutz = Utz Schad, 1424); fläsch = ‘meat’: cf. fläschhechel (Fleischhacker) [butcher], Augsburg 1375.

Flessner: from Slav. pl.ns. like Flessau in Altmark.

Flettner: UGer., like Flettacher (Bav.), from a dwelling by a swampy region overgrown with rushes. Hans Fletner near Eger 1392, Barth. Flettner,Nuremberg 1582. Cf pl.n. Flettnau.

Fleuchaus, Fleichaus (UGer.-Franc.) [fly out]: a person who does not like to stay in one place. Cf. Fluichdervon,Eßlingen 1409.

Flick, Flicker [patch, patcher]: one who mends clothes. Cf. Flickschuh, Flickenschild.

Fliedner, Flitner: from Flieden on the Fliede (a tributary of the Fulda); in old documents Flidene,a prehistoric river name like Sidene (Siede), Bilene (Bille), etc. (Bahlow ON, p. 144). Cf. Contze von Fliden,Frkf. 1399.

Fliege (LGer. Flege, Fleege, Fleige; Swab. Flaig): a restless person. Cf. also Quadflieg, Fliegenbiß, Biteflege, Koeflieg.

Fliegner (freq. in Liegnitz after 1547): in Saalfeld in and after 1600, documents show Flieger, Pflieger, and Pflüger for the same person! Cf. Fragner for Pfragner.

Flieher (UGer.): MHG = ‘refugee’. Hensel Flyher, Liegnitz 1381.

Fliemer: MHG vlieme = vliedeme ‘fleam’ [a lancet for bloodletting]; hence ‘a bloodletter’.

Flierbaum: Dutch vlierbaum = elder (tree); but Flied (Nuremberg) = Flürl = Flurer ‘field warden’ like Schnierl = Schnurer.

Fließ: loc.n., by flowing water. Also Fließer. Cf. pl.n. Schönfließ.

Flieth: cf. pl.n. Flieth (swampy) in Uckermark; Dutch vliet = LGer. vlêt (Schönfeld, p. 145).

Fligg(e): LGer. (Flicke in old documents in Lüb.) is a variant of Flügge (Flucke). See Fluck.

Flimm: cf. pl.n. Vlimmen.

Flin(c)ker, Flenker: probably from a loc.n.

Flins: MHG = ‘flint, hard stone, stone used for making fire’. Cf Vlinshut, Brsl. 14th c. (stone-hard helmet). Also Flinsch.

Flint (LGer., Hbg., Meckl.) = MHG vlins, see Flins. M. Vlint,Lüb. 1317.

Flitner see Fliedner.

Floder, Floderer (UGer., Würt.): from a dwelling place by a swamp (Swab. vlader, vloder, cf. Flauderwiesen); cf. flodermüle: Hermann floder, Brsl. 1373.

Flögel (LGer.) = Flügel [wing], but Franc. = Flegel [flail]! Cf. Swanenvlögel [swan wing], Hildesheim 14th c., also Vlögel.

Florentz see Flörke. Similarly Flohr, Flohrs, Florich(s).

Florich(s), L.Rhine, see Flörke. But cf. the field n. “up dem Florick”, near Viersen 1460, from the word Flor meaning a body of water (the Netherlands).

Flörke, Flöricke, patr. Flöring: LGer. sh.f. of the saint’s name Florentinus,a martyr in the L.Rhine area; even Johann Fischart knew “that all Dutchmen are called Florentz.” Cf. Ludolf and Klaus Floreke,sons of Floreke of Emisse, Lüneburg 1302.

Flöry, Flörl (UGer.): oh.f. of the saint’s name Florian (patron saint of U.Austria and helper in fire emergencies: “Holy St. Florian, protect this house, set fire to others!“). The knight Florian Geyer is well-known from the Peasants’ War.

Flöß(er), Floßmann (UGer.): raftsman (esp. on the Isar and Iller rivers). Flößner.

Flöter, Fleuter (LGer.) = UGer. Flößer ‘raftsman’. Clawes Vlöter, Ro. 1385. But in Sil., Sax., Hesse: a flute player. Cf. Flötenmeyer.

Flöthe: pl.n. in Goslar district; in old documents Flotide, a collective noun from the water word flot, like Solide: Söhlde also in Goslar district. (Bahlow ON, p. 144.) Cf. Flotwedel, Vlotho.

Floto(w): Vlotho on the Weser; in old documents Vlotuwe as well as Veluwe, Wesuwe, Woluwe, see Flöthe. Cf. also Flotow near Penzlin in Meckl.

Flothwedel was the name of a swampy stretch of woods on the Aller River (Celle district), synonymous with Barwedel, Marwedel.

Flottmann, Flottbek, see Flothwedel.

Flötzer (UGer.) see Flößer. Flötz is also an UGer. creek name.

Fluch(e): in Silesia = Floche = Polish Wloch (OHG Walch), i.e. a foreigner from a Romance-speaking country (France, Italy). Melchior Fluche, Liegnitz 1536, St. Floche,Liegnitz 1451, G. Woche,1597, etc.

Fluck(e): UGer. = MHG vlücke ‘fledged, feathered’. Heinrich Flucke,Backnang 1343.

Flückiger (freq. in Switz.): from the pl.n. Flückingen near Bern.

Fluder (UGer.) see Floder.

Flügel [wing], LGer. Flögel: sometimes from the fashionable article of clothing (wing sleeve: “no one shall wear winged sleeves on their robes,” Brsl. 14th c.), sometimes also a field n.

Flügge (LGer.) see Fluck. Hinr. Vlügghe,Lüb. 1343, N. Flucke,Ro. 1292.

Flüh (UGer.-Swiss): OHG fluo ‘precipice’. We know of the mystic and hermit Niklaus von der Flüe (15th c.), also Zurflüh, Fluhmann, Flühmann, etc.

Flu(h)rer (UGer.): MHG vluorer ‘field warden’. Cf. Flurhay ‘field warden’, like Eschhay (MHG heie ‘guard, warden’). Bentz Flur(er),Würt. 1413.

Flumm (UGer.): field n. Cf. the “hoher [high] Flum” near Schopfheim.

Flurer, Flurschütz, see Fluhrer. Similarly Flurhay.

Flürl (Flierl) see Flörl.

Fluthwedel (Hbg.) see Flothwedel.

Fobbe (LGer.-Fris.): nickn. for Folk-bert, Folk-brand, Folk-bern. Patr.: David Fobben,Göttingen 1619. Also Foppe(n), Foppinga: Foppe Tiarda 1490.

Fobian(ke): U.Sil.-Polish nickn. for Fabian.

Foche(n)zer see Vochenzer.

Fochler (UGer.) is a more recent dialect form for Fachler, cf. Focheisen for Facheisen (Breisgau).

Fock, Vock, Focke (Hbg., Bremen, Lüb.): LGer.-Fris. sh.f. for pers.ns. with Volk-, esp. Volkward, Volkwin, Volker. Cf. Focke Ukena. Also patrs. Focken, Fockens, Focks, Fox (Hbg.), Fockena, Fockenga, Fockema. See also Vock.

Fockelmann: = Fockel (pers.n.), cf. Nic. Vockel,Olmütz 1363, C. Vockel,U.Franc. 1518, Vockelman,Eßlingen 1363.

Föckerer (Munich): = Fecker (meaning unknown), cf. P. Vecker,Würt. 1435; similarly Föckler = Feckler.

Fockroth, Vockerodt: pl.n. Vockerode (Thur., Hesse).

Föge (LGer.) see Vöge.

Fohl, Fohlmeister: MHG and MLG vole ‘foal’; Fahl(e), Fahlke are sometimes related, cf. Vole, Voleke,Barth 1353-70. Johann Melcfole,Lüb. 14th c., Kammervole, Stangevole,Ro. 13th c.

Föhl, Föhler (Würt.): a filer, file maker, cf. Jos Völeschmid,Allgäu 1451; B. Völe,Überlingen 1384, K. Föler,Blaubeuren 1443.

Fohr, Fohrmann (LGer.): by the “Fohr”, living by the ford, thus in Westph.; cf. Peter im Fohre,Lippe 1783 and Hans vorm Fohrde,Lippe 1602. Also Beimfohr, Tomfohr, etc. For Fohrmann cf. Fuhrmann (Peter Vorman,Barth 1300).

Foitzik, also Woitzik, formerly common in E Sil., is the Slav.-Polish-Czech. nickn. Woycz(i)ech for Woiczlaw (voj = ‘man, warrior’). St. Adalbert of Prague was also originally called Woyczech,hence the two names are often used interchangeably: Albertus Unsliter = Woyczich U., Prague 1359-77. Cf. dominus [lord] Woycech Rinbabe, Sil. 1295, Woycech vurman, Brsl. 1356, Woytczlaff,provost of the monastery of Czarnowanz 1431. (Bahlow SN, p. 58).

Fokuhl = pl.n. Wokuhl in Meckl.-Strelitz.

Folger: MHG and MLG volger ‘follower’, also in a legal sense: ‘legal adviser’. Johann de volghere,Bremen 1379, Hermann volghere,Han. 1368.

Folgramm see Volkmann.

Folgnand see Volknand.

Folgner (UGer.) see Folger. Cf. Bav. Forstner = ‘forester’.

Fölkel see Völkel (= Volkmar)! Folk, Fölk is also an UGer. (Franc.) nickn. for Volkmar, Volker, etc., cf. Folk Schuomecher, Würzburg 1386, also Volko Bergheim, Würzburg 1300, Erhard Volcke (Folcke, Folg),Jena 1487. Volk (Völk)= Volland (Volknand) Nithart, Ulm 1400-31. Fölky is Alem.-Swiss.

Folkers (Folkerts) is the usual spelling for Volker(t)s, a Fris. patronymic from Volkert (Volkhart or Volkwart); cf. Folkert Tyaders, Mene Folkerts,Ede Folkers,Friesland 16th c.

Folkmer see Volkmer.

Föll, Föller (UGer., Würt.) see Fell(er).

Follen(ius): Fris. patr. like Allen(ius).

Follert see Vollert (Volkhart, Volkert).

Föllmer, Follmer, see Volkmar.

Follstich see Faulstich. Cf. Flitzstich.

Folpt(s), Volpt(s) is a Fris. contraction of Volpert(s), son of Volkbert. Cf. Folpet (Folpert)Reindsena 1277 (F. Stark, p. 164).

Folrichs (LGer.) = Volkrichs.

Fölsch (freq. in Hbg.), also Völsch (and pl.n. Völschow near Anklam, FN Fölschow), is based on the Fris.-LGer. nickn. Folske, Foltseke (Volzeke),which is attested in Hbg., Ro., Greifswald, etc., around 1300, for names with Folk- (Volk-); today also Fölske, Völzke (Hbg.). Similarly, cf. Ritseke, Ritzeke, Ritsert (old Rostock, Stralsund, Hbg.) for Rik-: Rickert (Richard), with Fris. ts for palatal k as in Itzehoe for Ekehoe. For Völzer (Hbg.) cf. Ritzer, Ritscher.

Fölser (Hbg.) shows Fris. s (ts) for k, also stands for Folker; cf. Fölster and Fölsch. Folser (Volser) in Lüb. as early as 1300.

Fölsner (Bav.) = Felsner. Sifrid Felsener 1303.

Fölster, Folster (Hbg., Bremen) shows Fris. st for ts = k, = Folker (Stark, p. 74). Cf. Fülster.

Foltin = Faltin = Valentin!

Folwart see Volkwart.

Folz (UGer.) = Volz (Volkmar!). Folcze Smiczekil, Frkf. 1357.

Fönnekold see Fenchel [fennel] Cf. “vennekol sterket den magen” [fennel strengthens the stomach]).

Fontane, Fontaine, Fonteyne: a Huguenot name, from Fr. Fontaine ‘fountain,spring’. The merchant Pierre F. in Nîmes around 1660 was an ancestor of the poet Theodor Fontane.

Foot (LGer.) see Foth.

Fopel (Hess.) see Vopel (Volprecht).

Foppe(n), Foppes, Foppinga (Fris.) see Fobbe. Cf. Foppo Boltinga 1422, Foppe Tiarda 1490; Fopt (Folpert).

Forbrich (Sil.-Sax.), also Vorbrich, is derived via Vorberg from Vorwerk [an outlying farm]: person in charge of an outlying farm, a farm outside the city (evidence in Bahlow SN, p. 99; Brech. I, 490). Likewise Forberg, Forberger: in old documents indemvorwerg (forberg); Forwerker.

Forcher, Forchert, Forchner (UGer.): from the dwelling by the pine forest (OHG foraha, MHG vohre ‘pine’). Jacob Forcher, Tyrol 1478, C. Sibenforcher,Tyrol1624.

Forchhammer: from Forchheim in Bav., like Hundhammer, Mooshammer, etc.

Forch(t): UGer., see Forcher.

Förderer (UGer.): MHG vürderer ‘promoter, supporter’ or vorderer ‘plaintiff, one who brings suit in a court’. But cf. also Förderreuther.

Förderreuther (UGer.): from Vorderreuth.

Forel(l) (Switz.): ‘trout’ (MHG forhen, forhel). Albert diu Vorhenne, 1297.

Förg (Munich) see Ferg.

Fork(e)l: evidently from the water word fork, e.g. Forkenbek in Westph., Forkendrecht in the Netherlands. But Forker(t) refers to a field n., e.g. Ulrich Furker,Tyrol 1395.

Formanek (freq. in Vienna), like Furmanek, is a slavicized form of ‘Fuhrmann’.

Fornefett, Fornefeist, see Fett, Feist. Similarly Formfeist.

Forner: probably a n. of origin like Farner.

Förnsler (UGer.) = Firnsler: said to mean a varnish maker. Wilhelm Virntzler, Würt. 1556.

Forrer = Fohrer = Forcher.

Forst [forest]: name of several places and localities. Cf. Cord deVorste, Frkf. 1360.

Förste(mann): from Förste in the Harz Mtns. (in old documents Fore-sati, Vore-sete, i.e. ‘settlement by the bog water’, cf. Werste: Weresete on the Were etc.; see also Bahlow ON, p. 145.

Forster, Forstner (Bav.) means Förster [forester], one who looks after a lord’s forest. In Swabia and Bavaria the term ‘Forster’ [from MHG vorstaere] is still used today. Ulrich Vorster (Forstner),Überlingen 1395, Wolfram wiltforstere, 1211. Also unrounded form (Aust.) Ferster, like Ferstle and Förstl (Bav.). Cf. Werfel (Wörfel): Würfel.

Förther (Nuremberg): like Fürther, Furter, from pl.ns. Forth in Franconia, Fürth near Nuremberg, etc.; also ‘living by the ford’, cf. Berhtold indemVurte, Würt. 1272. Also Fortmann, Forthuber, Fortmüller, Fortner, Forth.

Förtsch (Nuremberg, Munich): more rarely Fertsch: cf. pl.ns. Förtschach, Förtschendorf near Kronach.

Foßler, Voßler (Würt.): according to the Schwäbisches Wörterbuch,col. 1961, Foseler is a vulgar term of abuse, from MHG votze(l) = ‘vulva’.

Foth (LGer.) = ‘foot; with striking or unusual feet’. Cf. Bein, Arm, Bauch, Hals, etc. Also Foot, Voth. In Old Lübeck and Rostock, compounds such as Platvot, Schefvot, Crumvot, Stoltevot, Guldenvot, Dolevot, Eselesvot, Kovot, Gosevot, Barvot, and in Hbg. Dalscevot, Lichtvot, Ruvot. Many more examples of -fuß and -foth in Bahlow DN, p. 153.

Fottner (Munich) see Fortner.

Fox means Fochs, Fuchs = ‘fox’. Cf. Leonhard Fochs,Liegnitz1547; Vochsloch, Vochswinkel, Vochszagel (old Brsl.). But see also Focks under Fock.

Fraas, Fraß (UGer.), Fraatz (LGer.): ‘eater, glutton’. Wilhelm Vraß, Cologne 1149, Gerhard Vratz, Ro. 1275. Cf. Brotvraß, Kirsinvraß (Frkf.), Lambervraß (knight, Basel 1247). Wegfraß (Wecke! [roll]). Mannfraß. Fräßle (a knight Conrad Freßeli, Würt. 1299).

Fräd(e)rich (LGer.) see Frederich.

Fragner see Pfragner.

Frahm (LGer., freq. in Hbg., Bremen, Ro.), also Frä(h)mke, Frö(h)mke; in old documents Vrome, Vrame, Vromeke, Vrameke means a capable, honorable, upright, valiant person. Cf. UGer. Fromm(el), Frommann; patr. Frömming. For Framheim (Hbg.) cf. VromeJohan like RodeJohan, Holstein 1343.

Fraider (Würt., Baden): MHG vreidaere ‘a faithless, flighty person’, also ‘a daring, courageous person’. Cf. Fraiding, Freidiger.

Frälandt see Fredeland.

Främ(c)ke see Frahm.

Framm see Frahm.

Fran(c)k (UGer.), Fran(c)ke: from the national name of the Franks; also occasionally used as a Cf.n. Nickns. Fränk(e)l, Fränkle. Patr. Frenking (L.Rhine), also Fran(c)ken (LGer.). (Bahlow SN, p. 84). A bishop Franco in Worms (10th c.).

Frankenbach: several pl.ns. (Wetzlar, Heilbronn).

Franz, Frantz: after St. Francis of Assisi (died 1220), see Bahlow VN, p. 34. Nickns. Fränzel, Frenz(e)l (UGer., also Sil.), also Sil. Franzke (with Slav. k-suffix). LGer. patrs. Frantzen, Franssen (L.Rhine). But Frentz(en), Frenssen (Holstein) means Lafrenz = Laurentius [Lawrence]! Fränznick means Nikolaus Franz.

Fraß Fräßle see Fraas. Similarly Fra(a)tz.

Fratschner (UGer.-Bav.) = MHG phretzner (pfragner) ‘small trader’. Nikel Fratzschner, Görlitz 1556. Also Fretschner, Pfretschner.

Frau, Frauen: ‘in the service of a noble lady’, since MHG vrouwe means ‘lady’ [NHG Frau = ‘woman’]. Henneke Vrowe, Stralsund 1342. Cf. also Frauensohn [lady’s son]: Konrad known as Vrouwensun, near Stuttgart 1318. Frowendiener [lady’s servant], near Waldshut 1378. Sifrit dervrouwenknecht [ladies’ servant] 1320 (in the convent at Adelberg in Würt.) But also Frowentrut, Frowenliep (Würt.), Frowenzucht, Mainz 1399. Frauenlob (the minnesinger Heinrich von Meißen, around 1300, was called Vrouwenlop [lady praiser] because he preferred vrouwe [lady] to the usual wip [woman] as a form of address). But Frauenschuh means a maker of ladies’ shoes (see also Pfreundschuh), cf. Knabenschuh. Nic. Vrawnschuhel, Brünn 1365.

Fraubös see Frobös, Friebös.

Fraude see Frohde.

Frauendienst [service to ladies]: (Ravensburg 1504), also Jungfrowdienst (Zurich 1504), see Frau. Similarly Frauenknecht (freq. in Munich).

Frauenlob see Frau. Henne Frawenlop, Frkf. 1387. Vruwenlof, Stralsund 1300.

Frauenschuh see Frau.

Frauer see Freuer.

Frauke: Fris. feminine f.n., Frauweke in old documents.

Fraundorfer, Fraunhofer (freq. in Munich): Bav. n. of origin.

Frebel see Fröbel. But cf. MHG vrebel, vrevel ‘bold’.

Frech, Freche: MHG vrech ‘brave, bold, lively’.

Freck (LGer.), Frecke: = Frech. Also Freckmann. But LGer. Freke = Fredeke (Frederik) is also involved. Cf. Freking for Fredeking.

Frede (Free, Freehe): ‘peace’. C. Frede, Lüb. 1290. Cf. Holtdenvrede: ‘keep the peace’, a peaceful person.

Fredebrecht (Westph.): = Friedebrecht. Cf. Fredebern, Fredeward, Fredeburg, Fredegund, Freder(ich), Fredeke, Fredeking in the LGer.-Fris. area.

Fredeking (Westph.) is Fredeke (Frederich) + patr. -ing; cf. Frederking = Frederik + -ing.

Fredeland, contracted form Frälandt (Ro.), means Friedland in Meckl. (Vredeland 1288).

Fred(e)rich(s): LGer. for Fried(e)rich(s); also Fredderich; Frederichsen and Friedrichsen (Friedrich’s son). Cf. Dederichs: Diederichs.

Fredup (LGer.): ‘eat up’. Godefrid Fretup in Lüb.

Freeden (van): pl.n. Freden on the Leine River near Alfeld (de Vreden,Ro. 1293), or Vreden near Enschede. Interpretation in Bahlow ON, p. 146: Fredenbeke, Fredelake; fred ‘bog’.

Freeken (Fris. patr.), also Freek, see Feeken, Feck.

Freels, Frels (Fris.) stands for Freels = Fredlefs, like Delfs for Dedelefs and Lülfs for Ludelefs. Cf. also pl.n. Freelsen near Göttingen.

Fre(e)rcks, Freericks (Fris.-LGer.) = Frederiks, cf. Deercks: Dederiks. Also related is the patr. Freerksen; Frerking = Frederking; Freers = Freders.

Fre(e)se, Frehse (LGer.) means Friese [a Frisian]; cf. Reese = Riese.

Freger (Hbg.): a councillor who makes inquiries. Jacob Vreger, Vrager, Hbg. 1275.

Frehde (LGer.) see Frede.

Frehland see Fredeland.

Fre(h)ner (UGer.-Alem.): in old documents for the name of St. Verena (of Zurzach in Switz.), nickn. Vrene(le), still found in works of Jeremias Gotthelf and J. P. Hebel. Cf. Walther vron Frenen, U.Rhine 1297, Claus Frener,Villingen 1401, i.e. ‘son of the lady Frene’ or also ‘bondsman of the lady F.’ (Nied, p. 24).

Frehse see Freese.

Frei, Frey: a free person as opposed to a bondsman. Also Freier, Freyer, UGer. Cf. Freimann, Freymann: MHG vrîman ‘free peasant’, cf. Berchtold Friman,Reute in Würt. 1274, Ludolf Vriman,Lüb. 1238; Cunczel der Frie,Eger 1340, a knight Cuno Vrige,Strasb. 1259.

Freiboth, Freyboth: MHG vrîbote ‘inviolable court messenger’. Conrad Fribothel,Erfürt 1157, Dielman fribode, Frkf. 1403.

Freidank: MHG dank ‘thought’ [frei = ‘free’]; known from the MHG didactic epic Freidanks Bescheidenheit [Freidank’s Wisdom] around 1230. Also a “meister [master] Frydanckin Frkf. 1337, a Vrigedanck (alongside Vruwenlef) in Stralsund around 1300. M. Freidank in Olmütz around 1409.

Freidenreich see Freudenreich.

Freidhof (UGer.): living by the cemetery (Friedhof) (MHG vrîthof). Hensel Vreidhover,Brünn 1343.

Freidig, Freidigmann, Freidiger, Fredinger: MHG vreidic ‘courageous, high-spirited’ (but also ‘faithless, flighty’), vreidiger ‘evil-doer’. Hannus Freidiger,Liegnitz 1380.

Freidrich see Freudrich.

Freier, Freyer see Frei, Frey. Also Freiert.

Freigang see Freygang.

Freihammer: pl.n. Freiham in U.Bav.

Freihardt (Munich, Stuttg.): MHG vrîhart ‘tramp, juggler, minstrel’. Martin Fryhart,Würt. 1502.

Freiheit: MHG vrîheit ‘tramp, vagabond’, thus in Regensburg 1320: “daß kein Bube noch Vreihait in kein Haus kommen soll” [that no rogue nor tramp is to enter any house] (Schwarz, p. 96). Heincz der Freihait,Eger 1396. A knight Jakob Friheit of Seven in Würt.

Freiholt, Freiholz see Freyholdt.

Freihube (Sil.): owner of a Freihube [freehold estate], a freeholder, without duty of service. Andreas Freyhube,Sprottau 1547.

Freiknecht (LGer.): said to mean ‘a knacker’. Beneke Vryeknecht (carpenter), Barth 1400-22.

Freiling, Freilich: MHG vrîlinc ‘freedman’. Johann Freylich,Zittau 1432, where also Dreiling: Dreilich.

Freimann see Frei.

Freimark: field n., cf. Freiholt.

Freimüller, Freimeier (UGer.): opposite of Fronmüller, Fronmeier; i.e. a miller with no service obligations to an overlord.

Freimuth, Fremuth; also Freiermut: of a free, noble disposition. Cf. in Freiburg 1490: Fryermut as well as Ringermut (‘small mind’). Friemoth is LGer.: Henneke Vriemot,Stralsund 1342.

Freiner (Tyrol): pl.n. Freina.

Freins, Vreins (Cologne) see Frings.

Freischmidt [free smith]: a blacksmith who does not belong to a guild.

Freischle see Freis.

Freise, Freyse, also Freisen: LGer. = Frese, Fresen = Friese, Friesen [Frisian] (Boy Friese = Freise,Han. 1661). Hence freq. in Hbg., Bremen. Cf. Fleige for Flege, Fliege. But Freise, Freis, Freiß is UGer. MHG vreise ‘cruel, terrible’, see Freiß.

Freiseis(en): UGer. (Vienna, Innsbruck), a blacksmith’s name; see Findeisen. In Innsbruck also Freisauf, from MHG vreisen ‘to treat cruelly’. Thus both are sentence names.

Freiser, Freisler (UGer.): MHG vreiser ‘raging person’, also vreisener (des meresvreisener = ‘raging person of the sea’ = ‘pirate’). Sifrit Freiser,Würt. 1276. Similarly Freilser, Freislich, Freißle, Freischle, Freiß.

Freisleben: ‘one who lives a free life’. Fryesleben,Brsl. 14th c. Freiesleben,Görlitz 1417, Freysleben,Brünn 1365. Cf. Freißhirn 1573.

Freisleder (Aust.): like Schießl-eder, Bichl-eder, from the loc.n.s ending in -öd ‘wasteland’.

Freisler, Freislich see Freiser, Freiß.

Freiß, Freißle, Freischle (UGer.): MHG vreise ‘cruel, terrible’, cf. Freiser. A knight Heinrich Freyse,Eberbach 1259. Heinrich Freislich,Oppenheim 1236.

Freist: pl.n. near Wolgast (de Vrest).

Freitag; Freytag, LGer. Friedag: the most frequent weekday name; Montag [Monday], Mittwoch [Wednesday], Donnerstag [Thursday], Sonnabend, Samstag, Satterdach [all = ‘Saturday’], and especially Sonntag [Sunday] also occur as FNs. Dienstag [Tuesday] is not found, because it is a recent word! The names often refer to days for rent payments, compulsory service, and the like. Cf. Freitagsmüller [Friday miller]. Sifrit Vrietak,Worms 1197, Jacob der Freytag,Eger 1356.

Freiwald(t): E Ger. pl.n. Freienwalde (Vryewalde),Freiwaldau, etc., cf. Mehwald from Meyenwalde; Bärwald from Bernwalde, etc.

Freking (LGer.-Westph.) = Fredeking, patr. of Fredeke = Fredrich. Cf. Göcking for Gödeking, from Gödeke = Godefrid.

Frels see Freels.

Fremder, Frömter (UGer.): a stranger.

Frembgen, Frömbgen (L.Rhine) = LGer. Frömke: ‘capable, valiant, steadfast’.

Fremer(s): LGer.-Fris. = Fredemer (Friedmar).

Fremke (LGer.) see Frembgen and Frahm.

Fremuth see Freimut.

Frend (LGer.) see Fründ.

Frendel (Sudetenland) is based in old documents on Frenel (=Frenzel), like Hendel from Henel (= Johann) and Mendel from Menel (= Hermann). Frendl Finder 1371, Frenel Mürrecht, Bohemia 1396 (Schwarz, p. 91, 214).

Frenkel (UGer.) = Franke. Heinrich Frenkel,Glatz 1324.

Frensch(e): E Ger. = Frenske, Frenzke Franz [Francis], cf. Frenschkowski. Val. Frentzsch,Meißen 1520, cf. Rentzsch = Reinhard.

Frensdorff. pl.n. near Bamberg.

Frensel = Frenzel.

Frenssen (Holstein): cf. writer Gustav Frenssen from Ditmarschen. Frens is found in old documents for Lafrens (Laverens), i.e. Saint Laurentius [Laurence] (UGer. Lorenz), Lewerenz in Meckl. Hence the meaning is ‘son of Lafrens’, not ‘son of Franz’ (as often stated!) Also, only in this way is it possible to explain the ostensible umlaut e.Proof: Frens Ditmer = Lorens D., Meckl. 1555, Frentz Godtschalck = Lorentz G., Meckl. 1573-84; Peter Frentz,son of Claus Laverentz,Meckl. 1538 ff. (Cf. also P. Steinmann, the farming family Laverentz (Frentz)in Zepkow, in the Mecklenburger Monatshefte 1937).

Fren(t)z, Frenzen (Hbg.) see Frenssen.

Frenzel (UGer.-Sil.) = Franz, see there. Frenczel Rosenstengel, Brsl. 1328. Cf. Bahlow SN, p. 58.

Frerichs (LGer.) = Frederichs; similarly Fris. Frerk(s), Frerksen, Frers; patr. Westph. Frerking = Frederking.

Fresch(ke): probably = Vrese(ke).

Frese (freq.) see Freese.

Fresen(ius): Humanist name (son of Frese, like Gesenius: son of Gese).

Freßle (Swab.), Fräßle, see Fraß.

Freter (LGer.) = ‘eater, glutton’. Arnt Vretere,Han. 1351. Ekkeh. Fresser,Würzburg 1295. Speckfreter [bacon eater], Anklam 1413, and Holtfreter [wood eater] are derisive nicknames for a bacon seller (or a slaughterer), or a wood seller, as is confirmed by the fact that Thidrik Hoppenvreter = Hoppener [hop grower, dealer], Barth 1326-28. Cf. also Fleischfresser [meat eater] (butcher); Fretwurst [eat sausage]; Vreteber [eat beer], Ro. 1288. Fredup (Vretup,Lüb. 1303).

Fretschner see Fratschner.

Frettensattel: ‘strain the saddle’, a horseman, like Raumensattel, Deckensattel.

Frettlöhr: pl.n. Frettlöh in Westph.

Freude(mann): a person of cheerful disposition. Henne Freude,Frkf. 1395; Freudmann,Bohemis 1294.

Freudenreich; Freudrich: a popular surname in the Middle Ages [Freude = ‘joy’, reich = ‘rich’]. Hannus Frewdenrich,Liegnitz 1381; for Freudrich cf. Heidenreich: Heidrich. A Fröwdenler near Zurich 1357.

Freudensprung: in Eger 1381.

Freuer, Frauer: from MHG vrouwen, vreuwen ‘make happy; be happy’, hence a bringer of joy or a happy person.

Freuler, Fräuler (UGer.): ‘tenant of a convent’. Heinrich der Frouweler near Waldshut 1291, Hainrich Fräueler,Laufenburg on the Rhine 1288.

Freund (cf. LGer. Fründ): MHG vriunt ‘friend’, but also ‘relative’. Related words are Freundl (Bav., Vogtland) and Freundlich [friendly], also Freundschaft [friendship]: from the meaning ‘relative’, Freundgen (Cologne) for LGer. Fründgen. Cf. Siebenfreund, Tausendfreund.

Freundschich see Pfreundschich.

Freuschle see Freischle, Freiß.

Freutel (UGer.): MHG vröudelin ‘small joy’. Vreudel,Brünn 1365.

Frevel, Frebel (MHG vrevel, vrebel): ‘blasphemer, evildoer’. Frevel,Würt. 1306, Frebel,Kassel 1487.

Frevert (Westph.) means Frebert = Fredebert, Fredebrecht, cf. Frebold = Fredebold.

Freydag see Friedag.

Frey see Frei.

Freybe see Friebe.

Freya: an Old Norse goddess, the wife of Odin; it became popular as a f.n. around 1900 due to Wagner’s Rheingold.

Freyer, Freier, LGer. Frieher: ‘a suitor, wooer’; Tymme Vriger,Kiel 1349.

Freygang, Freigang (freq. in Sax.): ‘one who goes around freely, one without employment’, cf. Freiesleben, Freientritt. Similarly Irrgang, Müßiggang.

Freyhold, Freyholt, Freyholz (N Ger.): in old documents Vrigeholt,Ribnitz 1319, probably a loc.n. like Wakholt (Wachholtz), i.e. ‘free woods’.

Freymann see Freimann.

Freymark: probably a field n., like Freyholt.

Freyvogel (Switz., U.Rhine): living like a free bird.

Frick, Fricke: LGer. sh.f. of Friedrich, patr. Sicke Fricksma,Friesland 1422 (cf. also Fick), more rarely UGer.: Frike = Fridrich of Meckingen 1317, Ott and Frick,sons of the Steward of Rordorf in Würt. (Nied, p. 6.). Also Frickmann (UGer.).

Frickel, Frickle (UGer.) = Frick = Friedrich. Frickel Mauche, Wetzlar 1348.

Fricker (U.Rhine): from Frick in Aargau or from the Frick Valley in Baden (Frick is an old river name). Johann Frikker 1296.

Frie, Friege, Friehe (LGer.): = UGer. Frei, Frey. A free peasant, not a bondsman; also a free, carefree person. Henr. Vrighe (Frige),Ro. 1292. Cf. also Friemann.

Friebe (freq. in Sil. and Liegnitz), Friebel, Frieben, Friebner: can only be interpreted from the Slav., analogous to Fröbe, Fröbel, Fröbner (cf. pl.n. Friebitz: Fröbitz, Slav. Vrbice, from vrba ‘willow tree’).

Frieboldt see Friedebold.

Friebös, Friebis, Friepeß (Sax.): the uncertainty in the vowel of the final syllable betrays the foreign, Slav. origin of the pl.n. Friebus in Sax. (near Plauen), like Frühbuß, Fröbus from the pl.n. Frühbuß (Fribus in Bohemia, not far from Klingenthal), which was called Pribuz in Czech. (cf. pl.n. Pribus in Lausitz), from the Slav. pers.n. Pribislaw. Similarly the pl.n. Friesnitz in Thur. and Karlsbad, as well as Priesnitz and Briesnitz (place of birches). Cf. Bahlow SN, p. 58.

Friedag (LGer.), semi-standard German Freydag = ‘Friday’. Johann Vrigedach,Han. 1364.

Friede, Friedemann, Fried(e)l, Friedlein (UGer.): nickns. for Friederich; Vridel Stouber = Frederich Steuber, Brsl. 1355-69. With Slav. suffix: Friedsch, in old documents Fridusch,like Bartusch, Bartsch.

Friedebold, Friebold: a rare Germanic pers.n. (bold = bald = E. ‘bold’). Hermann Fridebolt,Schaffhausen 1299 (patrician), Hans Fribolt (squire), Aargau 1477. Cf. LGer. Fre(de)bold.

Frieder, Frieders = Friederich, like Heiner = Heinerich. Friederike: like Ulrike, a fashionable creation of Goethe’s time, cf. Fr. Brion (Sesenheim in Alsace).

Friedhelm: a rare Germanic pers.n. A knight Fridehelm (Friedehelm’s son), Würt. 1138.

Friedhof [cemetery]: from the dwelling place; Bernd Frithof,Hbg. 1373.

Friedmar see Fremer.

Frie(de)wald: pl.n. (Sax.).

Friedländer (Jewish): from the place Friedland in Bohemia (where there was a settlement of protected Jews). But (non-Jewish) Friedland: as early as 1415, Niclos Fredelant in Görlitz; for Friedland near Göttingen cf. Conrad Fridelant,Kassel 1319.

Friedlieb [love peace] (UGer.): a surname expressing respect. Hans Fridlieb,Feuchtwangen 1424.

Friedl(meier), Friedlhuber (Munich), see Friede.

Friedmann (UGer.), Friedemann, see Friede.

Friedrich: as with Heinrich, its frequency is due to its use by dynasties [of rulers]. It is the old German emperor name of the Hohenstaufens: Friedrich I Barbarossa, Friedrich II, etc. See also the nickns. Fritz, Fritsche, Friedel, Friedemann, Fricke, Fick (Vick).

Friedrichs, Friedrichsen (cf. Diedrichs, Diedrichsen) is a LGer. patr. Friedreicher is an Aust. patr.

Friege, Friehe see Frie, Frei.

Friehold see Freyhold.

Friel(e): rare W Ger. nickn. for Friedrich. Frilo filius Frilonis [Lat. Frilo son of Frilo], Mainz 1305, Frilo zum Iselwecke, Mainz 1298 (an ancestor of J. Gutenberg).

Frieling (cf. Friele): Sifridus et Frilingus,Frankenberg on the Eder River 1303. But also “von Frieling” (more freq. in Hbg.) from the pl.n. Frieling in Westph. or the pl.n. Frielingen near Fallingbostel at the Knüll Forest (where there is also a Frielendorf). Cf. Westph. Frielinghaus. See also Freiling: from MHG vriling ‘freedman’.

Friemann (LGer.) = Freimann.

Friemelt (Sil.), also Frömelt, Fröhmelt, Frümelt, is the old f.n. Frumold, Fromold (from MHG vrum, vrom ‘valiant, steadfast’, cf. Frommann). Reinbold Frumolt,U.Rhine 1261, Herbord Vrumold,Görlitz 1325. Nic. Vrumolt,Brünn 1365; Fromold von Czedlicz near Liegnitz 1420, Michel Frümelt,Reichenberg 1560. Another unrounded form is Friemel from Frümel,alongside Frömel: Hans Frumel,Nikolsbg. 1414, Nicl. Vromel,Liegnitz 1391 (Bahlow SN, p. 36).

Friemuth see Freimuth.

Frier(s), LGer. = Frieder(s); cf. Freers.

Fries(e) [a Frisian]: freq. in Hbg. and Bremen, LGer. Freese, Frehse, patr. Friesen, Fresen (Fresenius), with k-suffix Frieseke (Friseke, Freseke,Ro. 13th c.). Cf. also Flemming. But UGer. Fries means a ‘dike and mud worker’ who digs drainage ditches (MHG vriese), Swab.-Swiss fries ‘ditch’, friesen ‘to dig ditches’, also UGer. Frieser.

Friesleben see Freisleben.

Frie(s)ner (Dresden) evidently corresponds to Ger. Birkner: ‘by the little birch woods’, since Frießnitz comes from Slav. Briesnitz (Prießnitz), from bris- ‘birch’ as in Briesen, also Friesen (pl.n. near Plauen). Michael Frisener,Dresden 1446, also H. Friesen,1413.

Fries(s)em (L.Rhine): pl.n. Friesheim near Euskirchen; cf. Aussem.

Frigge (LGer.-Westph.) = Frige (a free person), see Frie. Cf. Nigge, also Nige (Nie-) ‘new’ in Niggemann, Niggetied.

Frille: pl.n. NE of Minden (1168 Frigilide, from frig ‘mud’, cf. Frigiste like Argiste near Kleve).

Frimmer (Munich), Frimmel (Nuremberg): cf. pl.n. Frimmersdorf in Bav.

Frind, Vrind [friend] (L.Rhine) see Fründ. Also in Sudetenland = ‘friend’ (MHG vriunt).

Frings, Vrings (Rhine area) = Severinus, a saint’s n. (Bishop of Cologne). Also related are Severing, Seffring; Frins, Freins. Cf. Sören(sen) in Schleswig.

Frisch, Frische (UGer.): rare in the sense of ‘fresh courage, fresh heart’, but rather an UGer. (esp. Alem.) sh.f. of Friedrich, i.e. contracted from Fritsche(e), Fritschi. Cf. Frische = Fritsche Halbsester, Offenburg 1312-18, Frische = Friederich of Tottinchoven, Freiburg 1256(Socin). Frisch = Fricz Wuster, Eger 1395, Frische Gudinc, Worms 1304.Likewise Frischmann: Frischman = Fritscheman of Schefdolzheim, Alsace 1280-97 (Socin, p. 17).See also Frischlin.

Frischbier, Frischbutter, Frischkorn, Frischhaber are indirect occupational names for a beer brewer, butter seller, grain farmer, oats farmer.

Frischeisen [fresh iron]: one of the numerous S. German blacksmith names, see Findeisen.

Frischholz [fresh wood] (Nuremberg): probably a surname of a woodcutter, cf. Kienholz, Knüppelholz, etc.

Frischlin (UGer.) see Frisch. The Humanist and comedy writer Nikodemus Frischlin, 1547-90,came from Würt.

Frischmann (Vienna, Frankfurt, Nbg.) see Frisch.

Frischmuth, Frichermuth: like Frei(er)muth, Gutermuth, Hohermuth.

Frithjof: a hero of Nordic legend (“prince of peace”). Cf. Frithjof Nansen, the polar explorer.

Fritsch(e), Fritzsche (Sil., Sax.): nickn. for Friedrich (see UGer. Frisch). Fritsche Wyse, Liegnitz 1372.Peter Friczsche,Dresden 1391.Extended form: Fritschold (like Kitschold, Heintschold, Nitschold), cf. Friczold of Polenz 1283.For the form, cf. also Nitsche, Nietzsche. Fritschi is Alem.

Fritz is the sh.f., popular since time immemorial, of Friedrich, like Götz from Gottfried, Heinz from Heinrich, Kunz from Kunrad. Other forms are Fritze, Fritz(e)l, Fritzle; patr. Fritzler, Fritschler. Fritzmann is also UGer.

Fritz(en)schaf(t): Swab. = ‘friendship’ (cf. Früntschaft,old Brsl.).

Frobarth: probably literally ‘happy person’, cf. Wackerbarth.

Frobein see Frowein. Similarly Frobeen, Froben(ius).

Fröbel: both the educator Friedrich Fröbel and the journalist Julius Fröbel were Thuringians. Also Fröbe, Fröba, Fröber, Fröbner are from the Thur.-Franc.-E Ger. area, corresponding to their derivation from the Slav. vrba ‘willowtree’ (cf. pl.ns. such as Förba on the Eger, Förbau on the Saale, Vrbno, Vrbka, Vrbice in Bohemia; however, Frobel, Frobelwitz in Sil. could be derived from Slav. wrobel ‘sparrow’, also FN Frubel. In German, f is often substituted for the Slav. bilabial w. For Fröbe, Fröbel, Fröb(n)er cf. also Friebe, Friebel, Frieb(n)er.

Froböse (LGer.): ‘early bad, early spoiled’, cf. Frühklug, Froriep ‘early mature’. Vroboze,Hbg. around 1300,Henneke Vrobose,Kiel 1414.Also Frauböse (Hbg.).

Frödden, Früdden (Fris.-Danish): cf. Frodde Frese, Flensburg 1589, Frödde Lorensen (son: Lorens Frödden),Morsum on Sylt 1666.Evidently an echo of the Danish heroic legend of the Prince of Peace Frode (MHG Frute),cf. Old Saxon frod ‘clever, intelligent’. Also related is Fröde (Hbg.)

Frodermann (Westph.): expanded from Froder; contracted as Frormann.

Fröhler (UGer.): evidently = Fräuler, Freuler; cf. Frölinkint,Frkf. 1525 = Fräuleinkind. Hainr. Fräueler 1288means tenant of a convent.

Frö(h)lich: ‘cheerful, high-spirited’. Cf. Duke Otto of Austria, the Cheerful, 1331.LGer. Fröleke, Fröhlck (Wismar), patr. Fröhlking (Westph.): Vroleke,Barth 1387, Frölich Pritze, Stolp 1500.

Frö(h)ling (LGer.) = UGer. Frühling [season of spring]. Vrolynk,Barth 1431.

Frohloff (LGer.) comes from Frodolf, like Rohloff from Rodolf.

Frohm(e), Fröhmke (LGer.): in old documents Vrome, Vromeke,‘a competent or valiant person’, an honorable, trustworthy man. Cf. LGer. Frahm.

Frohmader (UGer.-Franc.) = Fronmader: a mower (Mader) doing compulsory labor service for an overlord. Cf. Froh(n)meier, Froh(n)müller.

Fröhmelt see Friemelt.

Frohmann = Frommann.

Frö(h)mer(t) = Frömmert like Fröhmelt Frömmelt, see Friemelt and Frömmer.

Fro(h)napfel: probably one who supplies fruit [Apfel = ‘apple’] to a feudal estate. Cf. the Fronhof [feudal estate] in Salzschlirf. A minister M. Fronapfel, Ettlingen 1622.

Frohn(e): MHG vröne ‘court messenger, bailiff.

Frohner(t): MHG vröner ‘feudal werker, servant working for a nobleman’. But cf. pl.n. Frohnau. Hugo Froner,M.-Trübau 1321.

Fro(h)reich (UGer.): pers.n. Frorîch. Cf. Frowin.

Fro(h)riep (LGer.): ‘early mature’. Also Fru(h)riep. A farmer Froriep,Meckl. 1593.

Fro(h)wein:Vrowin ‘friend of cheerfulness’, popular everywhere in the Middle Ages (esp. among the nobility, thus still in the 16th c. with the Counts of Zimmern), is familiar to us through the Great Elector’s equerry, Froben (Thur.-Franc. form); and Johann Froben(ius), “prince of printers” (works of Erasmus) from Franconia. Also Frobein, LGer. Frowien. Froitin Mülner, Würzburg 1409, Henr. Vrowini,Rostock 1266, Vrowen de Nienkerken, Greifswald 1322, Hermann Frowin,Frkf. 1398, city councillor Nitsche Frobin,Brieg 1382. Hartmann Vrowin,Pfullendorf in Würt. 1276.

Frölich see Fröhlich.

Fröling see Fröhling.

Fromhein (Hbg.): ‘capable Heinrich [Henry]’, cf. Langhein, Frombkurt.

Fromm, Fromme: MHG vrum, vrom ‘capable, honorable, steadfast’. See also Frohm, Frahm. UGer. nickn. Frommel, LGer. nickn. Frommke, Fröhmke. LGer. patr. Frömming. Expanded in MHG to vrumman: Frommann ‘honorable man, steadfast man’.

Frommer, Frömmer: a competent, steadfast person. But cf. also pl.n. Frommern.

Fromm(h)old, Frommholz: reinterpreted from the pers.n. Fromolt, see Friemelt. Vromolt stratenveghere, Lüb. 1307. Cf. Helmolt: Helmholz.

Frömter see Fremder.

Fründt (LGer.) see Fründ.

Fronober: (Magdeburg) pl.n. Fronover near Grevenbroich.

Fronzek (U.Sax.): Slav. nickn. for Franz.

Frorath: pl.n. near Linz on the Rhine.

Froreich see Frohreich.

Froriep see Frohriep.

Frosch, Fröschel, Fröschle [frog]: attested several times as a house name, thus in Frkf. 1387 Hans beder zum Frosch,also Heincze Frosch;in Mainz 1317, J. zum goldenen Frosch [at the Golden Frog]; in Konstanz 1433, Konrad known as Fröschli in the house zum Frosch. Froschmul [frog mouth], Prague 1363, Freiburg 1459; Froschesser [frog eater], Reutlingen 1543.

Froschauer (Bav., Aust., Switz.): pl.n. Froschau (common in Bav.). Familiar from the family of printers Froschauer (Augsburg, Zurich) around 1500.

Froschhammer, Frohschammer (Bav.): pl.n. Froschham in Bav.

Fröse (E Ger.): cf. the Slav. pl.n. Frohse on the Elbe (Magdeburg); von Froze in Brsl.

Frost: ‘someone who suffers from being cold’; cf. Nic. Leydenfrost [suffer cold] Olmütz 1351, where there was also a Hannus Leydenhunger [suffer hunger] 1453; in Brsw. 1378 Lydenkumber [suffer sorrow]. Ulrich Frost,Rottweil 1200, Nikl. Vrost,Glatz 1383.

Frotscher: from Frotschau.

Frötscher (Tyrol): Thoman Fretscher on the Frötscher farm near Brixen 1535.

Frowein see Frohwein.

Frubrich: from Frohburg in Sax. like Hubrich from Ho(h)burg in Sax. (see also Fellbrich; Bahlow SN, p. 87).

Früchte: pl.n. Früchte in Westph., pl.n. Frücht near Koblenz.

Frücht(e)nicht (LGer.): corruption of Fürchtenicht(s) [fear nothing]. Hinr. Vruchtenicht,Lüb. around 1350, Hinr. Frochtenicht,Han. 1515.

Früh [early]: one who gets up early (like Frühauo. Opposite: Späth [late]. Heinrich der Früege,Zurich 1295. Cf. Frühinsfeld [early to the field], Frühwacht [awake early], Frühwirt [early inn-keeper], Frühbeck [early baker].

Frühauf see Früh. (Cf. Baldauf, Späthauf).

Both names Frühauf [up early] and Spät [late] are found in the present-day family von Speth! (Brech. I, p. 515). Früuff,Liegnitz 1384, Hsw. 1397, Früauff,Brünn 1365, etc. Cf. Langenacht [long night], Liegnitz 1368 (Bahlow SN, p. 125; Schwarz, p. 99).

Frühbrodt, Frühstück [breakfast] means someone who rises early for his work, one ‘who goes early to the field’. Hans Früstück,Frkf. 1473. Cf. Früetrunk [early drink] 1495.

Frühbuß see Friebös. But Frübeiß(er), Munich, Nbg., = ‘early eater’.

Frühinsfeld (Nbg.) see Früh.

Frühling seeFröhling.

Frühwald (Munich, Nuremberg): probably loc.n. like Früholz.

Frühwein (Munich) see Frühbrodt.

Frühwirt (freq. in Vienna) see Früh.

Fründ (LGer.) = Freund [friend]. Also Fründt, Fröndt, L.Rhine Frind (Dutch Devrient). Herder Vrünt,Stralsund 1343, N. Vrönt, Lüb. 1323, Levevrünt, Greifswald 1307, Vrendeke,Greifswald 1331, Oldevrind,Rostock 1267.

Fruzke see Fronzek. Cf. Bluschke.

Fruth (Bav., Würt.): MHG vruot ‘intelligent, smart’. Also Fruthmann. Auberlin Fruot, Würt. 1501.

Fruttiger (Switz.): from Fruttigen in Aargau.

Frye (LGer.) see Frie, Frei.

Fuchs [fox], Füchsel, LGer. Voß: sometimes ‘sly as a fox’, sometimes‘red-haired’,sometimes also a house name. (Nikol. Vulpeß de domo zem Fuchse [Lat. Nikol. Fox of the house zem Fuchse]1269). L.Rhine Vößgen, Vossen; patr. Vössing. Fuchsschwanz [fox’s tail], like Fuchszagel, sometimes means a furrier, cf. Hannos vochsczal pellifex[furrier],Brsl. 1367.

Fuchsbichler (Bav., Aust.): from Fuchsbühel [fox hill], Fuchshügel.

Füchtbauer [spruce farmer], Füchter, Füchtenbusch, etc., all UGer.-Bav., see FNs Feicht-, Feucht-. From the name of a dwelling by a spruce woods. Also Füchtenkort.

Fude in Swab. may mean ‘swampy place’ (like Fade, Faude). But cf. also MHG fude-nol ‘mount of Venus’, Hans Fudwengel, Moravia 1414, from MHG vut ‘vulva’, vüdel ‘girl’.

Fuderholz, Fuderwein (only in old documents) mean a wood or wine carter. Fuderholcz,Brsl. 14th c., Blazko Fuderweyn,Prague 1405.

Füg(e), Fügel (UGer. like LGer. Vöge = ‘fitting, suitable, skillful’) (MHG vuoc, vüege). Also Fuge, Fugmann, Fügmann, from MHG vuoge ‘skillfulness, skill’: Hermann mit der vuge,Brsl. 1352; Berthold Füge,Rottweil 1304, Heinrich Fügeli,Göppingen 1303.

Fügenschuh, Fiegenschuh (Allgäu): ‘make the shoe fit’, hence a shoemaker.

Fügenspan (UGer.) = ‘settle the dispute’, opposite: Dichtenspan ‘cause a dispute’, Görlitz 1490. Jacob Fügespan,Eger 1374.

Füger, Fügner (UGer.) = a public steward, marshal. Hykman Füger, Chrudim 1399. A pl.n. Fügen in Zillertal.

Fugger (UGer.): merchant family and firm in Augsburg, famous through Jakob Fugger the Rich around 1500. Actually Fucker (cf Brugger for Brucker), from late MHG fucker (attested in Graben, Bav., in 1367) = ‘shears for shearing sheep’, cf. Wollfucker [wool shearer]. Mertt Fukcher,Moravia 1414. Also related are Fuckert, Fuckart. Cf. also Nickel Fucker, Glatz 1355.

Fuhl: (LGer.) = faul ‘bad, rotten; lazy’. Thid. Vule,Stettin 1352. Also Vul-ars, near Hildesheim 1489, Vulebeyn, Calbe 1381. Vul-ei, Col. 1197, Vuleworst, Danzig 1397, Vulebresem, Ro. 13th c. (Bresem = Brachsen: a fish).

Fuhlbohm (LGer.): from the dwelling by Faulbaum. See also Faulbaum.

Fuhlendorf (freq. in Hbg.): pl.n. near Segeberg, also near Barth.

Fühling: pl.n. Fühlingen near Cologne.

Fühlsiek: ‘rotten low place’. Heyno Vûlzyk, Hbg. 1362. Cf. Fuhlenbeck, -brock, -riede, -twiete.

Fuhr (LGer., Hbg.): loc.n., living by a Fuhr [ford, ferry]. Cf. Anderfuhr, Vanderfuhr, Wasserfuhr, Windfuhr; Langfuhr (Danzig).

Führ(er) = ‘carter, waggoner’, rarely = ‘leader’. Contracted form Führ, cf. Wagenführ. MHG vüeren ‘to carry, have for sale’ (trade goods), cf. Brotführer, Kornführer, Mehlführer, Weizenführer, Eisenführer, Lehmführer, Ziegelführer [carter of bread, grain, flour, wheat, iron, loam, tiles] (Bahlow, Liegnitzer Familiennamen,p.148). In Brsl. already a FN in 1390: Nic. Fürer czichener [drayman].

Fuhrhop (LGer.): loc.n. like Fuhrberg; -hop ‘heap, hill’, cf. Stenhop, Sandhop.

Fuhrmann = ‘waggoner, carter’. Johann Fischart observed correctly, as early as the 16th c., that “all Silesians are called Fuhrmann” (cf. G. Hauptmann’s Fuhrmann Henschel).Franke der vurman,Liegnitz 1386, Mathis Furman textor [Lat. ‘weaver’], Brsl. 1392. Fuhrmeister means a supervisor of carting activities.

Führsen, Fürs(s)en (LGer.): Hans Füers, piscator [Lat. ‘fisherman’], son: Fürssen, Hbg. 1520.

Fuhse (Hbg.): the Fuse River near Celle or pl.n. Fuse in Lausitz. (Bahlow ON, p. 153).

Fulbrecht, Fulpracht see Volk-brecht.

Fuld(e), also Fulda (the latter also Jewish) means a man from Fulda in Hesse. Cf. village and creek Fulde near Fallingbostel: Wiczel von Fulde,Frkf. 1397; Conrad Fuldener,Mainz 1302: today Füldner. Besides Fulde there is also the dialect form Fulle (Nikl. Full, Fuldt,16th c.), but cf. pl.n. Fullen on the Ems.

Fulderer (Frkf. around 1380) = ‘torturer’ (MHG vultern ‘to torture’).

Fulfs, Fülf(s): Fris., contracted from Fulklefs (Folkolfs) like Jülfs from Gudlefs (Godolfs); cf. Fulf Syberens = Folef Sibrandus 1387, Tyark Fulves 16th c. (F. Stark, p. 140). Likewise Lulfs, Lülf = Ludolfs.

Fülle: cf. MHG vülhe ‘female foal’. Stephel Fülher,Moravia 1414. Johann Fülhinzan,Baden 1441 (MHG = ‘milk tooth of a foal’).

Fulle see Fullmann.

Fülleborn (Sil.): a spring or well master.

Fuller (UGer.) ‘fuller’ (MLat. fullare ‘to full’).

Füller (UGer.): ‘reveler, glutton’ (MHG vüller). Sweiklin Füller,Tyrol 1418. Cf. Füllendrüssel [fill the throat], Kärnten 1460 (like Frettendrüssel). L.Rhine Füllers. Secondary form: Füllert.

Füllgrabe, Füllegrabe (Sil., Hesse): sentence name ‘fill the ditch’, Völlegraben,Liegnitz 1397, Füllegrabe,Frkf. 1344.

Fülling: (LGer.) probably = UGer. Füller ‘glutton’; MLG vullinc ‘gluttony’. Adolf Vulling,Westph. 1280.

Füllkell: see Kelle.

Füll(e)krus (UGer.) = Füllkrug [fill the pitcher] (sentence name) means an innkeeper, as do Füllebecher, Füllebier, Füllewein, Fülskrügel (Iglau 1364). Cf. Füllschüssel (also Räumschüssel), LGer. Vüllegrape [grape = ‘pot’]. Also Lehrenkraus.

Fullmann (Hbg.): from Fullen (a bog village near Meppen on the Ema).

Fullrich = Volrich (Folrichs), see Volkrich. Cf. Fulrad for Folrad.

Füllsack, Fillensack [fill the sack] means a plunderer, probably also a robber knight. “Lerenbiutel und Füllensac pflegent des hoves naht und tac” [Empty-the-purse and Fill-the-sack frequent the court day and night], says Hugo of Trimberg around 1300 in the Renner,line 9035. Cf. Vüllesseckel,Brsl. 14th c., Füllsack,Dettelbach 1412.

Füllschüssel see Füllekrus. Vülleschüssel,Brsl., Prague, 14th c.

Fülscher (freq. in Hbg.) see Fölser. Cf. Ritscher = Fris. Ritser.

Fülster (Hbg.) = Fölster. Fuls, Fulst (Hbg.) see Fulfs.

Fundengod (LGer.) = ‘found property’, one who has easily come into possession of property, opposite: Verlorengut [lost property], Basel around 1300. Vundengod in Hbg., Lübeck, Rostock, Stralsund around 1300. Cf. Vorleghenegod (‘lent out property’) in old Lübeck. A Vundenekonink in Stralsund 1345.

Fündling = Findling (MHG vündelinc) ‘foundling’.

Fünfschilling, Fünfheller, Fünfpfund, Fünfpfennig, Fünfmark, Fünfunzen, Fünfschock, Fünfstück [‘five’ + coin name] refer to required rent and tax payments.

Funke, Funk [spark]: attested many times as a blacksmith’s name. Heinricus faber qui dicebatur Vunko [Lat. Heinrich the blacksmith who was called Vunko], Stralsund 1270, H. Funk klingensmid [bladesmith], Prague 1372, Tidemannus Funko faber,Rostock 1286. Cf. Fürfunke,Frkf. 1359. But also a knight Funke,Rüdesheim 1280.

Fünsterer see Finsterer.

Fürbom (fire tree) = Fürstake ‘stick for poking the fire’; means a stoker or fireman. Fürbom,Kassel 1390, Fürbaum,Frkf. 1387.

Fürböter (LGer.) = ‘fire lighter, stoker’. Cf Böteführ (sentence name). See also Fürbom, Fürstake. Johann Var(eke) in Lüb. 1321.

Fürbringer (UGer.): MHG vürbringer ‘informer, slanderer’. Göcz F., Auernhofen in Bav. 15th c.

Furch, Furchner (UGer.), also Furcher(t): Forch, Forcher(t) ‘by the pine forest’. Cf. Furhenawe 1260, Fürhenvelt,Swabia 1356.

Furcht (UGer.) see Furch. Cf. Forcht (Munich), also Forchthammer, Forchhammer, Forchheimer.

Fürchtenicht see Früchtenicht. Cf. Vorichtleben,Brünn 1343.

Fürderer see Förderer. Konrad Fürderer,Backnang 1286.

Fürenschild (Brsl. 1512), today Ferneschild (Nuremberg): ‘bear the shield’.

Fürhake (LGer.): ‘poker’; see also Fürstake under Fürbom. A. Vürhake,Lüb. 1329, C. Feuerhak,Budweis 1373.

Fürholzer (Bav.): from the pl.n. Fürholz, Fürholzen in Bav.

Fürkant see Vierkant.

Furkert (UGer.): loc.n. Furke (Ulrich Furker,Tyrol 1395).

Fürm-, Fürn-, see Firn-.

Fürneisen see Firneisen.

Fürnis = MHG firnis ‘varnish, make-up’.

Fürsattel (Nuremberg): field n.

Fürsich(t): UGer. (Munich), MHG vürsicht ‘care, caution’.

Fürprech (UGer.): MHG vürspreche, vorspreche ‘advocate in court, defender’. Peter vedeler der vorspreche,Liegnitz 1383, Philip Fürsprech,Alzey 1500. Still used today for ‘attorney’ in the Canton of Bern.

Fürst [prince]: like Herzog [duke] etc., probably a person in the service of a prince etc., occasionally also the bastard of a prince. Related words are Fürstl, Ferstl,Pilsen 14th c., modern Förstl (Munich), Ferstl (Nbg.). Cf. also Fürstensager (prince praiser), Brünn 1333, Fürstenlob [prince praise], Alsace 1539.

Furt(er), Furterer, Fürterer, Furtner, Fürtner (all UGer.): ‘living by a ford’. Also related are Furtmayr (Bav.), Furtmüller. See also Fort-.

Fürth(er): from Fürth near Nuremberg or similar places.

Furtwängler (Würt.): from Furtwangen or Furtwängle in Würt.; also Furtwanger (like Binswanger etc.), Fortwängler; -wang = ‘sloping meadow’.

Fuse see Fuhse.

Fuß [foot]: like Bein [leg], Hals [neck], Nase [nose], etc., from a striking feature; cf. Breitfuß [wide foot], Krummfuß [crooked foot], Kaulfuß (= clubfoot), etc. UGer. also Füßel, Füßle, Füßli (Switz.). LGer. Foth, Foot. An overview of the compounds is in Bahlow DN, p. 153; Heintze-Cascorbi, p. 205; Gottschald, p. 195.

Fußwasser [foot water] (UGer.): like Fussbach [foot creek] (creeks in Würt. and Baden) = ‘swamp water’. Cf. Fussach etc. (Bahlow ON, p. 153). Konrad Fusswasser,Würt. 1415. For Fussing cf. pl.n. Fussingen near Nassau. Fussenegger like Furtenegger (Aust.). Fußstetter, Fußwinkel.

Fust (LGer.), also Füsting, correspond to standard German Faust [fist], Fäustlin, Feistel. A man with a hard fist (cf. Hardevust). In Stralsund 1270 ff.: Wessel mit der vust, Ludolf mit der vust, in Barth 1470 Vüstken, in Han. 1301 Henr. Vustman [fist man]. Like Hardevust also Isernfust [iron fist] (cum pugno ferreo [Lat. with an iron fist], Stralsund 1277 ff.), cf. Isernhand [iron hand], Riga, Lüb. 1287.

Futh, Füth (UGer.): a sensuous person (MHG vut = ‘vulva’). Cf. Fut, Futbereit, Futnietel, Futpürstel,Bohemia and Moravia around 1350 (Schwarz, p. 102).

Fütterer (UGer.): MHG fuoterer ‘feed dealer’ (in Halle the feed dealers formerly had their own guild). Also a servant who feeds livestock: Futterknecht. Also Futterhäcker, Futterhecker, Futterschneider; Futtermenger (like Strohmenger, Fettmenger, Fischmenger) = ‘dealer’. Bechthold Fuderer,Frkf. 1387, Jakob der Vütrer,Basel 1280. H. Fütrer,Brünn 1348. An Ulrich Füetrer was an epic poet and painter of coats of arms at the court in Munich around 1475.


Gaarde (Hbg.): from Gaarden near Kiel.

Ga(a)rz, Gaartz: Slav. pl.n. freq. in Meckl., also in Pom., Brandenburg. Cf. Gartz on the Oder River.

Gäb (UGer.): MHG gaebe ‘welcome, pleasant’. Hans Gäb,Biberach 1371.

Gabain (von G.): unless Slavic, the Arthurian knight Gawain, Gawan may be the source of the name, also in the Silesian region. Cf. Gawin,Knight of Abschatz, Liegnitz 1332; Colonel Hannos Gawen (Gabin), 1396; Stephan Gaban,Moravia 1414.

Gabb(e), Jabbe: Fris. pers.n., cf. Gabbo Holdinga, 15th c. Related is Gabbert, likewise Gobbe: Gobbert; Gebbe: Gebbert.

Gabbert: (Magdeburg) pl.n. Gabbert in Pom.

Gabel, Gabler: may derive from the word for fork (‘Gabel’), pitchfork (the eating fork did not come into use until the 16th c.), cf. Heugabler [Heu = ‘hay’]. Gabel however is also a field name (and house name: zur Gabelen,Breisach 1515). The E Ger. names Gablonz, Gablenz freq. derive from Slav. jablon ‘apple tree’: Hans von der Gabel, Liegnitz 1416; P. Gabel, Liegnitz 1420; Herman Gabel, Ro. 1297, cf. pl.n. Gabel on the Havel River. But Gablo de Gabelnstein, Würt. 1266! Also Gabler, Gäbler: Walther Gabeler, Prague 1354 (cf. “and he moved up over the Gebeler [=Gabler Pass] toward Prague” 1391); Johann Gebeler, Brsl. 1353, P. Gebeler, Liegnitz 1429. But UGer.: P. called Gabeler, Basel 1275, derives from the field name or means fork maker, also Gumbert Gabeler,Wimpfen 1265.

Gäbel, Gebel (UGer.): MHG gebel ‘scull, head’ (gable), cf. Schwitzgäbele, Schwitzgebel [schwitzen = ‘to sweat’]; MHG geißgebel ‘goat head’. Heinrich Gebel, Konstanz 1259, Ulrich Gebli, Wangen 1359. Cf. Felleng(i)ebei, Zerreng(i)ebel [zerren = ‘to tear’].

Gabelenz (von der G.) see Gablenz.

Gabelsberger: from Gabelsberg near Freising in Bav.

Gaberl (Bav.), Gaberle (Swab.), Gaber = Gabriel.

Gabert (Sil.): dialect form for Gebert = Gebhart, like Abert for Ebert (Bahlow SN, p. 35).

Gablenz: E Ger.-Slav. pl.n. in Silesia, Lausitz freq., also Gabelenz in Sax., Gablonz in Bohemia (from Slav. jablon ‘apple tree’).

Gabler, Gäbler see Gabel.

Gabriel (Hebrew ‘God’s fighter’), one of the three archangels of the Old Testament together with Michael and Raphael. As first name and FN freq. in Catholic S Germany; sh.f. Gaberl, Gäberlein, with Slav. suffix Gabrisch; patr. is Gaberler in Austria.

Gach, Gäch (UGer.): MHG gâch ‘fast, impetuous’; cf Gächauf, Gehauf (Knight Konrad Gächuf,Stuttg. 1497). In field names it means sloping, steep: Horngach(er) in Tyrol.

Gachenbach: pl.n. near Augsburg (Bahlow ON, p. 155).

Gachnang: pl.n. in Thurgau (Switz.); likewise Backnang, Bettnang [wang = ‘sloping meadow’]

Gack, Gackl, Gäckle (UGer.) = MHG geck ‘childish, foolish’, also Gagg (Swab. ‘naive’).

Gade (freq. in Hbg.), Gaden: shows LGer. -a- for original -o- (short), therefore Gode = Godefrid, Godeschalk. Cf. in 13th c. Hamburg filius domini Goden [son of lord G.]. Likewise Bode, Boden: today Bade, Baden. Cf. Gadde = Godde.

Gäde, Gädcke, Gädecke (LGer.) = Göde, Gödeke = Godefried; -a- stands for -ö- since around 1600, as in Bädeker for Bödeker or Kähler for Köhler. Also Jähde besides Jöde; Gäthke besides Gödtke, Fris. Gädje; younger forms are: Gädt, Gäth; L.Rhine-Fris. Gädjens, Gädgens besides Gödkens.

Gadebusch: pl.n. in Meckl., Slav. like Gadegast near Jüterbog (cf. Radegast).

Gad(e)mer, Gadamer, Gädem(l)er (UGer.): MHG gadem, gaden ‘wooden shed, small general store’, MHG gademer ‘carpenter’ (cf. Steffan Sibengaden,occupational surname 1398); Friderich der Gedemler,Villingen 1344. But MHG gadem-man ‘shopkeeper’, cf. Berthold undern gaden,Worms 1304.

Gädertz (L.Rhine) = Göd(d)ertz = Godeharts (son), likewise Gädgens = Gödkens.

Gadesmann (LGer.) = Godesmann =God’s man (= ‘monk, friar’, etc.), UGer. Gotzmann. Cf. Godeshertzog,Pyrmont 1592.

Gadewohl, Gadewoltz (Hbg.): from loc.n. Gadewold, Gadewald, likewise Rewohl, Rewohld from pl.n. Rewold; the FN Wohl came originally from: van dem Wohlde (LGer. Wohld = Wald ‘forest’). In Holstein compare pl.n. Gadeland.

Gädke see Gäde.

Gadow (Hbg., Rostock): pl.n. in Meckl.

Gädt see Gäde.

Gäffgen (LGer.) see Geffken (Geveke = Gevehard =Gebhard); also Gäfcke.

Gaffron: Slavic pl.n. near Breslau. There was a noble family von Prittwitz and Gaffron.

Gafner (Switz.): named after the dwelling, cf. zen Gafinen ‘near the huts’ (a family from the Valais).

Gagelmann (Hbg.): pl.n. Gagel in Altmark area, cf.Metelmann, Schwießelmann.

Gagern (von): Slav. pl.n. on Rügen Island (1290 Gawere).

Gagg see Gack.

Gahde, Gähde see Gade, Gäde.

Gahl, Gahlmann: related to a Slav. pl.n. like Gahlen (compare the FN von Gahlen), cf. Gahlenz near Chemnitz. Godeke Ghale,Barth (Pom.) 1411. A pl.n. Gahlen also near Dorsten on the Lippe River.

Gähler see Gehler.

Gahm: from Gahme near Pößneck in Thur.: cf. pl.n. Gahmen in Westph. (see Bahlow ON, p. 156).

Gahr, Gahrmann (Hbg.): LGer. (like Fris. Jahr, Jahrmann) = Germann =Gerhard, Gerwin, Gerlef, Gerold, etc. Documented: Gereman around 1250 (Lüb., Ro.). Garbrand sometimes stands for Gerbrand, Garmer for Germar, Garwig for Gerwig, Garbade for Gerbode, Garfs for Gerolfs.

Gährs (Hbg.), Gähring see Geers, Gering.

Gahrtz see Gaarz.

Gäht, Gähtgens see Gäde. Also Gäth.

Gaida, Gaidus, Gaidies: Lithuanian (cf. gaidis ‘rooster’).

Gaier, Gayer (Austr., Bav.) see Geier.

Gaiken see Geiken.

Gail (UGer.) see Geil. For Gailer see Geiler.

Gailing, Gailinger: pl.n. Gailingen near Konstanz.

Gaiser (UGer.) see Geißer.

Gaiß- see Geiß-.

Gaitzsch: pl.n. in Sax.

Galander (Berlin): MHG = ‘(a type of) lark’. Hannus Galander, Liegnitz 1419.

Galfert see Gelfert.

Galgan: MHG, ‘galingale root’ (a spice).

Gall, Galle, Galla, Gallas, Gallasch, Galluschke (E Ger., Slav.), Gallmann and similar are based on the name of the Irish saint, Gallus, founder of the monastery St. Gallen in Switz. See also Gawel (Pol.) and Havel, Habel (Czech). Galle Hug, Würt. 1506, Galle Hosfetel, Han. 1550. Also Galley, Gally, Gallan(d). Cf. Gallan v.Sedlczan, Glatz 1482. But Jordan Galant,Ro. 1280 = “Alantwein”.

Galler (UGer.): patr. of Gall (Gallus); or can mean ‘one from St. Gallen’: Hans der Galler =Johann von St. Gallen,1366-67 (Brech., p. 526). See also Gallert.

Galling: cf. pl.n. Gallingen in E Prussia.; UGer. Gallinger.

Gallus see Gall.

Galm: probably related to MHG galm ‘noise’, but also pl.n. Galm near Magdeburg or Galmen in E Prussia (Bahlow ON, p. 163: ‘stinking body of water’). Urich Galm,Prague 1320.

Galster (freq. in Nbg.: UGer. = MHG galster ‘magic incantation, deceit’. Hainrich Gälsterli,Überlingen 1273.

Galzer see Gelzer.

Gambke (E Ger.-Slav., Sil.) cf. pers.n. Gamba,Trebnitz 1204.

Gämlich see Gehmlich.

Gamm (Hbg., Meckl.): pl.n. Gamme near Hbg., pl.n. Gamm in Meckl. (Heinrich de Gamma, 1218).

Gammel (Mnch.), Gammerl: MHG-Bav. = ‘fun, pranks’.

Gammelin: pl.n. near Schwerin.

Gamper, Gamperl, Gampl, Gamp(p); also Gampler, Gemperle, Gempl: all are UGer., = ‘prankster, joker, clown’ from MHG gampe(l)n ‘to romp, leap’, gampel, gempel ‘clownery, burlesque’. Gampler, Riedlingen 1330, Gamper, Würzburg 1384,Liegnitz 1413, Gamp, Breisgau area 1461, Gamperlin, Gemperli, Bohemia 1380.Cf. also pl.n. Gamp in Switz. In Tyrol also a field name: die Gampe, der Gampen = ‘mountain pasture’, hence there FN Gampenrieder, 1522.

Gampig (Silesia) see Gambke.

Gamradt, Gamroth: is an E Ger. name and can only be explained as of Slavic origin, a word for a glass drinking vessel as the note “artista Kotrolff vel gamerate” (Reichert, p. 118) [artisan of a “kuterolf’ or gamerata] indicates with kuterolf meaning exactly such a drinking vessel (hence FN Guttroff). Evidence: in old Brsl. Gamerad, Gamerote; cf. pl.n. Gamredt near Pleß in Sil.; Peter Gamerat, Chrudim (Bohemia) 1399, Gamrat cerdo (tanner), Brünn 1365, Gamerat pincerna (tavern owner), Iglau 1367;Andreas Gameroth, Schönborn in Sil. 1411; Gammerat, Jammerath, Jameratze in Meckl. (according to Witte, p. 257it is Wendish), Eler Gammeratte,Lüb. 1374,Jaspar Gamradt, Stettin 1523, Gameratte,Barth 1416, Henze Gammerate, near Halle 1392. For the Slavic form compare Molderat, Utechorad. The E Ger. name can hardly be related to the name of Parzival’s father Gahmuret, which occurred in Bav. a few times as first name (E. Kegel, p. 74),(cf. Gameryt v.Särching, Austr. 1380, Gamareth Pienzenauer, U.Bav. 1475).

Gand (UGer., Tyrol), Gandner, Gandler, Gandl, Gandlgruber, Indergand: named after the dwelling near a mountain stone field or scree, MHG gant, Rhaeto-Romanic gonda; Ulin Gander 1357,Jäclin Gändle,Tyrol 1377(Tarneller, p. 45).

Gandrich, Ganderke see Jander (Polish for Andreas [Andrew]).

Gänge see Genge.

Ganghofer: from Gankhofen in Bav.

Gangler, Gangeler, Gengler (UGer.): from MHG gengeler, gengel ‘traveling merchant, buyer (of coins)’. Also Gänger, Genger, Konr. v. Bissingen called Gangeler, Würt. 1289.

Gangolf, Gangloff, Gangl (UGer.): Saint Gangolf (reversal of Wolfgang) was especially popular in Bav.; for the sh.f. compare “Gangl, Stefl, Lindl” in the works of Hans Sachs; Gängli, Füssen 1387, Gengel,Budweis 1396.Also Ganglbauer, likewise Jodlbauer, Mertlbauer.

Ganke(l): cf. Johel Gankerl,Budweis 1396.See also Janke.

Gann, Ganner (Tyrol) see Gand, Gander.

Ganser (UGer.): MHG ganser ‘gander’; surname of a goose dealer or gooseherd (also Gansmann, Gansner, Gänsler, Gansler); Swab. Gonser, Gaunser. Hence indirect occ. names: Gans, Gansl. Gänsli, Genslein (Gänselin,Eger 1183),Centr.Ger. Gensichen; cf. Seidl mit der gans [with the goose], Brünn 1365,H. mit der enten [with the duck], Brsl. 1345.The following are (derisive) nicknames: Gansauge, Gansaugl [goose eye], Gansohr [goose ear], Ganshals [goose neck], Gensefuß [goose foot], Gensebein [goose leg], Gensekopf [goose head], Gensschedel [goose head], Gensveder [goose feather], Gensebiß [goose bite], Gensevraß [goose feed], Gänswürger, Genswürker [geese choker]. Gensfleisch [goose meat] is a patrician name in Mainz (also house name), which became well known through the inventor of the printing press, Henne Gensfleisch zum Gutenberg, 1400.

Ganshorn (Würt.): probably a field name [here: Horn = ‘nook, corner’] like Fuchshorn [Fuchs = ‘fox’] etc. Cf. Gansbichler, Gansbiller (likewise Fuchsbichler): Cunrad an dem Gensebühel [goose hill], 1279.Ganseder (like Fuchseder): from the loc. name Gans-öd [öd = ‘wasteland’]. Hermann Gansweide [Weide = ‘pasture’], Külsheim 1299.Johann Genseweide, Liegnitz 1351.

Gansloser (Würt.): from the pl.n. Ganslosen.

Ganster (Pal., Bav., Aust.): MHG ganster ‘spark’ (also ganeist, gneist).

Gantenbein (Switz., Würt.): ‘goose leg’ (cf. Rhaeto-Romanic ganta ‘wild goose’). Conrad Gantaben, Bludenz 1487. But Gantenbrink (Westph.) ‘goose field’ is LGer. (gant, ganter ‘gander’), likewise Gantenbeck in Meckl.

Ganter, Gantner (UGer.): the auctioneer (MHG gant ‘court-ordered auction’, from Ital. incanto). Benz derGanther, Rottweil 1321, der Gantner, Stuttg. 1350 (see Nied, p. 80).

Gan(t)sch, Gantscher (E Ger.-Slav.): related to pl.n. Gantsch (deGancz, Ganczka in old Brsl.); cf. pl.n. Ganschow in Meckl. Similar FN Ganzke, Ganzig (from pl.n. Ganzig near Oschatz in Sax., cf. Danzig.).

Gantwurzel (LGer.): means ‘gander root’ (MLG gante ‘gander’). Cf. Gantenbrink, Gantenbeck, Ganteföhr.

Gan(t)z (UGer.): is the spelling for “Gans” [goose] in Würt., see Ganser. Also Ganzmüller besides Gansmüller, from the loc. name Gansmühle [goose mill].

Ganzenmüller (UGer.) = Ganzmüller, Gansmüller: from the loc. name Gansmühle (MHG ganze, ganse ‘gander’ or gans ‘goose’) [Mühle = ‘mill’].

Ganzer (Hbg.): Slav. pl.n. in the district of Ruppin. But UGer. = Ganser.

Ganzke, Ganske (E Ger.-Slav.): cf. pl.n. Gansekow; Gantsekendorp: Gantschendorfnear Demmin.

Ganzlin: pl.n. in Meckl.; cf. Penzlin, Zepelin, etc.

Ganzwich = Ganswig: pl.n. in Westph.; de Ganswic, Ro. 1268, likewise Ronewic, Ro. 1267.

Gapitus = Agapitus (Greek ‘beloved’), martyr, patron of Kremsmünster, Aust.

Gapp (UGer.): probably loc. name, cf. Gapper, Gappmeyer.

Garbade (LGer., Bremen) = Gerbode (Germanic pers.n. meaning ‘spear lord’), cf. Bade = Bode. Hartwig Gerbode, Hbg. 13th c.

Garbe (LGer., Hbg., freq. in Ro.) is a variant of Garve, see Garben. But for LGer. Splittgarb see Gerber.

Garben, Garbens, Garbs (LGer.): originated from Gerwin through Garwin, Garwen (documented in Bremen); Gerwin (‘spear friend’) was popular in the coastal area of the North Sea. The variants Garvens, Garves, Garvs, Garfs, however, are patrs. of Garve (besides Garbe); compare also Gervens, Gerves, Gerwes, Gerbes which are variants of equal origin. The LGer. change from ­er- to –ar- dates back to around 1300.

Garber(s), LGer. (freq. in Hbg.), from Gerbert as Harbers from Herbert; patr. Garberding (Westph.) like Harberding. Garber (Garver) may also mean Gerber, ‘tanner’; cf. Farber (Farwer) and Ferber. Gerbertus, Hbg. 1249, Garbertus 1309. Likewise Garbrecht besides Gerbrecht.

Garbrader, Garbreder: see Brader.

Gardeler: (Bremen) see Gördeler.

Gardner (LGer.) see Gärtner.

Gardthausen: pl.n.

Gareis, Gareisen: ‘ready forged iron’, name of a blacksmith, like Findeisen, see there. Albrecht Gareysen, Bamberg 1286. Cf. Garleder.

Garfs, Garves (Fris.) see Garbens.

Garken (Kiel): = Gerken (Gereke = Gerhard), with LGer. –ar- for –er- as in Harken for Herken (Hereke).

Garlef(f): LGer.-Fris. = Gerleff (1435), Gerlevus, Ro. 1264, is a pers.n. like Detlef, Ricklef, Alef, Melef; -lef means -leib ‘offspring, heir’ or -lof = ­olf ‘wolf’, both endings run together. Cf. also Gerloff, Garrelfs.

Garlich(s) see Gerlach.

Garling (Hbg., Ro.): LGer. = Gerling, Fris. Jarling; patr. of the names with Ger-.

Garlipp, Garlepp: pl.n. Garlipp near Stendal.

Garloff (freq. in Ro.) see Garleff.

Garmatz see Jarmatz.

Garmer, Garmers (LGer.) = Germar (ger ‘spear’, mar ‘famous’).

Garms (LGer.) = Garmens, Garmes, i.e. Ger-man(s), likewise Harms, Harmens = Her-man(s).Cf. FN Ga(h)rmann and Gehrmann, Germann (doc.: Germannus in Lüb.). Also Garmsen like Harmsen.

Garn, Garrn (Hbg., Berlin, Brsl.): like Hanfgarn [hemp yarn], may be an occ. name for the yarn drawer (Garnzieher), yarn winder (Garnwinder), or yarn dealer (Garnkäufer). Cf. Garnekoper,Berlin1453, Garnemester,Greifswald 1380, Garnzieher, Garnzüger,Brsl. 1324, Liegnitz 1346. (Bahlow, Liegnitzer FN, p. 141). The name Draht [wire] was for the wire drawer. But Slav. gorn- may appear in E Ger. names, cf. Garn: Gorn; Garny: Gorny, which may account for the frequency of Garn in Brsl.

Garner (UGer.) = ‘fisherman using yarn or nets’, thus in Schwyz (Switz.) 1537. Konrad der Garner [yarner], Villingen 1353.

Garrel(mann): from the town Garrel (Gor-la) in Oldenburg, like Scharrelmann from Scharrel (Scor-la) and Varrelmann from Varrel (Vor-la), all ‘swamp or bog places’ (Bahlow ON, pp. 157, 415, 503).

Garrels, Garrelts (Fris.) besides Gerrel(t)s means Gerold (‘wielding the spear’); cf. Garrelt (Gerold) Canninga, 1396; Gerlt Beninga, 1379; also Garold, Jerrold, Gerlts. (F. Stark, p. 167.)

Gars(ch)ke, Garski: E Ger.-Slav., cf. the pl.n. Garsedow, Garsena; for Garski cf. Gorski.

Garssen (von): pl.n. near Celle.

Garteis(en): MHG gart-îsen ‘spine, driving stick’. Name of a blacksmith like Gareis(en), Keckeis(en), Findeis(en), see there. Also Gartiser, Gerteiser (like Kolisern). Gerteis(en) comes from Gertisen,Basel 1290, Abelin Gertysen,Pforzheim 1381, Peter Gartysen,Denzlingen in Breisgau area 1450.

Gartenschlager (UGer.): related to the loc. name Gartenschlag, cf Feichtenschlager [spruce cutter], Merkenschlager, Weidenschlager [willow cutter].

Garthe: pl.n. near Cloppenburg. But also see Gartke.

Gartke, Jartke, Gartig, Gärtig, Gärtke, Gärthe, Garthe; E Ger.-Slav., cf. sh.f. Jarota of Jaroslaw. Related is the pl.n. Gartow.

Gartmann, Gartenmann (UGer.): the garden worker. Cf. Jörg Gartenflyß [flyß = Fleiß ‘diligence’], Würt. 1528. (Brech., p. 531), Hans im Garten,Würzburg 1409.

Gärtner (UGer. also without umlaut: Gartner): a gardener by profession, owner of a nursery on the edge of town or outside the city gates; as residents of a village the gardeners did not own a hide of land (like farmers) but just a gardening plot. (Bahlow SN, p. 105). Hence the names Baumgärtner, Baumgartner [tree gardener, orchard owner], Hopfengärtner, Hopfgartner [hop gardener], Krautgartner [cabbage and/or vegetable gardener]. The MHG epic writer Wernher der Gartenaere is known through his work Meier Helmbrecht,around 1240. See also Gartmann. Gardner is LGer.: Gerart Gardener (Gardeman),Col.1135.

Gartz: E Ger.-Slav. pl.n. (several), cf. also Gaarz, Garz. Related are Garzow, Garzau.

Gartzke: E Ger.-Slav.

Garve, Garve(n)s, Garvs see Garbe, Garbens, Garbs.

Garwig, Garweg (LGer.) see Gerwig.

Garz, Garzmann see Gartz.

Garzlaff: E Ger.-Slav. pers.n. (probably Gorislaw),cf. Firtzlaff, Tetzlaff, Gützlaff, Miltzlaff (Miloslaw), Burtzlaff (Borislaw), Fenzlaff, etc.

Gaschütz: Slav. pl.n. in Sax. like Nauschütz, Wildschütz, Dobschütz, etc. (-ütz corresponds to Slav. -ice).

Gasde: Slav. gosd ‘tavern, pub’.

Gasper(s) see Kasper(s)

Gaß, Gaßmann see Gaßner.

Gassen: cf. pl.n. Gassen near Sorau.

Gaß(n)er, Gäß(n)er, Geß(n)er (UGer.): living on Main Street (in a village). Arnold in der gassen [Gasse = ‘street, alley’], Ober-Alpfen 1266, Hainrich an der gassen,Tyrol 1316, Stephel bey der gassen,Nikolsberg 1414; Mathias Gasse,Litau in Moravia 1387, W. im gäßlein,Eßlingen 1343, Fridel Gaßner,Moravia 1414, Cl. Gaßmann,Waldkirch 1442; see also Geßler, Geßner. Compound names are: Holzgaßner [Holz = ‘wood, forest’], Kirchgasser [Kirche = ‘church’], Borngesser [Born = Brunnen = ‘well’]; some may also derive from pl.ns. ending in -gaß. See also Straßer.

Gast: actually ‘stranger’, then came to mean ‘guest’. Gerardus Gast,Col.1171, Hinr. Ghast,Lüb. 1319, Jacob Gesteli,Würt. 1353, thus Gästle (Swab.), Gastl (Bav.).

Gasteiger (UGer., Tyrol): MHG gá-steige ‘steep mountain trail’, several times as loc. name: Chuonrad Gasteyger,Ulten in S Tyrol 1308, G. am Gasteig,1513.

Gaster(s), Jaster, Jester (Fris.): patr. is Gesterding.

Gastgeb(e): MHG, ‘innkeeper’. Peter Gastgeb,Lundenbg. 1414. Nicknames: Nagengast [nagen = ‘to gnaw’, gast = ‘guest’], Rupfengast [rupfen = ‘to pluck’], Schreckengast [schrecken = ‘to scare’], Zerrengast [zerren = ‘to tear’], Seltengast [selten = ‘seldom, rare’], but also Ladengast [laden = ‘to invite, to load’], Schickengast [schicken = ‘to send’], Schirmengast [schirmen = ‘to protect’]. For Ziehengastsee Ziegengeist.

Gastram see Jastram.

Gatermann (freq. in Hbg.): name of origin.

Gathmann, Gathemann, Gathe (Hbg.): Gate is a field name (Gerd Gateman,Bremen 1465.).

Gätje(n), LGer. see Gödeke.

Gatter(er), Gattermann: living at the gate to the field, or the village gate (UGer.). Heinrich zu den Gattern (house name), Speyer 1361.

Gattke, Jattke, Gattig (cf. Gatschke, Jatsche, Gatschke): E Ger.-Slav.

Gatz Gatzke (E Ger.-Slav.): perhaps related to the pers.n. Gaczko,Brsl. 1328.

Gau (LGer., from Cologne to Königsberg): MLG gouwe ‘quick, cunning’. Copeke Ghowe, Stralsund 1324. Also ghoukremere [= Krämer ‘shop owner, grocer’], Stralsund around 1300. For the water word Gouwe in West Fris. Holland see Schönfeld, p. 23.

Gaub see Gaupp.

Gaubatz, Gaubitz, Gaubisch, Gaubig (E Ger.-Slav.) see Gubatz, Gubitz, Gubisch.

Gauch (UGer.): MHG gouch ‘cuckoo, fool’, Alem. Gäuchlin. LGer. Gokestert,Hildesheim 1350, Gauckstert in Westph. [LGer. stert = ‘tail’].

Gauck(e), Jauke, Jaukens also Geucke, Jeuck, Geuken are Fris. pers.ns. Cf. Aucke, Eucken.

Gaude, Gaudig, Gauditz, Gaudlitz are E Ger.-Slav.

Gaudeck, Gaudecker: pl.n. Gaudeck, cf. also Posseck(er), Rienecker, which are all derived from pl.ns. in the Franconian area.

Gauder, Gaudert: am Geuder, but also Gaude.

Gauer, Gauert: probably from the town Gauern near Gera in Thur., perhaps Gauernitz on the Saale River. But in the Rhine area the name derives from MHG gouwer ‘squire, farmer’, Wernher Gauwer,knight, 1283; Henne Gauwer,Frkf. 1387.

Gauger (UGer.): MHG gougern ‘to roam, to stagger’. Gaugenschädel [wobbling head].

Gauggele, Gaukele, Gaukel: UGer., ‘juggler, joker’; also Gaugler (from OHG gouggalâri).

Gaul: Swab.-Franc. word for horse; MHG gûl, which also means ‘beast, monster’; cf. Curd and Hartmann, brothers, who are called the horses (dy Gûle,Hesse 1388). Bschlagengaul means a blacksmith (who shoes horses).

Gaulke (E Ger.-Slav.): originally Gulke (Guleke),Guhlke, also Gohlke, Gelke, all related to Slav. gol- ‘naked, bald’.

Gaulrapp (UGer.): MHG rabe, rappe ‘raven’; thus the name was formed after a special kind of raven. Thoman Gaulrapp,Bav. 1438.

Gaumann (UGer.): MHG gouman ‘countryman’. Wernher Gouman,Mnch. 1170.

Gaumer (UGer.): MHG goumer ‘overseer, warden’. Also Gaumert, Waczlab Gaumer,Prague 1382.

Gaupp (Swab.), Gaub: dialect form for Gaab, Goob ‘gift’ (cf Auberle for Aberle, Oberle). Johann Appy called Gaupp,Biberach 1460.

Gauppel: Nicl. Gauppel,Odenwald 1495. Dialect form for Gopel (Gopel Berngoß, Vogelsberg 1374) = Gotpold; in the same area Vaupel stands for Vopel (=Volpert).

Gaus (LGer.) = Gans ‘goose’, cf. Gausepohl ‘goose puddle’, originally Goos, cf. Gosebrink, Gosebruch, Gosewisch. Related are Gäusgen, Gösgen in the Rhineland.

Gause: compare E Ger.-Slav. Gauske, Gaußig, also Guse, Guske, Gusewski. W. von Gusk, Gausk,Liegnitz 1406.

Gausrapp (UGer.) see Gaulrapp. Cf. Gaus(s)rab(e),Vienna 1297, 1339.

Gauß (Würt., freq. in Stuttg.): said to mean ‘goose’; cf Ulrich Gäußlin,Würt. 1427.

Gaut(z)sch: from Gautzsch in Sax. Cf. Kautzsch: pl.n. near Dresden. But Swiss Gautsch means ‘fool’.

Gävert (freq. in Hbg.), Gäwert (LGer.) = Gevert = Gebhard. Cf. Geveke:Gäffgen, Gäfke.

Gawehn: E Ger.-Slav. name like Drawehn. Cf. Gawenda, Gawantke.

Gawlik (U. Sil.): nickname of Pol. Gawel = Gallus, likewise Hawlik from Czech Havel = Gallus. Related are Gawellek, Gawelka, Gawliczek (like Hawelka, Havlitschek). Cf. also Pawlik from Pawel (Paul), besides Pawellek, Pavliczek.

Gawor(ski) see Jawor(ski).

Gawron, Gaffron: pl.n. near Brsl. Related are Gawronski, Gawronska. Cf. Gagern (Gawern).

Gayen, Gayken (Hbg.) is patr. of Fris. Gay. Documented are the Frisians Gayko 1443and Allardus Gaicama 1499(Stark, p. 175).Similar: Auco, Aucama; Aiko, Haiko, Mayco, etc.

Gayler see Geiler.

Gebauer (E Ger.-Sil.-Austr.): MHG gebûr ‘villager, farmer’, member of a community of large landowners; cf. “dy gêmeyne der gebouwer von Schibansdorf” [the community of the farmers of S], near Liegnitz 1372;Niclas Frytag, gebower of Mertin Schelnschmyd, Liegnitz 1419, Gebomwervynd [enemy of the farmers], Liegnitz 1388. Simon Ungebauer [the German prefix un- means ‘not’], Liegnitz 1544.Incorrect stress of the word on the first syllable brought about the nonsensical spelling Gehbauer. Cf. also Neugebauer, Halbgebauer, Junggebauer; LGer. Gebuhr, Niebuhr (Nigebur). Gburek in U. Sil. (Bahlow ON, p. 105).

Gebb(e): Fris. sh.f. of Gebbert, Gebbers = Gebhard. Compare Ebbe from Ebbert; Abbe, Habbe, Jabbe, Tebbe, Wobbe, and others.

Gebecke: LGer. sh.f. of Gebhard, originally Geveke was the sh.f. of Gevehard; patr. Gebken. But LGer. fem. f.n. Gebeke =Gerburg.

Gebel see Gäbel. Cf. LGer. Gevel (Hogevel).

Geben (Würt.): only in documents, rare sh.f. of Gebwin, shortened Gebe. Cf. Cuonrad Geben and Gebene his brother, Freiburg 1289,Eberhard called Gebeno,Eßlingen 1261.Concerning the form cf. Egenn: Egen: Ege (in Villingen, where also Geben, Gebe is found).

Geberl (Bav.) see Gebhard.

Geber(t), Gebers: shortened from Gebhard like Ebert, Ebers from Eberhard. Cf. LGer. Gevert, Gevers like Evert, Evers. Patr. is Geberding (Westph.).

Gebhard(t), Franc. Göbhardt, contracted Gebert, LGer. Gevert: name was popular in the Middle Ages (OHG geba ‘gift’, hard ‘bold, brave’, also ‘generous with gifts’). Acting according to the meaning of his name was the saint and bishop Gebhard of Konstanz around 900,who was a generous friend of the poor peasants in the Black Forest (loaves of bread are still blessed today in his name: so-called “Gebhardsbrote”).

Gebken see Gebecke.

Gebler see Gäbler under Gabel. Also consider pl.n. Geblar in Thur.

Gebsattel: pl.n. near Rothenburg on the Tauber River, doc.: Gebesedelen (sedel ‘dwelling, residence’).

Gebser (Erfurt, Halle, Magdeburg): from the town Gebese north of Erfurt. Wilhelm Gebeßer,Erfurt 1574.

Gebühr: pl.n. near Garmisch.

Geburek see Gebauer.

Gebwein. Germanic pers.n. Gebwin (geba ‘gift’, win ‘friend’), cf. Gebhard. Konrad Gebwin,Heilbronn 1310.

Gechter, Gächter (UGer.): a stormy person (MHG gächte ‘hurry, impetuosity’). For Gech, Gäch see Gach.

Geck: MHG = ‘silly, foolish person’. UGer. also Gegg. Cf. Arnold Geckli,1323,M. Göckli,Würt. 1351. Also Ge(c)kler: Johann Geckeler,Baden 1322.

Gedat, Gedatis (E Pruss.-Lith.): -atis, -at (-eitis, ­eit) means ‘belonging to, son of; cf. Albat, Adamat. Related are Gedan, Geduhn, Gedaschke, Gedamke (like Adamke), Gedanke.

Gedde (LGer.-Fris.) and Geddert probably correspond to Godde, Gödde, Goddert. Cf. Hermann Gedde,Attendorn 1437.For the swamp related word ged however (as in Geddingmoor in Holland, Geddenberg in the L.Rhine area etc.) see Bahlow ON, p. 159.

Gedecke, Gede, Gedemann (LGer.) see Gäde, Gädecke.

Gedemer (UGer.) see Gademer.

Geeb see Gebe. Conrad Geb,Reutlingen 1456.

Geede see Gäde.

Geefke see Geffken.

Geelhaar see Gehlhaar.

Geerha(h)n (Meckl.), Gerahn: Slav. like Mellahn.

Geer(c)ken see Gerken.

Geerd(t)s, Geertz see Gerd(e)s. Cf. Fris. Geers.

Geertsema (Fris. patr.) see Geertz, Gerds.

Geese, Gese, Gehse, Geseke, Gesemann (LGer.) see Giese, Gieseke. Compare Freese: Friese.

Geest (von der): geest, the dry, sandy region in N Germany, which is situated higher than the so-called “Marsch” (cf. Geesthacht near Hbg.). In Westph. also the name Geist (auf der Geist near Freckenhorst: up der Gest,1292); also Geistmeyer. L.Rhine-Dutch Vergeest = van der Geest [from the geest]. But E. Gesteman 1301,M. Geestemann,Bremen 1667 means the Geeste River in Bremen (Bahlow ON, p. 159), cf. Huntemann: from the Hunte River.

Geeve = Geve (LGer.) = Gevehard. In old Hbg., Ro., Bremen around 1250-1300. Geve, Geveke besides Gevehard;cf. Gevers, Geffken, Geffe, Geffert.

Geffe, Geffken (Hbg., Bremen), doc. as Geve, Geveke(n),besides Geffert, Geffers-- all mean Gebhard (LGer. Gevehard, Gevert, Gevers).Still 1584 Achim Geveke in Meckl. See also Geeve, Gewe, Gewecke. Similar Leveke, Lethard, Leffert.

Geflitter (UGer.): MHG gevlitter ‘giggling’, vlittern ‘to whisper, to caress’.

Gefüge: MHG gevüege ‘skilled, skillful’; cf. the brothers Gefüge,Tentschel near Liegnitz 1478. David Gefüge,steward at a ducal court, Liegnitz 1523. Opposite: Fridrich Ungevüge,Bamberg 1260.

Gegenbauer (UGer.): farmer or villager living across from another.

Gegg, Geggle (UGer.) see Geck.

Gegner (UGer.): ‘from the surrounding area’ (MHG gegene). Eberhard Geginer,Mengen, Würt., 1280.

Geh(auf): UGer., see Gäch, Gächauf.

Geheeb: MHG gehebe ‘important; well-meaning’.

Gehl, Gehle (freq. in Hbg.) reveals itself to be an old Fris. pers.n. through the variants Gehlke(n), Gehlsen, Gehls, Gehling(s); doc. in Stade, Bremen etc. around 1300 along with Geleke, Geleken, Jeleke, Jeleken (first name Jelke in Friesland), today also Gelke(n), sh.f. of Geilmar, Gelmar, Geilbern, Gelbern.

Gehlen (von), Hbg.: from the field name and pl.n. Gehle, Geel, which means moist lowland in the LGer.-Westph. area; Bahlow ON, p. 160; also the name Gehlmann. But see also Gehl.

Gehler, Gehlert (Sax., U.Lausitz, Sil.): doc. as Gehlhaar ‘yellow hair, blond head’, e.g. Bartusch Geler (Gelhor),Görlitz 1422-46. The base form of the name is the strong adjective Geler (a yellow-haired pers., MHG gel ‘yellow’); analogous are Kaler [kahl = ‘bald’] (Kahler, Kahlert), Kleiner (Kleinert), Großer (Großert) etc., all in the same E Centr.-Ger. area from Thuringia to Silesia. For more information see BahlowSN, pp. 128-129. Cf. also Gel Michel,Brsl. 14th c., Mertin and Nicze Gele (brothers), Brsl. 1346. Gele was also a sh.f. of Gertrud (Liegnitz 1397, Brsl. 1345), from it derives the metronym. Hannus der Gelen [H. of the yellow-haired woman], Liegnitz 1381, H. Gelen son,Lahn area 1383.

Gehlha(a)r, Geelhaar, Gelhaar (espec. E Centr.-Ger.): the blond one, see also Gehler. A donkey driver mit dem gelen har [with the yellow hair], Jena 1426. Martin Gelhar (Gelhard!),Leipzig 1446, Andr. Gelhar,Merseburg 1502, Eckehart Gelhor,Brsl. 1351, Bartusch Geler (Gelhor),Görlitz 1426, Michel Gelert,Jena 1514. The secondary form Gehlhardt relates to Gehlert like Schweighardt to Schweickert (Swidger); this happened by way of analogy since the suffix -hart of pers.ns. changed to -ert as in Eckert from Eckhart (Bahlow Teuthonista 3, p. 33).

Gehlhose, Gehlhaas, Gehlärmel see Hose, Ärmel.

Gehlich, Gehlig (Sax.): unrounded form of Göhlich = Göhlke = Golick (Wendish ‘the bald one’).

Gehlken, Gehlsen see Gehl.

Gehm (E Ger.): cf. pl.n. Gehmkendorf in Meckl. (Slavic like Dalekendorp, Malekendorp).

Gehmlich, Gämlich: MLG gemelik, MHG gemelich ‘waggish, roguish’. Johann Gemelike, Ro. 1294, Cunrad Gemelich, Col. 1192, H. Gämelich, Allgäu area 1451.

Gehr, Gehre (Hbg.), also Gehrs, Geers, Gehrke = Gero = Gerhard, Gerwin, Gerbert, etc. UGer. Gerle, Gerlin. See also Geer, Geeren, Geers (Grotegeers), Geertje (Fris. for Gerke). Margrave Gere, a hero at the Nibelungen court at Worms, was modelled on the historic Gero who fought for Emperor Otto I against the Slavs. Cf. UGer. Aberlin Gerensun, Würt. 1350.

Gehrbrecht see Garbers.

Gehrdau see Gerdau.

Gehrer (UGer.): derived from the field name Gere. Cf. “der Gerer”, Eßlingen 1349.

Gehrholz, Gehrels see Gerolds.

Gehring, Gering: a popular pers.n. in the Middle Ages: Gerung (UGer.) or Gering (LGer.), with the patron. ending -ing or -ung (arch.). LGer. Gering appears also in Fris. as Jering, now Jhering. Cf. Gering, Bremen 1350, Ro. 1270 (besides Gerung). Ge(h)rigk, Gehrich ist E Centr.-Ger.

Gehrke, Gehrken(s): in the Middle Ages popular sh.f. of Gerhard (Gerbrecht, Gerwin, Gerbrand, Gerbod, Gerwig, Germar and similar); doc. as Gereke, which in some cases changed to Garke(n), see there. Gehricke is E LGer. Gereke (Gerhard), a Pole, in Lüb. 1346.

Gehrlein, Gerle (UGer.). sh.f. of Gerhard, doc. as Gerli(n); Gerlo = Gerlach from the U. Rhine area (Socin, p. 17).

Ge(h)rmann (freq. in Hbg.): doc. Gereman around 1250-1300 (Hbg., Lüb., Ro.), i.e. Gerhard, Gerwig and similar names. Cf. Thiedemann, Wilmann, Wichmann.

Gehrt, Gehrs, Ge(h)rtz: LGer. contraction of Gerhart. Gherd de Plawe, Greifswald 1391. Gerd is still a first name today. Cf. Geerdts, Gerdes (FNs).

Gehse see Geese = Giese.

Gehwolf (Bav.): doc. Gebolf (from Gebolfhoven), Bav. 1147, Dytl Gewolf Brünn 1345, 1365; -w- stands for -b- in Bavarian, compare Gotbold: Gotwold (Bahlow SN, p. 39).

Geib (Pal.): old word for ‘dirt, decay’ (cf. pl.n. Geibenstetten).

Geibel: the name of the writer Emanuel Geibel is from the Pal.-Saar area, cf. Geib. Variants: Keibel, Keib.

Geick, Gei(c)ke(Hbg.): Fris. pers.n., patr. Geyken, Gaiken, cf. Gayko Lyursna 1443, Allardus Gaicama 1499 (Stark, pp. 175, 183).

Geider, Geidel (UGer.): unrounded form of Geuder, Geudel = MHG giuder, giudel ‘braggard, squanderer’ (cf. also Gauder). Georg Geuder (Geider), Upper Pal. 1561, 1563; Cunz Geuder 1380; Albrecht Giuder, Pfullendorf 1271, Walther Güdel, Würt. 1293.

Geier, Geyer, Gayer (UGer.): may refer to the character of a person [Geier = ‘vulture’] (e.g. as name of a knight: Friedrich Gîr zu Girsberg, near Zurich 1255), or may derive from a house name (as in Basel 1356 “zemGyren”, in Col. 1197: hence the family Geyer of Schweppenburg). The pl.n. Geyer near Zwickau was the origin of the FN of Walther vomGeyer, Freiberg 1466. Cf. Meußgeier, Meisgeier [= ‘mouse vulture, hawk’] in Thur. and Franconia.

Geiger (UGer., Stuttg., Mnch., freq. in Vienna): MHG gîger ‘violinist, fiddler’. Also Geig(e)le (Swab.): Rudi mitdemGiglin [with the little violin], Zurich 1357, there also a woman Vren Zergigen (from a house name). Also Geigerl; Geigenfeind [Feind = ‘enemy’] in Regensburg; Gigenhals [Hals = ‘neck’], near Salem 1222, Gigenschatz [Schatz = ‘treasure’], near Salem 1399, Gigennagel [violin nail], Heilbronn 1409. Also Gaiger, Olmütz 1413, with an –ai- for –î- (likewise Gayer besides Geyer), hence: Gaigl (Mnch.).

Geike (Hbg.) see Geick.

Geil, Gail (UGer.): MHG geil ‘boisterous, rollicking’. The same: Geiler, Geilfuß.

Geiler, Geilert,Gailer(UGer.) = Geil. Name is known through the preacher in the Strasbourg cathedral, Johann Geiler von Kaysersberg, around 1500; MHG giler also means ‘beggar’ (cf. Luke 11:8).

Geiling (Hbg.): MLG geilink ‘thrush’ (Geyling, Lüneburg 1293, Hbg. 1298, Lüb. around 1300, Barth 1390, Frkf. 1399).

Geds: (Bremen) see Gehls.

Gein (Hbg.): cf. Gein (name of a body of water in the Netherlands) and forest called Gehn (Gene) near Bramsche (Bahlow ON, p. 160). Pl.n. Geyen near Col.: Wolter vonGheyne, Stralsund 1309.

Geinitz: pl.n. Geunitz in Thur.

Geipel, Geippel, Geipelt: doc. Gipel (only in old Frkf. around 1350-1400), obviously a sh.f. of Gilprecht (Giselbrecht): Gilbracht, Frkf. 1387, also Gyppel, Sypeln dichter [grandchild of Sypel] 1367, Gipel Heydorn, Gipel Auge 1387, Gipel Schiltknecht 1396. Cf. similar forms in the following names: Diepel, Sipel, Happel, Rupel, Apel – all in old Frkf.

Geise see LGer. Giese. Hempe Geyze, Liegnitz 1369.

Geiselbrecht (Bav.): old Ger. pers.n. Giselbrecht (gisel ‘noble offspring, hostage’ brecht, berht ‘shining’).

Geiseler, Geisel, Geiselmann, see Geisler. Chunrad Gisel, Bav. 1354, Berlt Giselman, Kassel 1418, Geisel Patlauner, Iglau 1363.

Geiselhard (freq. in Stuttg.): Gyselhart, Stuttg. 1354, Cuncz Giselhart, Würzburg 1409. Cf. pl.n. Geißelhardt and Geiselharz in Würt. (1275 curia ad Giselhartes dicta = ‘officially under the jurisdiction (court) of Giselhart’).

Geishecker (Col.): ‘goat butcher’.

Geising(er): from the UGer. pl.n. Geising(en), old: Gisingen.

Geisler (freq. in Sax., Sil., Bav., Aust.): according to documents derived from Giselher, Giseler, a definite influence of the MHG Nibelungenlied inthe E Centr-Ger. area: of Kriemhild’s 3 brothers Gunther, Gernot, Giselher, the kings of the Burgundians, the youngest was the most popular one. Gyseler Smalcztasche, Glatz 1329, Gislerus de Gorlicz 1266, Symon Gyseler (Geiselher), Liegnitz 1423-35, Nikel Geyseler, Eger 1395, Cuncz Geysler, Iglau 1359. For LGer. area see Gieseler.

Geislhöringer (Bav.): from Geiselhöring in Bav. (‘Giselher’s settlement’).

Geismar, Geysmer: pl.n. in Thur. and Hesse. For more information see Bahlow ON, p. 162).

Geiß (UGer.), Gaiß (UGer.) [‘goat’] means goatsherd (Gaißer, Geißer). Cf. Wilhelm Gaißer (Gaiß, Gaißlin), Stuttg. 1481. Gobel zumGeißhorn, Speyer 1461. Hans Gaißman (Gaißeler), Augsburg 1430.

Geißel (UGer.) = Geisel = Giselher, Giselbrecht; see Geißelbrecht.

Geißelbrecht (UGer., Mnch.) Geiselbrecht, Giselbrecht. See there.

Geißer (UGer., Bav., Würt., Switz.), also Gaißer, see Geiß.

Geißler see Geisler.

Geist (UGer.): in most cases probably a distorted form of Geiß ‘goat’, e.g. in Nbg. 1569-70: Martin Geist (Geiß). Cf. also Geisthirt for Geißhirt [goatsherd], Schmalkalden 1672; Ziegengeis(t) = Ziehengast! See also Geest. (Auf der Geist = up der Geist; Geistmann, Geistmeier; van Geisten; pl.n Geist). But cf. also Geist [spirit] and Heilgeist (house name), Frkf 1350, Werntzel Gaist, Bav. 1383, Geysthant, Braunau 1413, Geistemphel, Olmütz 1404.

Geistbeck: cf. pl.n. Geistenbeck near Düsseldorf. MLG ge(i)st ‘deposit, sediment’.

Geister, Geistert (Sil.): see Geist.

Geistler = Geisler.

Geith (freq. in Mnch.): probably from MHG gît ‘greed, stinginess’. Stephan Geitt, Moravia 1414, Hans Geit, Künzelsau 1485.

Geit(h)ner (Thur., Sax., Sil.): from Geithain in Sax. Nic. Geytaner, Prague 1363, Mertin (vom) Gythan, Liegnitz 1372 (compare Zeitner from Zeithain in Sax.: H. v. Czythen, Liegnitz 1372).

Gelb, Gelbhaar, Gelbkopf see Gehlhaar.

Gelbart(h), Gelbard [yellow beard] (Frkf., Würzburg) like Gelhaar [yellow hair] from MLG gel, gelwes ‘yellow’. Cf. also Rotbart [red beard], Schwarzbart [black beard], Buntebart [colorful beard].

Gelbern (Hbg. 1252) see Gelke.

Gelbert, Gelbrecht (West Ger.) like Gilbert, Gilbrecht see there. Knight Gelbrecht in Friedberg in Hesse, 1483.

Gelbke, Gelpke (Eastphalia) is contracted from Gel-beke,likewise Selbke from Selbeke and Velpke from Velbeke, all mean ‘swamp or bog creek’ (Bahlow ON). Arpke, Harbke, Lobke, Wiepke (Brunswick area).

Gelder(mann): Geller(mann): from Geldern on the L.Rhine. Mostly Geller (Col. and Aachen). Also ‘from Geldern’ (Dutch province), doc. Gelre, Geler:the –d- isonly an inserted gliding sound between “l” and “r”. Joh. vonGelre =Joh. Geller,1560. The -t in Gellert is secondary, originally Geller (both occur in Col., Aachen freq.). For interpretation: Bahlow ON, p. 163).

Geldner (UGer.-Bav.-Sil.): apparently an unrounded form of Göldner, like Gellner from Göllner, meaning the gold worker, see Göldner. Jeclin Geldner de Ylaw, Prague 1329. However the name Geldenbott (Franconia) brings up MHG gelte ‘tax or rent owed’, MHG geltaere ‘debtor’; cf. Geltenprein,Nikolsbg. 1414 (zinse Grützkorn = ‘pay [tax] in groats’); Geltkäse,Überlingen 1275, (‘tax cheese’); Geldochse (‘tax ox’); Braunau in Bohemia 1407 [all indicating taxes paid in kind: grains for gruel, grits, cheese, oxen]. But Geltfuß,Aussig 1408, means like Goldfuß, Silberfuß: the rich man.

Geldolf: now obsolete pers.n., which was still recorded in Werden/Ruhr and in Brsl. in 1300; pl.n. Geldofshusen:now Gölshausen near Bretten, Geltofing near Straubing. Geldolf Spede, Xanten 1390. Hence Gelderich Crumminga, Emden 1614: Fris. Jellerich and dominus [sir] Geltmar,Bremen 1301 (Bremen 1486: Geltmers).

Geldschläger (Hbg.):. probably = ‘coiner, minter’ (counterfeiter?). Cf. Öhlschläger, Repschläger, etc. Also Geldmacher; but Geldsetzer probably = ‘price fixer’, cf. Habersetzer [haber = ‘oats’], Setzkorn.

Gelfert, Gelfart, Gelfort, Gölfert = Gelfrat, reminiscent of the Nibelungen legend as far east as Silesia, where in the 14th c. a pair of noble brothers, Gunther and Gelfrat appear [Doc. Reg. of Liegnitz], also a knight Gelfrat of Hugwicz 1290; a knight Gelfrat of Rechenberg, Öls. 1312; as early as 1140 there was a priest Gelfradus in Mainz, a toll gatherer Gelfradus in Strasbg. 1123 (Socin). As FN 1296 near Calw: Albert Gelpfrat;1301 in Worms: Wernher G., 1341 Saar in Bohemia: G. Gelfradus.In the Nibelungenlied this is the name of the Bavarian margrave, who attacks the Nibelungen. Gelf- (Germanic gelp-), in MHG still means ‘boasting challenge of the opponent, loud satirical speech before battle’ (as in the Song of Hildebrand).For the variant Gilfert compare Gelfrid (Gelfrad)von der Stercz, Sil. 1330. Gelfrid Luckaw, Brsl. 1408, Hennel Gelfrit (Gelfrat),near Mannheim 1396, Nickel Gelfrid,near Sorau 1467.

Gelhaar see Gehlhaar.

Gelke, Fris. Jelke, patr. Gelkens: sh.f. of LGer-Fris. Gelmar (Greifswald 1321), Ge(i)lbern, Hbg. 1252 (geil ‘playful, boisterous’, as in the name of the king of the Vandals, Gelimer (Geilamer) in the 6th c.) In Stade and Bremen around 1300 first names Geleke, Jeleke besides Geleken, Jeleken (Zahrenhusen, p. 171). See also Gehl-(ken). Gelmer Kemerer, Stralsund 1303.

Gell (Hbg.): doc. Radeke Gelle (Jelle),Greifswald 1380. Cf. pl.n. Gellen on the Oder River, Jellen in Meckl.

Gellekom: pl.n. in Brabant (originally Gellingheim, cf. Deutekom: Duttinghem).

Gellenbeck. pl.n. near Osnabrück and Hagen, also Gehlenbeck near Lübbecke, which was documented as Gelenbeke,cf. Gellendorf from Gelanthorp.For the water word gel ‘swamp, morass, mud’ see Bahlow ON, p. 160. Hinrich Gelenbeke,Barth 1341.

Geller (freq. in Col., Aachen, besides Gellermann) see Geldermann. Joh. Geller = Joh. vonGelre 1560, i.e. from the town or region of Geldern. But UGer. Geller (freq. in Vienna) probably means ‘crier, grumbler’ (from MHG gellen ‘to shout, cry’).

Gellersen (Hbg.): pl.n. near Pyrmont.

Gellert (freq. in Sax.: Leipzig, Dresden; also the author of fables, Gellert, came from Freiberg in Sax.): see Geller (‘crier’). A “Gellerhor’ [farmstead] 1491 in Tyrol.

Gellinek see Jellinek.

Gelling: name of a wooded mountain near Hagen (Bahlow ON, p. 163).

Gellner (UGer.) an assimilated form of Geldner, likewise Göllner besides Göldner.

Gellrich (Glatz, U. Lausitz): see Göllrich.

Gelmeroth: pl.n. Gelmeroda near Weimar. Compare Billroth from Billroda.

Gelpf(le): UGer.-Swab., from MHG gelf, gelpf ‘loud bragging’ or gelpfe ‘radiance, luster, pomp’ (der Gelpfli, Würt. 1435).

Gelpke see Gelbke.

Geltenbot(t), Geldenbott, Göltenboth, Göldenboth (Würt., Franc.): the official who collects the tribute or tax (Gelte) in the form of natural products from the peasants. Also Geltl, Geltmeier are related; Cunrad Gelter, Nassau 1262.

Gelzer, Gölzer, Galzer (UGer.) = Gelzenleichter, Gölzenleichter or Gelzenleuchter, Gölzenleuchter (UGer.) ‘castrator of hogs’ (from MHG gelze, OHG galza ‘castrated bog’, lîhten ‘to smooth, castrate’). Gelzenlichter, Frkf. 1338. J. Gelcz, Iglau 1368, Gelczl, Jitschin 1367.

Gember, Gembert (E Ger.): probably from Slav.-Balt. Gernbus, Gembicki, Gemball.

Gemein (UGer.): MHG mein ‘false, deceitful’, cf. Meineid ‘false oath’.

Gemeinhardt (freq. in Hof in Franc.): UGer., dwelling near the communal forest. Cf. Gmeineder, Gmeinwieser. Also G(e)meiner (MHG, UGer.): co-owner, go-between. Nic. Gmeyner, Iglau 1389.

Gemende (UGer.): MHG ‘happy’, mende ‘joy’, menden ‘to be happy’.

Gem(m)ecke (E Ger.): cf. Gemekendorp (Gehmkendorf in Meckl.).

Gemmer, Gemmert: cf. Gemmecke.

Gemmerich, Gemrich: pl.n. near St. Goar on the Rhine (also in Westph.).

Gemmle, Gemlein (UGer.): probably from MHG gemelich ‘playful, frolicking’, gamel ‘fun, play’ (see Gehmlich) Gämel, Füssen in Allgäu 1363, Gemmelich, Gämelich, Sonthofen 1451, Gämelin, Göppingen 1457.

Gemoll, Gemulia, Gomoll, Gomolka, Gomulka (F, Ger-Pol.): Slav. gomoly ‘bare, hornless’. Gomolzig like Gebelzig from a pl.n. in the Lausitz area.

Gemp, Gempl (UGer.) see Gamp, Gamper. Likewise Gemperle.

Gems (UGer.), likewise Gemsjäger [chamois hunter].

Gemuseus (Basel) Humanist name for Gschmuß (MHG gesmus ‘kissing, necking’) as the Alsatian minister from Mühlhausen, Augustin Gschmuß (Gemuseus), spelled his name. (Tobler, p. 179; Brech., p. 545).

Gend(t): Hbg., from Gent in Flanders (vonGent, de Gandavo, Lüb. 1331).

Gendner see Gentner.

Gendrich, Genn(e)rich, Jennrich, Gendricke, Jendricke, Jindrich also Gendram are Slavic-Wendish forms of Heinrich. Cf. Merten Genderik, Barth 1479 (also M. Gentze); Gyndryzich Weytkruk, Prague 1325. Jindrzich Binth, Leitomischl 1324. Gündersich Chalben, Glatz 1494. J. Genderich (Jenderich), Havelberg 1585.

G(e)nerlich (Glatz) see Gnerlich.

Geng, Genge (UGer.): ‘vigorous, fit’ (MHG genge). Cf. Gengnagel, Gengisen (Reutlingen).

Gengler, Gengger see Gangler. For Gengl cf. Gangolf.

Genike, Genig see Genke.

Genke, Genkel (E Ger.-Slav.), also Genike, = Jenke, Jenike = Johannes.

Genn(e)rich, Genrich (freq. in Stettin) see Gendrich.

Gen(n)ewein, Jennewein (Tyrol), reflecting the UGer. word for Januar [January]: Jennerwein: Saint Genuinus (Ingenuinus), bishop of Säben near Brixen around 600. Also Gendebien, Genibein, Gönnebein, Gönnewein.

Gens(s) = Jens, Jenß (= Johannes).

Gensch, Genschel see Gentsch.

Genscher: see Genschow and Gentsch.

Genschmer: pl.n. Genschmar near Küstrin in the Oderbruch area; also see Genzmer.

Genschow (Pom.): Slav. pl.n., cf. Genzkow in Meckl-Strelitz. First name Genske.

Genseleiter:leite = ‘slope, hillside’.

Gent (Hbg.): from Gent in Flanders, see Gendt.

Gente(mann): from Genten on the L.Rhine. Hinrich Genteman, Han. 1485 (Bremen 1362).

Genth, Genthe (Hbg.): from Gentha east of Wittenberg.

Gent(n)er (UGer.) see Gant(n)er ‘auctioneer’. Heinrich der Genter,Neuenburg on the Rhine 1327, Burk Gentter,Engen 1458, K. der Gäntener,Eßlingen 1337.

Gent(t)sch, Gentzsch (E Ger.-Wend-Sax.): like Jentzsch = Johannes (Jakob Gentzsch [Jentzsch],Grimma in Sax. 1549).

Gen(t)z, Gen(t)zen (Hbg.) like Jentz, Jentzen means Johannsen, son of Johannes [John] (Jens).

Gentzkow: pl.n. Genzkow in Meckl.

Genz (freq. in Hbg.) see Gentz.

Genzmer (E Ger.-Pom.): Slav. pers.n. like Venzmer. See also Genschmer. Cf. sh.f. Genzel.

Georg, George, Georges, Lat. Georgi (Georgius): Saint George (Greek ‘peasant, farmer’), martyr under Emperor Diocletian, minor saint and patron saint of the knights (Bahlow, VN, p.37). Regional variants Jörg (S Ger-Alem.), Girg (Aust.), Jürgen (N Ger.).

Geppert (Sil.) besides Göppert, Göpfert, can be traced back in documents to Gotfried; likewise the Sil. pl.n. Geppersdorf freq. documented as Göpfridsdorff (1316 villa Gotfridi).The umlauted form Götfrid through assimilation changed to Göpfrid,with metathesis to Göpfert,CentrGer.-Sil. Göppertand to the unrounded form Geppert.For doc. evidence see Bahlow SN, p. 37. In Bavaria Göpfert besides Göttfried. See also Göbfardt, Göpferich.

Geps, Gepes, Gebs (Alem.-Swab.): a rare sh.f. of Gebwin, also Geben; in documents: Gebizo (cf. Engizo = Engelhard). Gepzo de Gebinzinstein (Gebsenstein in Würt.). Joh. Gebso,Aargau 1295, Heinrich Gepzo (Gebze),Eßlingen 1324, Hans Gebs,Isny 1408.

Gerahn (Meckl.) see Geerhahn.

Geradehand, Gradhand: MHG gerade ‘agile, skillful, dexterous’, cf. Linkehand [left hand], Geringehand [small hand].

Gerasch, Gerratsch, Jerratsch, etc.: Wend. sh.f. of Georg. But L.Rhine Geraets =Gerhards.

Geratewohl see Grathwohl.

Gerbe(n)s = Gervens, see Garbens.

Gerber: MHG MLG gerwer ‘tanner’. Nowadays also LGer. Garber. Hence Weißgerber (tanner who tanned with alum) and Rothgerber (who tanned with oak bark). About leather industry in the Middle Ages see Bahlow, Liegnitzer FN, p. 141. Also UGer. Gerb (MHG gerwe) and Gerbl (freq. in Mnch.) mean tanner, cf. Joh. Gerb = Joh. Cerdo,Tauber area 1502, Anton Gerbel,Pforzheim 1495. But Gerbentrager (Mies 1380) like Hefentrager: from MHG gerwe, gerben ‘yeast’.

Gerberding, Garberding: Westph. patronymic of Gerbert, likewise Alberding, Humperdinck, Herberding, Elberding, Wilberding, Wolperding. Heyneke Gerberding,Han. 1402.

Gerbert: ‘famous for fighting with his spear’, Germanic pers.n.; also Pope Silvester’s II former name was Gerbert (Archbishop of Reims) around 1000. Hence Gehrbrecht, Gehrbracht, Gerberich, patr. Gerberding (Westph.). LGer. Garber(s), Garberding, Garbrecht. See also Garbers. Occasionally = Gerber (Brech., p. 548).

Gerbig (Thur.-Sax.-Sil.) derives from Gerwig (‘spear fight’); likewise Gerbing, Görbing, Gerwing, Girbig (see there); LGer. Garwig.

Gerboth, Gerpott (LGer.), Gerbode, Garbade (LGer.): ‘spear lord’. For Gerbet(h) also compare Sibeth (Sigbot). Gerboto,Erfurt 1311, Hartwig Gerbodo,Hbg. 1305, K. Gerbode,Worms 1286.

Gerbrandt, Garbrands (LGer-Fris.): brand ‘flaming sword’. Gerebrand,Bremen 1442, Dirk Garbrands,Frisia 1664. An 11th c. bishop Gerbrand of Seeland; Brant Gerbrandes,Han. 1501.

Gerbrecht, Gerbracht (Westph.), see Gerbert.

Gercke, Gercken(s) see Gerke.

Gerdeißen (Mnch.) see Gerteisen.

Gerdau (freq. in Hbg.): pl.n. near Ülzen. For water word gard, gerd see Bahlow ON, p. 161.

Gerdemann: from Gerden near Han., cf. Hs. van Gerden,Han. 1443.

Gerd(e)s: LGer. = Gerd’s (Gerhard’s) son, likewise Gerdsen; also Gerdts, Geerdts, Gehrtz, Geerz; Jertz. Hence Gerdesmeyer (Westph.). Cf. Cordes. In the Ammerland region near Oldenburg: Gerd Renken Gerdes,1739, nowadays: Renkengerdes.

Gerding: LGer. patr. of Gerd (Gerhard), like Cording from Cord.

Gerdt(s) see Gerdes. Hinr. Gherdes,Barth 1414.

Gerdtel see Gertel.

Gerecht (UGer.): MHG ‘just’, but also ‘skillful, able’. H. Gerecht,Augsburg 1311.

Gere(c)ke see Gerke.

Gereon: patron saint of Cologne. Said to be identical with Ireon. Cf. Nied, p. 83.

Gerferts (L.Rhine) = Gervers (Fris.) Gerfrid (e.g. Bishop Gerfrid of Münster, 838; Gefridus,1322, Gherevert,Bremen 1392, likewise Sievert for Sigfrid). Gerverdinkg (Westph.) and Gerberding are patronymics.

Gerg(e)s, Gergus: N Ger.-Rhineland = Georges. UGer. patr. is Gerger, Jerger, Görger, Jörger (Tyrol): also Gergler (from Gergl, Görgl).

Gerhab (UGer., rare): MHG gêr-habe ‘legal guardian’ (it actually means ‘the one who holds the child on his lap’). Eberlin Gerhap,Schlettstadt/Alsace 1439.

Gerhard(t), Franc. Görhardt; L.Rhine Gerhartz (patr.), Gerritzen (Col., Aachen), Gerretz (Eifel area), Gerdes, Geerdts (LGer.): also the sh.fs. Gerecke, Gehrke, Gerckens (LGer.), Gerle (UGer.): ‘spearbold’; name was especially popular in the L.Rhine-Dutch region as the writer Joh. Fischart noted correctly 400 years ago (“people from Cologne are called Gerhard”); der “gute Gerhard” ( a popular epic tale of Rudolf von Ems around 1250) was a Cologne businessman; the first builder of the Col. cathedral was Meister Gerhard.Cf. Geert Geerts,who was the Humanist Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam.

Gerhoch see Gerock.

Gerhold, Gehrold, Gerholz see Gerold.

Gerhus (Hbg.): Westph. loc.n. or farm name like Brockhus, Geldehus, Veenhuis, all farmsteads in a swampy location; for ger (still MLG ‘filth, stench’), also contained in Ger-vliet, Ger-siek, Ger-beke see Bahlow ON, p. 166. The regional, rare fem. f.n. Gerhuse (sh.f. Huse), Würzburg 1409, should not be considered here.

Gericke (freq. in LGer. area) see Gerke. E Centr.Ger. Gerigk see Gehring.

Gering (LGer.) see Gehring.

Gerisch (E Ger.) see Giersch.

Gerke, Gerken (freq. in Hbg.), Gerkens: LGer. sh.f. or patr. of Gerhard (also Gerbrand, Gerbert, Gerbod, Germar, Gerwin). With patr. -ing: Gerking (Westph.). Doc.: Gereke around 1250-1350 freq. in Bremen, Hbg., Lüb., Ro.

Gerlach: old German pers.n. ending in -lach like Grundlach (from Gothic laikan ‘to jump, leap’, OHG leich ‘tournament’). Gerlach Gerlachs,near Rastatt 1294. Also Gerlich, Görlich (U.Saxony), Girlach (Girlach Czetsche, Liegnitz 1384), Görlach (Georg Görloch,Glatz 1558); UGer. patronymics: Gerlacher, Görlacher, Gerlicher (Hans Gerlacher,Kempten 1389); LGer. Garlach, Garlich.

Gerland originated through dissimilation from Gernand ‘spear-bold’, likewise Uhland (Uolant) from Odnand or Uolnant, Roland (Rulant) from Hrodnand (cf. E. Schröder, p. 65). A Teutonic Knight Gerlandus de Alemannia in Sicily, 13th c.; Gerland,Ro. 1265; Gerlant Munt, Hamelin 1452.

Gerle, Gerlein (UGer.) see Gehrlein.

Gerli, Gerlein (UGer.) see Gehrlein.

Gerlich, Görlich see Gerlach.

Gerling, Görling: patr. of the names with Ger. Peczolt Gerling,near Sorau 1381. Also Görling, Gierling; LGer. Garling, Jarling.

Gerloff, Gerleff, LGer.-Fris. Garleff, Garelfs, Graalfs see Garleff.

Germann see Gehrmann. See also Fris. Garms.

Germar, Germer, LGer. Garmer, Garmers old Ger. pers.n. ‘spear-famous’. Germar, Jermar,Hbg. 13th c. Cf. pl.n. Germerode, Germershausen (Eichsfeld area). But also the pl.n. Görmar in Thur. (Doc. Germar) ‘swampy area of springs’ should be considered: Henning de Geremar (hence the FN Görmer).

Germund (rare): old German pers.n. (mund ‘protection, protector’ as in Vormund ‘legal guardian’). Germundus 1275 (Document register of Enns, Austria, III 640), Ro. 1260, Stralsund 1291.

Germscheid: pl.n. near Linz on the Rhine; from germ ‘gurgling bog water’; for more information see Bahlow ON, p. 167.

Gern, Gerner, Gernert (UGer.). related to the loc.n. and pl.n. Gern (freq. in Bav., Würt., Switz.). Cf. “10 Morgen Holz im Gern[10acres of woods ...], Würt. 1394.

Gernand, Görnandt: ‘spear-bold’ (cf. Gerland, Görland), likewise Wignand, Signand, Volknand. Name occurs around 1250-1350 more freq. in Hbg., Lüb., Ro., Strals. (here also as Jarinand 1290). Gernand vern Lyen, Wetzlar 1300.

Gerndt, Gerntke see Gernot.

Gerner, secondary Gernert, Gernhardt (Franc., Bav.): related to the pl.n. Gern (5 times in Bav.). Valentin Gerner (Gernert),18th c. Cf. Görner.

Gern(e)groß (Nbg., Mnch., Lpz. etc.): very popular surname [‘a show off’] Hannus Gernegroß,Liegnitz 1388, Göcz Gerngroß,Würzburg 1409, Gernegrot,Hbg. 1266. Cf. Gernreich, Gernhübsch [would like to be big, rich, pretty]: Peter Gernrich,1363.

Gernhardt (Nbg., Würzburg), Görnhardt (Bamberg) is derived from older Gernert = Gerner, see there. Cf. Gehlhardt for Gehler(t), Schweickhardt for Schweiker(t), Gemeinhardt for Gemeiner(t).

Gern(t)holz: probably loc.n. Cf. Garnholz (originally Garnholt, im Garnholtz in Ammerland area).

Gernler (Switz.): Cuonrad dictus [called] Gernler,Basel 1281, presumably ‘net maker’ (MHG garn ‘net’). See also Garn, Garner.

Gernold: rare, UGer. Cf. Heinz Gernolt and son Gernolt,Feuerbach in Würt. 1316, Chuncz Gernold,Iglau 1386, N. Gernold,Görlitz 1462. Name has probably been changed from Gernot or Gernand (cf. Winold: Winand).

Gernoth, Giernoth (Sil.): reminiscent of the legend of the Nibelungen; Gunther, Gernot, Giselher were the names of Kriemhild’s brothers. Contracted forms: Gernth, Gerndt, Girndt, Girnth, Gürnth, Gürntke, Gerntke, Gernotke (all Silesian with Slavic k-suffix as in Hanotke, Hantke), cf. Bahlow SN, p. 38. Gregor Gemoth (Gymot, Girnth),Grünberg 1529-44. The meaning of not is ‘battle melee’ as in Helmnot, Sigenot,the reversed form is younger: Notger, Notker. Documented: Gernot Swende, Worms 1206, Gernot Snoke, Lorsch 1222, Gernot Ruckenbrot, Nassau 1235, Gernot (a farmer), Neufra 1263, Gernot Gutbrod, Würzburg 1409; Nic. Gernot,Iglau 1371.

Gerok, Geroch, Jerok, Jeroch: name is known through the Swab. writer of Palmblätter,Karl Gerok. Judging from the ending and the initial j-sound, the name may be Slavic (Georg?), but one must also consider the Bav.-Aust. pers.n. Gerhoch (abbot of Reichersperg on the Inn River 1169). As early as 992: Gerhoh in Kremsmünster; J. Gerhoch,Lauingen 1471, Abbot Gregor Gerhoch,Filssen 1554; as late as 1784: Gerhoh Steigenberger in Bav. Cf. Berhthoch, Bernhoch, Diethoch, Adelhoch, Cadelhoch.

Gerold (Vienna, freq. in Mnch.), Gerhold, Gerholz, LGer.-Fris. Gerrel(t)s, Garrel(t)s, Garrold, Jerrold, Gerlts, Gehrels: Germanic pers.n. Ger-wald ‘wielding the spear’. (Also a saint’s name: deanery St. Gerold near Einsiedeln.) Gerold and Gerung,grandsons of a Gerold on the U.Rhine (Socin, p. 245); dominus [sir] Geroldus,Hbg. 1248; Heinrich Geroldes,Zierenbg. 1358; Garrelt (Gerold) Caninga, Friesland 1396, Gerlt Beninga, Friesl. 1379; Gerolt Poppe, Lüb. 1340.

Gerren(s): patronymic of Fris. Gerre, Jerre, with suffix: Gerrik, Jenich, Jerrekes,Stade 1339, Gerricus, Jerricus,Hbg. 1250, Jerre,Lüb. ca. 1350, sh.f. of Gerrad: Gerhard or Gerrold: Gerold (Jerrold).

Gerressen, Gerritzen (L.Rhine) = Gerhard’s son. Also Gerriets and similar names.

Gerrit etc. (L.Rhine) = Gerhard; Gerriet (E Fris.) = Gerhard.

Gers (Hbg.), probably = Geers, Gehrs = Gerds (Gerhard’s son), cf Fris. Gersema besides Geertsema.

Gerson (Jewish): ‘s.o. who was expelled, refugee’, Levi’s son (ancestor of the Gershonites or Levites), according to Exodus 6:16. But Joh. Gerson, French scholar around 1400, was named after his home town G. near Reims which derived from the Gers River in France.

Gerst(e), Gerstl, Gerstenkorn [grain of barley] , Gerstenbrei [barley gruel], Gerstengarbe [sheaf of barley] besides Reifegerste [ripe barley], Verngerste, Wintergerste mean the barley farmer or Gerster, Gerstner, Gerstler, Oswald Gerster,Ravensburg 1276. Hence Gerst(en)maier, Gerstmann (‘barley dealer’), likewise Habermann [oats dealer], Hiersemann [millet dealer]. Gerstman,Görlitz 1431 (also in Liegnitz and Brsl.); Hensel Gerste,Liegnitz 1372; Gerstenstampfer, Gerstenstempfel,Olmütz 1455, Gerstentrager,Eger 1380, Fridel Gerstner,Budweis 1396; also Gerstenpauch [barley belly], Iglau 1378 (compare Roggenbauch, Rockenbauch, ‘rye belly’); Gersthalm [barley leaf]; Gerstprein,Prague 1363 (Bav. prein ‘grain for making grits, gruel’). Cf. pl.n. Gerste(n) in Westph.

Gerstäcker: name is known through the novels of Friedrich Gersticker. UGer. field and pl.n. (Gerstacker, Gersteneck).

Gerstenberg: pl.n. in Thur. (Cf. Gerstenbüttel, Gerstenbach ‘foul water’).

Gerstenmaier: collector of “natural” tax in barley.

Gerst(n)er (UGer.) see Gerste.

Gerstung: pl.n. Gerstungen on the Werra River, also a creek Gersta ‘foul water’ (Bahlow ON, p. 169; also Niederdt. Korrespondenzblatt 1961 about the names ending in -ungen). Cf. the cognates Kauffung, Hallung, Bodung, Wechsung, Hollrung, Madung, etc.

Gersum (von): the NW German bog area, likewise Dersum, Borsum, Morsum (-um means ­hem, -heim = suffix of German pl.ns.; gers means ‘bog water’: Bahlow ON, p. 168).

Gerteisen, Gerdeißen (UGer., Mnch.) see Garteisen.

Gertel, Gerdtel (UGer.): ‘switch, rod’, Gertel, Czartesgertel in Brsl.

Gertenbach: pl.n. near Hedemünden on the Werra River at the confluence of a tributary Hübenbach, which in 1032 was called Gardenebiki (E. Schröder, p. 295), related also to Gardina in Lithuania and the pl.n. Gerden (Gardina). For gard see Bahlow ON, p. 161.

Gerth (freq. in Hbg.) see Gehrt. (There is a pl.n. Gerthe near Bochum).

Gertig, Gärtig, Gärtke (Sil.) point to Slavic Jerota (sh.f. of Jeroslav). Cf. Gerosch besides Jerosch. A pl.n. Gertewitz near Pößneck on the Saale River.

Gertz (Hbg.) see Gehrtz = Geerts.

Gerulis: E Pruss.-Lith.

Gerum (Mnch.): doc. = Gerung (Joh. Gerum =J. Gering,Eßlingen 1508).

Gerung: occurred as f.n. in the UGer. region in the Middle Ages (like Gering in the LGer.-E Ger. region), as patr. of Gero, Gerold,etc. (compare Adelung for Adelolt, Amelung for Amelolt); for the ending -ung see the examples under Adelung. Gerung and Gerold are documented as grandsons of a Gerold around 1250 on the U.Rhine (Socin p. 17, 141). Gerung was also f.n. in Austria (Kremsmünster 1306), Bavaria (Eger 1379), Würt. (Reutlingen 1348), Switz. (Zurich 1223). As FN e.g. Phil. Gerung,Nikolsbg. 1414, Cuncz Gerung,Würzburg 1409, Wolpot Gerung,Würt. 1292. Still 1468 in Würt. Gerung Monharter.

Gervas(ius) (UGer.): martyr, patron saint of Breisach, thus name was once popular in the U.Rhine area. Sh.f. Vasius, Vasi, Vaslin, Vassle.FN Faas, Foos (Baden) see Fäsi.

Gerve(n)s (LGer.) see Garvens.

Gervinus see Gerwin.

Gerward, Gerwert (LGer.): Hbg., Bremen; Gereward, Jereward,Hbg. 1260-65, Bremen 1292, Kassel 1200; ‘keeping watch with the spear’, cf. Edeward, Eilward, Alward, Dankward, Markward, Volkward, Detward, Odward, Bernward,all early Germanic in Fris. North Sea area.

Gerwi(e)n, Gerwen, Jerwien, Gervinus: ‘spear friend’. Was a popular pers.n. in the area between Westph. and Pomerania: Gerewin Teneke, Hbg. 1273, Gerewin von Warne, Ro. 1293, Gerwin Ysernmenger, Stralsund 1278. Compare Garwen,Bremen 1484.

Gerwig: ‘spear fight’, LGer. Garwig, Garweg, Centr.Ger. Gerbig, Gerbing, Görbing, Sil. Girbig, Gürbig. Gerwig (master), Ulm 1258, Konrad Gerwig,Konstanz 1301, Nic. Girwig,Liegnitz 1397, M. Girbig (Girbiger),Görlitz 1539.

Gerz(n)er: pl.n. Gerzen in Bavaria.

Gesche (LGer.) derives from Geseke, Geske = Giseke, Giselbert, cf. Geschendorf east of Segeberg (1336 Gesekendorp). Gesche (Geseke, Gese) was also a popular LGer.-Fris. sh.f. of Gertrud. Geschen is a patronymic ; cf. Giesche besides Gieschen.

Gescheidt: MHG geschîde ‘bright, clever’.

Geschke see Jeschke (Slavic) or Geske.

Gese, Gesemann (LGer.) = Giese, Giesemann.

Geseke: see Gese, Gesche. But also consider pl.n. Gesecke in Westph.: Hinrich de Geseke,Stralsund 1305.

Gesell, Gsell, Gsöll (UGer.): MHG geselle ‘companion, friend, beloved’ (min geselle = ‘penis’). Compounds: Frischgesell, Gutgesell, Hergesell, Taggesell; Rhineland Gesellgen, Gesellchen; Latinized: Gsellius.

Gesenius: Humanist name of the 16th c. for Gesen, patr. of Gese (LGer.) = Giese (Giselbert). But UGer. Gesensohn is based on the sh.f. Gese for Gertrud: farmer Haini Gesensun,Vorarlberg 1377, like metronymics Nesensohn, Ellensohn, Gutensohn in Switz.

Geserich, Geserick: Wend. jesor ‘pond’.

Gesing (LGer.-Westph.) = Giesing, patr. of Gese, Giese.

Geske = Geseke, see Gesche.

Gesselmann (Bremen): pl.n. Gessel near Hoya, Gesseln near Paderborn.

Geßler, Geßner (UGer.) see Gaßner. Benedikt Geßner (Geßler) 1504,painter in Basel. Name is known through the governor Geßler from the Swiss story of William Tell around 1300 and the natural scientist Conrad Geßner,Zurich 1516-65, also the poet Salomon Geßner,Zurich 1730-88.

Geßwein see Gößwein.

Gesterding, Jesterding see Gasters.

Gestrich, Göstrich: probably Slavic (since name occurs often in Berlin), cf. Slav-E Ger. Milstrich, Domstrich and others. Similar is Brestrich.

Gettke, Gettig like Gattke, Gattig indicate Slavic origin.

Getzlaff. Slavic pers.n. ending in -slav ‘fame’ like Gützlaff, Götzlaff (Godslav),Retzlaff, Tetzlaff. Sh.f. Getzke, Getschke.

Geuder (freq. in Nbg.): Geuther, unrounded from Geider, see there.

Geue, Geuke (Fris.) see Gaucke, Gauken.

Geuenich (Rhineland): Celtic pl.n. like Gevenich, Elvenich, Lövenich, Rövenich, etc.; -ich is the Celtic ending -iac (um).Cf. Bahlow ON, p. 170.

Gevers, Gevert (LGer.) see Gebers. Jochen Gevert (Gewert, Gebhart),Angermünde 1650 ff. Gheverd, Gheverdes,Haldsl. 1393.

G(e)währlich (UGer.): MHG gewärlich ‘truthful, reliable’; Conrad Gewerlich,Schwäb-Hall 1216, Rud. Gwärlich,Ulm 1292.

Gewand(t): indirect occ. name of the garment cutter [Gewand = ‘garment, dress’], who dealt in ready-cut cloth in the chambers of the cloth trade hall (FN Wandschneider, Wandscheer [garment cutter], Wandmaker); cf. the Leipzig “Gewandhaus”, Hannus Schicke der gewandscherer,Liegnitz 1386, Tilke Sachse der gewantscherer (or scherer),Brsl. 1368, Wölflin Gewantschneider,Schwäbisch-Gmünd 1404;cf.Arnold Sconewant (wantmaker),Greifswald 1317, FN Seidenwand, Niewandt =“Neugewand”‘new garment’; Wandrahm isa street in Hbg.; Wantbode,Stade 1300 (pannicidia ‘cloth cutter’). But MHG gewande = ‘field, tillable land’ (Gewann)? Gawande,Gawantke is of Slav. origin.

Gewecke, Gewe, Geve see Gebecke and Geffken.

Gewehr (UGer.): MHG ge-wer ‘guarantor, sponsor’; der Gewere,Würt. 1350.

Gewert, Gewers = Gevert, Gevers, LGer. form for Gebbard (Gevehard). Jochen Gewert (Gevert, Gebhart),Angermünde 1650 ff.

Gewolf, Gehwolf (Bav.) = pers.n. Gebolf see Gehwolf.

Geyer see Geier.

Gfell(er), Gföll(er): UGer.-Bav.-Aust. loc.n. Gfell, Gföll. Cf. Gebhard der Geveller,Aust. 1337; also Gföllner (Tyrol); MHG gevelle ‘gorge, deep valley’, cf. the mill “im Gefell” and Conrad Gfellmüller,Allgäu 1451.

Gfrör(er), Gfrerer (Bav., Würt.): MHG vroeren, vrieren ‘to freeze’ or ‘cause to freeze’, gevroerde ‘frost’. W. Frör 1360, H. Gefrör,Würt. 1429.

Gibbe, Gibbels: apparently L.Sax.-Fris. sh.f. of Gilbert so Hibbe of Hilbert. Cf. Gebbe, Ebbe, Habbe, Lübbe, Wobbe and others. Patronymic is Gibbens. For Gibbels cf. Rhineld. Göbbels.

Gichtel (Mnch.): MHG gicht ‘gout’; but also ‘confession’.

Gideon, Gideonson (W Ger-Rhineld.): in Old Testament ‘judge’, liberator of Israel of the Midianites (Book of Judges 6-8). Today still a f.n.: Gedeon v. d. Heide, writer, Rhineld.

Giebe: cf. pl.n. Gieba near Altenburg in Thur. But see also Giebecke.

Giebecke, Gibcke: LGer. sh.f. of Gibehard; cf. Gebecke: Gebhard. King Gibica (Worms) is known from the Nibelungen legend; cf. Gibichenstein near Halle.

Giebel: several interpretations; MHG gebel, gibel means ‘gable’, but also ‘scull, head’, e.g. Zerrengiebel [zerren = ‘to tear’], Schwitzgiebel [schwitzen = ‘to sweat’]. From the house name: Johann vom roden Gevel [J. from the red gable], Rhineland. Pl.ns. like Giebelscheidt on the Lenne River, Giebelhardt near Wissen, and Giebelbach on the Murg River contain a water word. In Allgäu a hill called Giebel,cf. Giebelfluh, Giebelmähder. Giebler, Giebelmann. Gieboldehausen was formerly Gebehildehusun!

Giebenrath: Rhineld. pl.n. (Giebelrath) like Fastenrath, Herkenrath, Reiffenrath (-rath means clearing, a settlement on a clearing). Cf. Gievenbeck in Westph., Giebenach near Basel, Givenich, Gevenich in Rhineld., all related to the water word gib, giv.

Giech: old pl.n., cf. Demetrius von Giech,Würzburg 1422.

Giefer(s), L.Rhine = Gefers, Gevers (Gebhards). Cf. Siefers, Sievers.

Giege, Giegel (UGer.): MHG giege, giegel ‘fool’, enlarged form is Giegold. Rüdiger of Freiburg called Giege 1356.

Giegler see Giegel.

Giehl, Giehler: cf. pl.n. Giehle and Giehler Moor (bog) N of Bremen.

Giel, Giele, Gielen (freq. in Col.): L.Rhine, like Gieles, Gieling probably from Ägidius (saint’s name). But UGer. Cunrad der Giel,Thurgau 1167, from MHG giel ‘mouth, snout, throat’. LGer. = ‘lechereus, lewd’: Lüdeke Gyle,Haldsl. 1380.

Gielow (E Ger.): Slav. pl.n. near Malchin in Meckl. Cf. Gielisch, Gielnik.

Gienanth (Pal.): immigrated from Burgundy (France), but the original Fr. form Guinand derives from Ger. Winand (Wignand) ‘bold in battle’.

Gi(e)napp, Jinapp (F Ger.): Slav. like the pl.ns. Gienow, Gienau. Also Gien(c)ke along with Jienke, Jynek, which are sh.fs. of Heinrich; also Gien(e), Giensch.

Gienger: from Giengen in Würt.

Gier, Giermann: MHG gîr ‘greedy’. But LGer. Gier = Geier ‘vulture’. Cf. Hartmann Gir (Avarus), Col. 1197. Nikol. der Girer,Rottweil 1369. But Olricus Gir (‘vulture’), Lüb. 1229. Also field n. in L.Rhine area: In der Gier.Cf. Giersiepen.

Gierahn, Gierhan (Meckl.): Slav. pers.n. ending in ­an,like Millahn, Landahn, Moltzahn; also Gierandt, cf. Iwan: Iwandt; Gieras, Gieram.

Gieraths, Geraths (L.Rhine) = Gerharts. But Gieratz (Meckl.) see Gierahn.

Gier(e), Gieren: field n. in Rhineld. “In der Gier, Gieren.”

Gierer (UGer.): MHG gîrer ‘the greedy one or miser’. Nik. der Girer,Rottweil 1369. Also Bav. Gierl, Giehrl (freq. in Mnch.).

Gierhard = Gerhard. Also see Gierth. Mertin Girharth,Liegn. 1508 (pl.n. Girharcz: Giersdorf, Sil.).

Gi(e)rke, Gierck(e): Sil. = Gerke, sh.f. for Gerhard, Girhard, influenced by Slav. Girek, Jirek = Georg! Girke (Gerke)vom Senicz, Brsl. 1347, Girke of Brunswig, Brsw. 1345. As late as 1631 in Glatz (Czech) Girke Grünberg, there also 1556 Girczik. A Girig Fritzer from Moravia, Görlitz 1533 also means Georg. Also cf. Gierek, Gierok.

Gierl see Gierer.

G(i)erlich = Gerlich = Gerlach.

Gierloff see Gerloff.

Gierman (Hbg.) = Germann see Gehrmann.

Giernoth (Sil.) = Gernoth, Sil. See there.

Giersch (Sil., U.Lausitz) according to hist. documents derives from Gerusch, Gerisch,sh.f. of Gertrud (with Slav. suffix -usch, -isch), cf. Gerusch (Gerdrud)vom Royn, Brsl. 1350, Caspar Gerusch,Liegn. 1435, Hs. Girisch,Liegn. 1491. Hence the metr.: Gi(e)rschner, Gürschner, cf. Bartisch Gerischer,Liegn. 1453, J. Gierscher (Giersch),Liegn. 1568. Similarly Alschner, Leuschner.

Giersig (Sil.): Czech sh.f. for Georg, cf. Duke Giersich ofGlatz 1488, King Girzig (Georg)ofPodiebrad (Bohemia) 1420-71; Girczik of Cunstadt, Glatz 1556. Nowadays also Girschik.

Gi(e)rth (Sil.) = Girhard: Gerhard. Mertin Girharth,Liegn 1508; Gyherth 1547, also Gieret, Gyrth,Liegn.

Giertz (L.Rhine) = Gieraths = Gerhards.

Gies, Giesges (L.Rhine) sh.f. of Giesbert (cf. Gieselbrecht, Giesebrecht), L.Rhine patr. Gisbertz. Already Johann Fischart (400 years ago) said: “Westphalians are called Gisbert.” Also see Giese.

Giesbert, Giesbertz see Gies.

Giesche, Gieschen (Fris.) = Gieske(n).

Giese, Giesecke (freq. L.Ger.): sh.f. of Giesebrecht, Gieselbrecht (gisel ‘noble offspring, hostage’). Cf. Giselbertus (Giso), a juror in Aachen around 1250; Ghiseke = Giselbertus, sonof Count Henry I of Holstein, 1304-17 (Lübecker Urkundenbuch [L. document register]); Giseke,son of Gise,Stettin 1309, Giseke Rumeland, Hbg. 1290, Ghyseke Rademeker, Brsw. 1395, Lüdeke Ghisensone,etc. A variant is Gese, Geseke, see there.

Gi(e)sebrandt (LGer.-Fris, like Gerbrand, Herbrand, Wilbrand, Albrand). For gis see Giese. Brand means ‘flaming sword’.

Giesebrecht, Gieselbrecht see Giese. UGer.

Geißelbrecht (Bav., Allgäu): Petrus Giselbrecht,Basel 1291, Giselbrecht of Swidenicz, councillor, Brsl. 1297. Rhineland form Gilbert, see there.

Gieseke see there.

Giesel, Gieselmann (LGer.) = Gieselbrecht, Gieselher (see Giesebrecht). Corresponding UGer. form is Geisel (Geiselbrecht, Geiselher).

Giesemann (LGer.) = Giese, Gieseke.

Giesen (LGer. patr.) see Giese.

Gießel, Gießelmann, Gießelbrecht, Gießler see Giesel. Gießel Koch, Frkf, 14th c.

Gießer, Gieser: the metal founder, caster, Rotgießer [copper caster], Zinngießer (Kannengießer) [pewterer], Grapengießer; Düppengießer, Pottgießer [pan caster]. Heintze Gießer,Glockengießer [bell founder], Alsace 1375. Cf. LGer. Gieter, Geter.

Gieß(h)übel, Gissibl (UGer.): frequent S Ger. field name and loc.n.; for the water word gis see Bahlow ON, p. 171. Hübel = ‘hill, elevation’. Peter der Gißübel,Regensburg 1383, Conrad Gishübel,Frkf. 1323.

Gießmann: in Sil. the name is unrounded form of Gösman (Goswin),likewise Guttmann derives from Gutwin. Gießmannsdorf in Sil. was formerly Goswinsdorf.Cf. Seiffrid Göswin,Görlitz 1436, Michel Gösman,Liegnitz 1433, Hans Gyssman,Liegnitz 1571. See also Gießwein, Gößwein, Geßwein.

Gießwein (Franconia) see Gießmann.

Giffenig: pl.n. Givenich:Gevenich on the Moselle (pl.n. also near Jülich, see Geuenich). Cf. Givenesdorf 870 ( = Gevelsdorf near Aachen).

Giffey see Gifhorn.

Giffhorn: pl.n. Gifhorn (old swamp castle on the Aller and Ise rivers), likewise Alhorn, Balhorn, Druchhorn, Quenhorn, all mean ‘swampy spot’. Cf. Gif-lo:Giffeln like Dif-lo: Diffeln (Bahlow ON, p. 171).

Gigl (Mnch.) see Giegel.

Gilbert (freq. in Frkf., Mannheim), LGer. Gilberts, Gilbertz, W Ger. Gilbrecht, Gilbracht (in Nassau), cf. Gilbracht kleuber, Frkf. 1387, is the Roman-Rhineld. form of Giselbert (cf. Gilbert, bishop of Meaux around 1000); documented: Gilbertus (Giselbertus),Basel 1411 (Socin, p. 18); also Gilbertshausen in Hesse was Giselbrechteshusen around 900. Gilbers is the LGer. patr.; Gillebertus = Gilbertus = Giselbertus occur freq. in the L.Rhine area (Stark, p. 48).

Gilcher (Pal., U.Rhine) is patr. of Gilch, see Ägidius.

Gildemeister, Gillmeister (LGer., Bremen, Hbg., Ro., Stettin, Danzig): the guild master. Thidericus Gildemester,Ro. 1297, Christian Gilmeister,Danzig 1658. For Gilde also consider pl.n.Gilde near Gifhorn.

Gilfert see Gelfert. Cf. Gilfershausen near Bebra. But Gilfner (Bav.) means ‘quarreler’.

Gilg, Gilger (or Gilch, Gilcher), Gilgmann: Alem.-Pal. = Ägidius, see there. As late as 1542 in Würt.: Gilg Crützer, Moravia 1414: Gilig Gumpold, Gilgman Blüwler, Baden 1472.

Gilgenschein ‘lily luster’, Gilgenblatt, Gilgenast are UGer. house names (MHG lilge, gilge ‘lily’); in Freiburg 1393 a house “zem gelwen giligen” [of the yellow lily]; in Konstanz 1522 Hans Scherer zur gilgen. Heinrich Gilgenblatt [lilyleaf], Freiburg 1477, Gilyenschin,Zurich 1408, Gilyenstüdl [lily shrub], Zurich.

Gill, Gillmann, Gill (UGer.), Gilles (Rhineld.), also patr. Gillesen (L.Rhine) see Ägidi(us).

Giller, Gillert, Gillhard: cf. Gillersdorf in Thur., Gillersheim near Northeim. But the pl.ns. Gill, Gillbach, Gillenfeld contain the word gil ‘dirt, mud’.

Gillhoff, Gildhoff (Westph.): pl.n. like Gillhaus (Henneke bi dem gildehuse [guild house]). Name is known through Joh. Gillhoff’s novel Jürn Jakob Swehn, der Amerikafahrer [J. J S., the traveler to America]. Gildehaus is a pl.n. near Bentheim.

Gillmeister (Danzig, Königsberg) see Gildemeister.

Gillner see Gellner (Geldner), cf. Giltner for Geltner.

Gilmer is equivalent to Gelmer,Greifswald 1321; reminiscent of the last king of the Vandals, Gelimer, Geilamer (6th c.), see also Gelke. Cf. Hermann von Gilm in Tyrol.

Gilsa (von and zu G.): pl.n. near Kassel, a prehistoric creek name with s-suffix (Gilisa)like the creeks Milisa (in Melsungen) and Gulisa (Güls) near Koblenz; for gil ‘dirt, mud’ see Bahlow ON, p. 172. H. Gilseman in Kassel 1407, Wigand von Gilsa 1224.

Gilster (UGer.): der Gilster,Breitenholz (Würt.) 1331, probably means ‘noise maker’, from MHG gelstern ‘to yell, shout’. Cf. also LGer. gilsterig ‘greedy, lusty,.

Gilten (von): pl.n. on the Leine River.

Giltner (UGer.) see Geltner.

Gilzer see Gelzer.

Gimbel, Gimbler (UGer.): probably unrounded form of Gümbel (Gumbold).

Gimber(lein) see Gümperlein.

Gimm(e) (UGer.): MHG gimme ‘precious stone, gem’ (Lat. gemma).

Gimpel (UGer.): bird name, also ‘naive person’; MHG gümpel ‘bullfinch’, also ‘hopper, penis’.

Ginapp see Gienapp.

Gindl see Gündel.

Gindrich, Gindersich see Gendrich.

Ginger, Gienger: from Gingen (pl.n.) or Giengen in Würt.

Ginther, Ginzei (UGer.): unrounded forms of Günther, Günzel.

Gippe: MHG gippe ‘jacket’; Gippner, Giptner = Joppner, Jüptner, see Joppe. Cf. also Joh. Gippengappe (‘big talker’), Han. 1293.

Gipperich: town on the Gippe River near Olpe in Westph. (gip ‘mud, bog’, Bahlow ON, p. 173).

Gipser (freq. in Hof in Bav.): a gypsum or plaster grinder or miller. Chuono Gipsere,Basel 1261.

Giraths see Gieraths.

Girbardt see Gerbert. Joh. Girbert,Harz Mountains 1579.

Girbig (Sil.) see Gerwig. Consider also pl.n. Girbigsdorf near Görlitz.

Girdan (Sil.): apparently a Slav. pers.n. ending in ­an (cf. Czech. hrdan, hrdy ,proud’), likewise Mordan (Czech. mrdny ‘swift, agile’). Hans Girdan,Liegnitz 1380, her [sir] Melcher Gyrdan, Gyrde,Liegnitz 1562. Cf. Grdanowitsch.

Girg, Girgensohn (UGer.-Aust.) = Georg.

Girke see Gierke.

Girlich = Girlach, see Gerlach.

Girmes: pl.ns. Wald-Girmes, Nieder-Girmes on the Lahn River near Wetzlar, in documents: Germenz,prehistoric creek name like Elsenz (germ ‘muddy, dirty water’, as in Girmendonk, donk ‘knoll in a swamp’); Bahlow ON, p. 167.

Girndt (Sil.) see Gernot.

Girschick see Giersig.

Girschner see Gierschner.

Gisevius (Königsberg): the ancestors of this family immigrated to the German area around 1600 from Poland (named after the place Gizice, resp. Giesewen in Mazuria). For more information see Brech., p. 561.

Gissel (Frkf.) = Gißel = Gießelbrecht.

Gissemann: from Gissen in Westph. (also Brabant); for gis ‘swamp, bog’ see Bahlow ON, p. 171. Cf. Wissemann from Wissen.

Gitter(mann) from (Salz-)Gitter near Brsw., prehistoric name with r-suffix like Gummer, Blender, Verder, Vechter, all referring to muddy or dirty water (Bahlow ON, p. 174).

Gittersonke (Pol.) see Jüttersonke.

Gittler, Gittel see Güttler.

Gizycki (Pol.) from the town Gizyce in Poland, immigrated to E Prussia around 1600. Cf. Gisevius.

Glabbach: pl.n. near Runkel on the Lahn River, assimilated form of Gladbach, several times in Rhineld., LGer. Gladbeck; means: a creek flowing through slippery, boggy terrain (cf. Dutch glad ‘slippery’). Thus Gladebekelike Wadebeke(wad ‘swamp’), Gladenbachlike Wadenbach,all have more or less the same meaning. Cf. Gladen near Liege (Belgium) like Waden(= Wahn at the Hümmling). Clear in its interpretation is Gladebruch in Holstein [swamp], Gladfenin England. Also on Slav. terrain: Gladau at the Fien Bog, Gladow, Gladigau. (Bahlow ON, p. 174).

Glade, Gladen see Glabbach (= Gladbach). Cf. Bernt tor Gladen,Münster 1590.

Gladiator: Humanist name for “Schwertfeger” [armorer]. Name appears already in medieval documents: Joh. Swertfegere =Joh. gladiator,Hbg. 1266-70.

Gladisch, Gladke (E Ger.): from Slav. gladki ‘smooth’. Cf. Ger. Glatte, Glatthaar [straight hair].

Gladow, Gladigau: Slav. pl.n., see Glabbach.

Gläfke see Gläveke.

Glagau, Glagow: Slav. pl.n.

Glage (Hbg.) cf. Glawe, Glaue, with LGer. -g- as in Grage:Grawe: Grau [gray] or Plage:Plawe: Plau.

Glahe (Ruhr): probably = Glade.

Glahn: pl.n. near Han. For the water word glan see Bahlow ON, p. 175. Also Glandorf near Osnabrück is situated on a Glane River, a prehistoric river name.

Glamann, Glahmann (N Ger.): probably from Glahn, see there. Cf. Gliemann: Glien.

Glambeck: pl.n. several times in Pomerania, Meckl., Brandenburg; old creek name.

Glander: MHG glander ‘luster, shine, brilliance’, one who likes to shine.

Glanz, Glantz, Glänzel (UGer.): one who likes to shine, cf. Glander. Michael Glancz,Brünn 1359, Hensel Glenczel,Kolin near Prague 1380.

Glaris, Gläre = Hilarius, saint’s name (bishop of Poitiers in France); cf. Glorius; Rhineld.-Alem., also Glari, Gläri, Glori: Gläry Murr 1432, Glery Lüprand, Würt. 1542.

Glarner: from Swiss canton Glarus, like Urner from canton Uri. Walther Glarner,Zurich 1293.

Glas, Glassl, Gläsel means glazier, Ger. Glaser, or the glass dealer, glass peddler (Glasmann, compare Biermann, Weinmann, Eiermann [egg man]), cf Glasträger,Villingen 1599, who peddles the products of the glassworks in the countryside (as in the fairy tale of Rübezahl). Cf. Conrad Glasehütte,Grimma 1414. For Glasbrenner cf. Cunrad Glasoven,Würt. 1282. In N Germany and in the L.Rhine area: Glasmacher(s), glasemaker, glasemeier, glasewer(ch)te, glaseworchter are names recorded in old documents. Hence also Glasenap (Napf = ‘cup, small bowl’), Glaskop (Kopf = Napf = ‘cup, mug, bowl’), Glasfuß [glass foot]. Cf. also Peter Glesel =P. Gleser,Brsl. 1350.

Glasenapp (LGer.): ‘glass bowl’, occ.n. of the glazier, likewise Glasekopf,Stralsund 1329, Glasfuß,Budweis 1411; UGer. Glacznapf,Nbg. 14th c. In Pomerania the name occurred already in the 13th c. (probably from the precious drinking glasses then in vogue): Willeke called Glasenap,nobleman 1287, dominus [sir] Joh. Glasenap,Stettin 1344, Pawel Glasenap (Pagel Dobrenze) 1518.

Gläsener, Glasner = Glaser, Gläser [glazier], see Glas. Tile Glesener,Duderstadt 1449. Glaziers and painters belonged to one guild (as manufacturers of colored glass): Cunrad glaser alias moler [C. glazier also known as painter], Liegnitz 1375; Tewes Burmeister, otherwise called Maler [painter], frequently Glasemaker,Kiel 1563.

Glashoff (Hbg.): loc.n. = ‘glass factory’. Glasebeke, Glaseberg, Glasewald see Bahlow ON, p. 175.

Glasow: pl.n. (Pom., Meckl.), Jutta Glasow,Stettin 1351.

Glatt(e): UGer. = Glatthaar [straight hair], Schlichthaar (LGer. Schlichtkrull, Schlichtegroll). Cf. Glatkopf,Basel 1290. Alem. Glättli (Zurich).

Glatter (UGer.): from Glatt (Switz., Würt.) or Glatten. Heinrich der Glatter,Seebach near Zurich 1287.

Glatz (UGer.) besides Glatz(e)l means bald head (MHG glatz): mit der glaczen,Brsl. 14th c. Enderlin Glacz 1362 besides Hensel Gleczel 1369 and Glaczaht,Iglau 1363, Conrad der Glatz,Vaihingen 1294.

Glatzer, Glätzer: from Glatz in Sil. (G. is a city and county). Niclos of Glacz,goldsmith, Brsl. 1348, Girgl Glaczer,Bohemia 1392.

Glau, Glaue: ‘sharp-sighted, cunning, clever’ (word still used in 18th c.); but the pl.n. Glaue near Potsdam may have to be considered.

Glaube: a believer; cf. Unlaubeg [non-believing]. Nic. Glaub,Brünn 1348, Lotze Glaube,Ursel in Taunus area 1373, C. Ungelaube,U.Rhine 1209.

Glauber probably = Glauer, see there and see Glau.

Glauberg: pl.n. near Frkf., Gluburg ‘swamp castle’ on the Nidda River, cf. Gloucester in England (Bahlow ON, p. 176). Conrad Glauburg,Frkf. 1342. Cf. the Glu-Riede (swamps) in the Harz Mountains.

Glaubitz (E Ger.): Slav. pl.n. (Sax., E Pruss.). Cf. also Glaubig, Glaubke, likewise Globig, Globke; Glaubitt (E Prussia).

Glaubrech(t) [believe right]: name for baptized Jews, cf. Bleibtreu (stay with the new faith). Also sentence name like the Pietist Leberecht [live right]. Otto Glaubrecht was the pseudonym of the Hessian writer Rud. Öser.

Glauch(e): pl.n. Glaucha and Glauchau on the Mulde and Saale rivers. Andreas Glawche,Liegnitz 1451.

Glauer(t): Hannus Glawer,Brünn 1383; Gluwer,Brsl. 14th c. (glu ‘smart, intelligent’).

Glauner (Würt.): Swab., a cross-eyed person (see Schiller, Schilcher).

Glauning (UGer., Bav.): name of origin, Otto de Glunich,14th c. Urkundenbuch [document register] Kremsmünster.

Glave, Glawe (Hbg., Meckl.): pl.n. in Meckl., cf. Slav. glava ‘head’, glawaty ‘big head’, Glawatz. But Hinrich Clavie (Clavige),Stralsund 1291 (Glavie, Glevie also in Greifswald) indicates MHG glavie, glevie (Old French glaive) ‘lance, lancer’ as in the name Gerhard Glavie,Westph. 1315.

Gläve(cke), Gläwe(cke), Gläfke (Meckl.) see Glave, Glawe.

Glawe, Glawitsch, Glawatz (Glowacz) see Glave.

Glede, Gleide (Hbg.): cf. pl.n. Gledinge:Gleidingen on the Leine River, from gled ‘slippery’ (ground in the bog).

Gleffing (E Ger.-Slav.) see Gläfke, Gläveke. Gleving,Greifswald 1555, Gleffing, Gleffeninge,Quedlinburg 1429; but see also Glavige, Glevie ‘lance, spear’.

Glehn: pl.n. near Neuß, old river name Glene (prehistoric glen ‘slime’: Bahlow ON, p. 177). Cf. Glenewinkel.

Gleich, Gleichmann, Gleiche: MHG gelîche ‘shapely, like’; cf. Gleichgvoß,Prague 1395. A (woman) Luitgard Gliche,Sindelfingen 1320. Auf der Gleiche, Auf dem Gleichen (in the area of Marburg) are field names, also die Gleichen (Schwalm), die Gleichenäcker; along with these the pl.n. Gleichen near Kassel and Brettach (Würt.), older: Glichen.The name becomes clear from the prehistoric Gleichberg in Thur. (likewise Rött-Berg, Schleif-Berg, Schmant-Berg, Süll-Berg, all of which indicate slippery terrain). Cf. Bahlow ON, p. 176.

Gleichauf see Glichauf.

Gleichen-Rußwurm: known through Schiller’s great-grandson, Alexander Baron Gleichen-Rußwurm, named after the castle of the counts of Gleichen SE of Gotha. See Gleich.

Gleichsner see Gleißner.

Gleide see Glede.

Gleim: the poet of the circle, Göttinger Hainbund, was from Thuringia. The name Glime, Gleim a documented name for knights in the Middle Ages (MHG glîme, gleime ‘firefly’, ‘something shining’): Herm. Glymo,knight, Würzburg 1119; Heinrich Glyme,squire, Hesse 1340. Also cf. pl.n. Gleima in Thur. (glim ‘slime’).

Gleimann: from the river name Gleie near Goslar (also name of a tributary of the Lenne, with pl.n. Gleidorf); Indo-European-Slav. gli, glei ‘slime, mud’.

Glein: pl.n. Gleina (three times in the Naumburg-Zeitz area), from Slav. glin ‘clay’.

Gleinig: pl.n. in Sil., as e.g. Gleinitz, Gleinau, also Gleina on the Saale River, all from Slav. glin ‘clay’.

Gleisberg: pl.n. on the Saale River (also ruins of a castle near Jena), from Indo-European glis ‘slippery’. Peter Glisberg,Görlitz 1391, Glysberg,Liegnitz 1369. But Gleißenberg is a pl.n. in Bavaria.

Gleißner (UGer.) besides Gleixner (Bav.): MHG glîchsener ‘hypocrite’, from MHG gelichsenen ‘to pretend’, actual meaning is: ‘to imitate somebody’. Heinrich der Glîchesaere was the name of the Alsatian author of the MHG satire about the hypocritical fox Reinhart,around 1175.

Gleitsmann (Bav., Sax.): armed rider(s) escorting the merchants travelling in groups with their wares, probably also for single travelers on a mission of their sovereign. But Gleitz,Gleitzmann (N Ger.) is a name of origin.

Glemser (UGer.) from Glems River (Würt.), see Bahlow ON.

Glenewinkel: (freq. in Han.) = Winekl on the Glene River (tributary of the Leine).

Glenz, Glänz (UGer.): MHG glenze ‘luster, brilliance’ see Glanz.

Gleris see Glaris.

Gleske, Glesmer (E Ger.-Slav.): cf. Glessekendorp, Gleskendorp,now: Gleschendorf near Lübeck.

Gless(mann): freq. in Col., from Glessen near Col. Also cf. Glesse on the Glesse River near Hamelin (‘bog water’): see Bahlow ON, p. 178). Similar is Glissmann.

Gleu(e), Gleumann: see Glaue and Gloye.

Gleuel: pl.n. near Col., in old documents Glou-lo,See Glauberg.

Glewe: Slavic pl.n. in Meckl.

Gley, Gloy (Rhineld.-SW Ger.): Saint Eligius (Eley, Eloy), patron saint of goldsmiths (and horses); the calendar day is called: Gloy or Gley Day.

Glied, Glidt (N Ger.): there is a Glieten Hill (“Glieten-Berg”) near Altena on the Lenne River, probably also field name (from glit ‘slippery, sticky’).

Gliem see Gleim.

Gliemer see Glümer.

Glien(i)cke, Glien: Slav. pl.n.(Brandenburg, Pom.), from glin ‘clay’. Also Glienig, Glienitz, likewise Gleinig, Gleinitz. Hence Gliemann (from Glien), likewise Riemann (from Rien), Peimann (from Peine).

Glimm, Glimmann (Hbg.): name of origin, cf. pl.n. Glimmen (Glimmerveen) in the Netherlands. glim (glem, glim) is an old swamp word.

Glinde(mann): from Glinde (several times as pl.n. near Hbg., Bremervörde, Schönebeck), cf Glindow near Potsdam, Glindenberg near Magdeburg; a Glindene River near Brilon; Glindleg in England; glind means ‘bog, mite’, MHG glindeht ‘slippery’.

Glissmann (freq. in Hbg.): from Glissen between Weser and Uchter Moor (U. Bog). Cf. Glessmann from Glessen. glis, gles (of the linguistic root gli) means something sticky, slimy; cf. Fr. glissant ‘slippery’.

Glitsch, Glitscher: Glitsche (MHG glitze) was a spear, lance; Mertin glitschensmyd [spear smith], Liegnitz 1386 (also Brsl.), Petrus Glitzenstrumpf,Budweis 1351.

Glitzhirn: MHG glitze ‘bald head, luster, sheen’. Chuntz Glitzenhirn,Bavarian Swab. area 1358. But Heinrich Glitzysen,Würt. 1431, was a smith’s helper.

Globig, Globke (E Ger.-Slav.), cf. pl.ns. Globnitz in Pom., Globuhnen in E Prussia, Globig near Wittenberg.

Glockengeter (LGer.): means bell founder. Bertoldus Clockengetere,Hbg. 1300.

Glockenthör, Glockenthür like Klockentöger, Klockenthör, Klockenthür (Han.) = ‘bell ringer, sexton’. Cf. Watertöger.

Glöckner (from the Central Rhine area toSilesia), Glockner (UGer.-Bav.), Gloggner (Alem.-Swiss), Glocker, Glogger (Bav.-Würt.), Glöckler (especially in Würt.), Klöckner (LGer.): the one who rings the church bells, sexton, helper in a church. Cf. LGer. Glockentöger(Glockenzieher = ‘bell ringer’), likewise Watertöger; Clockenvot,Lüb. 14th c.; Albrecht Glockendon,painter 1432. Also indirect occ.ns. like Glöckle, Glöckl, Glöggl, (UGer.-Bav.), cf. Jakob Glögklin =J. Glöckner,Freiburg 1551. Glock(e) was also a house name: zuoder Glocken [at the sign of the bell], Strasb. 1340; Joh. Glock,Frkf. 1390, there also Heinrich Nuneglocke 1331. For Glöckner see also Bahlow SN, p. 105. Cuncz Sturmglocke,Würzburg 1409, Ludolf Stonneclocke,Ro.1250.

Glockzien: pl.n. Klocksin in Meckl.

Glöde, Glöe (LGer.): Hbg., Ro.,freq. in Wismar, means MLG glode, glude ‘iron, fire tongs’ a name of a blacksmith. Glode around 1250-1350 in Ro.,Lüb., Greifswald, Han.

Gloffka, Gluffke: see Glowka.

Glogg(n)er, Glöggl see Glöckner.

Glog(n)er (Sil.), also Gloge, Glogisch:from Glogau on the Oder River. Hans Gloger von der Liegnitz 1542; Joh. Gloge,Liegnitz 1346. For Glogisch,Liegnitz 1560, cf. Leypisch (Leipa), Krokisch (Krakau).

Glomm, Glommer(t) see Glumm. Cf. pl.n. Glommen in E Prussia (from Slav. glom. glum ‘bog’).

Glonner, Glonn (Mnch.): from the pl.n. and river name Glon (Glan),tributary of the Amper (in Bav.) and Mangfall rivers. (Bahlow ON, p. 175) G. Glaner,Augsburg 1401.

Glörich (Sax.) see Glorius. Glose (Hbg.): pl.n., cf. Brand Gloseman,Han. 1345.

Glorius, Glohr, Gloor: = Hilarius (see Glaris). Glorius Wege, Eisleben 1433, Glorius Buchner, Gotha 1588, Glorius = Glorich Helmrich, Neustadt on the Orla River in Sax. 1586.

Glöser: (Bremen) MLG glosen ‘to glow’. Werner Gloyser, Ro. 1290.

Glotter(er): from Glottertal near Freiburg (Glotter is the equivalent of the Glodder in Engld., a Celtic river name). Hans von Gloter =Hans Gloterer,Freiburg 1460.

Glowka: Slav. Glava ‘head’, also ‘little head’, cf. Glowatz(ki), Glawatz, Glowik, Glowa, etc.

Gloye, Gloyer (freq. in Hbg.): as early as 1297 in Hbg. Joh. Gloye,1300 in Lüb. Hermann Gloie,in Haldsl. 1350 H. Gloye;MLG gloi ‘glowing’, probably also a surname for a blacksmith, cf. Glüheisen [glow iron]. For the form Gloyer cf. Broyer [‘Brüher’ from brühen ‘to scald, boil’] besides Broye. In Bremen often: Gloystein.

Gluck (UGer.) = Glück [luck], without the umlaut as in UGer. drucken [to press] for drücken [same meaning] and Rucksack for Rückensack. Gluckch,Moravia 1414, Erhart Glukh,Reutlingen 1510. The composer Willibald Gluck was from the Upper Pal. For meaning cf. Peter Glückhaft [P.the lucky], Konstanz 1404, opposite: Seltenglück [rarely lucky]. See also LGer. Godglück, Godelück [good luck].

Glümer, Gliemer (Brsw.): someone lying in wait wickedly. Heyne Glumere, Brsw. 1378.

Glumm: a bog in the Wendland area, from Slav. glom;cf. glum ‘cloudy, muddy’ (Luther still used it).

Glunk, Glungg (UGer.-Swab.), Swiss Glunggi: ‘laid back person’, from MHG glunkern ‘to dangle’, glunke ‘dangling bell’; the G. family in Villingen 1410 had three bells in their seal. Heinrich Glungg,Villingen 1320.

Gluns, Glunz (UGer. and LGer.): glunse ‘spark’. Herm. Gluns, Lüb. 1337. Heinrich Gluns, near Kassel 1454.

Glup(e), Glupp (LGer.): still used today is “glupsch”, from glupen ‘to have a wicked, dumb, and nosy look in one’s eyes’ (cf. Wendish glupy ‘dumb, stupid’). Hermann Glupus, Ro. 1266.

Glüsing (freq. in Hbg.): pl.n. Glüsingen near Harburg and Wittingen, pl.n. Glüsing in Dithmarschen, all are towns in bog areas (from glus ‘bog’, cf. glis, gles); a forest in a hilly area Glüsing in Westph. (likewise Solling, Biening, Beping, Seuling, Bölsing). Also pl.n. Glüsenkamp in Westph. like Bremenkamp, Wellenkamp. Heinrich de Glusing, Haldsl. 1350, Hermann Glusinc, Han. 1350, Glusing, Hbg. 1298.

Gmeiner (UGer.) see Gemeiner.

Gmelin, Gmehling, Gmehlich, Gmelch (UGer.): MHG gemechlich ‘leisurely, slow, comfortable, careful’. Gemelich,Prague 1359, Gemeleich,Iglau 1387; Dieterich Gemechlich (also called Lat. Quietus = ‘quiet, calm’), Erfürt 13th c.

Gnade, Gnadt (UGer.): enjoying the favor of a (feudal) lord, favorite. Also Gnader, Gnadenmeier (Würt.).

Gnann, Gnamm (UGer.): MHG genanne, gename ‘namesake, relative’ (cf the father of Simplicissimus called “Knän”). Gnanno Lafger, Ebersberg in Bav. 1095. Brother Gnanno of the monastery at Rein 1294.

Gnapheus : Humanist name for a hat maker or fuller.

Gnapper (Würt.): MHG gnappen ‘to limp’ (also gnepfen). Wernher der Gnapper, Würt. 1398, Heinrich der Gnepfer 1345.

Gnaß (Hbg.), Gnoß, Gnasa, Gnosa: E Ger.-Slav.

Gneisenau: the German general’s original FN was Neithardt; the addition “von Gneisenau” was taken from his estate in Upper Austria.

Gneist: MHG gneiste ‘spark’; like the spark of a sparkling nature or a spark-creating activity (e.g. of the blacksmith).

Gnerlich, Generlich, Gnerich (Sil.) like Genehr, Genersch, Gnersich indicate Slavic origin. But see Nerlich.

Gneuß: pl.n. near Sebnitz in Sax.

Gniesmer: E Ger.-Slav., likewise Tesmer, Glesmer, etc.

Gniffke, Gniefke: E Ger.-Slav. (Pol. gniew ‘battle rage’); pers.n. Gnevomir with sh.f. Gneweke,Stralsund1296; pl.n. Gnevkow in Meckl., Gnevesmölen.

Gnoyemann: from Gnoyen in Meckl.; Joh. Gnoyeman =Joh. de Gnoya, Stralsund 1288. Likewise Boitzemann from Boitzen; Nussemann from Nusse. For the N Ger. names of origin ending in -mann see Bahlow, “Der Zug nach dem Osten”, (Theutonista 9,1933, p. 225).

Gnutzmann (Hbg.): from Gnutz in Holstein. See Gnoyemann.

Göbbel(s): freq. in the L.Rhine area as sh.f. of Göbbert, like Gobbel from Gobbert, Gobert = Godebert (like Gobrecht = Godebrecht); less freq. there Godebold. (Godebold Hun, Frkf. 1350). In Friesland cf. Godber, Godbersen;Geseke Gobben,Bremen 1452. Gobbele Ridder, Riga 1449.

Göbel: sh.f. of Godebert (Godebold), see Göbbel. Name spread widely starting from the Rhine eastward (especially in Sil., see Bahlow SN, p. 38). The transition to a FN becomes clear in sources from Breslau (Arnold Göbels 1328 etc., there also the patr. Gobeler:Göbler): Reichert, p. 151. Histor. evidence: brothers Goblo and Werner, Breslau 1281, Gobelo de Treveris (= Trier), U.Sax. 1372, Gobelo filius Gobelini [G. son of Gobelin] de Lippia, Stettin 1346, Gobel oppem Brinke, city chronicle of Werden 1397, Gobele Hardevust, Col. 13th c., Gobel Breitschenkel, Lahn area 1370. As a FN in Liegnitz already 1369: Peter and Cunrad Göbel,brothers.

Gobert, Gobrecht (Hesse) = Godebert (see Göbbel); name occurred in Fulda as late as 1525: Gobert Reuber;Joh. Gobert,Lauterbach 1547.

Goch, Gocht: pl.n. Goch in the L.Rhine area. See also Gogh. But Goch, Göchli (U.Rhine area) = Gauch [fool or cuckoo].

Göcke (LGer.) = Gödeke (see there) = Godefrid, with LGer. loss of dental sound “d” between vowels. Patr. Göcking (= Gödeking) and Göcker (= Gödecker) in Westph., also Göcken, Göcks, all with a long ö.

Gockel(n): pl.n. Gockeln (Goke-lo)in Westph.; gok isa bog word now obsolete (Bahlow ON, p. 181).

Gödde, Gödden: L.Rhine-Westph. sh.f. of Göddert (Göddertz) = Goddert, Goddard, Godehard, old Ger. pers.n., also saint’s name after bishop G. of Hildesheim (cf. the Alpine pass St. Gotthard). Still 1510 Godert Duytze (Deutz), Goddard Sadelmecher in Neuß 1598.

Göde, Gödecke (LGer.): in the Middle Ages a popular sh.f. of LGer. Godefried (Gottfried), also Gäde, Gädeke (see there). Godeke = Godefrid v.Cremun, Lüb. 1259, Godeke Ketelbröter, Stralsund 1283, Godeke (Godefrid) Crochvinger, Ro. 1282, Godeke Michel (pirate); dominus [sir] Gode (Godo),Hbg. 1268, Ghode von der Heyde, Haldsl. 1358. See also Göcke, Goethe. Patr.: Gödens (Fris. Göens), Gödkens, Gäthgens (Rhineld.). Godefroy (Hbg.) see Gottfried.

Godehard, Goddert see Gödde. Patr. is Hermen Goderding,Han. 1473, contracted: P. Goderinge,Han. 1360.

Gödeke see Göde.

Godelmann (Worms): sh.f. of Godefrid; Godelman (Godefrid)Himmelstoß, Braubach 1249, Godelman Rupel, Worms 1278.

Godelück (LGer.) = Godglück ‘good luck’, a salute like Godjahr [good year] (cf “heil unde lucke!”, also E. luck); Hinrich Gudelucke,Barth 1448.

Gode(mann) see Göde.

Godenschweg(en), Godenschweig: from Godenswege in Meckl. Knight Hinrich de Wodenswegen,Pom. 1267. (Cf. MLG godensdach for Wodanstag ‘Odin’s day’, E. Wednesday).

Goder, Göder(s): documented in Aachen as Godefrid. But UGer. Goder(er), Roßgoderer, Roßgotterer, Goderbauer, Gotterbauer from MHG goder ‘throat, gorge’ (also occurs as a field name). Goderle,Olmütz 1420.

Gödje, Gädje = Gödeke, see there.

Godo(w): pl.n. in Meckl.

Godtfring (Westph. patr.) = Godeferding, from the clan of Godefrid, likewise Alfring = Alferding. Sh.f. Godt = Gode, cf. Gädt = Gäde; also Gödtke, Gädtke = Gödeke, Gädeke.

Goes see Goos.

Goethe see Göthe.

Goffarth (L.Rhine) besides Goffert (likewise Govaart, Godevaart, = Dutch) means Godefrid; likewise Govert(s), Jovers. Cf. her Godevard (Godeverd)van Borgh, ridder [knight], and Godevard (Godeverd, Godevrid)sin sone [his son], knappe [page], 1360. Holstein Urkundenbuch [document register] 4, Nr. 848, 885.

Goffe, Guffe: MLG = ‘hind quarter, buttocks’.

Gogarten: loc.n. (Rhineland), likewise Hallgarten, Thiergarten, Bomgarten; for go cf. LGer. Gogrewe (= Gaugraf ‘regional overlord’), but also the Dutch water word as in Gofeld, an der Gö in Westph. (Schönfeld, p. 23).

Goggeisel, Gogeißel (UGer.): dealer in trinkets and knicknacks.

Göggelmann, Geggelmann (Allgäu) = Gaukler [juggler, clown], cf. Göckler, Geckler.

Gogh: known through the Dutch painter Vincent van Gogh. Also cf. pl.n.Goch in the L.Rhine area and the swamp word gog, goch (Gog-more, Gogwelle, Gogland in England, Goga in Belgium 1171).

Gogl, Gogler (UGer.): MHG gogel ‘frisky, boisterous’, gogelen ‘to clown about, play tricks’. Hainrich Gogel,Brixen 1299, Gogeler,near Urach 1286 and Bohemia 1379.

Gogrewe (LGer.-Westph.) = Gaugraf [regional overlord]. Beneke Gogreve,Han. 1383.

Gohde, Gohdes (Hbg.): LGer. sh.f. of Godefrid, cf. Gode, Göde.

Gohert (Hbg.): = Godert, Godehart, with LGer. loss of dental “d” between vowels, contracted form: Gohrt.

Gohl(ke), Göhl(ke): E Ger.-Slav., also Göhlich = Wend. golik ‘the bald one’, (Wend.-Pol. goly ‘naked, bare’, cf. gola ‘heath’ in pl.ns. like Gohlis, Gohlitz, Gohlau). Also Gohlisch = Golisch. In Czech, “h” stands for “g”, hence Höhlke, Höhlich.

Göhl(e), Göhlmann: cf. pl.n. Göhl in Holstein, die Gölriehe in Oldenburg, Gälenkamp in Westph., Gölenbeke, Göhlen in Meckl. (MLG gol ‘swamp’).

Göhler (UGer.): MHG goln ‘to howl’. Jürge Göler,Brsl. 1399.

Gö(h)mann (Westph.): cf. a piece of land “An der and Gofeld meaning ‘water field’, in Westph. See also Gogarten.

Gohr (freq. in Hbg.): MLG gor ‘mire, swamp’, in field and pl.ns., cf. pl.n. Gohr near Neuß, die Görde (Gor-idi), Gorleben (likewise Marleben); in the Netherlands: Goorbeek, Goorkolk.See also Göhre.

Gohrband(t): Slav. pl.n in Pom. Cf. Jorban(d), Gurban(d) = Urban.

Göhre (E Ger.): cf. pl.n. Göhren (Meckl., Rügen Island, Thur., from gor ‘swamp, mire’ or gora ‘mountain, hill’). Göhra near Dresden.

Gohres, Gores (Rhineld.) see Görres, Gregorius.

Göhring, Göring (UGer.): in Würt. and Bavaria the rounded form (Göring) derives from Ge(h)ring, see there. Friedrich Göring (Gerinck),Upper Pal. 1504.

Göhrke see Görke.

Göing (LGer.) = Göding, likewise Göens Gödens.

Göke, Göken (LGer.) = Gödeke, see there.

Gokstert, Gaukstert (LGer.) = ‘cuckoo tail’; Gokestert,Hildesheim 1350.

Golchert (E Ger.): cf. Slav. pl.n. Golchen, Demmin district.

Gold(a): old surname, used for knights in possession of gold or gold jewelry: Hugo of Minfeld, called Golt (page), Alsace 1309; also house name: Wernher zem Golde,Basel 14th c.; Ditl Golde,Brünn 1365, Heynczel Goldel,Iglau 1359; probably a name for workers mining and refining gold, gilders, gold jewelers (as Kupfer is for the coppersmith and Zinn for the tinsmith), also Goldmann (which was not a Jewish name in the Middle Ages): Peter Goltman,Dux in Bohemia 1394, Liegnitz 1415. Also cf. Goldnagel [gold nail], Goldisen [gold iron], Goldkloß [gold lump], Goldsack, Goldfuß [gold foot], Goldauge [gold eye], Goldfinger (MHG vinger = ‘ring’), Golthar [gold hair], Goldmund [gold mouth], Goldegebe [gold giver] etc.

Goldammer and Goldhahn (names of song birds) are probably surnames for a bird dealer. Joh. Golthan,Worms 1325, Brünn 1348. Distorted forms are Goltdammer, Goldhammer (like E. yellowhammer).

Göldel, Goldelius see Gold.

Goldenbaum (freq. in Hbg.) may be a house name, but is also a pl.n. in Meckl., where also Goldenbogen, Goldenbagen and Goldenbow occur.

Golder see Göldner

Goldmann (sometimes of Jewish origin) see Gold. Henrich Gultman,Liegnitz 1413.

Göldner, Göllner (Sil., Sax., Bohemia, also in areas of gold mining): recorded in a historic document 1342 in Goldberg near Liegnitz: “alle unse eldesten goldner[all our oldest gold workers] which meant also the pitmen of the gold mine; probably also gold washers and gilders. Andr. Goldener,Prague 1314. Seifrid Goldener,Glatz 1371 (also Görlitz 1452, Freiberg in Sax. 1470); Golner,Neiße area 1475, Gölner,Görlitz 1541; as early as 1120 an H. Goldiner in Barnberg. Golder in Würt. 1314, in Hesse 1297 Joh. Goldere,mayor. In Meckl.: Nic Goldenere,Ro. 1296.

Goldschläger: goldsmith, especially the gold leaf maker. Joh. Goldsleger,Basel 1290, Goldsleher,Brsl. 14th c., goltslaher,Brünn 1348, goltslegere,Lüb. 1350; cf. goldspinner,Basel 14th c.

Goldschmidt: the art of goldsmithery is thousands of years old; the wealthy of the Middle Ages (trade merchants, patricians, nobles, knights and even the Catholic Church) needed goldsmiths everywhere; in recent times the name (connected with the trade) can also be Jewish (cf. Goldmann).

Goldstein: MHG = ‘gem’ that looks like gold (topas); also touchstone (of the chemists). In the rich city of Cologne as early as 1170: Gerardus Goltstein;a knight Joh. of Riedern called his sons Joh. and Goltstein,Franconia 14th c.

Goldt see Gold.

Gölfert (Bav.) see Gelfert.

Golke, Golka, Golisch see Gohlke. Pl.ns. like Slav. Golk mean moor area.

Golkenrath: Golkrath near Erkelenz in Rhineld., from gol-k ‘swamp’, -rath = -rode [clearing].

Goll (UGer.) = ‘simpleton; fool’. The Goll clan from Ehingen had a bullfinch in their coat of arms. Gebeno called Gollo,Eßlingen 1251, Hans Goll,Pollau in Moravia 1414.

Golle, Golla, Gollan, Gollasch, Golletz etc. are E Ger.-Slav., see Gohlke.

Goller (UGer.): MHG goller, koller ‘neck cover, neck garment’ (Fr. collier). Hans Goller,near Stuttgart 1350.

Göller (freq. in Mnch.) is a rounded form (vowel!) of Geller, see there.

Gollhardt, Gollert see Goller.

Golling (UGer.): pl.n. south of Salzburg.

Gollmer: from Gollma east of Halle.

Göllner see Göldner.

Gollnick (E Ger.-Slav.): ‘moor ranger, moor man’ (gola ‘moor, see also Gohlke).

Göllnitz: Slav. pl.n. (Lausitz, Thur.)

Göllrich, Gellrich (Glatz, Görlitz) is an assimilated form of Göldrich, still current around 1500 in Wünschelberg. Merten Goldrich, also in Braunau. Cf. Göllner for Göldner.

Gollub (E Ger.-Slav.), also Golob: Wend. golub, Czech holub ‘dove’, also the pigeon dealer or pigeon breeder like Teub(n)er.

Gollwitzer (Franc.-Sud.): from the Slav. pl.n. Gollwitz.

Goltermann. from Goltern at the mountain range Deister, likewise Haltermann from Haltern. Cord vanGolterne =Cord Golterneman, Han. 1405. Cf. the writer Heinrich Goltermann from Bremen (1823-99). Goltern, Haltern, Gummern, Emmern, etc. are prehistoric water names with an r-suffix.

Golther (UGer.-Würt.) means Goltermacher [cover, blanket maker] (MHG golter, kolter, kulter, OFr. coultre ‘comforter’). Hans Golter,Rottweil 1441, Goltermacher,Tübingen 1437, Prague 1402. The professor of German literature and Wagner expert, Wolfgang Golther, was from Würt.

Gol(t)z (von der G.): E Ger.-Slav. pl.n. Golz, Arnoldus de Golcze 1297,old nobility from the Neumark area. Cf. also pl.n. Golzow (several occurrences).

Golücke (LGer.): shortened form of Gode-Lüdecke (good Ludolf), in old documents: Gode Lüdiche,Lippe area 1614. Cf. Lücke. See also Godelück.

Gölz (Mannheim, Frkf., Darmstadt, Worms): dialect form of Gelz, see there. Likewise Gölzer for Gelzer, besides Gölzenleichter, Gelzenleichter.

Gömann (LGer.-Westph.) see Göhmann.

Gombel, Gumbel (W Ger.): sh.f. of Gombert, Gumbert, i.e. the Germanic pers.n. Gund-bert, also from Gombold, Gumbold: originally Gund-bald (gund ‘war, battle’). Wigand Gombel,Ortenberg in Hesse 1563.

Gombert, Gombold see Gombel. Also Gombart, Gombrich.

Gommel, Gummerl see Gombei. Also for Gommert, Gummert. But cf. pl.n. Gommern and Gummern.

Gommlich, Gummlich = Slav. Gomoluch = Gomolka, see Gemoll.

Gomoll, Gomulka, Gomolzig see Gemoll.

Gompertz see Gumpertz.

Gompf (UGer.) see Gump.

Gondermann, Gonnermann see Gundermann.

Gönne (von der Gönne): old water word (Bahlow ON, p. 188), cf. pl.n. Gönna NE of Jena (on the Gönner Creek) and Klaus von der Gynna,Jena 1406; a Gonna River is a tributary of the Helme River near the Unstrut River, a Gunne River flows into the Lippe. Also a pl.n. Günne in Westph. and FN Günnemann. Pl.n.Gönnebeck in Holstein (old: Günnebeke).

Gönner: cf. pl.n. Gönnern near Laasphe, prehistor. creek name with r-suffix.

Gönnewein see Gennewein.

Gönnrich see Gendrich.

Gonser (Swab.) see Ganser.

Gonsier etc.: of E Ger.-Slav. origin.

Gontard is a french form of Gundhard, likewise Gontier from Gunther.

Goos (LGer.) means goose, also name of a goose dealer or goose herd: Thed. Gos,Hbg. 1262, there also Meinold Gosoghe (UGer. Gansauge ‘goose eye’); cf. Gosekop [goose head] in Lüb., Gosewisch (goose pasture), Gosebrink, Gosebruch [goose swamp]. Derived from Goos: Goosmann. But Gooß, Gooßen (freq. in Hbg.) besides Gooßens appears to be the sh.f. of the pers.n. Goßwin,which was popular in the Middle Ages in the North Sea area; cf. Gosch, Göschen. Gosen (Goswin)von Dulk, a Frisian 1463.

Göpel (W Ger.-Hess.): sh.f. of Gotebold (Goppold, cf. Göppel), may be compared with Geipel (Gipel), Diepel, Rupel, Happel in the same area. Gopel Berngoß, Herbstein 1374.

Göpfert (Bav.) see Geppert. Also Göpfahrt (like Seifahrt).

Goppelt (UGer.) besides Goppel, Göppel means Goppold, i.e. Got-bold,a popular pers.n. in the Middle Ages (see also Gottwald): Sidel Goppolt,Eger 1320, Heincz Goppold,Wurzburg 1409, Nik. Goppolt,Nördlingen 1507, M. Goppel,Bohemia 1385. Pl.n. Goppoltsried in Upper Pal. was called Gotpoldriut in 1194.

Goppert (UGer.) like Gobbert (L.Rhine) is an assimilated form from Got-bert,a popular pers.n. in the Middle Ages in the southwest, likewise Goppolt (from Got-bold).Cf. pl.n. Goppertshausen (Gotbrechtshusen),Thurgau 1357, Goppertsweiler in Würt. But Göppert (with umlaut) is a Sil-Sax. dialect form for Gotfrid, see Geppert. Cf. pl.n. Göppersdorf near Pirna.

Göp(p)ner (UGer.) see Jöppner.

Görbig, Görbing see Gerwig.

Görcke see Görke.

Gördeler (LGer.) see Gürtler.

Görg, (Rhinel. Görgen, Görgens, Görges) Georg, see there. Görger, Görgler, Görgner (UGer.) is a patr., unrounded forms are Gerger, Jerger, Helmhard Görger in Austria 1358. Cf. sh.f. Görg(e)l (UGer.).

Göricke see Görke.

Göring see Gering, Gehring.

Görisch = Gorisch, likewise Göritz = Goritz (E Ger.-Slav.), sh.f. of the Slav. pers.n. Gorislaw (compare Borisch from Borislaw).

Göritz: Slav. pl.n. (Prenzlau, Küstrin, etc.).

Görke, Görcke, Göricke (freq. in E Ger. area) is a Ger.-Slav. sh.f. of Georg; as evident in the pl.n. Görkau (Czech = Jirkov!) near Komotau in Bohemia. Also cf. the pl.ns. Görke (several times in Pomerania), Görike in the Prignitz area, Görkwitz near Schleiz. For Gork(e) compare f.n. Gorcho (14th c. in Brsl.) and pl.n. Gorkau, Gorkow.

Görlach see Gerlach.

Görland see Gerland.

Görler, Görl means Gerler, UGer. patr. of Gerle (Gerlach, Gerold), see Gehrlein.

Görlich, Görling see Gerlach or Gerling.

Görlitz: Slav. pl.n. (cf. Gorlice in Galicia, Poland). Wernher von Gorlicz,Brsl. 1254, Nickel and Hannos Gorlicz (brothers), Brsl. 1360, Niclas Gorliczer,Glatz 1419.

Görmer: pl.n. Görmar in Thur., see Germar.

Görn(e): from Görna on the Saale River and/or Görne in Brandenburg.

Görnand see Gernand.

Görnemann: from Görne in Brandenburg, likewise Peinemann from Peine.

Görner (Franc.) = Gerner (from the pl.n. Gern, freq. in Bav.).

Görnig (Sax.), likewise Gornig, Gornich, Gorny from Slav. gora ‘mountain, hill’, cf. pl.n. Gornau near Chemnitz, Gornow, etc.

Gorr(e): MHG ‘bad horse’; Peter Gorre,Heppenheim 1369.

Görres, Görries (L.Rhine-Westph.) = Gregorius, see there. Patr. Görrissen, Gorrissen (L.Rhine).

Görs, Göres (LGer.) = Görres = Gregor. Görtemaker (Bremen 1317) = Grützmacher [grits miller, dealer in peeled grains]. Also in Rostock 1260.

Gör(t)z: freq. pl.n. in Austria and Bav., Slavic like Görtzke.

Gosau: pl.n near Hallstatt.

Gösche(n), Gösch (freq. in Hbg.), Gosch (freq. in Hbg.) is the LGer.-Fris. sh.f. of Goschalk = Godeschalk (‘God’s servant’), popular pers.n. in the Middle Ages, also from Goswin: Gosceke filius Goswini [son of Goswin], Stralsund around 1330, Gosse Ockinga, N Frisia 1422, Goske (Godschalk)van Aleveld, 16th c. N Frisia, Godscalcus Ywemboye (father and son), Hbg. 1298, Goschalk Mowe, Werden on the Ruhr 1398. For the word form compare Wesche for Wesseke (Wasmut). UGer. form is Göschl: Göschlein (Gotschalich) of Hanveld, Kremsmünster in Aust. 1378, 1365.

Gose, Gosemann: from the river name Gose near Goslar; also cf. Gosen near Berlin (von Gosen), Gosau (river near Hallstatt) means ‘murky water, refuse water’ (Bahlow ON, p. 180).

Göseke (LGer.) see Gösche (from Godeschalk) or see Goswin, Goose.

Gosewisch (LGer.) = Gänsewiese [goose pasture]; Gosejakob = Gänsejacob. Henning Gosewisch, Han. 1506. Likewise Gosewinkel, Gosebeck, Gosepol, Gosebruch. See also Goos.

Goslich (LGer.-Fris) = Gottschalk. Cf. Goslich (Gotschalck), Nostorf in Meckl. 1485, Goslich Jongama, Frisia 15th c. See also Gosselck.

Gospodar: Slav. gospody = ‘lord, sir’. Cf. Gosboth, Kospot and pl.n. Kospeda near Jena.

Gosse, Gösse Göss(e)l(e), (UGer.-U.Rhine): sh.f. of Goswin, Goßold, Goßbert, probably also of Gotfrid. Several times in Strasb. around 1300: Gosso (Gößlin) Rebstock, Gosso (Götzo) Kurnagel, Gösso Müntzer, Gösselin Engelbrecht; Gösselin, Col. 1135; as FN: Meingoß Gosse, Worms 1344, Heincz Gosse, Frkf. 1396, Gösselin (Gossolt) Suter, Eßlingen 1343.

Gosselck: in Westph. Gösselke was recorded along with Goslik around 1500 for Godschalk; see also Goslich.

Gossenbrod (UGer.): warm bread soaked in fat; Marquard Begossenbrot 1321; Sigmund der Gossenbrot, Augsburg 1431.

Gossler: according to old documents the name derives from the name (of the town) Goslar at the Harz Mountains. Brun vanGosslere, Haldsl. 14th c.

Gößler (UGer.); rounded form of Geßler, see there. Peter Geßler (Gäßler), Allgäu area 1508. Likewise Gößner for Geßner.

Goßmann = Gößmann. Cf. Goßmannsdorf (near Würzburg and Haßfurt).

Gößmann (Mnch.) see Gößwein.

Gößwein (Bav.-Franc.) = Goßwin, Germanic pers.n. (gôß: gauta, related to the name of the tribe of the Goths; win = ‘friend’). Cf. pl.n. Göllweinstein in Franconia, also Egloffstein and Leupoldstein. In Swabia an unrounded form occurs: Geßwein; others are Centr.Ger. Gießwein, in Silesia Gießmann, see there. In Col. the name appeared as early as 1218 as first n.: Goßwin Minnevuß; as FN: Eberlin Gößwin, near Stuttgart 1332, J. Goswin, Löwenbg. 1389. Related are Gößmann and Gössl (Bav.).

Gothan, Guthan (E Ger.-Slav.): Gotan was a Slavic pers.n. ending in -an like Milan, Budan, Pechan, etc. Cf. Gotan (Guttan) Mordere, a Pomeranian knight, Stettin 1254; Gote Mortberner, a page from Rügen Island, 1316 (FN Goth). Also GotkeGotkinus 1254, Brsl. 1347. See Guthke. Barth. Gotan was well known as one of the first printers in Lübeck around 1485; Gotan(us) several times in Ro. 1279 and thereafter.

Gothe see Gothan. Cf. dictus (called) Gote, Ro. 1272, Lüb. 1346.

Goethe, Göthe, Göth: the name of this famous writer, about which Herder, a contemporary philosopher and anthropologist, spoke ironically (“Ob von Göttern Du stammst, von Goten oder vom Kote”; ‘Whether you hail from the gods, from the Goths or from dung’), comes from the mixed language (dialect) area of N Thuringia, where LGer. words and names often took on High German features (c.g. Luther for Luder: which was still the spelling of Luther’s father’s name), in this case LGer. Göde (Gödeke), sh.f. of Godefrid (Gottfried); the earliest record in 1594: Nikolaus Göthe in Badra. See also Göde. Today also Göthke for Gödeke, cf. Götke Schultze, Poel 1585.

Gothmann (freq. in Hbg.): LGer. = UGer. Gutmann, Guttmann.

Gothmar, Godemar: only in old documents Gothmarus lapicida [stone cutter], Lüneburg 1291; Godomar is the name of the king of the Burgundians in the 6th c., replaced by the name Gernot in the MHG epic Nibelungenlied. In Brabant G. recorded as a saint’s name: Gomarus, Gomaer.

Götsch(e), Götsch(e)l, Götschmann (UGer.): sh.f. of Gottfried (or Gottschalk), in the Middle Ages also Götz(el), see there. For Schaffgotsch see Gutsche. Gotschelin Vogeler, Brixen (S Tyrol) 1278, Heinrich Götsch (son of Götzlein),Bruneck (S Tyrol) 1442.

Gott (UGer.), shortened from Gotte, sh.f. of Gottfried, cf. Gottefrid 1276, Gotteman,Würt. 1266. LGer. Godde.

Gottberat, Gottbrat (UGer.): in old documents Gotberot (Brsl. 14th c., see Reichert, p. 115), also gotberat (thus in the city laws of Augsburg): “the highest warden (of the nursing staff) shall bring to all leper hospitals two Gotberat (gotberaut) ... in addition to soup and meat”; apparently G. is a certain dish.

Gött(e): UGer. = MHG götte, gotte ‘godfather’. Cuonrat der Götti,Villingen 1329, Hensli Götti,Unterbaldgen 1398. But LGer.-L.Rhine Götte(n) see Gödden.

Gött(e)l, Göttler (UGer., freq. in Mnch.): sh.f. of Gottfried (Gotthard), compare Öttel from Otto. Cf. pl.n. Göttlishofen in Allgäu, Göttelfingen in Würt. Hence Göttelmann. B. Göttelin,Konstanz 1345, Konrad der Götteler,Eßlingen 1373, K. Göttelmann,Zabern 1582.

Götter(mann) cf. pl.n. Göttern near Jena.

Göttert: UGer. for L.Rhine Göddert (Godehard).

Gottfried: the form is freq. contracted (Göpfert, Göppert, Geppert, see there. LGer. Govert) and/or developed into the sh.fs. Götz and Gödeke; G. is one of the most popular Christian names of the Middle Ages, its popularity was supported by famous members of the nobility (Gottfried of Bouillon, crusader; G. of Strasbg., MHG epic writer), it then went out of fashion and was revived by the religious movernent of Pietism (famous authors like Herder, Keller bore the name).

Göttge, Göttgens, Göttjens (L.Rhine): sh.f. of Gottfried or Gotthard.

Gotthard(t): W Ger.-L.Rhine, was once very popular, see Godehard, Gödde.

Götting: from the town Göttingen (freq. as pl.n. on the rivers Lahn, Leine, near Beckum in Westph.), likewise Rating from Ratingen (L.Rhine), Weferling from Weferlingen, Keding from Kehdingen, Stelling from Stellingen. For meaning see Bahlow ON, p. 180. But Göttinger is UGer.: Hang Göttinger,Ulm1466, for the pl.n. Göttingen see Bahlow above.

Gottleber, Gottlöber, Gottlieber: from Gottlieben near Konstanz.

Göttler see Göttel.

Göttlich = Göttling, full form is Göttlicher. Peter Göttligk (Gotling),Görlitz 1489.

Göttsch(e) see Götsch(e).

Gottschalk, Sil. Gottschlich, Gottschling, UGer. also Gottschald, Gottschall (compare Marschalk: Marschall). ‘God’s servant’, popular first name since the introduction of the Christian faith. See also Goslich, Göschen, Götsche, Gutsche. Gottschalk Eschenbruck, Fulda 1470, W. Gotschalk,Liegnitz 1317.

Gottschling, Gottschlich see Gottschalk. For more information gee Bahlow SN, p. 38. As to the form of the name, compare Marschlich for Marschalk, which came about through shift of stress from second to first syllable (in old documents: Gotschalich: Gotschlich),likewise in -berg: ­berich: -brich. Cf. Gotschalich (Göschlein)of Hanveld, U. Austria 1378.

Gottsleben: Claus Gotsleben,Allendorf on the Werra River 1512, probably a Thur. pl.n.like Witzleben, Andisleben, Merxleben, Erxleben (see Bahlow ON, p. 125).

Gottwald (Sil.-Lausitz-Bohem.): dialect variant of the original Got-bold,a popular first name of the E Frankish-Thur. nobility around 1200. (For more inforrnation see Bahlow SN, p. 38.) Godebold Hun, Frkf. 1350, Gotebold (Duke of Henneberg around 1200), Gotbold of Waldaw, Liegnitz 1349, Peczold Gotbolt,Schweidnitz 1329, Gotwold,Glatz 1393, Nic. Gotwald,Brieg 1403.

Götz, Götze, Götzl, Götzlmann, Götzmann: UGer. sh.f. of Gottfried. Cf. Gotfrid (Götz) of Berlichingen. For Götzmann with the shorter form Götzel compare Heintzmann and Heintzel. Göczel of Prague, Brsl. 1362, Hensel Göczel,Dux 1389, Götzke is an E Ger. form with a Slavic k­suffix. For Götzmann see Gotzmann.

Götzfried (UGer.): cf. Conrad Gotesfiied,Prague 1340; see also Gotzmann,

Götzger (Alem., Baden): from the town Götzingen, cf. Nöttger, Öschger, etc.

Götzke: see Götzloff.

Götzloff, Götzlaff, Gützlaff (Pom.): Slav. pers.n. Godislaw (god = ‘valuable, dear, pretty’; slaw = ‘fame’). Cf. Stoisloff, Tetzloff, Retzlaff, etc.

Gotzmann (UGer.): in old documents: Gotesman (Brsl. 14th c.), name for a pious man in God’s service; Hensel Goczman,Iglau 1369. Compare Goczgnad [God’s grace], Gocznam [God’s name], Goczhulde [God’s grace], Goczfeint [God’s enemy]: mitgoczhilfen [with God’s help], Prague 1397. Gotzkuchen,Breisach 1338. But Gotzman Türrigl, 15th c. and M. Gotzeman,Augsburg 1303 will most likely have to be pronounced with an umlaut, = Götz.

Gotzmer, Götzmer (Pom.): Slav. pers.n. like Natzmer, Venzmer; cf. Götzlaff, Natzlaff, Venzlaff.

Govert(s) see Goffarth.

Goy (freq. in Brsl., Beuthen): pl.n. in the Ohlau district (vom Goy,14th c.). But L.Rhine-Westph. Wennemar von der Goy indicates a loc.n. Goy, cf. an der Gö.

Graack (freq. in Hbg.): probably a pl.n.

Graaf (freq.) see Graf.

Graage see Grage.

Gra(a)lfs (Fris.): in old documents Gralf = Gralef (16th c.), i.e. Garlef,see Garleff.

Gra(a)p (freq. in Hbg.), Grape means Grapengeter, see there.

Grabau see Grabow.

Grabbe (LGer., Lemgo, Detmold, Hbg.): name is known through the writer Chr. D. Grabbe from Detmold. Cf. MLG grabben ‘to grab’. Gottschalk Grabbe, Lemgo 1578, Michel Grabbe, Hbg. 15th c.

Grabbert (Hbg., Meckl.): see Grabert.

Grabe (freq. in Hbg.) stands for LGer. Grave ‘ditch’ (water course), cf. rivulus [rivulet] Bodegrave, Dobgrave in Holland. Compare Dabe besides Dave ‘puddle, mire’; Rabe. LGer. Rave. For pl.n. Grabe, Graba in Thur. (Grabaha) see Bahlow ON, p. 181.

Grabein (Sax.): pl.n. near Sebnitz in Sax., also there the FN, which became known through Paul Grabein’s novel Odu mein Jena!

Graber, Grabert: MHG grabaere ‘digger, gravedigger’. Also with umlaut: Gräber, Greber (Nickel Greber pellifex [furrier], Brsl. 1385), but UGer.: Ditl Graber,Brünn 1365. Compounds: Borngräber, Teichgräber, Erzgräber [well-, pond, ore digger (miner)].

Gräbisch in Glatz), Grabsch, Grabs: E Ger.-Slav., from grabic ‘to rake’.

Grabke, Gräbke, besides Graba, Graban, Graband, Grabars see Gräbisch.

Grabmann, Grabmeier (UGer.): living near the ditch. Conrad der Grabman,Würt. 1295.

Grabner, Gräbner (UGer.): named according to the place of dwelling near the ditch. Cf. Hans auf dem graben,near Eger 1395, Eberhard zu dem graben,Gamshurst in Baden 1355, Michel uffdem graben,Brsl. 1399.

Grabow, Grabau: pl.n. (Meckl., Pom., Prignitz area, etc.), from Slav. grab- ‘beech tree’.

Gradhand see Geradehand.

Gradl (Bav., Tyrol), Gradler, Gradner, Grader, Gradert, Gradmann (UGer.): all derived from the place of dwelling (grad ‘terraced terrain’), cf. Gradlwirt [Gradl tavern], Gradlhöfe in Tyrol [Gradl farms]. For G(e)rade compare MHG gerade ‘agile, skilled’.

Graf (freq. UGer.), Grafe (Rhineld.), Gräfe (Rhineld.-Westph.), Greve, Grewe (LGer.), Grebe (Hesse): higher (or lower) official with legal authority. Cf. Markgraf [margrave] (governor of a frontier or border region), Pfalzgraf, Burggraf, Landgraf; also Zehntgraf, Zintgraf, Zinckgraf, Holzgraf, Salzgraf; for further information see Grebe, Grewe.

Graffunder: E Ger-Slav. like Klawunder, Bergunder.

Grage (freq. in Hbg.): Ger. form of Grawe ‘a gray-haired one’, cf. Gragetopf ‘gray braid’, in old documents: Grawetop,Ro. 1301, Greifswald 1384, Lüb. 1329.

Gragert (Hbg.): LGer. form for Grawert, likewise Grage for Grawe; OFris. pers.n.: Hinrich Grawerts,Frisia 1505. But for Gräger see Gregor.

Grahl (freq. in Hbg.): Grahlmann, Graalmann: from Graal in Meckl., cf. pl.n. Gra(h)low (Slav.). Heydeke called Gral, Halberstadt 1297 may mean ‘bigwig’ (Slav. gral).

Grählert: E Ger. name of origin.

Grah(mann) see Graumann.

Grahn (Hbg.): E Ger.-Slav. like the pl.n. Granow, Grana; Gran, Granek, Granel, Granitzki; Granier (like Hallier, Bernier, and others).

Grä(h)n (LGer.) see Gröhn, Gröne. Gräning see Gröning.

Graichen (freq. in Sax. and Thur.): from Graicha near Altenberg in Thur.

Grallert (Sax.), Gralla, Gralka see Grellert, Grelka.

Gramann, Grahmann see Graumann.

Gralock, Grolock see Grau.

Grambeck: pl.n. near Mölln, in old documents Granebeke, similar to pl.n. Grambke near Bremen and Gramke in the Vechta Bog, cf. the Grane (creek) near Goslar, Granstedt, Gransee, Granow, etc; for the prehistoric water word see Bahlow ON, p. 182.

Gramberg (Hbg.): pl.n. Grambergen near Osnabrück (with the Grammling, cf. Hümmling); the Gramme is a tributary of the Unstrut and the Humme flows into the Weser; gram like hum = ‘bog water’, see Bahlow ON, p. 182. Synonyms are Malbergen, Ladbergen in Westph.

Grambow: Wendish pl.n. (Meckl., Pom.). Also Gramkow.

Gramenz: Slavic pl.n. in the district of Köslin in Pom.

Gramke see Grambeck.

Gramm (freq. in Hbg.): pl.n. in the district of Schleswig. But UGer. Gramm(e) from MHG gram ‘angry, annoyed’: Rüdiger der Gramme, Cannstatt 1333; Berhtolt der Grammer, Rottweil 1282. A Gramme is a tributary of the Unstrut.

Gram(m)lich is equal to Gramoll as Gommlich is to Gomoll, all Slavic. Cf. Gramsch, Gramuschke, Gramowski, Gramenz, Gramschütz and others. A pl.n Gramling in Bav. But Grämmle (Würt.) = Gramm ‘angry’.

Gramp(p): UGer., probably = Gremp, Grempler ‘secondhand dealer’. Volmar Grampe, Würt. 1435.

Gramsch, Grams(e), Gramuschke: E Ger.-Slav., like Gramatke, Gramowski, and others.

Grandt (freq. in Hbg.): LGer. = gravel; Grant, Lüb. 1320. Grande is a pl.n.near Trittau east of Hbg., cf. a Grande 820 near St. Goar, a Grandine (in the Netherlands and Lithuania!), Grandenborn near Sontra, Grandefeld, all indicating dirty water or bog water. Nic. Spölegrant, Stralsund 1324.

Granow: E Ger.-Slav. pl.n., also Granau, see Grahn. Granel (Slavic like Possehl).

Grans (UGer.) = MHG grans ‘beak’. Wernhart der Grans, burgrave of Schärding 1323; also Haintz Gransman, Würt. 1414. Grensel, Bohemia 1272.

Gran(t)z: E Ger.-Slav. like Grantzau, Granzow, Granzin.

Grapengeter, Grapengießer, besides Gropengießer; old LGer. term for the manufacturer of metal containers or dippers, shallow saucepans (LGer. gropen); the Grapenböter mended them (as the Ketelböter mended the kettles), the Gropenseller (Ro. 1268) sold them; the Grapenbrader (Flensburg 1602) prepared pot roasts (FN Grapenbrade in Hbg.). See also Apengeter. Lüdeke Gropenspise, Oldenburg 1440. Herward Grapengetere, Gropengetere, Ro. 1250, Hillebold Gropengetere, Bremen 1319, Thid. Gropengeter or Gropeke (sic), Barth 1397. There are Grapengießer streets still in Ro. and Stettin. See also Gräper, Gröper (= ‘potter’). For Gräpel (Hbg.) cf. pl.n. Gräpel near Stade.

Gräper, Gröper (freq. in Hbg.): in old documents groper, made earthen pots (gropen), in contrast to the gropengeter: Grapengießer, see there. Hence (as an indirect occ. name) Grape, Grope, cf. Hermann Gropere = Herm. Grope, Hbg. 1286-92; also Gra(a)p. In old documents also Joh. Vullegrape, Lüb. 1343, Radeke Ysergrope, Stralsund 1345, Jordan Senepgrope (Senftopf = ‘mustard pot’), Stralsund 1324 (and Ro.) likewise L. Senfftopf, Lauenburg in Pom. 1459. There are Gröpergassen [potters’ lanes] in Halberstadt and Magdeburg.

Gräser, Graser (UGer.-Sil.): in Brsl. still a Gräser Street (1403 under den gresern; also a gresery). Gräser [from Gras, ‘grass’] was the term for the men who were in charge of mowing the city meadows; as a FN it occurs as early as 1389 in Brsl.: Peter Greser czichener. Also farmers with many haying and grazing fields were called Graser in UGer. area: hence in Breiagau Heinrich Graser, 13th c.; Hensel graser, Deutsch-Brod 1314. Related are Graß, Gräß(e)l, Gräsel: Ulrich Gresel, Brünn 1345, Rüdel indemgrase, Brsl. 1347; Graßmann: Albert Grasman, Iglau 1367. Grashey is the term for the (former) guard, ranger of the fields and pastures (compare Holzhey, the wood or forest ranger): Heinrich der Grashay, Augsburg 1364. Graßhoff (near Hamburg) is a pl.n.: vandemGrashoffe, Haldsl. 1452.

Grathwohl (UGer.): “es gerate wohl” [may it turn out well], also Grothwohl, Gradwohl, a (former) name for journeymen in the guild meeting room.

Gratop(p), Gragetopf (LGer.) = ‘gray braid’, compare Hotopp, Hogetopp [LGer. hoge = ‘high’], also Sidentopf (silk braid). Willeke Grawetop, Ro. 1301, Hs. Grawetop, Kiel 1472. Cf. also Gralock, Graschopf.

Grätz (UGer.): Slav. pl.n., freq. in Bohemia and Moravia. Hensl Greczer, Kolin 1379.

Grau, Graumann: the gray-haired, also Grahe, Grage (LGer.), Gra(h)mann, Gro(h)mann. Cf. also pl.n. Graue near Verden, Grauen near Soltau, Grauel in Holstein. Related Gralock, Grolock (Cuncze Grolock, Liegnitz 1382, father and son, so it must have already been an inherited FN then), cf. Nic. Groman, Prague 1390; B. Graman (Graweman), Salem 1291; Nic. Grauschopp [Schopf = ‘shock of hair’], Iglau 1377; Grauschedel [Schädel = ‘scull, head’], Prague 1361; see LGer. Gratop.

Grauf (Swab.) = Graf ‘count’ (likewise Auberle for Aberle).

Grau(e)l see Greuel, Gruel.

Graulich see Greulich.

Graumann, Gramann, Gromann see Grau.

Graupner, Greupner (E Centr.Ger.-Sil.-Bohemian): producer of or dealer in pot barley (from Bohemian krupa, a loan-word), cf. Marzik kraupner (grupnik) 1376, Petrus kraupmacher (grupnik), Prague 1377 (E. Schwarz, p. 116). They dealt in pot barley, grits, legumes (see also Grützner); there was a Graupnergasse in Brsl. [Gasse = ‘alley, lane’] and in Teplitz. Grupener, Graupener in Freiberg in Sax, 1423, M. Scholcz dergraupener, Brsl. 1461, M. Wudke der greupner, Liegnitz 1568; also short Graupe, Graupmann: Michel Graupe der teschner [the bag maker] = M. Greupner der frautaschner [women’s bag maker], Liegnitz 1568. In some cases the pl.n. Graupen (= Gruben ‘mines’) near Teplitz or Graupa near Dresden may be involved, as in the case of Leipner from Leipa: here (perhaps accidental) Nicusch Graupnerde [from] Graupen, Deutsch-Brod 1390; but Nic. Greupel, Komotau 1383, means grain dealer or grits maker.

Grauschopf see Grau.

Graute (Westph.): recent variation of Grote. Cf. Klauke: Kloke.

Grave, Graven (LGer.) see Grabe.

Graveley (Westph.): loc.n. like Haseley and others; cf. the pl.ns. Graveley, Graveney in England.

Gravenhorst (Westph., like most names ending in ­horst ‘brushwood, woods’): is parallel to Wahlenhorst (wal = ‘swamp’), also grave, see Bahlow ON, p. 182); the word for Graf ‘duke’ = Greve in Westph.! There is also Grafhorst [swamp woods] on the Aller River near Öbisfolde. A variant is Grabenhorst.

Gravert (Hbg.) see Grawert, Gragert.

Graw(e): LGer. = ‘gray-haired’, see also Grage. Cf. Grawetop ‘gray braid’; Grawerock [gray coat], Lüb. 1336; Hermann Grawe, Lüb. 1320. But Henr. Grawerch, Stralsund 1270, means fürrier (‘fine, gray fürs’).

Grawert, Gravert see Gragert.

Grebe (Hess.) = Grewe (LGer.), see Graf. Cf. Johan, grebe [count] of Nassau 1349. Hence Diekgrebe (Deichgraf ‘overlord, top administrator of the dikes’), Holtgrebe, Hogrebe (= Hochgrefe ‘high lord’), Landgrebe (Landgraf), Zentgrebe, Zinngrebe (administrator of the tithes); Hellgrebe = “Höllengraf, Teufel” [lord of hell, devil]. In Hesse, Grebe was the term for the mayor, head of the village. Cf. Hess. pl.ns. Grebenstein, Grebendorf, Grebenhain, Grebenroth.

Greck, Gregg (UGer.): probably from Swab. Gräck ‘bleary eye, watering eye’. But Greek (Ro.): of Slavic origin like pl.n. Grekow.

Gredmeister, Gredner, Gredler (UGer.): manager of the grede (MHG), i.e. the grain house or granary.

Green, Greene (Hbg.). from Greene on the Leine River (cf. Grene near Witten on the Ruhr 1113, Grenbole, Greinkuhle, Greinlache in Westph. and L.Rhine area all refer to dirty water).

Greese (Hbg.): cf. LGer. grese ‘dread, horror’.

Grefe (LGer.) see Graf.

Gref(f)rath: pl.n. in L.Rhine area, freq.

Greger, Greg(g)ersen (LGer.) = Gregor, Saint Gregory (Greek = ‘the watchful one’). The legend of Pope “Gregory the good sinner” was used in an epic around 1200 by Hartmann von Aue and more recently by Thomas Mann in a novel. See also Grieger, Gröger, Görres and similar names. Gregorovius (historian) is a learned transformation of Pol. Grzegorzowski.

Greibke, Greibel (E Ger.-Slav., grib ‘mushroom’): cf. Göbel Grybian,Brsl. 1364 (i.e. pl.n. Greibnig near Liegnitz).

Greif(f): MHG grîf, LGer. grîp (Vagel Grip), the legendary bird, the griffin, name was also house name, (Cunrad zum Grifen,Speyer 1297, domus [house] cum grip,Ro. 1261, also Conrad de grip,Ro. 1266); a popular surname among knights; cf. Joh. Griffenoge [griffin’s eye], Konstanz 1300. The LGer. form is Griep (cf. Gripeswald: Greifswald). Also the Sil. writer Andreas Gryphius was originally A. Greif.

Greifentroch see Griepentrog.

Greifzu see Griepto. Cf. Jobst Greifindietaschen [reach into the pocket], Würzburg 1486; Greifirdran [reach for hers], obscene, old Brsl.

Greiffenklau [griffin’s claw]: family of the Rheingau area named after the coat of arms; Embrico Grifenclowe 1226, ministerial.

Greil, Greiling, Greilich see Greul, Greulich.

Greilsamer: dialect form of Crailsheim in Würt. (see Bahlow ON, p. 276). Cf. Joh. Sebastian Kreilsheimer, Greylsheimer, Durlach 1623.

Greim (UGer.), Greimel, Greimbl: from Germanic grîma ‘terrifying mask’ of the warrior, ‘helmet’, cf. Joh. Streitgreim,Pollau in Moravia 1414, Hensel Greym,Kuttenbg. 1375, Bernhard Greymel,Meravia 1414, Albrecht Greimel (Greymolt),Regensburg 1396.

Greineisen, Grieneisen, Grüneisen (Würt.): one of the numerous SW German names for blacksmiths during their journeyman time, all ending in -eisen [iron], see Findeisen, Gareisen, Raiffeisen.

Greiner (UGer.): also Greinert, MHG grîner ‘quarreller’, cf. Duke Eberhard der Greiner [the quarreller], Würt. 14th c.; Joh. Rönnow also known as Griner,Holstein 14th c.: Greiner in Bohemia 1363. Hence also Grein (MHG grîn ‘loud screaming, shouting’): Conrat Grine 1349, Albert Grinolf,Würzburg 1186. Greindl is a Bavarian name.

Greis, Greise (UGer.): the gray-haired (MHG grîs), LGer. Griese.

Greiser (UGer.-Bav.) = Greußer, MHG griußer ‘grits maker’, one who makes or sells grits. Jesco Greußer (crupifex), Brünn 1345, Hensel Greuser (Graiser),Kuttenbg. 1414; H. Greys(s)el,Prague 1364 (MHG griußel ‘small grain, grits’). Hence Greißler, Greißel: MHG griußeler [grits dealer], also Kreißler. Cf. Grüeßhaber, Grießhaber, Triberg 1602.

Greite (Hbg., Han.) see Grete.

Greith see Greuth.

Grelck (freq. in Hbg.) see Grelka.

Grell, Grelle (LGer. and UGer.): MHG, MLG grellen ‘to be angry’. Henr. Grelle, Col. 1188. Markward Grelleke, Kiel 1379 (now Grelck!). Also cf. Grellehengst [angry stallion] (Brsw.) and Brummegrelle [grumbling anger] 1369. Likewise MLG gralle ‘angry’. But also ‘spear, pike’ as in the name Schleppegrell (name of old Lüneburg family), as early as 1290 in Lüneburg and Rostock: Slepegrel(le) ‘lugthe spear’ like Slepeswert [lug the sword], Greifswald 1311. H. Grellenort (spear point), Iglau 1415, Grellensmit [spear smith], Brsl. 14th c. (likewise Glyczensmit, Brsl.).

Grelka, Grelik, Grelak is a Slav. sh.f. of Gregor [Gregory], likewise Pelka of Petrus.

Greller(t), dialect variant Grallert (Sax., Sil.), an angry person (from MHG grellen ‘to shout angrily’, grel ‘expressing anger and fury’): Greller, Liegnitz 1451. Hence Grellmann, Grallmann; in Bav.: Gröll, Gröller.

Gremme see Gramme.

Gremmel(s): (Han., Hildesheim) from Gremelsen (in 1007 doc. as Grimbaldeshusen). Tile van Gremeldessen, Hildesheim 1447, Herman Gremmelse, Hildesh. 1518.

Gremp(er), see Grempler (UGer.): retail dealer; Heinrich Gremper (grandson: Grempp), Vaihingen 1425.

Grendel see Grindel.

Grentz(mann): from (Groß-) Grenz in Meck.-Pom.; cf. Grenzin; as early as 1264 in Rostock: deGrenz (Grense). Also Grensemann.

Gren(t)zebach: pl.n. in Schwalm area (1142 Grinzenbach, see Bahlow ON, p. 184).

Greschel: see Gröschel.

Gresch(ke), Greschik, Greschenz: Slav.-Pol. = Gregor [Gregory]; cf. Peschke = Petrus.

Gress(mann): from Gresse in Meckl., likewise Bassemann from Basse, Schwaßmann from Schwaß.

Gresser (UGer.) = Gräßer, see Gräser.

Grete(meier): LGer.-Westph. like Bentemeier, Brakemeier, Grabemeier, Gröchtemeier, Kuhlemeier, Lakemeier, Ruschemeier, Sültemeier, Wedemeier: gret means bog turf as in Greetsiel near Emden, Grethem (similarly Rethem). Hence Gretemann, Grethmann, Grethe, Greite (MLG, similarly Reth, Reith). However UGer. Gretenmann like Gretensohn, Gretenhans are compounds with the female first name Grete, see also Grether.

Grether (UGer.-Swiss) means husband or son of Grete (fem. f.n.); likewise Gretener, Sil. Gritener, Grüttner; UGer. also Gretenmann, Würt. 1350, Gretensun, Brixen 1312, Gretenhans, 1400 near Rastatt. Similar Ellensohn, Idtensohn, Gutensohn.

Greulich, Greilich: MHG griuwelich ‘causing terror, horror’, gruesome; likewise Greu(e)l (MHGgriuwel ‘horror’), Greuling, Greiling (MHG griuweline). Centr.Ger. also Grauel, Graulich (-u- instead of –ü-, -au- instead of –eu-, cf. Naumann: Neumann). A knight Gruwelich in Würt. 1247, Joh. Grulich, Liegnitz 1349, H. Greulich, Liegnitz 1409, H. Greul, Brünn 1342, L. Groweli, Ertingen 1300, cf. Grauele.

Greune, Greunke: LGer.-Westph. for Gröne, Grönke; Greuner for Gröner.

Greuth (UGer.): MHG geriute ‘wooded land cleared for cultivation and/or settlement’. Also “Vom Greuth”, Am Grüth; Greuter, Greither, Kreuter, Kreiter. Greuth, Kreuth is also a pl.n. in Bav. and Aust.

Greve, Grewe (LGer.-Westph.): numerous like Hess. Grebe = Graf, ‘administrative official, governor, overseer’; cf Borggreve, Markgreve, Holtgreve, Diekgreve. In some cases only ‘in the service of a count’: Brendeke Markgreve, Lüb. 1320. Greving, Grewing is the patr., as is Grevecke.

Greverath: pl.n. in Rhineland, in old documents: Greverode.

Grevsmühl: pl.n. Grevesmühlen in Meckl., in old documents: Gnevesmölen; Arnold Grevesmölen,Stettin1345.

Grewe (LGer.) see Greve, Grebe. Likewise Grewing (Westph.).

Grewohl(s), Grewoldt: E Ger.-Slav., like Macholl, Machold and others.

Greyerz: Fr. Gruyeres, pl.n. in Switz. Cf. Otto von Greyerz, a dialect writer.

Gribb(e): LGer.-Dutch = ‘dirty ditch’ in bog areas, thus 1105 “pratum inter duas Gribbas [ameadow between two ditches]; also Grebbe, Grobbe, Grubbe (see M. Schönfeld, p. 173). See Grabbe.

Gribbohm: pl.n. near Itzehoe.

Griebe: MHG griebe, griube (LGer. greve) ‘rendered bacon bits, cracklings’, thus surname for the butcher or grease dealer. Gernot Gribe,Worms 1400, Henr. Gribe carnifex [butcher], Wetzlar 1327. Walther Gribnumalcz,Prague 1371, Berthold Griube,Gundelfingen 1246. See also Grieben.

Grieb(e)l (UGer., freq. in Mnch.) see Grübel.

Grieben (Hbg.): Slav. pl.n. in Meckl. and Brandenburg. Hinrich (de) Griben (also Hinrich Gribe),Haldsl. 14th c. Cf. also Griebenow in Pom.

Griebke, Griebsch, Griebner (E Ger.-Slav.): cf. pl.n. Grybian: Greibnig near Liegnitz; Slav. grib ‘mushroom’.

Griefahn see Griewahn.

Grieger (Sil.) = Gregor (also Grüger, Gröger in Sil.). Matz Greger (Griger),Liegnitz 16th c.

Griegoleit, Griegath, Griegutsch, Griguhn (Lith.-E Pruss.) = Gregory’s son.

Grie(h)l: uninterpreted, said to mean ‘curlew’.

Griem (freq. in Hbg.), Grieme: corresponds to UGer. Greim. Grien (UGer.) See Grün.

Grieneisen see Greimeisen

Griep (LGer.) = Greif, see there.

Griepenkerl (LGer. sentence name): ‘grab the fellow’, surname of the policeman. Gripenwulf is the name of a robber in the chronicle of Hamburg. Cf. Gripentrog (‘grab the vat’), Gripenstroh: Gripto (‘grab it’) in the medieval epic Reineke Voß, line 1156. A Wedeghe Griper (Greifer) in Brsw. 1385.

Griephan, Griephahn, Greif(h)ahn (LGer., Hbg., Meckl.) is related to Grieper (ruffian, brawler) as Drenkhahn is to Drenker (drinker), cf. Griepenkerl. -hahn, -han means Johan [John]. Hence Gripto, Gripetan [grab it]. But Grief(h)ahn (Meckl.) see Griewahn,Slav.

Gries, Grieser (freq. UGer.): named after the dwelling place on sand or a sandy bank (MHG grieß). Uolrich an dem grieße,Konstanz 1241, Ulrich Grießer,Freiburg 1445. Related are Griesacker, Grieshofer, Grieshuber, Griesmayer, etc.

Griesbaum (Baden) = Kriesbaum (Kirschbaum) ‘cherry tree’.

Griesbeck (freq. in Bav.) = Griesbach (‘sand creek’), cf. Meichelbeck, Rohrbeck, etc.

Griese (LGer.) = ‘the gray-haired’, cf. Griesehaar [gray hair], Griesemann; Hinrich grisedot,Lüb. 1350, Radolf grise,Ro. 1259. Friedrich Griese was a writer from Mecklenburg. Cf. pl.ns. like Griesenbrok, Griesehop, Griesemert in Westph.

Grieshaber, Grießhaber (Würt., Switz.): “Grützhafer” (from MHG grieß ‘coarsely ground grain’), compare Firnhaber, Frischhaber, Reschhaber, all UGer. peasant names. Hafer ‘oats’ is often used to mean grain. Also Grießl (Bav.): Ulrich Grießel,Wasserburg 1328; Grießler,Moravia 1414.

Grießer see Gries. Jost Grießer,Tyrol 1369.

Griewank, Griewahn (Meckl.): Wend. griwanek ‘mane(?)’.

Griffel: Dutch griffe ‘ditch in a bog’.

Griffig (E Ger.) besides Gniffig, Grifke besides Gniffke is from Slav. Gnieveke (gniew ‘anger’), cf. Gnevke.Pers.n. Gnewomir (Grevemer, Stralsund 1291); also Grevesmühlen in Meckl. is based on Gnevesm.

Grigoleit, Grigat see Grieg-. Also Griguhn, Grigull; Grigarczik.

Grill (UGer.-Bav.-Aust.): freq. name, the cricket; Heinrich Grille,Regensburg 12th c. Hence Grillmair, Grillmeier, Grillparzer, Grillpühler. Also pl.n. Grill in southern Bavaria.

Grillparzer, Grillporzer: from Grillparz (Grillporz 1162) in Upper Austria, cf. Steinparzer, Mühlparzer, Parzer. The well known writer Franz Grillparzer was an Austrian.

Grimm, Grimme: popular surname for unfriendly, grim persons (MHG grim ‘grim’, grimmiger ‘hothead’). A Grymmenstich in Iglau 1359; Heinrich Grimmeke,Hbg. 1270. In N Germany the pl.n. Grimmen (W Pomerania) is involved: thus Wulfard vonGrimme,Stralsund 1284 (also in Greifswald and Ro.); there is a pl.n. Grimma on the Saale River: Jorge vonGrymme,Liegnitz 1491, Jorge Grimme,Liegnitz 1559, Henr. (de) Grimme,Brsl. 1301. Related is Grimmer, Grimmert (in Sax.): Otto Grymmer,Freiberg 1390.

Grimmeis (UGer.) = Grimmeisen, name of a journeyman blacksmith; see Findeis, Gareis.

Grimming , Grimmig: pl.n. in Bav. (also river name), cf. Mettig: pl.n. Metting in Bav.; for the ending -ing, -ig see Bahlow DN, p. 91.

Grimpe (freq. in Hbg., Han.): a small fish, gudgeon. Arnold Grimpe, Hildesheim 1264, Hinr. Grimpe (young nobleman), Maastricht 1330, Tileke Grimpe, Hbg. 1450.

Grimse(h)l, (Hildesheim, Han.): ‘grim fellow’. Hans Grim(m)eselle, Hildesheim 1406. For the form compare Riebese(h)l.

Grindel: very old field name for bog, swamp; also name for Grendel, the bog monster in the Old English epic Beowulf); see Bahlow ON, p. 185. In Hamburg Grindelberg, Grindeltal, Grindelhof are still in use and were named after an old forest area; Grindele also in Brabant 1215; there is a Grindle Brook in England, Grendelbruch [G. swamp] in Alsace. In the UGer. area MHG grindel, grendel ‘bolt, beam, rafter’ may be involved: Nic. Grindel, Prague 1363.

Gringhand, Ringhand meaning ‘light, nimble hand’. Nic. Gerinehand, Liegn. 1378. Similarly Gringmuth. See there.

Gringmuth (UGer.-Sil.): the faint-hearted one (probably also word for a person of bad character, from MHG gering ‘small, low’); opposite: arrogance, pride; cf. Nic. Geringehand [small hand], Liegnitz 1378. Related Gringmann, Gringhuber, Gring, Gringel.

Gripp: cf. Dutch gripp ‘bog ditch’.

Grisebach see Griesbeck.

Grissauer: from Grüssa in Sil. (von Grissow, Grisse).

Gritzner, Gritzmacher see Grützner, Grützmacher.

Grob(e): ‘the coarse, rude one’, in LGer. area originally Grove; Helmicus Grove (Lat. Grossus) around 1300 in Hbg.; also Grobmann, Groffmann (Hbg.), Grovejahn.

Grob(b)ecker (LGer.): the baker of rye bread (Andreas Grofbeckere, Bremen 1363).

Gröbe, Gröber: from Groba in Sax. or from Gröben near Zeitz in Thur. (FN von der Gröben near Zossen) and Gröbern near Meißen and Bitterfeld (Thiemo de Grober, Meißen 1180).

Grobleben: pl.n. near Stendal, likewise Gorleben, Marleben, Rottleben, etc., all referring to swamp and bog water, mire; -leb (-lev) = settlement, place.

Groch: E Ger-Slavic like Grocholl, Grochulla, Grochau, Grochewitz.

Grode (Hbg.): Moorgroden means bog turf, bog pasture, cf. pl.n. Groden near Hadeln.

Groffmann see Grob. Related Groffebert (Westph.): rude Eberhard.

Gröger (Sil.) like Grieger = Gregor; see Bahlow SN, p. 58.

Grohmann (Sil.-Bohemian-Sax.) see Grau. (But LGer. = Grohnemann.) Grohgans = Graugans [gray goose].

Gröhn (LGer.), Gröhnke, L.Rhine Greun(ke) = Grün [green].

Grohne (LGer.), Grone, Gronemann: from Grone near Göttingen, Grohn near Stade and other loc. names; but cf. LGer. grône ‘lascivious, lewd’: Joh. der grone Pape [the lewd priest], Hbg. 1299, Tyle Grone, Haldsl. 1383, Arnd Grone, Greifswald 1389.

Groll, Grull (Hbg.): from Groll in Westph. or Grollo in Drente, in old documents the form Gron-lo means grassy place in a bog or swamp; deGrolle, Grulle, Ro. 1288 (also in Lüb., Hbg.). But Gilig Groll, Moravia 1414, means the angry one.

Grolock, see Grau. Also Grolig, (Grolick, Liegnitz 1546), likewise Herzog, Herzig.

Grolms, Grulms, Grommes, Grummes = Hieronymus [Jerome]: Elias Grolmus = Elias Hieronymus, Naumburg 1619.

Grommes (W Ger.) see Grolms.

Gromoll, and similar names: E Ger.-Slav. like Gomoll; cf. Gromotka, Gromatzki, Gromowski, Gromzik, Grom(m)isch, Grömig, Grömke, Grömitz, Gromnitz.

Gronau (freq. in Hbg.): pl.n. (districts of Alfeld and Ahaus). L. Gronaw, Hbg. 1634.

Grone(mann): from Grone near Göttingen, like Peinemann from Peine; Grohmann (Hbg.) also Grohnemann (pl.n. Grohn near Stade). Gronemeier (Westph.): names formed from the place of dwelling: Lakemeier, Ruschemeier, Wedemeier; cf. Joh. vonGrone, Lippe 1595. See also Grohne.

Groner(t): cf. Gerh. Gronere,Bremen 1361. Probably name of origin like Gronemann. For Gröner see Grüner.

Gröning (freq. in Hbg.), Gräning: LGer. = ‘yellowhammer’ (bird). Joh. Grönink,Greifswald 1399, Barth.

Grönwold(t): Gronwald: LGer. loc. n. and pl.n., cf. Grönwohld (Gronenwolde)near Trittau east of Hbg.; the corresponding form in UGer. is Grünewald, E Centr.Ger. Grunewald.

Grope, Gropengießer, Gröper see Grapengeter, Gräper. Also Gropius.

Gröpeling: pl.n. Gröpelingen near Bremen Otto von G. (provost), Bremen 1420. MLG grope = ‘dirt’, cf. Gobel in dem Gropenbroke, Dortmund 1349.

Gropp(e), Gröpple (UGer.), Groppenschädel: a fish with a big head and wide mouth (Kaulkopf). Werner Groppe,Mainz 1244, Hs. Gröpplin,Allgäu area 1519.

Gropper (Villingen 1491) means grouper fisherman. Gröpper (LGer.-Westph.) variant of Gröper, see Gräper. Joh. Gröpper (Gröper),Soest 1503. Gropelinge in Westph. = ‘dirty water’ (Gropen-Berg).

Grosch, Gröschel (UGer.): both in Olmütz 1413 = Groschen, a gold or silver coin, (Ital. grosso); an indirect occ. name.

Gropschop(f), Groschupf (freq. in Sax.) = Grauschopf [gray hair], cf. Gromann = Graumann; Grolock = Graulock; MHG grâ: E Centr.Ger. grô ‘gray’, L. Groschupf,Elterlein in Sax. 1539.

Groß, Große, Grooß, Großer (compare LGer. Grote, Groot); UGer. also Größle(in): MHG grôß also means ‘fat, plump’, less freqently ‘great, distinguished’; patr. is Großer (Großert) and Kleiner(t) is typically Silesian. Arnold Großer = Große Arnold, Glatz 15th c. Hence Großmann (freq. in Sax.), Großjohann, Großnickel, Großpietsch, Großgerge, Großkopf, Großhaupt [big head], Großfuß [big foot], etc.

Großner (Sil.): from Großenau (Franz Großnauer,Iglau 1403), likewise Langner from Langenau.

Großnick: big Nikolaus. Cf. Fränznick, Kunznick.

Großweischede see Veischede (pl.n. in Westph.).

Grote, Groth(e), Groot(e): LGer. = UGer., Centr.Ger. Groß(e). Well-known are Klaus Groth, LGer. dialect writer, and Hugo Grotius (de Groot), Dutch jurist. Related Grotjohann, Groterjan, Grotklas, Grotekarst, Grotmaak, Grotschwager, Grotkopp, Grotefend, Groteguth, Grotewohl(t).

Grotefend (LGer.): big fellow, servant.

Grotewohl(t), Grothwahl (here LGer. –a- for –o-!) see Grathwohl.

Grothuß (Westph. farmstead name) like Brockhus, Holthus, etc. [LGer. hus = ‘house’]

Grotkast(en): LGer., Karsten = f.n. Christian.

Grothmaak: LGer., Maak = Markward.

Grottke, Grottker, Gruttke (Sil.): from Grottkau in Sil. (P. de Grotkow, Liegnitz 1342, A. von Grotke 1472, Ho. Gruttke 1638).

Grotz (Alem.-Swab.) = little man, “shrimp” (C. Grotze,Freiburg 1259, Utz Grotz,Allgäu area 1451).

Grove, Growe, Grow (LGer.): a coarse or rude one, ruffian. Cf. Grovejahn, Groveschroder (old Lübeck), Grovereggen [roggen = ‘rye’]; Joh. Groving, Lüb. 1345, Helmicus grove,Hbg. 1300, Grovemann, Groffmann. Cf. also LGer. grove ‘hole, pit’ in loc.ns.: Wulfgrove [wolf pit].

Grube, Grub (UGer.): named after the dwelling place in a depression or dip. Hence Grubhofer, Grubmüller. As a street name in Rostock cf. Faule Grube. A Wendish f.n. Grube (the coarse, rude or fat one) in Meckl. and Holstein: Grube Vereghede (Viereck ‘quadrangle, square’), 1359, nobilis vir [nobleman]. Cf. Grubko, Gruba(n), Grubor (see Miklosich, p. 53). Grubeke,Haldsl. 1350. Grubiz,farmer on Rügen Island. Grubbe is found in Holland besides Grobbe for dirty water, sewage.

Gruber (freq. in UGer.) means the person living in the hollow or depression in the terrain (see Grube), likewise Grübler and Grüb(e)l, also Griebler: Griebel; Grübner, Grüber: Grüb. Related are Lehmgrübner [in or near a clay pit], Anzengruber, etc. Cf. C. Grüebler,Tyrol 1369, N. der Griebler 1410.

Grüder (LGer.): Hinr. Gruder, Barth 1418 (L. Grudere, Stralsund 1288, H. G., Ro. 1300) had to do with hot ashes; cf. “Grudeherd” [coke-breeze stove].

Gruel (LGer.) see Grauel, Greuel. But also pl.n. in Meckl.: Hermann deGruwel, Barth 1334; Gruwel, Ro. 1257, R. Gruel, Lüb.

Grüger see Grieger.

Gruhn, Grun see Grün.

Grülich see Greulich.

Grüll, Grüller (UGer.): from MHG grüllen ‘to mock, to be resentful’. Joh. Grüller, near Freiburg 1359, H. Grüll, near Füssen 1398.

Grulms see Grolms.

Grumme, Grumm (Hbg.): near Bocholt, cf. Grumeth near Waldbroel; grum means ‘dirt’ (still in present-day Swedish and Engl.), see Bahlow ON, p. 185.

Grümmer (Hbg.) see Grumme.

Grummes, Grommes see Grohms.

Grummt, Grumbt (UGer.) means gruonmât, literally: ‘green mowing (of grass)’, second hay, rowen; also called Öhmd in Ger. P. Grumat, Prague 1344, J. Gruemader, Moravia 1414.

Grümper: from Grümpen near Sonneberg in Thur. Joh. Grumpe, Haldsl. 14th c.

Grün, Grüne, Centr.Ger. Grun, Gruhn, LGer. Grön(e): freq. named after the dwelling place among the “greenery”, in some cases also from pl.ns. like Gruna, Grunau (Sil.); cf. Sebastian Storch, farmer vonGrune 1598; sometimes from the clothing: P. Schuster, called Grünjop [green jacket], Sillein 1424, Grünrock [green coat] 1382, Grünhut [green hat], Grunheubt [green head], Liegnitz 1372. Related compounds: Grünegras, Grünskräutl [little green herb], Grünklee [green clever], Grünzwig [green twig], Grünsleubel (Grünslaub) [green leaves], Grünfink [green finch], Grünvogel [green bird], Grunepeter, Grunehannus [green Peter, John], (also Wißehannus ‘white John’), Görlitz 1399; Grünaug, Grünaugl [green eye].

Grund(mann), especially Sil.: living in a low place, in the valley (opposite: Berg, Bergmann referring to location on a hill or mountain). Nicze indemgrunde, Görlitz 1374, Nic. Grundeman, farmer 1409; also Gründer (freq. in Görlitz: Hans Gründer 1539). Grund is also a freq. pl.n. in Sil. Hence Grundmüller, Grundgeyer (Grundgeiger) in Würt.

Gründgens (L.Rhine): named for the dwelling place in a low location, analogous to Büschgens [in or near the bush or forest], Rüschgens [in or near the reed].

Grundherr [literally: landlord] (name of a patrician in Nuremberg). Ulrich Grunther, Nbg. 1466.

Grundig, Grundke, Grundies are E Ger.-Slav. names (Albert Grundis, Stralsund 1300).

Gründler (UGer.): lives in the Gründl [dell], likewise Grundler (freq. in Mnch.) and Grundl. Also Grundner in Tyrol, Bav. But see Gründel.

Gründling, Gründel (UGer., also Sil.) means a fish (swift brook fish, thus in Sil. Gründel means ‘fast girl’), also Gründler, Grundler may mean the fisherman in some cases; H. der Grundler, Rottweil 1391, K. der Gründeler, near Stuttgart 1381, however, derive from the loc.n. (im) Gründle [in a low location], which occurs 35 times in Würt., likewise Peczold Grundeler, Liegnitz 1372. Hs. Grundel, Görlitz 1448; Heinrich Gründele, Lich in Hesse 1318; a fisherman K. Gruntel, Deutsch-Brod 1398.

Grüneis, Grüneisen (UGer.), also Grieneisen, see Greineisen. Grünnagel, Griennagel [green nail] was recorded in Stuttgart 1565. In Mnch. cf. Grüneisl.

Gruner, Grunert (Sil., Lausitz, Sax.): from Grunau, Gruna (several times as pl.n.), dialect Grune (Bahlow SN, p. 85), compare Steinau: Steine: Steiner; Bielau: Biele: Bieler. Andreas Gruner, Brsl. 1421 besides Grunower; Matis Grune, Liegnitz 1547 besides Sebastian vonGrune 1598.

Grüner (freq. in Mnch.), Grünert: name of origin, e.g. in Bav. from Grün (freq. in Bav.) or from Grünau in Aust., also from field name (a green field, meadow), cf. von der Grün; probably rarely Grün = ‘a green person’. Peter Grüner, near Prague 1390. Uolr. Gruoner, Reutlingen 1351. See also Gruner.

Grunewald (Centr.Ger.-Sil.): freq. pl.n., Hinrich Grunewalt, Schweidnitz 1322. Grünwald is UGer. (freq. in Mnch.), cf. the painter Matthias Grünewald from Würzburg. See also LGer. Grönwold.

Grüning (freq. in Hbg.) see Gröning.

Grünke = LGer. Grönke, Greunke, see there.

Grünziger (Alem.): name of origin like Hunziger (Hunzinger) and others; but Grunzig is E Ger.-Slav. (likewise Grünzke, Grunske): pl.n. Grunzig near Posen and pl.n. Grünz near Prenzlau.

Grupe (freq. in Han., Hbg.): cf. pl.n. Gruppenhagen, Grubenhagen near Han.

Grupp (Bav., Wört.) is a variant of Gropp, see there. Heinz Grupp,near Calw 1375.

Grusche, Gruschke, Groschke are E Ger.-Slav.: Grosko,Brsl. 14th c. Cf. Gruschwitz. But H. Grüschli,Endingen 1357 means MHG Grüsch ‘bran’.

Gruß, Grußer (Mneh.): cf. MHG gruß ‘grain, grits’. Heyle Gruß,Frkf. 1387.

Grüter (LGer.-Westph.): a brewer who brewed with wild rosemary (called Porst), MLG grut,instead of hops. Bernhard Grütere,Mark County 1336, Hinr. Gruter,Barth 1398. Hence Grutmeister. L.Rhine Grüters, Gruiters, Dutch de Gruyter,from gruyten = gruten ‘to brew’. Werner Grutstake,Lüb. 1341.

Grüttmöller, Grütter (LGer.) = Grützmüller [grits miller]. See also Grützmacher.

Grüttner (Sil.), Grittner: metr. of Grite, Grete (see Bahlow SN, p. 59). Gritener (Gretener)freq. in Freiberg in Sax. around 1400.

Grützner (Sil.), Gritzner, Grötzner: Grützmacher, Gritzmacher, also Grützmüller (LGer. Grüttmöller) [grits miller]. Cf. Grüczener,Liegnitz 1348, Brsl. 1365, Glatz 1403, hence Bösegrücze (bad grits) in Brsl. Matern Grüczenschriber (secretary, bookkeeper), Liegnitz 1380. Grütz besides Grützner freq. in Oppeln. Cf. LGer. Gruttemaker, Gruttemeker (Ro.,Lüb., Greifswald, Haldsl., Han.). Grützebauch [grits belly] is a nickname of the grain (grits) dealer.

Gruyter (de Gruyter) see Grüter.

Gryphius see Greif.

Gsänger, Gsanger (Bav.): from the loc.n. Gsang, Gseng (land cleared through burning or singeing); cf. Sengenwald and others.

Gscheider, Gschaider (Bav., Aust.): from the loc.n. and pl.n. Gschaid, i.e. Scheide, Wegscheide [crossroads].

Gscheidle (Wild.), Gscheidl (Bav.): MHG geschîde ‘bright, intelligent, clever’.

Gschlacht (UGer.): from MHG geslaht ‘well-mannered’ cf. pl.n. Gschlachten-Bretzingen beside Rauhen [coarse]- Br. in Würt.

Gschlössl (freq. in Mnch.) see Schlössl.

Gschmeidler (UGer.): the jeweler. Cf. Franz Gschmeidler, Aust. poet.

Gschneider (UGer.) see Schneid.

Gschoßmann see Schoß.

Gschrey (Bav.-Aust.): MHG geschreie, means crier, brawler [schreien ‘to cry, shout, yell]. Andreas Geschrey,Prague 1361.

Gschwendtner (freq. in Bav.): from the loc.n. Gschwend ‘cleared piece of land’. Hans der Geswend in dem Geswend,near Füssen (Allgäu) 1375.

Gschwind, Schwind (UGer.): MHG geswinde ‘quick, fast, impetuous’ (Sil. still recently for fast). Cf. Geswindûf,Baden (Aargau) 1370.

Gsell, Gsöll (Switz., Würt., Bav.) see Gesell.

Gspan, Gspandl (Aust.): MHG gespan ‘companion’.

Gstaltner (Vienna) see Stalder.

Gstöttner, Gstöttl = Gstettner, from the Bav.-Aust. loc.n. Gstetten.

Gubbe, Gubben, Gubbels (Bremen, Hbg.) according to their form (double b and patronymic ending) are of Frisian origin; cf. Gheseke Gobben (from Godbert), Bremen 1452, Make Guberdes,Bremen 1500. Similar names Lubbe(n), Ubbe(n), Wubbe(n).

Gubisch, Gaubisch likewise Gubitz, Gaubitz, also Gubatz, are of Slavic origin like the pl.n. Guben, Gubekow. Gubatz (Wendish) means braggart, boaster.

Gubler, Gübeli, Gubel(mann) = UGer. gubel ‘mountain ridge’.

Guck (UGer.): MHG ‘cuckoo’. Cf. Guckschnabel,Thur. 1590. Gückler (UGer.) and Göckler = Gaukler juggler, tumbler’; der Guckeler,near Stuttgart 1350.

Guckel (Trebnitz): origin is not clear, cf pl.n. Guckelitz and FN Guckisch. But Wigand Wiseguckel, Hesse 1241 (now: Wiesengickel [in Hess. dialect ‘rooster’]).

Gudde, Gudden (Fria.) see Godde, Godden. Cf. Gubben, Gobben. But E Pruss. Gud(d)at(is) is Lithuanian, cf. Albat, Gedat and others; a pl.n. Gudden in E Prussia, Gerhard de Guden,Kolberg 1277.

Gude (LGer.) = Gode: the good one. Cf. Gudeluck ‘good luck’, Barth 1448. Gudemann besides Godemann. Lambert Gude,Barth 1416. Tewes Gudejohann,Oldesloe 1651.

Gudenschwager (LGer.): brother-in-law (or relative) of Gude (male or female); Gudensohn 1395 = son of (a woman) Gude.

Guder (Sil., Sax.) see Güder.

Güder (Alem. part of Switz.) = Geuder ‘squanderer’, see Geider. Also Güdel. Cf. Albert Güder, Pfullendorf 1278, M. Güder,Heidelberg 1438.

Guderian (LGer.) = guter Johann [good John]; also Guderjahn, Gudrian. The general of the tank corps (in WWII), Guderian, was from Kulm in W Prussia.

Gudernatsch, Gudernetsch: cf. Geudernetsch,Liegnitz 14th c., Kudernetsche,Heilbronn 1324. Origin unclear. Cf. Kuderwal(ch) ‘(speaker of) gibberish’, Brsl. 1350.

Gufer, Gufert, Güferle (UGer.): ‘loudmouth, braggart’ (MHG guofen ‘to brag’, guof ‘boisterous behavior, bragging’). Dietz der Gufer,Kempten 1415, K. Güferlin,Eßlingen 1345. Henne Gufener,Frkf. 1387. Guffe see Goffe.

Gufler (Tyrol): gufel = ‘a hollow rock wall’.

Gugel, Gügel, Gugelmann, Gugler, Gugelmeier (all names UGer.): from MHG gugel, gugelin ‘hood on a coat or jacket’ (especially of farmers), from medieval Latin cuculla. Also Gugelzipfel, Gugelhirn, Gugelfuß; field name: am Gugel 1420. B. Gugelli,near Pforzheim 1290, Joh. der Gugeler,near Maulbronn 1325. See also Kugler.

Gugerall (UGer.): from MHG gügerel ‘fancy headgear for horses’, surname of a shopkeeper in Colmar 1432, who offered for sale e.g. “gugerell, garn [thread], bendel [ribbons], lösche [red Saffian leather]”, etc. Lütfird Gukrel 1303.

Gugetzer (Mnch.) from MHG guckezen ‘to sing or cry like the cuckoo’.

Guggenbühler, Guggenbichler, Guggenbiller (UGer.) also Guggenberger, Guggenmoos derive neither from “gucken” [to look] nor from “Kuckuck”; gug isapparently an old swamp word (from Celtic times), cf. Guggi for water toad, Moosguggi (Buck, p. 80; Bahlow ON, p. 186). As parallels note Dottenmoos, Ennenmoos, Rettenmoos, Suppenmoos. Also Guggenbach, Guggenloch.

Gugger (Mnch.): from MHG ‘to cry like the cuckoo’ (gug-, gucgouch, gugg-aldei ‘cuckoo’). Der Gugger,Eßlingen 1359, H. Gucker,Alsace 1359.

Guhl(ke)s: E Ger.-Slav. pers.n. as early as 1345 in Brsl. FN: Heynusch Gulke (son: Henlin Gulke); Ro. 1268, Greifswald 1324. For Guleke also see Gülck.

Guhr, Guhra, Guhrke are E Ger.-Slav. (like Gura, Gurek, Gursch), sh.fs. of Georg or Gregor unless the pl.n. Guhrau in Sil. or Guhrow in Laus. is involved.

Gührs (Hbg.) see Jührs.

Gül(c)k: E Ger.-Slav., see Guhlke. Also Gülke, Gühlk.

Gulde (Hbg.) pl.n. in Angeln (Schleswig-Holstein).

Güld(e)ner see Göldner. Wenezel Guldener,Wetzlar 1300.

Güldenpfennig, Güldenpenning, Güldenknopf, Güldenwert, Guldenschuh, Güldenvot, Galdenzopf, Güldenmund [golden penny, button, worth, shoe, foot, braid, mouth] and others indicate the wealth of the person named that way. Werner Güldenpenning,Ro. 1304. But Güldenschaf, Güldenring, Güldenwage, Güldenkopf [golden sheep, ring, scales, head] are documented as house names (in Speyer, Worms, Mainz), also Güldenfaß [golden barrel] in Switz.

Gulfer, Gulfert: Heinrich Gulfere,Mainz 1269. Cf. MHG golfe ‘braggart’, gilfe ‘quarreler’.

Gülich(er), Jülicher, van Gülich: from Jülich in Rhineland. But for E Ger. Gühlich see Guhlke. Gülke see Gülck.

Gülle(mann): dwelling near a puddle or brackish pond. Cf. pl.ns. Güllenbeck in Holstein, Güllenbach in Würt., Güllenberg in the Waldeck district; Güll in Hesse. Cf. UGer. Güller, Güllmer, Güllmar: = ‘Güll-maier’, cf. Sellmer.

Gülther (UGer.): MHG gülter ‘debtor’ (gülte ‘rent or interest owed’). See also Geltenbott and Gelter.

Gülzow: several times as pl.n. in Meckl. and Pom. Compare pl.n. Gülze, Gültz.

Gümbel, Gumbel (U.Rhine): sh.f. of Gumbert, Gumbold (gund ‘battle’). See also Gumbrecht. Jörg Gumbel,Strasb. 1458. Wigand Gombel,Hesse 1563.

Gumbold, Gombold, Gurnpold: from Germanic pers.n. Gund-bald (see Gumbrecht), bald = ‘bold’; the Burgundian king Gundibad ruled around 500. The sh.f. of the name is Gumpel, Gümpel- ‘ich Gumple ein ritter” [I, G., a knight], near Frkf. 1335.

Gumbrecht, Gumberich, Gumprecht, Gumprich (UGer.), Gumbert, Gombert besides Gumperz, Gompertz (Rhine) all are based on the pers.n. Gundberht (from Germanic gund ‘battle’, berht ‘shining’). Gumbert Gabeler, Wimpfen 1265. Sh.f. is Gumbel, Gümbel.

Gumm(e): OFris. pers.n., Gummo (Lüb. 14th c.), cf. Gummesson. But Gumme is also a river name.

Gummel(s), Gummelt (Rhineld., UGer.) = Gumbel, Gumbold. Cf. Hs. Gummolt,Ulm 1530.

Gümmer (Hbg.): pl.n. near Hanover, cf. Gummern near Lüneburg; a Gumme River near Bonn.

Gummert, Gommert (W Ger.) = Gumbert, Gombert. However in Tyrol a farmstead by the name Gummer and a person Jörg Gummerer 1510. For the pl.n. Gummern near Lüneburg and Gornmern near Magdeburg see Bahlow ON, p. 187.

Gummlich see Gommlich.

Gumpost, Gumposch (UGer.), also Komposch: from MHG kumpost, gumpost (deriving from Lat. compositum) ‘canned foodstuff, sauerkraut’. Nickel Kumpost (father and son), Brsl. 1345, Eßlingen 1350; Gampostdorso,U.Rhine area 13th c. (torse ‘cabbage trunk’); rent payment in Würt. 1316: 1 vat of “Kumpost” [= probably sauerkraut].

Gumpp, Gumpper, Gürnperle, Gumperlein (Bav., Würt.): ‘madcap, clown (at fairs), from MHG gumpen, gumpeln; also gumpelman. Gumperlin,farmer, Binswangen 1293. Also cf. Gemperlein.

Gumprecht (UGer.), Gumpert, Gumperz, Gumpold (UGer.-Bav.) see Gumbrecht, Gumbold. Hence the sh.f. Gumpel, Gümpel, Gump: Gumpe appears as peasant name in the works of the poet Neidhart of Reuental around 1200; also Gump,Zoltringen 1424; Gumpel,Prague 1363; “ich Gumple ein ritter” [I, G., a knight], near Frkf. 1335; Patr.: Hensel Gumpolder,Iglau 1368. Sicz Gumpp,Würzburg 1409.

Gumtow: pl.n. in Pomerania and Prignitz area. Wulf Gummetow,Barth 1425.

Gumz, Gums (Hbg.): Slav. pl.n., cf. Gümse (Gumisa) in Wendland region.

Gundacker, Gunnacker (UGer.-Aust.): Germanic pers.n. Gundo-wakar (‘valiant warrior’), as in Odacker (Odowakar: Ottokar). Herr [sir] Gundacher,Kremsmünster 12th c., Gundakar Aspeck, Passau 1395, Hensel Gundaker,Prague 1387.

Gündchen (Magdeburg): MLG gunteke ‘pitcher, jug’, the dialectal güntje ‘spout’ (of a pitcher) is still in use. Tyleke Gunteke, Hildesheim 1368.

Gündel, Gund(e)l (UGer.), Günnel, patr. is Gündler, which is a sh.f. of Gundram, Gundlach, Gundhart, Gundolf. Gundel,shopkeeper in Brünn 1348, Herbot Gundelman,Alsheim 1328.

Gundelfinger: from Gundelfingen (Baden, Würt., Bav.). Cf. Gundolf.

Gündelhard: pl.n. on Lake Constance. Cf. Gundenhart in Bav. 900 A.D. For gund see Bahlow ON, p. 187. H. Gundelhart,Konstanz 1326.

Gundelwein (UGer.): Gundelwin (father and son), also Itel Gundelwin,miles [knight], was documented freq. as a Bav. knight’s name (Brech., p. 611). Michael Gundelweyn,Prague 1400.

Gundermann (UGer.-E Centr.Ger.) is a corruption of the Germanic pers.n. Gundram (gund ‘fight, battle’, ram ‘raven’), likewise Sindermann from Sindram,Wolfermann from Wolfram,Bertermann from Bertram. Gundram was already the name of a Frankish king around 550. In Brsl. 1348: Gundram and Hannus Gundram,grandsons of a certain Gundram.Gundert, Gündert (UGer.) is the Germanic pers.n. Gundhard.Cf. pl.n. Gundertshausen in Austria.

Gundlach (Gundelach, Gundlack, Gundloch): like Gerlach, name was popular in noble circles in the Middle Ages in the region of Rhine-Hesse, derived from a Germanic pers.n. (gund ‘fight, battle’). See also Gerlach.

Gundling: patr. of Gundlach (Gundel) like Gerling from Gerlach (Gerl).

Gundolf. Germanic pers.n. (gund ‘fight, battle’, olf = ‘wolf’), name is also contained in the pl.n. Gundelfingen, see there. The professor of German literature, Friedrich Gundolf, was originally called Gundelfinger. Gundolf,Kiedrich 14th c.

Gundram, Gundrum, Guntram see Gundermann. Cf. Guntram von Holzheim (and nephew Guntram),Wetzlar 1308, Sigelman Guntrams,Speyer 1300 (all were patricians).

Gunkel (UGer.) = Kunkel (from MHG, ‘distaff = part of the spinning wheel’; medieval Lat. conucula) means manufacturer of distaffs, spindle maker; g- stands for k- as in gumpost (kumpost), gugel (kugel). Bernhard Gunkel,Konstanz 1490, Jörg Gonkel,Würt. 1498.

Günnemann (Hbg.): from Günne near Soest (in old documents: Gunethe,which is a collective noun ending in -ide; for the water word gun see Bahlow ON, p. 188); a Gunne River flows into the Lippe, a Gonna River (Gun-aha)into the Unstrut.

Günnewich, Gönnewig: pl.n.near Wiedenbrück (see Günnemann. -wik means place, settlement).

Gün(t)sch, Guntzsch (Sax.): sh.f. of Günther; cf. Kuntzsch, Heintzsch and others.

Gunthalm (UGer.) = Gund-helm [gund = ‘fight, battle’; helm = ‘helmet’] (rare Germanic pers.n.), cf. Bav. Willehalm for Wilhelm; Hainrich Gunthalm and brother Gunthalm,Lellwangen 1291.

Gunthard see Gundert. Cf. the Romance form from the Rhineland: Gontard.

Günther (freq. in UGer. and Centr.Ger.-Sil. areas), sh.f. is Günzel; Gunther, Gernot, Giselher (cf. Geisler) were the famous Burgundian kings (at the court of Worms) and brothers of Kriemhild in the epic Nibetungenlied (around 1200). Gund-hari, Gund-heri ‘warrior in an army’, Nordic Gunnar, Old Saxon Gud-here, cf. Gudrun. Günther has been a leading name in the noble family of Schwarzburg in Thur. since the Middle Ages. See also Günzel.

Guntram see Gundram.

Gün(t)zel, Günzl, Günzlein, patr. Günzler (UGer.), Günzelmann (like Heinzelmann), Bav.-Aust. also Ginzel (like Ginter, Gintöhr in Tyrol): documented as sh.f. or nicknames of Günther, cf. Ganczel = Gunther,mason, Brsl. 1360. Günczel, Günczels son, Brsl. 1307, Gonczel Grecz, Liegnitz 1352; Andreas Ginczel,Liegnitz 1562; enlarged from: Gunczold (Gunczel) of Feltheim in Sax. 1427, cf. Heinczold, Friczold, etc. (Bahlow SN, p. 39). The UGer. Gunz is less frequent, cf. pl.n. Gunzenhausen (in Würt. and Bav.): W. Guntze,Eßlingen 1328.

Günzer (UGer.): from Günz on the Günz (prehistoric river name Guntia,like Enz from Antia; see Bahlow ON, p. 188).

Gürbig see Girbig.

Gürgen see Jürgen.

Gürke: (E Ger.-Slav.) like Gurisch = Georg, from Slav. Gurek. Cf. Guhr.

Gurlitt, Gurlt, Gorldt, Gorhold (U.Lausitz, Sax.) similar to Arlitt, Arlt, Arhold (occurring in the same areas) and Machlitt, Machlett, Machold: -lt, -let, -litt derive from -olt; Gur-olt like Wend. Gurek, Gurisch can only mean Gregor or Georg, resp. (likewise Machold: Matthias). But for Gürlich see Gerlach.

Gürnth, Gürntke, (Sil.) see Gernth, Girnth. For the Sil. rounding of ir to ür compare Gürbig for Girbig (Gerwig) and Gürlich for Girlich (Gerlach), Gürschner for Girschner.

Gurr (UGer.): from MHG gurre ‘bad mare’. Heinrich Gurre 1200; Perhtold der Gurr,Bav. 1389, Ülin Gürrelin,Eßlingen 1202.

Gursch (Jursch), Gurek (Jurek), Gurk, Gurkasch, and others see Guhr.

Gürschner (Lausitz, Sil.) see Girschner, Gierschner.

Gürster (Bav.) besides Gierster see Gerster. Cf. Gierstenbräu.

Gürtler (LGer. Gördeler), Görtler, Gertler; Girtler (Aust.): a person who manufactured leather belts (a belt pouch or pocket was worn on the belt, cf. Teschner = ‘bag maker’, from Tasche ‘bag’). The Liegnitz guild rules of 1424 report about the brass ornamentation on belts (cf. Bahlow, Studien, p. 142), also about the division of labor among the strap makers. Enderlin gürtler, Liegnitz 1348, C. Görtler, Mährisch-Trübau 1377, Wenc. gertler, Prague 1359 (with unrounded vowel as in Werfler, Werfel for Wörfler); hence Ludwig Hochgürtel, Frkf. 1366, H. Knoderer called Gürtelknopf (bishop of Basel 1275).

Gürtner (freq. in Munich), Girtner (Vienna); probably a variant of Gürtler, Girtler. But Gurtner derives from the pl.n. Gurten in U.Bavaria.

Guschke, Juschke (Lith. Juschkat) is E Ger. Slav. sh.f. of Johannes, likewise Geschke, Jeschke; Czech Huschke (as Haschke besides Jaschke); also the pl.n. Guschkewitz or Geschkewitz; pl.n. Guskow and Juskow.

Guse (Hbg.): E Ger.-Slav. like Gusek, Guske. Pl.n.Gusow and others.

Güse (Hbg.): pl.n. Güsen near Genthin.

Güssefeld: pl.n. in Altmark area.

Güßloff (Slav. pers.n. ending in -slav ‘fame’), cf. Gützlaff, Gustloff.

Güßmann (E Centr.Ger.-Sil.) like Güßwein derives from Goswin, see Gießmann and Gößwein. Her [sir] Guswyn, Glatz 1324.

Güßregen (UGer.): MHG gusregen ‘downpour’. Cf. LGer. Stoffregen. Herr [sir] Sifrit Gusregen, Mindelheim 1294.

Gustafsen (Holstein): = Swed. Gustafson (cf. Erichson).

Guster, Güster: MHG variant of Kuster (from Lat. custos) = Küster [‘sexton’]. Güster is also a Slav. pl.n. near Mölln, cf. Güstrow, Gustebin in Pom. and Gustävel near Schwerin.

Gust(ke), Gustmann (E Ger.-Slav.) see Gustloff. Sh.f. of Gostimer (besides Gostek), from Slav. gost ‘stranger, guest’.

Gustloff (Mcckl.). like Stoißloff is reminiscent of the former Slavic tribe of the Wends in Meckl.; See Gustke. Cf. Güßloff, Gützlaff. -slav means ‘fame’. Guzslaus (Guzlaw), Goßlavus, Stralsund 1278, 1325.

Gut(h), Guthe, Gutmann: the good one as such, also the “free-man”. Herman der Guot, Sulz 1236, also Gütmangut, Sulz 1413; Heinricus et Guto [Henry and the good], free Stewards of an estate in Basel 1286.

Gutberlet (Thur.-Hess.) see Berlt ( = Berthold). Anton Gutberlet, Fulda 1586. Cf. Tile Groteberlt = T. Grotenbertoldes, Duderstadt 1457. Similar compounds [with Gut ‘good’]: Guthans, Gutheinz, Gutbentz, Guttyle, Gutewernher, Guterheinze. LGer. cf. Guderian, Godjohann, etc.

Gutbier means brewer, Gutbrod means baker, Gutaxt the carpenter or axe maker, Gutfleisch the butcher, Gutkäs(e) the cheese dealer, Gutleder the tanner, Guteisen the blacksmith.

Gutenberg: Johann Gutenberg, the inventor of the printing press, was originally called Gensfleisch [goose meat] and was from a patrician family in the city of Mainz; the property of his mother’s family in Mainz was known as “zum Gutenberg”. In Bav. pl.ns. the spelling is Guttenberg.

Gute(n)kunst (Würt.) means ‘knowing well how to do it’ (cf. Hans mitderKunst 1494; E. Nied, Südwestd. FN, p. 76); hence a surname of a skilled person.

Gutensohn (UGer.): “Frau Guten’s Sohn” [the son of lady Guta]. Guta [the good one] was a popular female first name in the UGer. area (cf. LGer. Goda). Eberhard Guotunsun, Reutlingen 1267, Wernher vomGudenson, Gelnhausen 1324. Also cf. the metronymics Itensun, Ellensun, Gerensun, Nesensun [sun = ‘son’], all Alem.-Swab.

Gutermann (UGer.) see Gutmann, Guttmann. Dietrich Guterman, Offenburg 1352.

Gutermuth (cf. Gutsmuts) like Freiermuth [free spirit] and Frischermuth [fresh spirit] probably dates back to the time when the journeymen of different trades were given appropriate names, (freq. humorous).

Gutg(e)sell (UGer.): ‘good companion’. Cunrad Gutgeselle,Bav. 1200 (recently: Bav. Gutgsöll), Heyndel Guetgesell,Prague 1397.

Gutglück see Godelück [good luck]. Cf. Gutheil. Gutjahr: a New Year’s wish; LGer. Godjar,Ro. 1260, Hbg. 1255. Cf. E. Goodyear.

Guthke, Gutke, Guttke (E Ger-Slav.): sh.fs. like Guthan,seeGothan. Gotke Arnold Vusil’s son, Brsl. 1347, Hanke Gotke,Brsl. 1351, J. Guteke,Kyritz 1596, Samuel Güticke,Havelberg 1733.

Gutkind [good child]: Joh. Gotkind,Ro. 1281, J. Godekind,Han. 1344.

Gutknecht: in the Middle Ages = ‘a page of noble birth’ [gut = ‘good’, referring here to social standing; knecht = ‘man’; cf. E. knight]. Wernher Guotknecht,Alsace 1284.

Gütlein, Gütl(huber), Gütler (UGer.): holder of a small farm (“Gütle”), cf. Kleinsgütl, Ringsgiltl (= geringes G. ‘little farm’): Jacob Ringsguetl,Prague 1397.

Gutmann, Guttmann, Gutermann: in the, Middle Ages a name of honor, meaning approximately: free man of noble birth, also vassal (thus in a docurnent in Güstrow 1306 guder man =vasallus). A knight Guotman (Bonus vir) in the U.Alsace 1251. But in Silesia and Saxony Guttmann derives from the (knightly) pers.n. Gutwin (Guttwein); accordingly the pl.n. Guttmannssdorf near Reichenbach was formerly Gutwinsdorf.Cf. the knights Guthwin (father and son) of Tristewitz 1285; C. Gutwyn,Liegnitz 1381, C. Guttmann,Liegnitz 1547. Sometimes also f.n.: Gutman Hevenler, Freiburg 1312. Gutman Gut,Sulz1413.

Gutsche (Sil., Sax.), Gutschke, Gutschker, Gutscher, Gutschner; also Gutsch(mann): sh.f. of Gutschalk, Gotschalk (see there), with dialect -u- for -o- as in the pl.n. Gutschdorf for Gotschalksdorf. Cf. 1358 Gocze = Gotschalk of Riedeburg (Urkundenbuch [document register] in Grimma). Guczcze Predel, Liegnitz 1388, Lorenz Gotsche,Görlitz 1456; hence the name of the Sil. counts Schaffgotsch: Gotsche Schoff (= Schaf ‘sheep’) 1449 (Bahlow SN, p. 39).

Gütschow: from Gützkow near Anklam, likewise Genschow from Gentzkow; cf. Gutschow and (Karl) Gutzkow (19th c. writer and critic).

Guttenberg see Gutenberg.

Guttentag (also Jewish): pl.n. in U.Saxony.

Güttinger: from Güttingen (near Konstanz and in Thurgau, Switz.). Heinrich Güttinger,Zurich 1308.

Guttke see Gutke.

Güttler (Sil., Sax.), Güttel, unrounded vowel in Gittler, Gittel: metronymic like Irmler from Irmel; also son (or husband) of the woman Gütel (a fairly popular f.n. in the Middle Ages, = Guta ‘good woman’): Juncfrowe Gütel,Brsl. 1349, C. Gütel,Görlitz 1454, Gregor Güteler,Görl. 1389, Fabian Gütler (Güttler),Sillein 1429.

Guttmann see Gutmann.

Guttrof, Guthruf, Kuttrof, Kuttruf, Kuttrauf: MHG kuterolf (personified from guterel) a glass drinking vessel (with a narrow neck), from Lat. guttarium, cf. Swab. “Gütterle” and FN Gutterer. Ulrich v. Dornach called Guterolf Mühlhausen (Alsace) 1385. See also Gamrad.

Guttschick see Gutschalk, Gutschke.

Guttwein see Gutmann. Cf. Gießwein, Gießmann.

Gutwirt see Wirt. Hans Gutwirth,Dresden 1446.

Gutzeit, Guttzeit (compare Fr. Bontemps) [good time]: like Liebezeit and others. Cf. Gutewi1e,Brsl. 14th c.

Gutzke (E Ger.-Slav.): sh.f. of the pers.n. Gutzmer. Cf. pl.n. Gutzkow.

Gützlaff, Götzlaff, Götzloff, Gutzlav, Güßloff (E Ger.-Pom.): Slav. pers.n. Godislav,see Götzloff, also Gustloff. Gutzlawus de Cumerowe, Pom. 1263: Martin Gützlaff,Stolp 1526.

Gutzmann (E Ger.) see Gotzmann.

Gutzmer, Gützmer (Pom.): Slav. pers.n. see Gotzmer, Götzmer. Ulrich Gutsmer,Kolberg 1617.

Gutzmerow: pl.n. in Pom. (= place of the person Gutzmar).

Gut(z)schebauch (Sax.): not yet interpreted; probably corrupted from a Slav. pl.n. Also Kut(z)schebauch. Peter Gotzschbauch,Pegau 1520.

Gwinner (UGer.) = Gewinner (from MHG gewinnen: to gain earnings and property through one’s work and effort). Eberhard Gwinner,Eßlingen 1456, K. der Gewinner,Villingen 1339.

Gymnich, Gimmenich: cf. Knight Emund of Gymnich, 1300.


Haack, Haacke, Haacker (freq. in LGer.) is based on MLG hoke, hoker ‘huckster, retailer’ as Knaack is on knoke ‘bone’, Kaack on Koke ‘cook’. Cf. Bendhaack, Lichthaack, Semmelhaack; hence in old documents botterhakt, kesehake, speckhake: hönerhoke, vlashoke [butter, cheese, bacon, chicken, meat seller]: Tydeke hoke (hake, haker),Barth 1453-1478; Heinse hoke (hokeman), Stralaund 1277; a street in Bremen 1446: Hakenstrate.See also Sil.-UGer. Hocke, Höck(n)er.

Haag, Haage, Haagen see Hag. Hagen.

Haake see Haack and Haken.

Haalek(e): Fris. pers.n. like Baalcke, see Hölck.

Haamkens see Hamckens.

Haan see Hahn. A pl.n. Haan near Solingen.

Haar: Westph.-Dutch field n. Auf der Haar, van der Haar, ter Haar, Verhaaren (like Vermeeren), Haarbrink, Haardieck, Haarkamp, all mean ‘swamp’; cf. Haarhaus like Brockhaus. Hence Haarmann, Haarmeyer. Also Haaren, Haren as pl.n. occurs several times (Emsland, L.Rhine). For more information see Bahlow ON, p. 198. For meaning: hair (of the head) cf. compounds with -haar like Flachs-, Gel-, Glatt-, Kraus-, Krumb-, Pfleghaar, Schlichthärle [flaxen, yellow, straight, frizzy, crooked, neat, plain hair], Härle: Kunz mit dem hare [K.with the hair], Heilbronn 1467.

Haarbrandt see Herbrand.

Haardegen see Herdegen.

Haardt, Hardt (UGer., LGer.): ‘wooded (mountain) ridge’ (also pasture), from MHG hart; cf. Ha(a)rdt (forest, also known as Pfälzer Wald) in the Pal., Lushard near Bruchsal (lus ‘swamp’). Berthold uf dem Harde,Würt. 1276, Hügli ußerm Hard, Zurich 1504. Ertwin vonder Hartt,Osnabrück 1683; L.Rhine Terhardt. Also see Hardt.

Ha(a)ren, Haars, Haarjes, Harries, Harr(sen), Haaringa (see there) are Frisian variants of Haarbrand, Harbert, etc., also related to the names with Her- ‘army’ (cf. Herbrand, Herwig, Herbord, Herold, etc.), in old documents cf. Hero, Hereke, Herema.See also Harries. See also pl.n. Ha(a)ren under Haar (von Haren,Ro., Lübeck, Stralsund around 1300).

Haarer (UGer.): ‘flax grower or dealer’ (MHG har ‘flax’); cf. Melanchthon’s brother-in-law Peter Haarer 1525. Also cf. pl.n. Haar in Bav.

Haarmacher (LGer.) means manufacturer who works with hair, makes hair blankets: in documents harmekere (Ro. 1280, Greifswald 1372, Stralsund, Lüb. 1300).

Haarmeyer, Haarmann (LGer.-Westph.) see Haar.

Haars (Fris.) see Haaren, Harries.

Haartje (Fris.) see Hartje (Hartke). Haasemann see Hasemann.

Haas (UGer.), Haase see Hase.

Haasper see Hasper.

Habbe, Habben, Habbes, Habbema, Habbinga are Fris. forms that developed from Habbert, i.e. Hadebert (Bremen 1361, Stralsund 1275) like UGer. Happel from Happert, Happrecht (see there); had ‘battle, strife’ (cf. Hader), berht ‘shining’. Also cf. Hadebrand, Hadebern, Hadeward, Hademar besides sh.f. Hadde, Hadden (see there). In Bremen 1480 Hermen Habbe,1375 Hinrik Habe:cf. Fulf Habben (Folklef, son of Habbe, 16th c.). For more see under Habeth. A Westph. patr. is Haberding, cf. Humperding.

Habeck(er), Häwecker, Hebecker (LGer.) corresponds to UGer. Häbicher (see there), short also Habeck, Haveke:Häfke (see there), related to Centr.Ger. hawek ‘hawk’, likewise UGer. Häbich.

Habedank: in one of Walther von der Vogelweide’s songs “Swelch schoene wip mir denne gaebe ir habedanc.” [which beautiful woman should then say (her) thank you]. LGer. Hafendank.

Habekost, Haberkost, Habekuß see Havekost (Havekhorst).

Habel, Habelt (Sil., U.Lausitz): Czech Havel (Pöl. Gawel) means St. Gallus, like in the pl.n. Havels-werds. Habelschwerdt near Glatz. Cf. Habel,son of Wachna (Bohemian), Glatz 1397, Jancko Habel,Glatz 1472, P. Hawel,Liegnitz 1381. “Pawel (Paul) and Gawel” were used as an idiom for ‘everybody and bis brother’. See also Havelka like Pavelka), Havlitschek, etc.

Haben, Habena (Fris.) see Habben, Habbena.

Habenicht (UGer. Habnit, LGer. Havonith): a ‘have-not’ (MHG nicht = ‘nothing’). A knight Walther Habenichts was leader of the first Crusade 1095. Cf. Hablützel ‘have little’. Habelust [Lust = ‘desire, joy’], Haberecht [Recht = ‘right’], etc.

Haber(er) see Häberlein.

Haberkampf. standardized form of LGer.-Westph. Haverkamp ‘oats field’. Cf. UGer. Haberland, LGer. Haverland.

Häberlein (UGer., see Heberlein), Häberle (Würt.), Haberl (Bav.) mean Haberer, Hiberer = ‘oats farmer or dealer’, also Habermann (Avenarius); hence Habermayer (like Gerstenmeier; Gerste = ‘barley’); as professional surnames: Haberkorn, Habersaat, Habersack, Haberstroh, Haberstiel, Haberstuppel besides Faulhaber, Firnhaber, Frischhaber, Grieshaber, Reschhaber, LGer. Oldehaver. Habermehl = Habermelwer (From MHG melwer = ‘flour dealer’). Habersetzer (MHG setzer = ‘tax assessor’). Habermalz: malter, brewer, cf. Haverbier. A very vivid name is Schüttenhaber [pour the oats], Olmütz 1413 (Like Schüttenweicz ‘pour the wheat’). Haberzettel (Eger), from MHG zeten ‘to strew, distribute’, cf. Zetenweiz. But Haberlah is the pl.n. Haverlah.

Haberschaden is a corrupted form of Habenschaden [have the damage].

Haberstich (Swiss writer, 1821): from MHG stich ‘steep rise or hill’.

Habeth(a): E Fris., contracted from Habert (Hadebert) like Sibeth from Sibert (Sigbert), Folpet from Folpert. Cf. patr. Habena like Sibena; Habbema like Ubbema; Habbert like Sibbert; Habs, Haps like Siebs, Sips; Hapke like Sipke. Sh.f. Habe,Bremen 1400 where also fem. Habeke occurs 1369, Habele for Hadeburg 1447.

Häbich (UGer., Stuttgart 100 times) besides Hebich (already in MHG) means hawk, Ger. Habicht, the most popular hunting bird in the Middle Ages (besides the falcon); der Habicher, Hebecher (MHG häbecher) was the man who trained it; Hs. Habicher,Würt. 1456, P. Häbich,Stetten 1482. A Lotze Habichnase,Fritzlar 1379.

Habig = Habich(t). Habighorst see Havekost.

Habke, Hapke (Fris.) see Habeth.

Häbler (UGer.), Hebeler; yeast dealer see Hebel and Hefenträger [Hefe = ‘yeast’]. But for Habl see Habel.

Hablützel, Hablitzel (UGer.): ‘have little’. Cf. Habenicht.

Hach(e): MHG hache ‘young man, chap’; Th. Hache,Mockstadt 1289. But N Ger. Hach(mann). Hachmeyer, Hachmüller contain hach ‘dirty water, muddy water’ like the Hache near Syke, Hachel (tributary of the Wipper), the Hachmecke (trib. of the Lenne), pl.n. Hachen near Olpe, also Hachsiek; Hachum near Brunswick, Hachede (Geesthacht on the Elbe), etc. (see Bahlow ON, p. 190). Hence FN “von Hacht” (freq. in Hbg.). But pl.n. Hachborn near Marburg was formerly Havecheborn.

Hachfeld (freq. in Hbg.) see Hache.

Hächler, Hechler, Hächel (UGer.): craftsman who cards flax or wool. Cuonrat Hächeler,Markdorf in Würt. 1290.

Hachinann, Hachmeyer, Hachmöller see Hache. Cf. A. van der Hachdemölen, Han. 1399.

Hachme(i)ster (LGer.): as early as 1370 in Han., Eastphalian, see Hagemeister. Cf hächtün = hagetün ‘hedge’. (A. Lasch, Miid. Grammatik, p.182.)

Hachnick, Hachnek: Czech Hacha, Jacha, is sh.f. of Johannes (John): cf. Jachnik, likewise Macha: Machnik (= Matthias); hence also Hachner like Machner (patr.).

Hachspieler (Bav.-Aust.) = Hacks-bühler (like Radspieler, Singspieler, derived from the loc. names ending in -bühel ‘hill, knoll’).

Hacht (von): freq. in Hbg., from Hachede (Geesthacht on the Elbe), see Hache. Cf. Goswin Hachtmann = G. auf der Hacht,1628 in Westph.

Hack (freq. in Hbg.): besides Hackuum (Ebg.) are based on documented Hoke, Hokeman ‘huckster, shopkeeper’ (see Haack). Cf. Henr. Hacke,Han. 1335, Joh. Hacktman,Bremen 1372. But see also Hackbusch, Hackeloh. Frisian f.n. is Hake (Betken, Urmer in Büttel 1600) besides the patr. Hacksen.

Hackbart(h): freq. in Hbg. Cf. Stechbarth.

Hackbusch: N Ger. field name, likewise Hackeloh (on the Möhne River), Hackenbreich, Hackenstedt, Hackeney (hack, hach ‘dirty water, swamp water’), see Bahlow ON, p. 191.

Häckel, Heckel, Bav. Hackl = Hacker, Häcker, Hecker. Cf. Fleischhäckel = Fleischhacker [butcher]; Baumhäckel [tree cutter], Zimmerheckel (MHG zimber ‘timber’); Danhackl (tann ‘woods’). Also Futterhocker, Strohhecker, Geißhecker. Hecker means also a worker in a vineyard. Enlarged form is Häckermann, Hickelmann; Heckerle, Heckerlein; all are UGer., Hanfhacker 1408. Hackert is a secondary form.

Hackelberg (Hbg.) like Hackelteich (swamp!) see Hack(el)busch.

Hackenjos see Haggenjos.

Hackenschmied (Eger 1398) forges iron hacking tools.

Hackenteufel (Iglau 1359, Prague 1346): cf. Jagenteufel, Fressenteufel, Hassenteufel, Schlagenteufel [chase, eat, hate, beat the devil], all for “devil of a fellow” from the (late medieval) time of the mercenaries. Hannos Hackentüfel,Breslau (see Reichert, p. 62).

Hackländer: name of origin like Fahrländer, Harlinder, Friedländer. Known through the 19th c. writer, F. W. H.

Hackmack (LGer.) = ‘riffraff’.

Hackmann see Hack.

Hadamar: pl.n. near Limburg on the Lahn River, like Haddamar near Fritzlar (Jos. Hadamar,Kassel 1556), but see Hadmar. Bahlow ON, p. 191.

Hadam(ek): Slav. = Adam; also Hadamczik, Hadasch etc.

Hadde, Hadden: Fris., along with Haddinga (patr.) belongs to the pers.n. Hadder(s), i.e. Hadeward (cf. Goddert: Godeward, Godehard); had means ‘battle, fight’, also cf. Hadubrand,son of Hildebrand (in the Germanic epic, Hildebrandslied) Hadebert and Hadumar.A figure Hadaward in the Song of Walther (Waltharilied) around 900. For Hadde, Hadden compare Adde, Adden, also Hedde, Hedden, Hedders.

Haddorp (Hbg.): pl.n. Haddorf near Stade.

Hädecke, Hädge, Hedicke (LGer.): dialect for Heideke = Heidenreich, Hedentik (as early as around 1250); Cf. Hedeken,Han. 1350.

Hädelt (E Centr.Ger.): dialect for Heidel (Heidenrich, Hederich).

Hadenfeld (freq. in Hbg.): pl.n. near Itzehoe. Cf. Hadenbeck in Westph. For the water word had see Bahlow ON, p. 191. Hence also Hadeln (FN Hadler).

Hader, Haderer, Hadermann, Haderbauer, Haderlein, Häderle (all UGer.): unless it means quarreller (from MHG hader ‘quarrel, strife’) as in Haderouge,Mainz 1372, it refers to the ragman [Hadern ‘rags’] (cf. Kuderer, Kudermann, Küderle, Kiderlen = oakum or hemp dealer). Zacharias der Haderer,Würt. 1384; also see Hodermann.

Häder = Heider (in old documents = Heidenrich).

Hadewig see Hedwig.

Hädge see Hädecke.

Hadler (freq. in Hbg.): from Hadeln (marsh area west of mouth of the Elbe), in documents Hadulo(un) ‘landscape with swampy woods’ (extensive information Bahlow ON, p. 191). Also “Von Hadeln”.

Hadlich, Hatlich, Hedlich (Leipzig) see Hedel (Leipzig).

Hadmar: Germanic Hadumar, means ‘battle fame’. In the UGer. nobility a knight Hadamar v. Laber, MHG poet. Peter Hadmar,Moravia 1414.

Hädrich see Hedrich: Heidenrich. Also cf. Hedderich.

Hädscher (Hedischer) see Hedwig.

Hafe (von) see Have.

Hafekost see Havokost (Havikhorst).

Häfele, Hefele (UGer., Alem.-Swab.) = ‘earthenware pot’, name of a potter (Hafner, Hefner), cf. Heintz Häffenli der Hafner of Ulm [H. H. the potter], Zurich 1417. Uli Häfeli = Uli Hafner,Baden (Aargau) 1490, where also the surname Muß im Hafen [food in the pot] occurs 1400. Cf. FNs Mußhqfen, Ölhafen, Mehlhaf [flour pot], Schmalzhaf [lard pot], Goldhaf, Mosthaf [cider pot], Banzhaf, Kochhaf (Chyträus). An innkeeper “zum Hafen gen. [called] der Hefelin”, Riedlingen 1550; Th. Stürczenhafen,Moravia 1414; H. Hafenöß (from ösen ‘to empty’) Hechingen 1435; Hafenbrädl ‘pot roast’; Berthold Hafen,Thurgau 1333.

Hafemann, Hafemeister (LGer.) see Havemann.

Hafer (LGer. for UGer. Haber ‘oats’). oats farmer or dealer (Hafermann); see Haber and Haver.

Haferland (loc.n.) see Haberland. Haferkorn.

Haferung: from Haferungen near Nordhausen (related to the water word hav-r,like Haverbeck etc.; cf. Holungen, Wechsungen in the same area, see Bahlow ON, p. 192).

Haffner: = Hafner (potter). Hüglin Haffner,Kirchheim/Teck, 1406.

Häfke, Häveke, Häwicke (LGer.) means hawk (LGer. havik), cf. Havekemeier.Hafkemeier (Westph.), Haffke. Hence Havik,Ro. 1268; H. Heveke,Han. 1486. Hence Häf(c)ker, Häwecker: hawker, falconer.

Hafner, Häfner, Hefner (UGer.): potter (see Häfele). Hafen is still today the southern word for pot. Also cf. Hess. Euler, Westph. Pötter. Likewise Haffner, Hugo Hafinare,Konstanz 1158, Uli Hafner (Häfeli),Aargau 1490.

Haft, Haftel (UGer.): MHG = ‘fetter, shackle, cord, buckle’; the manufacturer was called Haftenmacher (Freiburg 1502). Cf. Joh. zum Hafte,Mainz 1278 (house name). Also Haftmann, Hafter. For the field n. Haftenkamp, Haftendorn see Bahlow ON, p. 192.

Hag, mostly Haag (UGer.): freq. loc.n. and pl.n. (from MHG hac ‘hedge, fenced-in fields, thorny shrubbery’, cf. Hagedorn). Hartwig von dem Hage,Alem. Writer around 1300; Ita im Hage,Beromünster 1330; Wernher ußerm Hage,knight 1219. Zum Haag etc. Hence Hager, Haager: Hainrich der Hager = Hainr. von dem Hag,1294 in Aust.; likewise Hägler: living at the Hägle [small hedge].

Hage (Hbg.): one who lives in a fenced-in field (enclosed by hedges) (see Hag, Haag), cf. N Ger. pl.ns. ending in -hage in Westph. like Baukhage, Heisterhage. Likewise Hagemann. Cf. Nikolaus up den Haghe,Rhineland 1409, Joh. van dem Hagen,Brunsw. 1253, Cort updem Hagen,Lippe 1507.

Hagebohm, Hageböhmer (Westph.) = ‘brier’ (Luther used Dornbusch).

Hageböcke (LGer.) = Hagebuche [hornbeam, carpinus betutus],named for the dwelling; also Hagenböker, Hagenbeuker.

Hagedorn, Haydern, Heydorn (LGer.): thorn bushes, thorny hedge, named for the dwelling. Name is known through the poet Friedrich v. Hagedorn (Hamburg 1708). Cf. Johann Haghedorn,Lüb. 1325, Joh. Heydorn,Han. 1344.

Hagel: in some cases probably = Hagelstein ‘hail, icy rain, hailstone’; sometimes a field name like Grünhagel (from “Hag, Hagen” = ‘hedge-‘); cf. also loc. name. Hagelsiepen along with Hagensick, Hagelberg and Hagelloch (for Hagenloch ‘hedge hole’!). Also cf. Hagler, Hägele. Hiltebrand called Hagel,Würt. 1281.

Hägele see Hagen. Hägeler see Hegeler.

Hagelgans (MHG): snow goose (old scolding word), also Heitgans (Halgans,Liegnitz 1438).

Hagelstange: probably an old field name (like Habechstang, stang = Stein ‘stone’). Also cf. Hagelstein, Hagelsteen (LGer.). A blacksmith (horseshoer) Hans Hageleisen,Ulm 1530, cf. Hagelsieb under Hagel. The itinerant preacher Berthold of Regensburg uses Hagelstein as name of the devil. Cf. Lütfrid Hagelstein,Villingen 1265.

Hagemann: freq. in Hanover-Hamburg- Meckl. area, equivalent to S Ger. Hager, Haager, meaning the person living by the hedge. Also see Hagen. Compare Brinkmann, Brockmann, Horstmann, Struckmann, Wiedemann, Lohmann, etc.

Hageme(i)ster: from Lower Saxony to Pomerania = ‘field ranger’, also mayor of newly established villages. Gotfried Haghemester, Ro. 1288. Eastphalian Hachmeister.

Hagemer. from Hagheim.

Hagen (freq. N Ger. field n.): Joh. van dem Hagen,Brunsw. 1253, Cort up dem Hagen,Lippe 1507. Cf. Hagemann. Hagen may be first n. in UGer. area: Hageno de Dalheim,Würt. 1250 (thus sh.f. of Hagenrich,Heinrich), Hagano,Kremsmünster in Aust.1083. Otherwise S Ger. Hagen (Hägele) means breeding bull (N Ger. Bulle). Conrad Hägelli (Hegelli, Hagen),Konstanz 1390.

Hagenah (freq. in Hbg.): pl.n. near Bremervörde.

Hagenbeck (LGer.) = UGer. Hagenbach. Knight Dietrich of Hagenbeke,near Werden/Ruhr 1332.

Hagenböcker (Hagenbeuker), Hagensieker, Hagenkötter (Westph.): named for the dwelling . Cf. UGer. Hagenbüchner, Hegenbüchler.

Hag(e)ner (UGer.): name of origin like Hag(e)nauer, Hageneier. Cf. pl.n. Hagnau in Würt., Hagenau in Alsace, etc. Berthold Hagenower, Sulz 1236, O. Hagner,Prague 1324.

Hagenloch(er): field and loc. name in Würt. (loch, loh ‘woods’), also Hagelloch.

Hagenmüller, Hagemniller (Würt., Bav.): leaseholder of a mill: Hagenmühle (which is also a freq. pl.n. in these areas). Cf. Hagemeier, Hagenmayer (Hagen is a field n.).

Hagenow: pl.n., freq. in Meckl.-Pomerania.

Hager, Haager (freq. UGer.) see Hag. In old documents alternates with Hagen: Hans Hager (Hagen),Heinerdorf/Bav. 1464, Hainrich der Hager (also H. von dem Hag),Aust. 1294. Hence compounds like Gerhager (pl.n. Gerhagen in Aust.), Windhager (pl.n. Windhag in Bav., Aust.).

Häger, Higermann (N Ger.-Westph.) like UGer. Hager named after the dwelling in an enclosed piece of land (Hagen, Hag). Also cf. Laufhäger, Poppenhäger (pl.n.) Poppenhagen in Pomerania), Steinhäger (pl.n. Steinhagen in Westph.). But see also Hezer, Hegermann.

Hagge (Fris. pers.n.), freq. in Hbg., Bremen, is similar to Haye like Fris. Agge is to Aye. For the stem Hag- see Hagen: Hagenrich, Heinrich. Also cf. Fris. Hacke, Hacksen.

Haggenjos, Hackenjos (UGer., Würt.) means Jos (Jodocus) Hagg (Hack), HaggiJoß in Villingen 1597, Hagkenjos in Kirnach 1508. The clan of Hagg, Hack shows two hooks in their coat of arms: gg stands in UGer. for ck(k). Cf. Herman Hagg (Haugg),Rottweil 1309 (-au- indicates a long -a-). Hence Otto Haggenmacher, 19th c. Swiss writer, where however an (iron) hoe (= Hacke) might be involved as in Hackenschmied [hoe smith].

Hägi, Hegi (Switz.): field n. (Hag). Cf. Kägi (Kag ‘cabbage trunk’).

Hägner (UGer.): name of origin, cf. Hagener and Hegner.

Hahl, Hahlbeck, Hahlbrock (Westph.) as well as the Hahle River (Hale) in Eichsfeld area (also in the Harz Mountains) and pl.n. Hahlen (Halen) near Minden contain an ancient hal ‘swamp, mire’: Halbrock (see Bahlow ON, p. 192).

Hähle: MHG haele ‘secretive’. Beringer der Häle,Giengen 1358. See Hehle.

Hahm, Hahme: MHG hâme ‘(standard) measure’, sealer of weights and measures.

Hahmann, Hamann see Hahnemann and Havemann (Hofmann).

Hahmeyer, Hameyer see Havemeyer (Hofmeyer).

Hahn (freq. throughout): generally means the (domestic) rooster, became a FN via a house name (Clewy zem Hane,Freiburg 1437). Joh. Hane,Han. 1367, Eber called Hane,Möhringen/Würt. 1280. Hence the compounds (in old documents): Hanenbiß [cock bite], Hanenschenkel [cock thigh], Hanengebel [cockscomb], Hanenkrat [cock’s crow], Hanenstert [cock’s tail], Hanekop [cock’s head], Hanfeder, Weckdenhan [wake the cock]. But also in compounds with -han like Auer-, Berk-, Brach-, Gold-, Kaphan. Hahn occurs as pl.n. frequently (also = Hain ‘grove’!), (in Oldenburg old documents show Hone: ‘swamp, bog’), as e.g. in pl.ns. ending in -hain, -hahn.

Hahndorf: pl.n. near Goslar, also Handorf near Winsen, Peine, etc.

Hahne, Hähne = Johannes, cf. Hane (Hans)Brunlin, Würzburg 1355-70; also see Hehn.

Hahnebuth, Hanebutt: Hagebutte ‘rose hip’ (fruit of the wild rose). Eggert Hanebuth,Han. 1506.

Hahnekratt see Hanekrad. [under Hahn]

Hähnel, Hähnelt (Sil., Sax.) = Hänel, Hänelt are sh.fs. like Han = Johannes. Cf. Bahlow SN, p. 59. Henel Herbst = Johann H., Glatz 1377, Henel (Henlin) Günczel = Hensel G.,Brsl. 1362. In UGer. without umlaut Ha(h)nel: Hanel Eckhard, Iglau 1408. Alem. Häni (Junghäni). Likewise Hähndel, Händel (with a dental sound -d- between -n- and -l-). See Henle.

Hahnemann besides Hannemann means Johannes, Centr.Ger. and UGer.; also see (contracted) Hamann. Hanman (Hannos, Johannes) v. Gint, Brsl. 1351-72, Hannus Hanemann,Liegnitz 1399, Hanman zem Huwen, Freiburg 1460.

Hahner, Hähnert (UGer.-Franc.): Ulrich Haner 1290,probably ‘poultry farmer’. But Sax.-Sil. = Hayner = vom Hayn (Haynau, Haina), Liegnitz 1372.

Hohnheiser (UGer.-Aust.) = Hahnhäuser, from Hahnhausen; cf. Anheiser, Hochheiser, Thannheiser.

Hahnkamm see Hahn.

Hahnke, Hahnecke = Hanke (Johannes), from Czech Hanek, Hanika,like Stahnke from Stanek (Stanislaw). Cf. Hanek Puchstabl, Moravia 1374.

Hähnle (Swab.) see Hähnel. Likewise Hähnlein.

Ha(h)nrei(ch), Hanreh [cuckold]: actually means ‘capon’ (castrated rooster). As early as 1209 near Meersburg: Cuonrat Hanurai;also in Augsburg: 1321 Hanrei,1465 Haneray. Also cf. Kaphahn, Kapaun.

Hähnsen (Hbg.): dialect variant of Heinsen, see there.

Hährer, MHG heraere ‘destroyer’. Albrecht der Herer,near Nagold 1405. But Hähr (Würt.) probably from MHG heher ‘jay’ (bird): Balthus Häher,Schonach 1602. Haib(e)l, Haible, Heibel (Bav,) = Heubel (Thur.) = Haube ‘bonnet’; surname of a bonnet maker.

Haiber (UGer.) comes from MHG höuwer ‘mower, haymaker’; possibly also from houber ‘bonnet maker’, cf. Haibel.

Haid, Haide see Heide.

Haider see Heider.

Haidlauf (UGer.) see Heidloff.

Haidle, Haidlen (Würt.) probably sh.f. of Haidolf (Heidloff) or Haidenrich; cf. Hainrich Haidenli,Feldkirch 1259. OHG haidan, MHG heiden ‘heathen, Saracen’, also warrior against the heathens (participant in a crusade in the Middle Ages), cf. Sarrazin. Haidelin,Frommern 1200, P. Heidelin (Heyden),Stuttgart 1447.

Haidler, Haidner (UGer.) = Haider, s.o. living on the heath. Haideler,Haidner, Eßlingen 1360, Pater Haidner,Heilbronn 1487.

Haiduk see Hayduk.

Haigis, Heigis, Heiges (Würt.): probably contains a loc.n. as in Heigenbrücken, Heigenhausen.

Hail(e), Hailmann see Heil(mann).

Hailer, Heiler (UGer.), Hoyler (Swab.) like Gelzer and Nonnenmacher means castrator of domestic animals (“Schweinschneider, Berschneider”), cf. LGer. Suböter, Barensteker. Luther uses Sewheiler.Concze Heiler,Frkf. 1366, Hans Heiler,Freiberg/Sax. 1420, L. Hayler 1472. (Cf. Brech., Der heilkundliche Beruf,1937, p. 43).

Haim, Haym see Heim. Likewise Haimerl (Heimeran).

Hain, Hayn: occurs as pl.n. and loc.n. from Hesse to Silesia, also Haine, Haina, Hainau, Hainichen, all meaning ‘small woods, copse’. UGer. Hainle, Hainy, Hainmann are sh.fs. of Hainrich, see Heinemann. The pl.n. Hain occurs dialectal also as Hahn (e.g. near Pfungstadt: in old documents Hayn);cf. Langenhan, Ziegenhahn, Dautenhahn, Falkenhahn, Falkenhain, Neuenhahn, Neuenhain. Haynau near Liegnitz/Sil. was dialect. Hayn, hence Henczel von dem Hayn =Henczel Hayn,Görlitz 1352, Matz Drausche von Hain,Görlitz 1566.

Hainisch (Vienna) see Heinisch.

Hainz (Bav.) see Heinz (Heinrich).

Haiß (Bav.-Swab.) = Heiß = Matthias [Matthew].

Haitz see Heitz.

Hajek see Hayek.

Hake (Hbg.) means ‘hock’ as in Fürhake [fire hook], Ketelhake (professional surname of a kettlesmith) but also ‘huckster, shopkeeper’ (was still Hoke around 1300) as in Bierhake, Lichthaak, Semmelhaack; nowadays mostly Haack, see there. Cf. Haker = Haacker. For UGer. Hagg for Hake(n) see Haggenjos. (Cf. “nobilis vir Rud. dictus Hagge” [nobleman R. called H.], near Überlingen 1209). Likewise in Bohemia: der Hake,Eger 1330, Hempel Hake 1381.

Haken (von): LGer.-Baltic family (cf. a Haken Terrace in Stettin).

Haker(t) see Hake. Likewise Haakert.

Halbach, Halbeck like Holbach, Holbeck, Helbach, Helbeck mean swamp water or bog water, mired water (see Bahlow ON, p. 193, 221), obvious also in pl.n. Hal-brock (Westph., Holstein).

Halbauer see Halbgebauer.

Halbbrodt, LGer. Halfbrod: from MHG halbbrot ‘bread of half the value’, name for a baker.

Halbe: pl.n. near Berlin, cf. Halbau Sagan. The German writer Max Halbe was from West Prussia. In the Middle Ages halbe was a plot of land, for which half of the harvest had to be paid as rent. Cf. von der Halben.

Halbed(e)l (Bav.): meaning only of half aristocratic stock or desc. Hermann Halbedel,Landsberg district 1434.

Halbeis(en): Switz., Würt., name for a smith (Halbisen the smith, Zurich 1400).

HaIbekann see Kanne.

Halben (Hbg.) see Halfen, Halfmann.

Halber, LGer. Halfer: tenant of a “Halbe”, see there. Hayndl Halber,Iglau 1364.

Halbfaß: [half vat] referring to a tithe or rent payment (cf. Halbeimer [half a bucket], Halbscheffel [half a bushel]).

Halb(ge)bauer (Bav., Sax.); a “half” farmer, see under Halbe. Nickel Halbergebur,Würzburg 1409

Halbherr: owner of only half an estate or farm (likewise Halbbauer, Halbhuber, Halbmeyer), or somebody who lives “half” like a lord, cf. Halbritter [half knight]. Haneman Halbherr,Pirna 1392.

Halbhuber (UGer.): peasant who owns only half a “Hube” [hide of land]; cf. Huber. “Halbe Hube” was the name of an outwork [farmland and farmstead(s) belonging to a manor, but situated away from it] near Liegnitz.

Halbig (Sil.) see Helbig (also spelled Hälbich).

Halblaib (UGer.): from MHG leib ‘loaf of bread’, see Halbbrot. Ulrich Halberlaip,Bav. 1155.

Halbmann = ‘half farmer’ [owning or farming only half of the usual amount of land]: Rentze der Halbmann,Waiblingen 1350. Cf. LGer. Halfmann.

Halbmayer (UGer.): paid rent (tax) for only half a farm, 1381 Gerlingen/Würt. Later name was contracted to Hallmaier (as documented 1538-73 in Rottenburg), likewise Halbbauer became Hallbauer or Halbpap became Hallpap or Halbwachs became Hallwachs.

Halbmeister (UGer.): probably name for “a master who is not accredited by a guild (craftsmen’s union)”. Hans Halbmeister der Meier, near Stuttgart 1359, Conrat Halbmeyster,Brünn 1361.

Halbrecht see Helmbrecht. Cf. Halbig for Helbig.

Halbritter, LGer. Halfridder: living like a knight (without being of noble descent). Mertin Halbritter,Liegnitz 1415: Hermann Halpidere,Stralsund 1277. Probably also for ‘illegitimate’ offspring, like Halbpfaff (Moravia 1414).

Halbscheffel (UGer.) like Halbsester: a grain measure (used for the ground rent of a peasant), cf. Halbeimer [Eimer = ‘bucket’], Halbfaß [Faß = ‘vat, barrel’] (used as rent measure for wine, honey, butter). Conrat Halbscheffel,Jena 1316. See also Sester (Fr. Halbsester,Offenburg 1328).

Halbsguth: owner of half an estate.

Halbwachs, Hallwachs, LGer. Halfwassen, Halwas: a half-grown person. Hans Halbwachs,Jana 1406.

Halbwirth (UGer.): Hainrich Halpmdrt,Augsburg 1291. Cf. Halbergast Old Brßl. (See Reichert, p. 113).

Halder (UGer.): living on the hillside or slope: Hanz Halder uffder Halden,Allgäu area 1451. Cf. Abderhalden. Hence Buchhalder (Buchhalter), Beerhatter, Sommerhalder and Winterhalder, etc. Also Hald, Häldle: Ablin Halde,Tyrol 1369, H. Häldelin,near Leutkirch 1451. Haldmeier, Haldenwang(er), Haldner. Hence pl.n. Halden in Würt. and L.Rhine area.

Halem (Hbg.): L.Sax. pl.n. ending in -heim like Einem; hal ‘swamp’. Cf. Anton von Halem, a poet during Goethe’s time.

Halepagen (LGer.): ‘get the horse!’ (name for a groom, stable boy), B. Halepaghe, Bremen 1428.

Halfkath (LGer.): tenant of a half-cottage (farmstead), mostly without farmland.

Halfmann (Halbmann), LGer.: tenant of a farm who has to pay as rent half of the farm’s proceeds. Similar Halfwynner,1399 Werdener Urbar [document register of Werden].

Halfpape, Halfpaap (LGer.) = Halbpfaff (UGer.): prospective cleric or priest unless it means ‘son of a cleric’; cf. Halbritter (Halfridder). Also Hallpap (likewise Hallwachs, Hallbauer). Thid. Halvepape,Stralsund 1277.

Halfter: ‘horse’s halter’ (occupational name). Malcher Halper, Sil.1368.

Hall, Halle: freq. pl.n. and loc.n.; also “von Halle”. UGer. also Haller, in some cases means s.o. from Hall, as e.g. Schwäbisch-Hall, Hall in Tyrol, etc. The Swiss Albrecht Haller (physician and poet) and Hermann Haller (sculptor) are famous.

Hallbauer see Halbbauer.

Hallemann see Hallmann.

Hallenslebeß: pl.n. Haldensleben near Magdeburg. For hald see Bahlow ON, p. 194 (also cf. Haldingen in Alsace, Haldungen on the Werra).

Haller (UGer.): unless the freq. pl.n. Hall is involved (FN Haller from the pl.n. as early as 1200 in Würt.) or the field n. Halde in Switz. (hence = Halder), Haller mostly derives from Heller, i.e. a coin name (from the mint in the city of Schwäbisch-Hall), as attested in old documents Freiberg/Sax. 1478: Anton Haller (Heller)!Likewise 1378 in Görlitz: Johann Haller (otherwise always Heller),with dial. -a-for -e-as in Achczenhaller, Achczenhelter,Brsl. 1387. Also cf. Hallmann for Hellmann; Halbig for Helbig.

Hallfahrt: probably dial. for Hellfahrt like Hallmann for Hellmann.

Hallgart(en): pl.n. near Eltville.

Hallier (freq. in Ro.): Slav. (stress on last syllable) like Bannier, Bernier, Pritzier.

Hallmann (Sil., Lausitz, Bohemia) from Hellmann, see there. In Westph. and Han. from the pl.n. Halle.

Hallmaier (UGer.) see Halbmaier.

Hallpa(a)p see Halfpape.

Hallstein: UGer. pl.n. like Hallberg, Hallstatt, Hallwang.

Hallung: pl.n. Hallungen between Werra and Mühlhausen, in old documents Haldungen,related in meaning to Faulungen, Holungen, Rüstungen in the above area. (hal-d ‘swamp water’); see Bahlow ON, p. 194.

Hallwachs see Halbwachs (LGer. Hallwaß).

Halm (UGer.), also Hälmle: blade of grass or grain, cf. Gersthalm [Gerste = ‘barley’]; surname for a farmer, peasant. In the compound Axthalm, Axthalb MHG-Bav. halm means ‘stalk, stem’. Halmhei, Halmheu means field ranger (who protected the harvest), cf. Holzhei, Holzheu. Halmschlag (UGer.) may be a field n. like Gerstenschlag [field of barley], Grünschlag.

Halmich (Sil.) see Hellmich.

Halpaap see Halfpape.

Halpern: probably pl.n. like Haltern, Goltern.

Hals: like Bein [leg], Arm, Hand, Faust [fist] due to an obvious characteristic. Knight Joh. Hals,1270 in Westph., Hermann Hals,14th c. in Lüb. Hence Feinhals, Schönhals, Kurzhals (Korthals), Langhals, Speckhals, Krummhals: mit dem krumen halse [with the crooked neck], Bav. 1386; Bredehals,Holstein 1365; Blankhals,Lüb. 1339. Also Gänsehals [goose neck], Krannhals [crane neck], Ziegenhals[goat’s neck].

Halser (Bav.): from Hals near Passau (Baldmar von Halse 1140); also farmstead name (Bav. and Aust.): Christoph Halser,Altmühl around 1600.

Haltaufderheide: [stop on the heath, field] vivid name of a prowler or robber knight, who attacked the merchants and wagoners. LGer. Holtopterheyden 1509, which was misunderstood and became Holzaufderheide ‘wood on the heath’.

Halter (UGer.) see Halder. Cf. Beerhalter: from Beerhalden in Würt. Likewise Halt = Hald (cf. Haltmayer = Haldmayer, Bregenz 1613). But MHG-Bav. halter = (sheep-) herder.

Haltermann (N Ger.): from Haltern in Westph. (2 towns by that name), like Goltermann from Goltern. Cf. Gise Haltennan (also G. van Halteren),Ro. 1330 and later. For interpretation as a swamp word in the Lippe area see Bahlow ON, p. 193.

Halver (Westph.): town near Lüdenscheid on the Halver River (prehistoric river name also contained in pl.n. Halverstede (Halberstadt); see Bahlow ON, p. 194).

Hamacher, Hamecher see Hammacher.

Hamann: like Hammann derives from Centr.Ger. and UGer. Han(e)mann,once a popular sh.f. of Hans (Johannes), but in LGer. from Havemann (Hofmann), like Hameister (LGer.) from Have, Hovemester (Hofmeister = ‘steward, bailiff, manager of a large farm’). Examples see under Hahnemann. Hence Haneman Halbherr, Pirna 1392, Hanman Zepflin, Baden 1453, Haman Wolfertsperger, Bregenz 1449, Haman Hilfreich, Prague 1404, Thoman Haman,Prague 1397, Henslin Haman,Rottweil 1441.

Hambach: freq. creek and pl.n. (U.Rhine, Baden, Würt.), in old documents Hanebach ‘reed creek’. See Bahlow ON, p. 195 for more info. Cf. Bambach, Wambach: Banebach, Wanebach.

Hamborg, Hamborch: Hamburg on the lower Elbe is an old ‘swamp castle’ (Hammeburg),cf. the bog river Hamme NE of Bremen, Hammoor E of Hbg., pl.n. Hamm in Westph., Hammenstedt near Northeim, Hammel Hane-lo on the bog river Radde, etc. (Bahlow ON, p. 195).

Hambrecht, Hamprecht (UGer, Franc.), with dial. a see Heimbrecht. Cf. Hamberger =Heimberger, Schefflenz 1616; also Hampel = Heimpel.

Hambrock, Hambruch: LGer. loc.n., Westph. Hambrauk. Cf. Hambeck, Hamborn (in old docum. Haneborn),see Hambach. Pl.n. Hambruch in Han. area.

Hamdorf (freq. in Hbg.): pl.n. (near Segeberg and Rendsburg). Cf. Hamborg.

Hameister, Hamester (freq. in Hbg.): LGer., contracted from Havemester, Hovemester =Hofmeister = ‘steward manager of a large farm’; cf. Hamann for Haveman, Hoveman:Hofmann, Hameyer: Hofmeyer.

Hamel(mann): Hbg., Han. from Hamelin on the Weser at the mouth of the Hamel; like Rintelmann from Rinteln on the Weser, Attelmann from Atteln, Uffelmann from Uffeln, etc. Joh. Hamelmann (besides van Hamelen),Han. 1347.

Hamer (freq. in Hbg.) see Hammer. Hamers see Hammers.

Hamerich see Hammerich.

Hamester (freq. in Hbg.) see Hameister.

Hameyer (LGer.) see Hameister.

Hamfeldt (Hbg.): pl.n. Hamfelde E of Hbg.

Hamje (Fris.) see Hamken.

Hamkens (Fris. patr. of Hamcke) Hemkens, see Hemme(ke). Hence Hamje and Hamjediers (Diers = Diederichs). Cf. Ramke(n) besides Remke(n). A certain M. Hamco wrote the book Frisia.

Hamm, Hamme (van): N Ger-Westph. loc.n. and pl.n. (Hamm in Westph.); see under Hamborg. Hinrich van dem Hamme,near Werl in Westph. 1294. A pl.n. Hamm (782 Hamme) also near Worms.

Ham(m)acher, Hamaeker, Hamecker, Hamecher (L.Rhine): MLG hamaker, a saddler or harnessmaker, who made hame (collar harnesses) for draft animals. Jakob Hamecher,Neuß 1593. For Hamecher (with umlaut) cf. Glasmecher (Cologne).

Hammann (freq.) is an assimilated form of Hamann,sh.f of Hans (Johannes), see Hamann and Hahnemann. Hamman Weisman, Kuttenberg 1388. Heyne Hamman (Hanneman),Haldsl. 14th c..

Hamme see Hamm.

Hammel (LGer. also Hamel): castrated ram. Also Feisthammel, Fleischhammel, Kapphammel. A butcher Hamelskop,Worms 1398.

Hammelmann see Hamelmann.

Hammer UGer. also Hämmerle, Hammerl, means blacksmith (“master Hämmerlein”); likewise Ham(m)erling, Hemmerling. Documented especially as smiths: Hamer faber [smith], Strals. 1325, master Hemer der smed [H. the amith], Brsl. 1356, Hensl Hemerl faber, Iglau 1425; cf. Ulrich Hamerl,Prague 1390, Nicolaus Hamer,Worms 1317; Henne Hamerstil [hammer handle], Frkf. 1387, Hamerslag in Brsl. Hence the sentence names: Klinghammer [sounding h.], Pochhammer [knocking h.], Schellhammer [ringing h.], Schwingehammer. Hammerschmidt, Hemmerschmidt manufactured hammers. But Hammermeister and Hammermann worked in a hammer mill: Otto hamermeyster,Iglau 1373.

Hämmerle, Hammermeister and similar forms see Hammer.

Hammerer (UGer.) = Hammer [hammer].

Hammerich derives from pl.n. Hamberg (Upper Pal., Baden), with shifted accent onto the final syllable -berg to -berig, -brig (in CentrGer. dialects from Nassau to Sil.), as in Bremberig (Bremberg/Nassau), Schellmerig (Schellenberg/Nassan) Hirschbrig (Hirschberg/Sil.), also Fellbrich, Hubrich, Weisbrich, Zeisbrich (Sil.), etc. Cf. Behaghel, Geschichte der deutschen Sprache, p. 130.

Ham(m)ers = Ham(m)er.

Hammerstein: freq. pl.n. (-stein means ‘rock’, freq. in names of castles: cf. Eduard Schröder, p. 158). FN famous through the barons of H.

Hammler, Hemler is a castrator of rams (Ulin Hamler,near Augsburg 1424); MHG hamelen, hemelen ‘to mutilate’; cf. Hemmel (butcher), Prague 1363.

Hämmling: MHG hemelinc ‘ram’ (see there). Benz Hämmling,Echterdingen 1371, Knight Alb. Hemling (Hamelinc),Würt. 1292-99.

Hampe is an old pers.n., sh.f. of Hamprecht (variant of Heim-precht, Hemprecht, i.e. Hagenberht,like Heinrich of Hagenrich); Hampo in Westph. as early as 9th c., Hampe, Hempe,Oldenburg 1428, Hampe Luttrud in Hesse 1372. (In Haldsl. also as fem. f.n.) In Sil., Moravia, Würt., Sax. Hempe, Hempel were common, (dialectal -a-for -e-)also Hampel along with Hempel (Hempe, Hempel Geise Liegnitz 1372, Francze Hampel,Goldberg 1422. Cf. Hampelbaude (a lodge) in Riesengebirge. Patr. Hempeler,Sorau 1381. See Bahlow SN, pp. 39-40.) Cord Hampelman,Duderstadt 1420 = Hempelmann. For Hampler besides Hempler cf. Seidler, Hensler, Michler, all with UGer.-Sil. -er.

Hampke (Hbg.) see Hamke.

Hamprecht, Hemprecht see Hampe, Hempe.

Hand, Handt: like Fuß [foot], Bein [leg], Arm indicating a special characteristic, e.g. Liebhard mit der hand,Augsburg 1383; mit der einen hand [with one hand], Liegnitz 1372; Einerhand, Walther der hantlose [W.the handless], Würt. 1314 (cf. dumelose ‘thumbless’). Hence compounds like Lamhand [lame hand], Linkehand [left hand], Geringehand [small, “left” hand], Geradehand [straight, “right” hand], Luchterhand [left hand], Mildehand [generous hand].

Händel, Hähndel, UGer. Hand(e)l, patr. Händler (Sil., Lausitz, Bav., Bohemia) derive from Hänel,sh.f. of Johannes (Han, Hans); see Hähnel. Händel’s (the composer) ancestors came from Silesia. The connecting -d- as early as 1427: Nikel Hendel from Görlitz, Hendl Praitfuß, Deutsch-Brod 1381, Tobhen(d)l,Moravia 1414; less freq. Heindl.Enlarged forms are Handelmann,cf. Hanselmann, Hampelmann, Heinzelmann, Seidelmann.

Handfaß: container with a handle, cf. Ebeling des hantfatgheteres son [E. son of the vessel or pitcher maker], Strals. 1346.

Handke see Hanke.

Handlos (UGer.): from MHG handlose ‘without hands’. Cf. “der handlos Schneider” [the handless tailor], Augsburg around 1350, Walther der hantlose,Stuppach 1314. Also a Handloser in Karlsruhe, probably not from MHG hantlöse ‘tribute for a lifetime fief’ (see Götze, p. 20).

Handorff (Hbg.): pl.n. Handorf near Winsen on the Luhe River, also near Peine, Münster, Damme. Cf. Hahndorf, pl.n. near Goslar. For interpretation see Bahlow ON, p. 195.

Handrick, Handrek, Handrock are Lausitz-Wend. forms of Andreas, for Handrock cf. Sandrock = Sander (Alexander).

Handschke see Hantschke.

Handschu(h), Handschuch; Handschiegl (Handschühel) surname of a glove maker (glover). Also Hendeschuch (cf. Wernher hendeschuer,Frkf. 1387). Contracted (already MHG) hantsche, hentsche (Stahlhantsch [steel glovel, Wapenhensch [gauntlet]), hence Hanschenmeker, Henschenmeker (LGer.), hanczkenmecher, hanczkenworcht,Liegnitz 1372. Gloves were usually made of leather (see Bahlow, Studien,p.142), but also knitted: Marscho hantschuchstpicker,Brünn 1365; Enderl hantschuher,Iglau 1359, H. Kölbel der hantschuster,Eger 1384. Hendschig (Franc.) like Freundschig (= Frauenschuh, lady’s shoe) (Nied, p. 51).

Hand(t)ke see Hanke.

Handtmann: obligated to his feudal lord to lend personal service (N. hantman,Moravia 1414).

Handwerk(er): Uger-Franc., in the sense of ‘arts and craftsman, technician’.

Hanebutt(e), Hanebuth see Hahnebutt.

Hanefurth, Hanebeck become clear through Hanebrock, Hanepot: han is an obsolete word for reed or swamp water (Bahlow ON, p. 195-96).

Hanekratt, Hanekrad: from MHG hane-krât ‘crowing of the cock’, probably for an early riser; also documented as name of a minstrel. Heinrich Hanencrat,Alten-Buseck near Gießen 1302.

Hanel, Hanemmm see Hähnel, Hahnemann.

Hanert see Hahnert.

Hanewacker, Hann(a)wacker (UGer.): probably related to a field name; cf. Hanewald, Hannawald.

Hanf, Hanfft, Hampf means hemp farmer or dealer (UGer. Hampfner, Hempfner, Henfler: Haniper,Moravia 1414), also Hanfmann; hence Hanfstengel (Bav. Hanifistingel,Brünn 1356): Renz Hanfstengel,Eßlingen 1415; Hanfsam,Graz 1294; Hanfgarn.Walther Hänfer,Würt. 1368.

Hänggi, Henggi (Alem.-Swiss): sh.f. of Johannes or Heinrich, cf. Schweizer Idiotikon 11, col, 1314; freq. in Basel. In Ravensburg 1406-12 Heinrich (Hengin)Hundbiß (Humpis) = ‘dog bite’; also Hans Hänggi (Heng),Weingarten 1406, Hengel Huser 1408.

Hanglmann (Bav., Aust.) like Hangler, Hangelberger living on a slope.

Hangohr: Hängeohr [drooping ear]. Cf. Joh. Hangenörli,Zurich 1400.

Hänichen see Heinichen.

Haniel (Mnch.): Hebrew ‘God’s grace’.

Hanik (Hanich): Czech sh.f. Hanek, Hanika for Johannes (like Janik); Hanek Puchstabl, Moravia 1374.

Hänisch, Hanisch (Sil., Lausitz): sh.f. of Johannes [John], with Slav. suffix -isch (cf. Jänisch). See Bahlow SN, p. 59.

Hanke, Hancke (freq. in Sil., Lausitz): sh.f. of Johannes (Slav. Hanek,like Stanke: Stanek for Stanislaw and Wanke: Wanek for Johannes). Also Hahnke and Handke, likewise Stahnke and Standke; also Jahnke, Janke. Hanek Randorf, Bohemia 1371, Hanco (Hannus) Polkewicz, Liegnitz 1372, Johanco Finder, Prague 1404, Hanke (Hensel) von der Hart, Brsl. 1350, Hanke (Hannus) Cranch, court judge near Liegnitz.

Hard (Bav.-Aust.) see Hähnel.

Hannappel: = Hagenapfel (UGer.) ‘rosehip’.

Hann(e): (UGer.) = Johannes; Hans of Bopfingen who is called the old Hanne 1386. Cf. Junghann.

Hanneke(n): N Ger. = Johannes. Cf. Hennecke.

Hannemann (UGer.) see Hahnemann.

Hannig (Hannich, Hanning): Sil-Glatz dialect variant of Henning (= Johann or Heinrich); Hennyg (Joh.) Eczel, Görlitz 1379, cf. Johenning; but Henning (Heining) pistor [baker], Brsl. 1319, Jakob Hannig (Hennig),Liegnitz 1599. Also Hannsdorf near Glatz was called Hennigsdorf.

Hannen (Han.) metr. (mother’s name) = son of Hanna: Gereke Hannen, Brsw. 1343.

Hannessen: Hennessenn (L.Rhine area) Johannes’ [John’s] son.

Han(n)over: in old documents Honovere,freq. pl.n. (also NE of Bremen and near Meppen) like Wendovere, Fronovere, Scaldovere,contains an archaic word for swamp water (hon): cf. Honredere like Vanredere in Westph. (Bahlow ON, p. 197).

Hannusch, Hanusch(ka), Hanuschik (like Jannuschek, Januschke, Nuschke) are Ger.-Slav. forms of Johannes, with suffix -usch; like Hanisch, Janisch with -isch.

Hans (UGer.): sh.f. of Johannes, the most popular f.n. in the Middle Ages; with UGer. l-suffix Hensel (Hansel), see there. Still widely known are Hans and Grete ‘Hansel and Gretel’; these forms show the strength of an oral language (without the input of the eye through reading) in assimilating words only from hearing. Many compounds: Althans, Junghans, Langhans, Elsenhans (= Else’s son), Appelhans. Enlarged: Hans(e)mann (freq.).

Hansche(macher) see Handschuh.

Hansch(ke), Hantsch(ke), Hantzsch, Hanschmann: E Centr.Ger.-Sil. = Johannes. Cf. Hantsch (Hannus) Rycholff, Liegnitz 1367, Caspar Hantsch,Görlitz 1427, Hantschco Richard, Liegnitz 1372, Hs. Hanschman,Görl. 1448. See Hentschel.

Hansel, Hänsel see Hensel and Hans. Likewise Hanselmann (UGer.).

Hans(e)mann (UGer.): Mertel Hansman,Olmütz 1375.

Hansen, Hanssen (freq. in Schlesw.-Holstein) = Johannsen, Johannes’ son; cf. Thomsen, Claussen, Petersen, Paulsen, Jenssen, Boysen, Frenssen, etc., all patronymics which in the district of Flensburg constitute 90% of all FNs.

Hanser shows the UGer. ending -er.- Hans Hanser,Freiburg 1481. Cf. Claiser, Frantzer, etc.

Hansing shows the LGer.-Westph. ending -ing (patr. like UGer. -er),cf. Druding, Klasing, Mensing, Bläsing, etc.

Hänger (UGer.) see Hensler.

Hanslik (freq. in Vienna): Slav. for Hans like Pawlik for Paul, Havlik for Gallus. Hans (Hanslik) Tumar 1565.

Hansohm (LGer.): ‘uncle Hans’, likewise Clasohm ‘uncle Niclas’.*

Hanssen (L.Rhine) see Hansen.

Hanstein: pl.n. (Werra, Eichsfeld), castle ruin in the Werra Valley.

Hantel(mann): UGer., variant of Handel(mann) = Johann, see Händel.

Hantigk, Hantusch, Hantisch: Lausitz-Wend. for Andreas.

Hantke, Handke: see Hanke.

Hantsch(ke), Hantzsch see Hanschke.

Hanusch see Hannusch.

Hapke (Fris.) also Habke see Habeth. For Habeke: Hapke compare Sibeke: Sipke and Robeke: Röpke. As early as 1252 Thid. Happeke in Hbg.

Happ (UGer.-Rhine area): means sickle maker (Happemnacher) (from MHG heppe, happe ‘vintner knife, sickle’, cf. Hapenstil,Isny 1250): Peter Happmacher,Freiburg 1450.

Happach (Bav.): freq. pl.n. in Bav., old is Hagepach; Happacher (Tyrol).

Happe see Happel and Happ. As f.n. in Frkf. 1387: Happe Nachtschade; Hartmud Happe,Frkf.

Happ(e)ke see Hapke. Barteld Happeken,Han. 1460.

Happel: documented f.n. in Frkf. and Hesse in the Middle Ages (sh.f. of Happrocht, i.e. Hadeberht,see also Habbe), like Ruppel for Rupprecht, Appel for Albrecht, Vopel for Volprecht. Happel Molfenter, Wetzlar 1344, Happel Treyse, Fritzlar 1401; Heincze Happel,Frkf. around 1350, Wigand Happel,Marburg 1529. See also Happe.

Happold (Würt.): i.e. Hadebold (had ‘fight, battle’, bald ‘bold’), cf. Rappold (Rat-bold). Likewise Happert, Happrecht (Hadebert, Hadebreht,Breisgau 1112), cf. Rappert (Rat-brecht). Pl.n. Happertshausen near Haßfürt.

Harbecher: from Harbach (Hesse), likewise Leutbecher, Merschbecher, with umlaut in Hess.-Main Franc. area.

Harbeck: (freq. in Hbg.) several creek and pl.ns. in LGer. area in the sense of swampy, boggy creck (Haarbeck in the Netherlands) like Marbeck; see Bahlow ON, p. 198. In Bav. the FN Harbeck comes from the pl.n. Harbach: -beck for -bach(er) isa Bav. characteristic, cf. Rohrbeck, Meichelbeck, also –böck: Rohrböck etc. LGer. Harbke is a contracted form, likewise Marbke, see there.

Harbers, Harbert (LGer.) = Herbert (Harbert Erdwining, Osnabrück 1350), like Westph. Harberding (patr.) = Herberding (cf. Humperding), analogous to Garbers, Garberding, Gerberding; heri ‘army’, berht ‘shiny’; since around 1300 er has changed to ar in LGer., cf. LGer. Hart for Herz [heart]. See also Herbart. Harbs is Fris. (cf. Garbs).

Harbig (Glatz, Sil.) besides Herbig (Görlitz): shows Sil. -a- for -e-: derives from the early Ger. pers.n. Herwig,which is known from the heroic epics (as Gudrun’s fiancé; wig means ‘battle’. Niclas Herwig,Liegnitz 1427, Teml Herwich,Budweis 1385.

Harbke: pl.n. near Helmstedt, see Harbeck. (Cf. Marbke = Marbeck).

Harbor(d)t (LGer., freq. in Hbg.) = Herbord, see there. Cf. Harbers. Likewise Harboth = Herboth; Harbrand = Herbrand; Hardegen = Herdegen; Harold = Herold; Harwig = Herwig.

Hartrecht see Harprecht.

Harbring (Westph.): contracted from Harber(d)ing like Alfring from Alferding, Albring from Alberding. See Harbers.

Harcks (Hbg.) besides Harck, Harcken, Harcksen: a Fris. pers.n., originally Herk(Herco) = Hero, with k-suffix, sh.f. of the names with Her-. Today also Herck(s), Hercksen, Herken (Hbg.). See Strackerjan, p. 19. Cf. Harco Udinga, a Fris. chieftain 1264.

Hardach (Hbg.): probably LGer. for Heridag (pers.n.), see Aldag.

Harde (LGer.) besides Herde means herdsman, cf. Heyne Lange de harde,Haldsl. 1458 besides Reyner Herde 1382 in Haldsl., Hinrik de koherde [cowherdsman] 1452, Bernd Sninherde 1456, Fr. Herde, Barth 1361.

Hardebeck: pl.n. near Hbg., local tributary of the Alster (= ‘dirty creek’, see Bahlow ON, p. 198).

Hardege(n): LGer. = Herdegen, with sound change -er to -ar, see under Harbord. For interpretation see Herdegen. Hardegen of Bardeleve, Pomeranian knight 1305 besides Herdeghen, Greifsw. 1300.

Hardekop [hard], Hardevust [hardfist], Hardenack (Harnack) [hard neck] are LGer. compared to Hartfaust, Hartnack [of the same meaning]. Also cf. Hardehoved [hard], Lüb. 1350, Hardeknak [hard bone], Stolp 1542.

Hardeland (Hbg.): LGer. field name.

Harden (freq. in Hbg.): LGer. patr. of Hardewig, Hardeward, Harder, Hardolf.

Hardenack (LGer.) like Hartnack (UGer.): an inflexible, hard-nosed person. Cf. Hardekop(f), Hardehöved, Hardevust. Contracted Harnack. Heyno Hardenacke,Hbg. 1266, also Lüb., Strals.

Hardenberg (von): pl.n. (near Göttingen and Altena, also in the Netherlands). The real name of the German Romantic poet Novalis was Baron of Hardenberg.

Harder, Harders (freq. in Hbg.) is the old LGer.- Fris. pers.n. Herder, see there. 1562 in Flensburg still a f.n.: Harder Vake. Patr. is Hardering, Herdering. But UGer. Harder means the loc.n. or pl.n. Haardt, see there. Conrad Harder,Brünn 1348, also Ober-Harder, Unter-Harder, Tyrol 1547.

Hardewardt (Hbg.): LGer. pers.n. N. Hardeward(rare,e.g. in Hbg. 1274; more freq. is Hardewig, hard ‘fast, hard, bold’).

Hard(e)wig (LGer.) = UGer. Hartwig, see Hardeward. Hardewig Brunswik, Haldsl. 1383 (‘brave fighter’). Corrupted Hardeweg (Quedlinburg).

Hardges see Hardtke.

Harding, Hardings: LGer. patr. of the names with Hard-, documented also as Herding,14th c. in Lüb.; cf. Harder (Herder),Hardicke (Herdecke).

Härdle see Härtel.

Hardolf see Harloff.

Hardorp: pl.n. Haddrup in Westph. (Haredorp).

Hardt (freq. in Hbg.): of different origins; mostly = hert ‘stag’, Detlef Hert, Kiel 1411, also house name: von dem Herte: de Cervo (Lat.) [at the (sign of the) stag], Ro. 1260, Michel Hert (bailiff), Ro. 1303, where a street, Hartestraße, was named for his family, but note a Hertstrate in Kiel; in some cases = ‘herdsman’ (herde, harde): Kohardt [cowherd], Lemmerhardt [shepherd], Pagenhardt [horse h]. In other cases = ‘heart’ as in Hogheherte [high spirited], Reineherte [pure heart], Raherte [rough-hearted]: Rahardt; also cf. Uterhardt, Terhardt: to der Hardt, from hard = ‘woods for grazing’.

Härdtke, Hartke (LGer.). documented Hardeke, Hatteke,sh.f of Hardewig (Hartwig) ‘brave fighter’, cf. Hardeke Kale, Han. 1378, Wernecke Hardeke,Haldsl. 1393, Harteke (Harinicus)de libra, Stade 1300. Hartje is Frisian, Hardge(n)s, L.Rhine.

Hardung see Hartung and Harding. Hardung,Col.1163.

Hardwig see Hardewig and Hartwig.

Härendel (Aust.) = Hörndl [little horn].

Harenberg (freq. in Hbg.): pl.n. near Han. (documents. Horenberg:hor ‘dirt, mire’). Ludolf of Horenberg,Han. 1304. Cf. Harburg: documents Horburg.

Harer see Haarer.

Harff (von): pl.n. near Col.

Harfst (LGer.): MLG harvest ‘fall, autumn’, indicating tributes to be paid in fall; cf. herbesthuon, herbesgarbe, herbesvroende, herbeabete (‘tribute, rent’). Peter Harvest,Han. 1558 (besides Heiso Hervest 1583). See Herbst.

Hargasser (Mnch.): 1442 Horgasser (hor ‘excrement’).

Hargens (Hbg.): LGer. variant of Hergens (Fris. patr.).

Harich: LGer. = Hreke (Hereco),as 1288 in Hbg., Fris. sh.f. of Hermann, Herbord, Herwig, unless reduced from Haring. Härich: see Hering, Häring.

Haring (LGer.) = Hering [herring] surname of herring dealers (unless the Fris. patr. Haring(s) for Hermann is involved). 1290 in Ro. Joh. harinc and Rogger hapincmester! Cf. Bratharinch [frying herring, kipper], Malchow 1383.

Harjes Fris. see Harries.

Harke (Hbg.), patr. Harken, Harksen, originally Herke, Herken,see Harcks. But cf. Härkenstel [rake handle], Han.-Münden 1420 (from LGer. Harke = UGer. Rechen [rake]), Tile Harkstro [rake the straw] in Magdeburg, also the swamp word herk, hark in Harkelo, Harkebrügge,

Harkenbleck, Harkensee, Harkenstädt (Herkenstede).In der Herke etc. (see Bahlow ON, p. 198).

Harkort: pl.n. Harkorten near Hagen in Westph., in old documents Hor-kotten (=cottage, small farmstead in swampy terrain). Henne Horkoetten,near Hagen 1381. Also Harkotte.

Harland(t): Harlander UGer. field name, from MHG = ‘land for flax farming’, cf. Haberland [for oats farming), Erbsland (for growing peas).

Härle, Härlein (UGer.-Swab.) becomes clear through Schlichthirle ‘straight hair’, thus refers to the hairstyle (also Schönhärl, pretty hair, etc.). Cf. Kunz mit dem hare [with the hair], Heilbronn 1467. Hans Härlin,Würt. 1423.

Harlep, Harlepp belongs to the large group of names of origin from pl.ns. ending in -leben in N Thuringia and the Harz Mountain area like Hartleb, Memleb, Hemleb, Witzleb, Wiegleb besides Garlepp, Elchlepp, Hartlepp, etc. (-leb means property left behind, settlement). They mostly indicate swamp, bog, rotting wood as in the wet Unstrut (river) area.

Harling (von): ‘from the Harling area’, E Fris. marsh.

Harloff (freq. in Hbg., Meckl.): contracted from documented Hardetof = Hardolf (hard ‘brave, bold’), a popular pers.n. in the Middle Ages from Bremen to Strals. Hardolf Oslefs, Hbg. 1266, Luder Hardelof,Haldsl. 1340.

Harm (UGer., rare): ‘ermine’, cf. Ortlip harm the furrier, Brsl. 1360. Bentz Harm,Würt. 1332.

Harm, Harms, Harmsen (freq. in Hbg.) derive from LGer.-Fris. Harmen, Harmens for Hermann(s), with LGer. sound change -er: -ar as in Harmen Cater = Herman Cater, Frisia 1363. A well-known preacher Klaus Harms around 1800 in Holstein. Harmening is a patr. like Hannjanz (Fris.), means Hermann Janssen: cf. 1752 in Oldenburg Frerich Janßen Harms, whose son is called Joh. Harmjanz 1786; likewise Joh. Martenjanz 1750, son of Brun Janßen Martens 1739.

Harmgaadt: probably corrupted from Armgardt, see there.

Harmjanz see Harm (Hermann).

Harm(e)ling: pl.n. Harmelingen near Soltau. But Hermeling (Westph.) see there.

Harmstorf (freq. in Hbg.): pl.n. near Hbg. and east of it, cf. Hermsdorf = ‘Hermannsdorf‘.

Harmuth: = Hartmut, likewise Harnagel = Hartnagel. Cf. Hartmutshausen on the Werra. Hannod = Hartmod,Strals. 1300.

Harnack see Hardenack.

Harnagel see Hartnagel.

Harnasch see Harnisch.

Harnecker: like Bernocker, Rienecker from the UGer. pl.ns. ending in -eck.

Harneit: Harneid, Harney, Horney: see Hartnid. Cf. Richey for Richeit (1544).

Harnisch means armorer; also Harnischer, Harnascher (UGer.) besides Harnasch (MHG form from OFr. harnas ‘iron armor’, a Celtic word). Heinrich Harnasch,Konstanz 1268, Henslin Harnascher,Rottweil 1441, Stephan harnaschmeister,Bohemia 1411. The old Ger. word was MHG brünne [coat of mail), later plate.The great frequency of the name in Chemnitz, Leipzig, Dresden is probably due to false interpretation from Hanisch (= Johannes).

Harold see Herold.

Harpke see Harbke (Harbeke), cf. Gelpke.

Harpe, Harpp is hardly derived from ‘harp’ but is a sh.f. of Harprecht (Hartbrecht), cf. Harpel Licher, N Hesse 1315, Henne Harp,near Frkf. 1397. Harpern (Hartpern),knight (father, son and grandson!). Harprecht (Hartpertus),Aheim 1275, Joh. Harprecht (Hartbrecht),Würt. 1582. Cf. Harpersdorf in Bohemia.

Harras, Harrasser (UGer.): from MHG harras, arras means a light wool material (name from the town of Arras), already in 1350 in old Brsl. the surname Harras,1408 in Eßlingen Irmel Harrassin.But Harasser in Tyrol is obviously a farmstead name, derived from a field (plot) called Harass. A pl.n. Harras in Würt. Also cf. “Harras the bold jumper”. For Peter Harrasser,Pollau in Moravia 1414 cf. Amasser 1414.

Harr(e), Har(r)s, Harrsen, Harries, Harringa are Fris. forms (like the pers.n. Harro) of names with Her- (Hermann, Herbord, Herwig, etc.).

Harrer (UGer.) is a spelling variant of Harer (Haarer); all three forms freq. in Stuttgart. Hainrich Harrer,Markdorf in Würt. 1268, Heinrich Harrer = Heinz Haurer,Biberach 1413, M. Harrer,Prague (also old Brsl.) 1332.

Harries, Harrjes (Fris.) see Harr. Likewise Harringa (patr.). Cf. Harrink Meringes, 16th c.. Aggo Harinxma 1422. The form Harries is contracted from Harringes.

Harsch, Harscher (UGer.): one of the Harsch‘army, camp followers’ (MHG harsch, harst); also Harst, Harster. Heinrich Harsch,Heilbronn 1335, Squire Heinrich Harst, Hattstatt (Alsace), Heinrich der Harscher,Würt. 1363; W. Härschelin,Plochingen 1332. NHG “harsch, verharschen” [harsh; to become icy (for snow)] however comes from MHG harsten ‘hard, to solidify’, cf. Harstysen [hard iron], hoof smith of Augsburg 1539.

Harsdörfer: G. Harsdörfer from Nbg., author of the Nürnberger Trichter.Pl.n. Harsdorf near Bayreuth. But Harstorff (Hbg.) from Hastrup near Bersenbrück (1204 Harsdorp).

Harstall is one of the loc.ns. ending in –stall like Horbstall, Weyerstall (all UGer.); -stall ‘where water is stagnant or damming up’; har = hor ‘swamp, mire’, cf. Harlach = Horlach. Similar Haristal:Herstelle on the Weser (see Bahlow ON, p. 198).

Harst, Harster see Harsch.

Hart, Harth see Hardt. Harte see Harten.

Härteiß: UGer. name for a smith like Gerteis, Gareis, etc.; see Findeis. Fridel Hertysen,locksmith, mechanic, Prague 1400.

Härtel, Hertel, younger forms are Härtelt, Hertelt, freq. in Sil., Lausitz, Bohemia, UGer. Härdtle, Hertle, Hertlein; Hörtel; Hartl: in the Middle Ages a popular sh.f. of Hartwig (Hertwig), Hartlieb, Hartmann, Hartung, Hartnit (Hertnit), Hartrich (Hertrich). Examples: Hertel Luft = HartmanLuft, Iglau 1378, her [sir] Hertel (Hertneid)of Liechtenstain, Moravia 1414, Hertel= Hartung, Glatz 1359; Hertel of Glogow, son: Hertel,Breslau 1345, Härtlin (Hartman) Tarant, Bolzano 1266. Härtler, Herder (Görlitz) is patr. like Seidler, Hensler.

Harten (freq. in Hbg.): LGer. patr., but also “von Harten”.

Harter (UGer., Tyrol): from pl.n. Hart in Aust.

Hartert (Sil., Sax.) means Harter, man from Hartau or Hartha (freq. pl.n. there). Cf. Harter Schifer, 1612 (Sudeten area); Ticze von der Harta,Liegnitz 1387, Balthasar Hartert (Hartardt),Liegnitz 1560. Härter see Herter. Cf. Hartrat.

Hartgers (LGer. patr.): ‘hold with the spear’. Hartcherus,Bremen 1301.

Hartich: = Hartwig.

Hartig, Hartich see Hartke. Likewise Hartge(n)s.

Hartisch (E Ger.-Sil.): sh.f. (with Slav. suffix -isch, -usch) for Hartmann, Hartlieb, etc. Hartusch (Hartman, Hartlib)köler [charcoal burner], Brsl. 1356, Baltzer Hartusch,Dresden 1455. Cf. Fridusch, Thilusch, etc.

Hartje (Fris.) = Hartke.

Hartke: documented as sh.f. of Hartwig from Han. to Pom. Harteke (Hartveig) de Libra, Stade around 1300, Harteke Tymmerman, Osnabrück 1430. For more info. see Hardtke. Hartig (freq. in Hbg.) is contracted form of Hartwig (see there), in documents sometimes close to LGer. Hartog (“Herzog”) ‘duke’: Hartoch (Hartnich) Bekeman, Kiel 1511, Hartoch Bennick, Flensburg 1589. Cf. Hertig for Hertwig. L.Rhine form is Hartgens: Peter Hartkens,Orsoy 1483. Ludwig Harting,Lippe area 1590.

Hartknoch: a hard-boned, rude person (cf. Hardenack). Its LGer. form is M. Hardekwk,Stolp 1542. Cf. Knaack.

Hartkopf see Hardekop.

Hartlaub: UGer. loc.n. like Röschlaub.

Hardeb (Hartlepp) is shortened from Haffleben (pl.n.) see Hartleb. The writer Otto Erich Hartleben came from the Harz Mountains; most of the places ending in -leben are found between the Harz Mountains and Thur.

Harfief(f), Hartleiff, Hartlev: LGer. form of Hartlieb, Hartleib. Hartlevus Vunke, Lüb. 1317. Cf. Detleff, Gerleff, Rickleff, etc. (-lev ‘offspring’).

Hartlieb, Hartleib (UGer., CentrGer.); Hartleff (LGer.) was once a popular old Ger. pers.n.; -leib (-lib) as in Dietleib or Ruodlieb. Hartlieb Gensefuß, Erfürt 1212, Hartlib Hartman, Hartusch) köler, Brsl. 1360, Hartlib (son of Hanke Hartlip,councillor), Brsl. 1332. Lutz Hartliep,Würzburg 1409.

Hartloff see Harloff.

Hartmann: popular pers.n. as of old, famous through Hartman von der Aue (12th c. epic poet), in old documents alternating with Harzlib, Hartung, Hatissig, Hertel, Hartusch;(see under Hartlieb). -hard originally meant ‘bold, brave’. Hartman (Hertel) Luft,Iglau 1482; still 1482 Hartman Somerlate in Thur.; Hartwicus Hartmanni,Hbg. 1272, Ticze Hartman,Liegnitz 1369. Hence pl.n. Hartmannsdorf (Sil., Sax., Thur.).

Harbmuth: known from heroic epic (as the abductor of Gudrun), son of King Louis of Normandy. Hartmut Runge, Rheingau 1282, W. Hartmuti,Brakel 1324, Hartmud Dugenit, Frkf. 1357. Also Hartmuth, Hormuth.

Hartnack see Hardenack.

Hartnagel, UGer. Hertnagel, Hörtnagel means nail smith. See under Nagel. Lüdecke Hartnagel,Greifswald 1378, Hans Hertnagel,Konstanz 1472.

Hartneid (Hartnid),reverse of Neidhart (Nithard),popular name in the aristocracy (nit does not mean ‘envy’ (Neid) but ‘eagerness to fight, fury in battle’). Already in the medieval Thidreks Saga a king is called Hertnid (and his brother Herder).Contracted Harneid (see there). Hartnid Ber, Greifswald 1298, Harned(us),Lüneburg 1323; UGer. with umlaut: Hertnid Chreßling, Krems 1250, Hertneid of Liechtenstein (captain, chieftain), Steyer 1394, Caspar Hertnid,Augsburg 1455, Burkard Hartnit,Würt. 1313.

Hartog, Hartoch (LGer.) = Herzog, ‘duke’; indicates feudal obligations (service) toward a lord, hence also a peasant name. Cf. 1573 in Flensburg: Hertoch Hans besides HattochChristoffer. Hence Arnd Hertoge,Han. 1366.

Hartrampf see Hertrampf.

Hartrath: old (W Ger.-Franc.) pers.n. (‘bold in advice’, giving hard advice). Cf. Hardarad around 1200 in Westph., Hartradus niger [black], Nassau 1061, Hartradus, Lüb. 1300, Hartrat Scherge, Bamberg 1180. As FN: Heinrich Hartrat,Tauber area 1343 (Lpz. 1296), Joh. Hatirat,Brüx 1315, perhaps also Hartert (Sil.), see there. The rest of these names ending in -rat are mostly fem.ns. (cf. Herrad, Gundrad) except Fastrad, Volkrad and the royal name Konrad. See also Hartrodt.

Harftich see Hertrich.

Hartrodt, Hartroth, Hartrott belongs to the Thur. Hessian names ending in -rode.Cf. Billroth, Klapprodt, Vockrodt (Vockenrode); Aschrott (Ascheroda). Hartenrod, Harterod is freq. pl.n. in the above named area. Also cf. pl.n. Hartrath/Rhineland (not in existence anymore): Henr. Vassen from H. 1656.

Hartsch see Hartisch.

Hartung: the archaic suffix -ung was popular in names of the heroic epics (Adelung, Amelung). Cf. Hartungen legend. See also Hartneid, Hartmann, Hartlieb, Hartwig, Hartrat, Hartwin, Hartger, Harprecht. A typical name from epic poetry is Hartung Nydung,near Oppenheim 1347. Hartung Moz, Erfürt 1212, Hartung (Hertel),Glütz 1351, Hartung (Hartmud) Brüning, Wetzlar 1320, Hartung Setteler, Jena 1445, Hartung Han, Fulda 1569.

Haftwig, UGer. with umlaut Hertwig, Hirtwig (‘bold in battle’): has always been the most popular of the names with -hard; sh.f. Hertel. Contracted Hartig. Patr. Hartwiger (UGer.), Hartwichsen (LGer.). For the dialect form Hattwig, Hattwich (Bahlow SN, p. 40) cf. Hartungsreute, Hattungsreute around 1300 near Stuttgart. See also Hardewig. Hertwig of Nostitz, Sil. 1289, where there is also a pl.n. Hertwigswalde.

Hartz, Harz (freq. in Hbg.) in N Germany derives from a false rendering (around 1600) of Hart, = hart, stag; in some other cases as loc.n. Harz (= Harz Mtns.). Thus Herteshals [stag’s neck] 1263 appears as Hartzehals,Magdeburg 1420. (Cf. Harzog for Hartog.) Derived from the loc.n. is Harzmann: person from the Harz Mountains; Har(t)zer, Härzer, however, in UGer. = ‘resin gatherer’ (Vitus Harzer or Forestarius, Blaubeuren 1481).

Harwar(d)t, Harwerth (LGer.), Herward (‘army protector’); Herward Mule, Ro. 1262; Willeke Herwardes,Hbg. 1252, loc. of the old monastery Herwardeshude (today Harvestehude, suburb of Hbg.).

Harwig (LGer.) = Herwig and Hartwig.

Harz(er), Härzer see Hartz.

Hasch, Hasche: (freq. in Hbg.) derives from f.n. Hasseke. Jacob Hasch(e),Freiberg (Sax.) 1556.

Haschke = Slav. Hascha, Haschek (also Jaschke, Jaschek), sh.f. of Johannes. Freq. in Sil., Bohemia. Haschke Teschener, Liegnitz 1423.

Hase, Hasse, UGer. Haas: [hare] like many animal names indicating a particular characteristic of the named person, sometimes also the profession (hare hunter), in some cases FN came from a house name (Henr. Hase:lived in the house “zum Hasen” [at the sign of the hare], Basel 1293; likewise a female die Heslin:in the house “zum Heslin”, Freiburg 1455). In Bav. 1173 Rüdiger Hase:etc. As Jewish name (Haas) in Liegnitz as early as 1383 (Hase the Jew). Hence compounds like Hasenaug [hare’s eye] (a hunter’s helper at court, Stuttg. 1481), Hasenbalg [hare’s hide] (1291 in Haigerloch district), Hasenbein (1424 a hunter’s name in Hesse, meaning the ‘quick-footed one’; cf. Snellehase [fast hare] in old Brsl.), Hasenfratz [hare’s face?] (Switz., U.Rhine, cf. Ulrich Fratz 1351), Hasenfuß, Hasenfoth [hare’s foot], Hbg. 1293, Hasenkop [hare’s head], a knight from Meckl. 1283, Hasenohr,Hbg. 1259, Hasenschart [harelip], Heilbronn 1472, Hasenmul [hare’s mouth], Frkf. 1387, Hasenschlaf [hare’s sleep], Kassel 1442, Hasenzagel, Hasenzahl [hare’s tail], Eßlingen 1248, Mies 1339, also Hassenzahl. Clearly hunters’ names are: Spörhase, Schreckhase, Hetzehase, Stöwhase. Also cf. Kleehaas, Kohlhaas. But for Kniehase, Lederhase, Leinhase, Mehlhase, Trillhase see. Hose.

Haselhach, Haselbacher (UGer.): from the freq. pl.n. H. (especially in Bav., there also Haselböck, Haselpeck: Urich Haselpeckh at Haselbach 1339).

Haselhorst (N Ger.): freq. pl.n. (loc.n.) in Westph. and Han.

Haselmayer (UGer.): named for the dwelling place in the “Haslach”.

Haseloff: pl.n. west of Jüterborg.

Hasemann (Han., Hbg.): from the Hase (tributary of the Ems), like Huntemann, Leinemann, Wesermann. For river name see Bahlow ON, p. 200.

Hasenbalg [hare’s hide], Hasenfuß [hare’s foot], Hasenjäger [bare hunter], etc. see Hase.

Hasenbank: probably field name originally ending in -wang, cf. Holderbank (1263 Holderwang), Marbank (932 Marchinawanch) in Swabia (with Bav. b- for w-).

Hasenclever (freq. in Wuppertal): from Hasenclev near Remscheid. Corrupted also Hassenklöver. The writer Walter H. was from Aachen.

Haseney: from the pl.n. Hasenau, likewise Haseneier; cf. Morgeneier from pl.n. Marieney/Vogtland.

Hasenkamp(f): Westph. field n. ending in -kamp ‘field’.

Hasenkrug, Hasenkrüger: the innkeeper of the pub “zum Hasenkrug” [The Hare; Krug ‘pitcher, jug’ also stands for tavern] (loc.n. e.g. in Holstein). As early as 1282 Joh. Hasenkroch (councillor in Demmin).

Hasenmüller, Hasenmiller (UGer.): from loc.n. Hasenmühle [hare’s mill] in Würt. and Bav, Hasenzahl, Hassenzahl see Hase. Wenzo Hasenzal, Mainz 1312 (from MHG zagel ‘tail’). Cf. Rübezahl ‘beet or turnip tail’(R. is a legendary figure in German folklore).

Haserick, Haserich: comparable to Jeserick, Jeserich (pl.n. in Brandenburg), probably derived from a loc.n. Cf. Martin Haserich, Pirna 1444. Pl.n. Haserich near Bullay on the Mesel belongs to Rhineland pl.ns. such as Mederich, Büderich, etc.

Hasert: a passionate dice player or gambler (from MHG MLG hasehart, hasart ‘game of chance’, from Fr. hasard). Cf. Hildebrand Hasart, Hbg. 1270, Hermann Hasert (Hasart), Greifswald 1307, Godefrid Hasehart (Hasart), Col. 1209, Heinrich Hasart, Zurich 1256. Joh. Hasart, Ro. 1262.

Hashagen: Westph. pl.n. like Drolshagen, Varnhagen; settlement names ending in -hagen extend east to Meckl. (Stavenhagen) and Pom. (Poppenhagen, Bugenhagen). Also cf. Haßbergen. [See Hage.]

Haslach(er): from the freq. UGer. pl.n. (loc.n.) Haslach (Baden, Würt., Bav.); likewise Hasloch(er) from Hasloch. Also reduced (with umlaut) Häßlich (e.g. suburb of Stuttgart): Bertold Häßlich (Heßlich), Stuttg. 1485. From the field name and pl.n. Hasel, Haselau derived Has(s)ler: cf. brothers Küni Haßler and Heini von Haßlen (Schwyz). Also cf. Heßler, Heseler.

Haspel like Haspelmacher: manufacturer of thread spools. See Hespeler.

Hasper: from Haspe on the Haspe (tributary of the Ennepe, Ruhr area), prehistoric creek name Hasapa ‘bog water’ (cf. Bahlow ON, p. 201) like Aspe (Asapa) and similar names, also the Hase River.

Haß: (LGer.) see Hasse. But UGer. ‘hater’.

Haßbargen: from Hasbergen (Oldenburg, Osnabrück), like Grambergen, Ladbergen, Malbergen, all indicate bog, swamp or rotting wood, cf. Haßmoor; (see Hasper).

Hasse: LGer. sh.f. Hasso (still a f.n. in the aristocracy) from Hadebert, Hadeward like Bosse (Busse) for Borchard, Borgward. Knight Hasso of Wedel, Pom. 1288, Hasso von Manteuffel; Hasso Blide, Hbg. 1271, Hasso Eldaghes, Lüb. 1331. But UGer. Haß (Prague 1363) means Hasser ‘hater’ (1279 near Tübingen).

Hassel, Hasselmann, Hasselmeier: from loc.n. and pl.n. Hassel (In den Hasseln), fairly freq. in Han. and Westph., based on Has-lo ‘swampy lowlands or woods’ (likewise Los-lo: Lössel; Aslo: Asseln) unless the Hassel River is involved. Also Hasselfeld, Hasseldieck, Hasselhorst, Hasselbruch, Hasselbrink, Hasselbring, Hasselbusch. Hasselbach is freq. pl.n. (Westerwald, Taunus, Rhineland). Hasselbarth see Hessel-. Hasselwander (Aust., Tyrol), also Haslwanter: like Stainwander, Rotwander, Rettenwander, Graswander derive from the dwelling location near a rock wall.

Hassenkerl: ‘hate the fellow!‘ LGer. Hatenkerl (cf. Hatenbur ‘hate the peasant’), like Hassenteufel, Hassenteifel, Hassendeibel [hate the devil]: typical name for a tough old soldier or mercenary. Cf. Fressenteufel [eat the devil], Schlagenteufel [beat the devil], Jagenteufel [chase the devil].

Hassenkrug: ‘hate the (beer or wine) pitcher’ (opposite: Lerenkrug ‘empty the pitcher’); but cf. Hasenkrug (pl.n.), likewise Has(s)enpflug. Similarly Hassenwein [hate the wine]: Marti Haßdenwin,Schwyz 1369.

Hassenpflug, Hasenpflug: derisive nickname for peasants, like Scheuenpflug [avoid the plough], especially when they moved to the city (probably also for runaway farmers’ sons). The unpopular secretary of Hesse, Ludwig H., was called “Haß und Fluch” [hate and curse] by the people.

Hasserodt: from Hasserode/N Thur. or Hassenrath/Odenwald.

Hauforther: from Haßfürth/Main in the Hasse district. (See under “Riedgau” in Bahlow ON, p. 201).

Haßkarl, Haßkerl = Hassenkerl, see there.

Haßler (UGer.) see Haslach. A town Haßlau near Döbeln/Sax. Cf. Häßler.

Hassold see Hessold.

Hast (Hbg.): probably from Haste near Wunstorf or Osnabrück.

Hastedt: pl.n. near the Wümme Bog along with Tostedt, Ostedt, etc.; contracted from Hadestedelike Ostedt from Odestede. For the ancient and now obsolete words had and od ‘bog, swamp’ (as in Hadenbeck, Hadeln; Odenbach, Odeslo) see Bahlow ON, pp. 191, 359, 362. Also Hattstedt/Alsace and Hettstedt/Thur. were originally called Hadastat.

Hastenrath: pl.n. in Rhineland, likewise Fastenrath, Herkenrath, Kolvenrath (-rath=rode) all referring to ‘clearings in a bog, cf. Hastenbeck near Hamelin, Hastenhusen, Hastenleben (Haßleben).

Haster (Hbg.): from Hasten near Remscheid (in old documents Has-sytten 1312 = ‘bog settlement’), analogous to Broxter (from Brokseten = ‘swamp settlement’, cf. Lok-seten).

Hastreiter (UGer.): from Hasreit (Aust.), i.e Has(en)reut like Abstreiter, Bärenreiter, etc. Cf. Hasenrieder, Hasenritter.

Hastrich probably a loc.n.; cf. Destrich etc.

Hatheyer (Aust.): dialect for “Heu-teuer” (Heytheuer,Allgäu 1546) = ‘hay expensive’; likewise Halaiter (Mies 1364) for “Heu-leiter” [hay ladder].

Hatje (freq. in Hbg., also Hattje) Fris. nickname for the names with Had- (Hadebert, Hadeward), = LGer. Hadeke like Ratje for Radeke (Radlef) or Goetje for Gödeke (Godefrid), Botje for Bodeke (Gerbode).

Hatlich see Had(a)lich, Hedlich.

Hatscher: dialect for Hetscher, Hätscher (Hedischer),see Hedwig.

Hatschke: variant of Haschke, see there. Haczco,Brsl. 14th c..

Hattdorf. pl.n. in Harz Mountains. Hildebrand Hattrop,Duderstadt 1457.

Hatte, Hattje, Hattinga (Fris.) see Hatje.

Hatt (UGer.): old nickname Hatto (e.g. archbishop H. of Mainz 900 AD); Berthold Hatto 1197, Hainz Hatt,Würt. 1451.

Hattel, Hättler (UGer.) see Hettel, Hettler.

Hattemer (UGer.): dialect for Hattenheimer (Baden); cf. Herxemer, Bullemer, Stockemer, Mannemer (for Herxheimer, Bullheimer, Stockheimer, Mannheimer).

Hatten (LGer.-Fris.), von: marsh area between Oldenburg and Bremen (see Bahlow ON p. 202).

Hattenbach: pl.n. near Hersfeld. A Hattenbach [creek] is a tributary of the Körsch Creek in Würt. Cf. Hattenheim, Hattendorf, Hattenrode, Hattenwiesen, all from the bog word hatt (had),see Bahlow ON, p. 202.

Hattensohl, Hattensuer, Hattensauer (LGer.): ‘hate the awl’, name for a lazy shoemaker’s apprentice or journeyman. Hattesuwel, Heemsen 1585; cf. Hattekanne, Danzig 1377.

Hattert: pl.n. in Westerwald, contracted from Hatterode near Hersfeld or Hattenrod near Gießen, likowise Rettert in Taunus from Retterode. Cf. Hatterath near Aachen.

Hattinga (Fris. patr.) see Hatje. Also cf. Hattesen (Flensburg).

Hattwich see Hartwig.

Hätzer see Hetzer.

Hatzfeld: pl.n. on the Eder River; known through Colonel von H. (Thirty Years War).

Hatz(l): Bav. for magpie (bird). Cf. Hetz(l).

Hätzler (UGer.): known through the Augsburg woman author Klara Hätzle(in)and her song book (1470). Supposedly from loc.n. Hätzele.

Hatzold see Hetzold.

Hau (UGer.): a term of old-time forestry; each municipal forest was divided into “Haue” = ‘tree cutting units’. Bürklin Haw,Tübingen district 1383. Hensel Haw,Dux 1399. Hans Höwli,near Stuttgart 1484.

Haube, Hauber: manufacturer of caps, bonnets (from MHG hûbe, hoube); cf. Haubenstricker [bonnet knitter] (Hubenstricker,U.Alsace 1515), Haubensack (Reutlingen, Stuttgart): 1488 Hubensack near Stuttgart, Haubennestel ‘bonnet ribbon’ (Hubennestel,Lahr 14th c.), Hawbenpörstel (Bürste = ‘brush’), Prague 1397; but also Haubenschmid (Mnch.): manufacturer of iron helmets (MHG beckenhube): Hubensmit (armorer), Basel 1463, and Haubenreißer (hubenrißer) [cap tearer] like Scheidenreißer [sheath or scabbard ripper]; Hauber (Bastian H., Reutlingen 1555) along with Haubner, Heubner, Heubler and Häubl, Heubel, Heibel. (Mixo hawbner,Prague 1397.) The best description of an ornate cap is found in the epic poem Meier Helmbrecht (around 1240).

Haubold, UGer. Haupold (patr. Haupolter): diphthongized from Hubold (Hugbald,Germanic pers.n.: hug ‘thinking spirit, thought’, bald ‘hold, brave’, see Hubert, Hugo), cf. Haunold for Hunold. Joh. Hubold (Hambold),Altenberg 1525; Fr. Hampoll,Tyrol 1394.

Haubrich(s) besides Hubrichs (Rhineland) means Hugbert, see Hubert.

Hauch. Franc-Sax. for Hauck, likewise Huch for Huck = Hugo. Cf. Haugk, Hugk, Hauch in Schweinfurt 15th c., Hauchwitz = Haugwitz.

Hauck, Haucke is the Sil-Sax-Franc. form for Huck, Hug = Hugo; in Würt. and Bav. spelled Haug(g). Cf. Nickel Hauck (Huck),Jena 1537; Hannes Hauk and Lorenz Haug 1400. Hence Hugwitz:Haugwitz and Hugsdorf: Hausdorf near Glatz. Hauck von Wasungen, squire, Bav. 1353. The Fris. f.n. Hauke isof different origin, e.g. Hauke Hayen in Th. Storm’s novella Der Schimmelreiter.See also Haug.

Haude, Haudek, Haudan, Haudetz are Slav.-E Ger., cf. hud- ‘miserable’.

Haueis(en): sentence name [pound the iron], means blacksmith or a journeyman of that trade, see Findeis. A smith Hans Hauweysen,near Rastatt 1431.

Hauel (UGer.), Haule see Hau.

Hau(en)schild, Hauschild: [hauen to hit, Schild ‘shield’] widespread and common name for ruffians, tough old soldiers and professional duelists. For more info. see Brech., Raufbold and Eisenfresser (1937). Word also used in Shrovetide plays by Hans Sachs. Sachs: “Ei schweig, du wüster Hauenschild ...” [O be quiet you wild shield bester]. Similar Hauenhut (from MHG hut ‘helmet’, cf. Eisenhut). Haurand (Rand ‘rim of a shield, shield’). Hauenkerl, Kassel 1401). Haudruff, Haudrein [hit it!]. Hauto, Hautau (LGer. = hau zu ‘hit it’). Hauentzwei [split into two] (Joh. Hawnzwey,Znaim 1420). Hawenschilt,Brsl. 1348, Liegnitz 1402. A knight Borgeschilt [borrow or loan the shield], Wetzlar 1265.

Hauenstein: freq. pl.n. (Pal., Switz., etc.) Heinrich Houwinstein,Basel 1270.

Hauer, UGer. also Heuer (cf. Brauer, Breuer): mostly means lumberjack. Hence Howere,Hbg. 1262. Hence compounds Baumhauer, Moldenhauer, Schopenhauer, etc. Cf. Hinrich Howaf (= hau ab ‘chop off, later: ‘take off’), Lüb. 1336, Henr. Howenicht,Ro. 1280.

Hauf(f), Haufe, Hauffen (UGer.): name known through the Swab. poet Wilhelm Hauff and his fairy tales. Meaning becomes clear through Schlagenhauff (Schlaginhaufen), ‘beat the crowd’, which refers to an army or group of soldiers, equivalent to the FN Harsch, see there.

Haufschild (UGer.) see Hauenschild. The labial sound f stems from the MHG form Houwenschild.Cf. Haubeis (Tyrol) besides Haueis(en).

Haug(g): UGer.-Würt., see Hauck. (Hugo). Knight Hug (Haug)of Schilteck, Würt. 1271-96; still 1480 Earl Hug (Haug) of Werdenberg; Bernhard Hug (Haug),Wolfach 1557. Patr. Hauger (UGer.).

Hauk(e) see Hauck.

Haul(l) see Hau.

Haumann (freq. in Col., besides Hau): from the loc.n. Hau (forest clearing); also pl.n. near Kleve. In Hesse also meaning ‘hay dealer’, cf. Henne Hau(we)menger,Frkf 1387. Gerwig Hauman,Grünberg/Hesse 1334. UGer. cf. Heumann. MHG word for hay was höu or hou, hence höuwer, houwer for the haymaker.

Haumersen: N Ger. pl.n. ending in -husen, -hausen like Hummersen, Dangersen, Gellersen, Mengersen.

Haun (UGer.): originally Hun,nickname for Hunold, Hatmold. Sipel Hune,Frkf. 1359. Also cf. Heun.

Hauner, Haunert: from Haun in Bav.

Haunolt see Hunold.

Haunreiter (Mnch.): from pl.n. Hauenreut (3 times in Bav.).

Hauprecht: = Hugbert. Hauprecht Göbel, Nbg. 1392.

Haupt (LGer. Höft): [head] named for a characteristic part of the body. Cf. Breithaupt [wide head], Dünnhaupt [skinny head], Krauskopf [frizzy head], Schwarzhaupt [black head], Weißhaupt [white head]. In some cases (U.Rhine area) FNs developed via house name, as in the house and family in Basel, 13th c., zem Houpte.A knight Sifrit Houbet,Pal. 1223. Also Haubt, Heubt (umlaut UGer.-Sil.-Sax.), in UGer.-Bav.-Aust. dialects Häuptel, Hiupl, Heupl, Heppl, Happl. “Haupt” was the old CentrGer. and UGer. word, still used by Luther, which was subsequently replaced by the younger word “Kopf”. Haibt is used in Swabia. For Haupt meaning ‘area of springs’, see E. Schröder p. 308, 316.

Hauptfleisch (Sil., Lausitz): probably surname for a butcher. Melcher Hauptfleisch,Görlitz 1565. Dialect form: Hetfleisch (cf. Sil.-Bohemian Hettmann for Hauptmann).

Hauptmann: the most famous person bearing the name was the writer Gerhart Hauptmann, who was from Silesia. In the Middle Ages a H. was a high-ranking administrative official (in the principality of Sil. he represented the sovereign and was generally a member of the nobility or the knightly class, also “Bezirkshauptraann” = ‘district captain’). Heincze c. Czedelitz knight, hewptman [district captain] and Court justice, Liegnitz 1415, H. kitchen chef der houptman v. Jegerdorf, Görlitz 1408. Hensl Haupman,near Prague 1377, Elbel Hapman,near Eger 1395. See also Hettmann.

Hauptner (UGer.): from the loc.n. Haupten (derived from names for a mountain top or spring of a stream as in Berghaupten, Roßhaupten, Tierhaupten; Lohrhaupten indicates the origin of the Lohr River; see E. Schröder, “Haupt als Quelle,” Deutsche Namenkunde, p. 308, 316).

Hauptvogel (freq. in Dresden, Lpz., Freiberg): probably surname for a bird catcher or dealer (see Vogel). Similarly Blutvogel, Tantvogel in old Brsl., or Haidvogel, Brachvogel, Schreivogel, Spervogel, etc. Hoytvogel,Freiberg/Sax. 1484, Heuptvogel,Dresden 1590.

Haurand see Hauschild.

Haurer (Swab.) see Ha(a)rer. Cf. Heinz Haurer (Harer),Biberach 1400-1413, Bentz Haurer,Reutlingen 1427. For Swab. au for â cf. Haurigel,Stuttgart 1344 besides Harigel.

Haurwitz, Horwitz (Jewish): from Horovitz/Bohemia.

Haury, Hauri(n): only in Switz. = ‘crier’ (from Alem. hauren); cf. Brümsy ‘blowfly’ (from the verb brumsen ‘to buzz’).

Hausbalk [house beam, rafter] means carpenter, see Balke.

Hausch(ke), Hauske (Lausitz, Bohemia) see Husch(ke).

Hauschild, Haus-schild see Hauenschild.

Hauschopp (LGer.-Westph.) means a built-up hairstyle (“Hochschopf”) like Hautop besides Hotop “Hochzopf” [Zopf = ‘braid’]. Cf. Breitschop [wide braid], Grauschop [gray braid], Hohnschop [high braid].

Hausding, Hausting, Hauschting: Wend. Hauschtyn = Augustin. But Wend. housti = ‘thicket’.

Hausdorf. pl.n. near Glatz (in old documents Hugisdorf);also near Grimma on the Saale River.

Hause: cf. Mathis hause in Brsl. 1389, Nic. vom huse [from the house] 1394, Heinke indem hus 1364.

Hausenblas (Aust., Switz.): probably surname of a bookbinder or glue maker (from the swim bladder (Blase) of a certain fish [“Hausen”, OHG huso] from the sturgeon family).

Hausenstein: UGer. pl.n.

Hauser (UGer.): documented Hûser, from one of the many Hausen (Bav., Würt., Baden). The name is known through the legendary foundling, Kaspar Hauser (from Ansbach).

Hausig(k), Hauske see Hauschke: Huschke.

Hausknoß (Vienna): from MHG hûsgenöße = Hausgenosse [housemate] (Eßlingen 1278).

Hausleit(n)er, Hausleutner (Aust.): from Hausleiten (Leite = ‘slope’), likewise Bergleiter, Eschleiter, Sandleiter.

Häusler (freq. in Sil.); also Heusler, Heisler: a villager without farmland, with only a small property and therefore forced to work as a day laborer. Hüseler, Heuseler in 14th c.

Hausmann (UGer.-Rhineland): from MHG husman, member of a larger (noble) household, Joh. husman, Brsl. 1364, also documented to mean errand boy; in some cases in Sil. = ‘cottager, day laborer’. Sometimes = ‘castellan, castle guard’, since MHG hûs also meant castle, noble mansion. Cf. LGer. Husmann.

Hauß(n)er (UGer.-Bav.): from pl.n. Hausen (freq. in Bav.). Albrecht der Hausner,Mnch. 1293. Heusner,Budweis 1396.

Haustedt see Hustedt.

Haustein see Hauenstein.

Hausting see Hausding.

Hauswald: from Hauswalde near Dresden. Hannos Huswald, Görlitz 1413.

Hauswedell (Huswedel): N Ger. loc.n. ending in ­wedel (wede) ‘ford through swampy terrain’ or ‘swampy woods’ as in the synonyms Marwede(l), Barwede(l), Hollwede(l). Cf. E. Schröder, p. 264.

Hauswirth: from MHG hûswirt ‘house owner, landlord, master of the house’. Henr. Huswirt,Walkenried 1216, Hans Haswirt, Eger 1388. Cf. Hausherr (husherre,Hesse 1209).

Hauswurz: [plant name] probably surname for gardeners. Also pl.n. near Fulda.

Haut(h): LGer. = Hoth ‘hat’, cf. Fildhaut [felt hat] (for a hatmaker) and Haudwalker besides Hotwalker, Hutwalker [hat fuller]. Otherwise (Centr.Ger and UGer.) = ‘skin’ (NHG Haut from MHG hüt, hout) for animal hide, surname of a hide or fur dealer (LGer. Hütköper), cf. Hans mit der haut, Eger 1376; Nickel hauter (heuter) [skinner], Moravia 1343. Hence compounds like Dickehout, Seuhout,Liegnitz 1368-83.

Haut(t)mann (UGer.) see Haut.

Hauto (LGer.) = ‘hit it!’. See under Hauenschild.

Hautop see Hauschop.

Hautz (Bav., Aust.): like Hautzer, Hautzmaier, Hautzenberger, Hautzendörfer, Hautzeneder obviously related to a field n. Dietmar Hautz,1350 near Neustift (U.Austria).

Have, Hafe (LGer.) becomes clear through “tom Have” = LGer. ‘at the farm’; also “Von (van) Have”, especially L.Rhine-Westph. in the area of scattered, individual farm settlements.

Hävecker see Habecker.

Havekost, Havekoß (LGer.) corrupted from Havek-horst (Habichthorst,Habighorst [hawk’s nest]), freq. field n. especially in Westph.; also pl.n. Havekost near Delmenhorst, Bevensen, etc. Helmeke Havikhorst,Han. 1418.

Havel, Havelka (Czech for Gallus) see Habel. Cf. Pavel(ka) = Paul.

Havemann, Haveme(i)ster (LGer.) = Hofmann, Hofmeister [steward at a court], originally Hoveman, Hovemester:belonging to an estate or farm. Bernardus Hoveman,Ro. 1268, Henr. Hovemester,Ro. 1279; also (with LGer. change of -o- to -a-) Jacob Haveman,Barth 1459. See also Hamann. Likewise Hafemann, Hafemeister. Not to be confused with the office of “Hafenmeister” [harbor master, port warden]: hance Havenemester,Ro. 1270.

Havenit(h): LGer. for Habenicht(s) [have nothing], see there.

Havenstein, Hafenstein: pl.n. in U.Bav.

Haver (LGer.) see Haber. Also Haversack, Haverkorn, Haversaat mean oats farmer or dealer. But Haverbeck (in Wümme Bog etc.) means ‘bog water’ (likewise Haver-mere, Haver-lah, Haverbach), see Bahlow ON, p. 204. Joh. Havere,Ro. 1298; Henr. Haverbecktre,Ro. 1282. Also cf. Oldehaver, Brüsehaver, Haverbrot, Haverköper, Haverwender.

Hävernick: probably E Ger.-Slav. field n. like Jauernick (Jawornik), Obernigk.

Havighorst see Havekost.

Havlitschek see Havel.

Häwecker: see Habecker.

Hawel(ka) see Havel(ka).

Hawenum (Col.) see Havemann.

Hawer see Haver-, Hafer-.

Hawranke, Hawranek: Czech. Hay(e), Hayen, Hayessen, Hayunga (also Heye, Heyen, Heyenga) are E Fris., related to the popular pers.n. Hajo, Hayo (stem = Hag-); see Hagge. Cf. Haye Wubbena (Fris. chieftain) 1397, Haye Haynges,Oldenburg 1437, Fedde Hayessen,Old. 1750; Jacob Heyen, Ro. 1260, Hayo, Hbg. 1274, Stade 1321. For the patr. Hayungacf. Boyunga (from Boye, Boysen).

Haydn (Mnch., Vienna) see Heiden.

Hayduk, Heiduk, Heyduk, Heuduk: name for servants to the Hungarian ruling class.

Hayek, Hajek (freq. in Vienna): Czech-Wend. haj ‘grove, small woods’.

Hayer (UGer.) like Heyer = ‘caretaker, warden’ (from MHG heien ‘to guard, protect’), also Hay, Hey (from MHG heie ‘guardian, custodian’) besides Holzhey [forest warden], Halmhey [grain warden], Grashey [grass warden]. Ulrich Hayer,Neckar area 1507; Cuonrad Hay,Sigmaringen 1423.

Hayler (UGer.) see Heiler.

Haymam see Heymann.

Hayn see Hain.

Hebbel: the writer Friedrich Hebbel as well as his name are rooted in Dithmarschen (Schleswig-Holstein), name is a sh.f. of the fem.n. Helbarg (Heilburg), likewise Wobbele from Wolburg (Walburg). Two sisters Hebbele and Hille in Rendsburg 1360, a domina [lady] Helburgis 1367 in Lüb. (cf. Helwigis besides Heilwigis). The form Hebelewas more freq. in LGer. (besides Hebeke), likewise Abele for Alburg and Ebele for Elburg (Eilburg), cf. Hebele Groters, Barth 1440, Hebele (Hildeburgis!),Stade 1300, Hebele Campitz, Stettin 1352. See Bahlow “Hebbel und Frenssen” (journal Dithmarschen 1974).

Hebben: LGer.-Fris. patr. like Habben, Lübben, Wübben, Ubben, Tebben. For sh.f. Hebbe see under Habbe. (Hadebert: Hebbert, see Hebbering).

Hebbering: Westph. patr. Hebberding from Hebbert (Hadobert), likewise Lübbering from Lübbert.

Hebborn (freq. in Bergisches Land): pl.n. near Col. (1280 Hadeburn:spring near a swamp; also in the Harz Mountains: pl.n. Hadeburn: Heudeper or Hedeber, see Bahlow ON, p. 191).

Hebebrand (Col.): an arsonist like Schürenbrand; opposite: Löschenbrand [extinguish the fire]; probably surname of a charcoal burner (cf. Löschenkohl [extinguish the coal], Kohlbrand). For heben ‘to start, begin’ cf. Hobenstreit [start a fight], Hebenkrieg [start a war], Hebenschimpf [start abuse], Hebentanz [start a dance].

Hebecker, Häwecker (LGer.) see Häfker and Habecker.

Hebeis(en) (UGer.) like Hebnagel: name of a blacksmith.

Hebekerl (like Gripenkerl): ‘hold the fellow’, pursuer, catcher.

Hebekeuser (Col.) indicates origin of Hebbinghäuser (from pl.n. ending in -husen, hausen). Cf. pl.n. Kausen (Westerwald), in old documents Innik-hausen.

Hebel, Hebell: the dialect writer and his name Johann Peter Hebel are both rooted in the Alemannic area; from MHG hebel, hevel for ‘yeast’ (NHG Hefe) (cf. A. Götze, p. 72). Hebel is a professional surname of the baker, likewise Hebelwecke [yeast roll], Zollern 1293 and Surhebel [sourdough roll], Konstanz 1428, cf. Saurheffel,Würt. 1550 (and Sauerteig [sourdough] for a baker 1389 in Brsl.). Hebel,Konstanz 1381, Hebili,Freiburg 1460.

Heb(e)ler (UGer.), Häbler: see Hebel.

Hebenbrock (Hbg.): pl.n. near Soltau, likewise Besenbrock, Elsenbrock or -bruch [Bruch = ‘swamp’], from heb- ‘swamp, bog’, das Heb (Hebed)in Hesse, pl.n. Hebel near Fritzlar (in old documents Hebelde, likewise Empelde, Gittelde) etc. (see Bahlow ON, p. 204).

Hebe(n)streit, Hebstreit [start a fight]: widespread surname for cantankerous people; also Hebenkrieg (cf. LGer. Makeprang). Hebe(n)stpit,Ravensburg 1220, Liegnitz, Brsl. 1351, Iglau 1369; Hevenstryt,Haldsl. 1434. Also cf. Hebentanz (Hebedanz); Hebenschimpf (MHG schimpf ‘joke’, thus it means ‘jokester’); Hebe(n)brand (likewise Schürenbrand, Löschenbrand) for a charcoal burner, stoker or arsonist.

Hebentheier (Aust.) = Ebentheuer, see Abenteuer.

Heber, Hebert: a person whose occupation is lifting or loading (carrier), cf. Faßheber [barrel lifter], Pflugheber [plough l.], Stahlheber [steel l.], Weinheber [wine l.]. Joh. Hebuff,Lorch/Rhine 1401.

Heberer (UGer.), Häberer see Haberer. Hannus Heberer,B.-Kamnitz 1396.

Heberle(in), Häberle(in) see Häberlein. Cunrad der Heberte(in),Eger 1357. Merten Heberler,Prague 1363. Also Heberling: Sifrit der Heberling = Sytz Heberlin, Schw.-Gmünd 1364-70, Ekkehart Heberlin, Kassel 1336. Cf. Seiferling besides Seiferlin in Schw.-Hall.

Hebich, Hebig (UGer.) see Häbich (Habicht).

Hebler see Hebeler, Hübler.

Hebnagel: like Hebeisen = surname of a blacksmith. Hebnogel, Leitornischl 1414.

Hebrock: loc.n. in Westph., Heybrock 1507, likewise Hey-drecht in the Netherlands, Hey-marsh/Heythweite in Engld. (see Bahlow ON, p. 207).

Hebsack (Würt.) [lift the sack]: loc.n., freq. in Würt. Ulrich Hebsack,Waldsee 1392.

Hebstreit see Hebenstreit.

Hechelbart see Barth.

Hechemer (Rhineland) = Hechenheimer, cf. Herxemer, Hessemer, Mannemer.

Hechler, Hechel(mann): someone who combs flax with a hackle. In Baden also a pl.n Hecheln.

Hecht, Bav. Höchd, LGer. Heekt [pike]: like all fish names mostly surname for a fisherman or fishmonger; cf. FN Hechtfisch(er) [pike fisherman]. Albrecht der Hecht,Eger 1340, Hechtl,Budweis 1380.

Heck, Heckmann: living near the hedge (Hecke) or enclosure (at the edge of a village). Freq. in UGer. and Rhineland. Cf. von der Hecken, Terheggen, Anderheggen, Heggemann; Schleheck, Grünheck, Heggblom (like Ginsterblom). Heckenast, Heckenhauer (1435 Hechingen), Heckenmaier, Heckenschmied, Heckenbentz, Heckhenne; all named for the living place. Cf. pl.n. Hecken (freq. in Rhineland.

Heckel, Heckelmann (UGer.) see Häckel. Cristan Heckel,Eger 1260, Heckelman,Bohemia 1313. Hence Fleischheckel, Baumheckel, Zimmerheckel.

Hecker (UGer.-Rhine area) see Häcker, Häckel. Hence Heckert (Sil.). Hannus Hecker,Liegnitz 1381. Heckerle see Häckel.

Hecking (Col.) see Heck.

Heckler (UGer.): someone working with a small hoe (Häckel), e.g. in the vineyard. Heinrich Häckler,Würt. 1398.

Heckner (Brsl., Lpz., Görlitz): unrounded form of Höckner ‘street trader, huckster’, likewise Heppner from Höppner.

Heckrath, Heckroth, Heckrott: from pl.n. ending in -rode (Hesse, Thur.) or -rath (Rhineland).

Heckscher (Jewish): corrupted from Höxter (on the Weser).

Heckt see Heeckt.

Hector, Heckter: the Trojan hero, whose name became popular in the Middle Ages as f.n. for nobles through acquaintance with literary works, see Achilles. Hector of Viermünden on the Eder 1388.

Hedde, Hedden, Heddenga, Hedding, Heddäus: Fris. sh.f. and patr. like Hadde, Hadden; Hidde, Hidden, Hidding. Cf. Heddo Kanken 1447. Also Hedders like Hadders. See under Hadde.

Hed(d)ergott: ‘quarrel with God’ (MHG hederer ‘quarreler’). Cf. Heidergott, Haddergott.

Hed(d)erich (Hbg.): Hinrich Hederich,Lüb. 1331 tells us that the plant name is meant here, with LGer. doubling (dd) as in pl.n. Hedderhagen on the Lippe (1386 Hoderhagen). Different is E Ger.-Sax. Hädrich (Heidenrich, Heidrich).

Hedel, Hedelt (E Centr.Ger.-Sax.) see Hädelt, Heidel. (Cf. Hedluff, Hederich; also UGer. Hädelfing 1330 for Heidolfingen).

Hed(e)ler (UGer.) besides Heidler is the patr. of Heidel, Hedel, sh.f. of Heidenreich, Haderich, especially Franc.-Sax.-Bohemian. Cf. Kuncz Hedeler,1395 near Eger, C. Hedler,Bayreuth 1484, Nic. Heydler,Iglau 1362.

Hedemann (Weßtph., Han.): = Heidemann, living on the heath, open plain. Joh. up der Hede 1557 besides Görges Hedemann,Osnabrück 1631, today in the area also the forms Hehemann, Heemann (with lost dental consonant between vowels). Also cf. pl.n. Heede in Han.

Hederer, Hederle see Hader, Häderle. (From MHG hederer ‘quarreler’, but also ‘secondhand dealer, old-clothesman, ragman’). Hensl Hederler,Iglau 1362, Fridel Hedrar,Znaim 1401.

Hederich see Hedrich, Hedderich.

Hedernum (Westph.): von der Heder, tributary of the Lippe (1060 Hedara), cf. Wesermann, Huntemann, Wippermann. A small river, Hederbike, near Ibbenbüren.

Hedges (L.Rhine), see Hädge, Hädeke. Likewise Hedicke, Hedke.

Hedinger, Hediger: from Hedingen near Zurich and Sigmaringen or Hödingen near Überlingen.

Hedlefs (Hbg.): LGer.-Fris. patr. like Detlefs, cf. Hedloff, i.e. Heidlof for Heidolf, see there.

Hedler see Hedeler.

Hedlich see Hedel.

Hedrich, Hädrich: E Centr.Ger.-Sax. dialect form for Heidrich, see there. Documented Peter Redenpich (Heydenreich),Erfurt 1399, Ambros Hederich (Heidenreich),Lpz. 1471. Hence sh.f. Hedel, Hädel besides Heidel; cf. LGer. Hedicke besides Heidecke. Likewise Hedloff for Heidloff.

Hedtheuer like Hedtkamp are Westph.: Hedt-means Heid- ‘heath’.

Hedtke (Hbg.), Hedke, Hedicke see Hädecke (Heidecke). In LGer.-Westph. area around 1300-1400 Heydeke was a popular sh.f. for Heydenrich,later pronounced Hedeke and Hedenrich.Cf.Heidecke.

Hedwig, Hedewig, Hadewig: Germanic pers.n. Hadu-wig (hadu ‘quarrel, strife’, wig ‘fight’, a Valkyrie’s name), popular all over in the Middle Ages, enforced through Saint H. (patron saint of Silesia); sh.f. Hese,LGer. Heseke.(More information: Bahlow, VN, p. 44). Cf. Sigefridus filius [son of] Hedewige,Worms 1173; UGer. metr.: Hadwiger (Michel Hedwiger,Bohemia 1381). In Silesia cf. Hese = Heske = Hedwig,Liegnitz 1372, with Slav. suffix for metronymics: Hedisch, Hedischer (Hädscher near Glatz).

He(e)ekt (LGer.) = Hecht, see there. Cf. Wenemar de Hecket,Maastricht 1415.

Heede, Heed (LGer.) = Heide [heath], see Hedemann. Heeder, Heede is also a pl.n.

Heeg(e), Heeger see Hege, Heger.

Heegel see Hegel.

Heek(e): pl.n. Heeke near Bramsche or Heek on the Dinkel, ancient creek names (cf the Heke: Heekt in the Netherlands, = ‘bog water, dirty water’, see Bahlow ON, p. 205).

Heel, Hehl (freq. in Hbg.) besides Hehlke: in the Middle Ages Heile, Heileke = Heilwig,see there. Cf. under Henle and Hehle.

Heemann (LGer.), Hehemann = Hedemann, see there.

Heemesaat (Westph.) see Hemsoth.

Heeimtra (Fris.) see Deikstra. For hem see Hemsoth.

Heep, Hepe, Heps (Hbg.): Fris. sh.f., cf. HepFolkricksna 1443. Also Hopke. For Heeb cf. Eeb, for Hep: Jep.

Heepmann: from Heepen near Bielefeld.

Heer, Heers, Heeren, Heerkes, Heerssen: all are Fris., related to the pers.n. Hero,sh.f. of Hermann, Herbord, Herward, etc; see also Haars. Hence patr. Herema,likewise Edema, Heinema, Hiddema, Ailema, Ubbema, Onnema, Scheltema. In old documents in Bremen, Hbg. etc. Hero, Hereke around 1300; in Oldenburg 1443 Hero Aptezna, 1515 Gerold Herema.But UGer. Heer = Herr [master, lord] (cf. Halbheer).

Heerbrandt see Herbrand.

Heerde, Heerda, Heerdmann: related to the Centr.Ger. pl.n. Heerda, Herda. Also cf. Hannus hinder dem herde,Liegnitz 1380.

Heerdegen see Herdegen.

Heere see Heer. Cf. pl.n. Heeren in Westph., Gr.-Heere near Salzgitter.

Heeren (Fris. patr.) see Heer.

Heergeist, Herrgeist, Hiergeist (UGer.-Aust.): corrupted form of the Germanic pers.n. Herigis, likewise Adelgeis(t), see there, (from Adalgis).

Heerhorst (Hbg., Lüb.): becomes clear through Heerbrock (Heri-brok);the loc.ns. ending in ­horst (Westph.) always mean moist, swampy woods (cf. Brunkhorst, Scharnhorst); also heri (hati) is an obsolete word for ‘swamp, bog, rotting wood’ (see Bahlow ON, p. 213, 206). Also cf. Heerstodt, Herford.

Heering see Hering.

Heerkloß see Herklotz.

Heedein see Herrlein.

Heernum see Hermann.

Heers (Fris.) see Heer, Heeren.

Heerwagen: from MHG her-wagen ‘army cart, war wagon’, thus a name for wagoners on army marches, military campaigns. Cf. Rollwagen.

Heerwarth see Herward.

Hees (van): pl.n. near Kevelaer (LGer. hees ‘brush, scrub’, see Heesch.)

Heesch, Heeschen (freq. in Hbg.), Heesche: LGer. derived from the sh.f. Heseke for Hedwig,like Gösch, Göschen from sh.f. Goseke from Goswin; Asch, Aschen from Aseke (Aschwin); Esch, Eschen from Eseke (Esbern). Also cf. Fris.-LGer. Gesche = Geseke = Gertrud. F.n. Heseke popular in Hbg., Bremen, Lüb., Ro. around 1300. Cf. Heseke min moder [my mother] (Mittelniederdeutsches Wörterbuch),Joh. Heseken,Han. 1355. See also Hedwig.

Heese, Heesemann, van Heesen, von Heese: N Ger.-Westph. from loc.n. and pl.n. Hees(e), Heesen = ‘brush, scrub’ (see Bahlow ON, pp. 206, 208, 216).

Heeßel (Hbg.): pl.n. near Stade and Lehrte.

Hefele (UGer.) see Häfele.

Hefenträger (Kassel: 1357 Hebetreger,Wildungen: 1629 Häbentreger,(cf. Hess. Grebe = Gräfe): a yeast peddler in earlier times when bread was baked in the home. A Hefenheincze around 1350 in Brsl.

Hefermann = Häfermann, Hafermann: oats dealer; cf. Hofermehl.

Heffner see Hefher.

Hefke see Häfke.

Hefler, Hefaer see Häfner (potter). Joh. Hevenler,Freiburg 1284.

Heft(l)er, Heft (UGer-Sil.): clasp maker (from MHG heftel ‘clasp’). Nicze Hefteler,Brsl. 1372, Peter Heffi,Görlitz 1449, Cl. Heftelin,Alsace 1419.

Hegar (Switz.): from the Hegau area NW of Lake Constance, known through V. Scheffel’s novel Ekkehard (for interpretation see Bahlow ON, p. 207); likewise Schongar from Schongau.

Hegel, Hegele, Hägle (UGer., Würt., Baden): in documents MHG hagen meant ‘breeding bull’ as well as ‘briar, hedge, grove’. Cf. Conrat Hegelli (Hägelli, Hagen),Konstanz 1392; Cunrat Hegenli,farmer near Eßlingen 1268, Hegenlin, Hegelin,Gengenbach 1346, Heinrich Hegelin,Möhringen 1369. Concerning the form (with -ele, -elin) cf. Hafele for Hefenli (Hafen ‘pot’).

Hegeler, Hägeler (UGer.): see Hegele, Hägele. Cf. Berchtold Hegenler,1308 near Schaffhausen. Concerning the form cf. Hefenler vs. Hefler.

Hegemann (N Ger.-Westph.): living near a hedge or tree stand (cf. Gehege), cf. Heggemann. Hegemeister: forest warden.

Hegenbart(h): ‘groom the beard’, like Scheerebart probably surname for a barber.

Heg(e)ner (UGer., Alsace, Switz., Franconia, Bav., Sax.): mostly Heger [forest warden] like Forstner = Forster [forester] or Buchner = Bucher [living near beech trees], thus in part occupational name, name of origin, or name of habitation or dwelling, cf. pl.n. Hegnau near Zurich and Hegne on Lake Constance, pl.n. Hegenau near Rothenburg and Gerabronn. Hertwig Hegener, Strasb. 1303, Hans Hegnower, Thurgau 1463.

Heger (UGer., E Centr.Ger.; Rhineland Hegers): name for a forest warden. Heintz Heger, Strasb. 1312, Joh. Hegher, Lüb. 1335; Mach holczheger,Mies 1374.

Hegewald (numerous in Sax.): loc.n. like Hegeholz [take care of the woods, forest], cf. LGer. Hegewisch. Hegewalt,Bunzlau 1422, Freiberg 1517.

Heggemann (LGer.-Westph.): living by the hedge; or from the town of Heggen (pl.n. in Sauerland several times). Cf. Heggblom ‘dog rose, briar’.

Hegi (Switz.): freq. pl.n. (knight Wezzel vonHegi, 1287 near Zurich).

Hegner see Hegener.

Hehemann (Westph.) see Hedemann.

Hehl(e), Hehlke (Hbg.) see Heilwig. According to old documents in Bav. Hehl(e) derives from Henlin, Henle, see there. In Würt. it may be equivalent to MHG hael ‘secretive’ (cf. her Beringer der Häle, Giengen 1358). In N Germany the bog word hel occurs in pl.ns. like Hehlen near Pyrmont and Celle (for more info.: Bahlow ON, p. 207).

Hehn(e), Hehnke in Sax. is dial. form of Heine, Heinke (Heinrich): Hene (Heinke) goltsmid [goldsmith], Brsl. 14th c.. A pl.n. Hehn near Düsseldorf.

Hehr see Heer. But also cf. Heher (jay bird) and MHG hêr ‘distinguished, proud’. See also Hährer.

Hei, Hey (UGer.): MHG heie ‘ranger, guard’. Hence Bruckhei (Prugghai) [bridge warden], Eschhei (Öschhey), Flurhay [field ranger], Grashei, Halmhei [grain r.], Holzhei, Holzheu [forest r.], Wieshei, Wiesheu [meadow r.]. Cf. Hainrich Eschhai (‘field ranger’), Augsburg 1339. See also Hay(er).

Heib(e)l, Haibel (UGer.): unrounded form of Heubel, Häubl, see Haube. Likewise Heiber = Heuber ‘cap maker’. R. Heyber, Nördlingen 1591. Fr. Heyblein,Neustadt an der Hardt 1434.

Heibrook, Heibeck see Hebrock.

Heick, Heicke, Heik, Heyck(e), Heyken, Heike(n)s, Heiking: very old Fris. pers.n., see also Heye, Hay. Still today in Hbg. a Heyko, Heyken.In l0th c. Haiko; Heyke, Heyco around 1300 in Stade, Kiel etc.

Heid, Heidt, Heide, Heyde, Heidemann, Heydemann: freq. FNs (especially in N Ger.) derived from the place of dwelling on the heath (open field); LGer. also Hedemann (up der Hede), UGer. Haid, Haidmann. Also Auf der Heyde, von der Heyde (Sil. old nobility), von der Heyden (Westph., contracted to Verheyen in L.Rhine area), Anderheiden. Cf. Gumprecht an der Heid,Regensburg 1324. See also Heider, Haider. Among the compound pl.ns. ending in -beide are Grünheid, Schönheit (Thur.).

Heidebrecht is not a pers.n. but loc.n. ending in LGer.-Westph. -breck, -brecht (variant of -brack, -bracht) ‘swamp (-thicket)’, hence (von) Heydebreck besides Heidebrock, Heidebruch; cf. Ellerbreck besides Ellerbrock, Ellerbracke. Breckwede, Brackwede ‘swamp woods’; Breckwold, Breckwinkel . Breckland/England (swampy area). Also Brecht, Bracht are loc.ns. in Rhine-Westph. area. Heide-brecher means -breker (cf. Breckerfold/Ruhr). Joh. (de) Heydebrake, Heydebrek,Greifswald 1270.

Heidecke, Heydecke, Hedicke, Hädicke: once popular sh.f. of pers.n. Heidenrich (‘having power over the heathens’). Heydeke (Heydenrik)Sconejuncherre, Stralsund 1305, Heydeke (Hedeke) of Güstrow, Stralsund 1287, Heydeke Swedevar, Ro. 1282, Heydeke Betemann, Haldsl. around 1400. For the dial. form Hedeke cf. Hedenricus de Hedebrake in Pom. as early as 1254.

Heidegger, Heidecker (UGer.): from Heideck (Upper Pal. and other areas) or Heidegg near Zurich. The philosopher, Martin Heidegger, came from Meßkirch/Baden.

Heidel, Heidle (UGer.): nickname of Heidenrich (see Heidenreich), Heideloff (see Heidloff); cf. Heydlinus,Bohemia 1363, Hans Heidel,Deutsch-Brod 1389, Hans Heydlman,Chrudim 1399.

Heidelk see Heidloff.

Heidelkampf. Westph. loc.n. like Erlekampf and others (kamp = ‘field’).

Heidehnann: see Heidel. In Westph. the FN (like Heidelmeyer) may also derive from a field n. like Heidelkamp.

Heiden (freq.) from MHG heiden ‘a heathen, Saracen’, cf. kristen ‘a Christian’. Surname indicating relations with pagans, perhaps participants in a crusade; of similar origin: Preuße [Prussian], Russe (Reuße) [Russian]. Therefore popular with the nobility (also as f.n., cf. Heidenrich). In Brsl. 1396: “der in heydenlande ist vorgangen” [who died in pagan lands]. FN Heydenland [heathen country] in Brsl. Cf. Heiden of Krenkingen, Konstanz 1290. Heiden of Hertenberg, near Lörrach 1312, Heyden currifex [chariot maker], Prague 1360, Peter Hayden,Prague 1397, Conrad Heydene (knight), Strals. 1302.

Heidenreich (UGer.) for Heidenrich, like Heinreich for Heinrich and Weinreich for Winrich, was contracted to Heidrich in E Centr.Ger-Sil., in Sax.-Thur.-Franc. to Hedrich, Hädrich. The name originated in Christian times and was supported by the spirit of the crusades (‘having power over the heathens!’ Heide = ‘heathen’). See also Sh.f. Heidecke and Heise. Documents: Heidenricus (master), Strals. 1279, Hedenricus,Bav. 1108, Heydenreich Stosch, Neiße 1354, Peter Hedenrich,Erfürt 1399, Hans Hederich (Heyderich),Alsfeld 1526, Ambros Hederich (Heidenreich),Lpz. 1471, Peter Heiderich,Görlitz 1453.

Heidepriem, Heiterprehm = (heather) broom (the bush), named for the place of habitation.

Heider, Heyder, Haider, Hayder (UGer.-Sil.-Sax.-Bohemian): Baltzer Heider (also von der Heide),feudal lord in Liegnitz 1537, reveals the name’s origin from Heide or Heidau, Heida, freq. pl.n. in Sil., Sax. and Bohemia. Cf. “von der Mittelheyde” (Liegnitz 1394), i.e.’ Mittel-Heidau. Steinheider from pl.n. Steinheide in Thur., Heider in Liegnitz, Glatz etc. as early as 1394; the name also derives from loc.n. Heide [heath, open field], see under Heid.

Heidergott see Heddergott.

Heidfuß: someone who roams the heath or open field, cf. Staudfuß (through the brush), also Heidwolf and Staudfuchs.

Heidgreß = Heidepriem.

Heidle, Heidlen (Würt.) see Heidel. Cf. Haidelinus,district of Balingen 1200. Hainrich Haidenli,Feldkirch 1259, Claus Heideli,Basel 1499.

Heidler, Haidler (UGer.): patr. of Heidle unless = Haidner. Nic. Heydler,Iglau 1362, Kunz der Haideler,Eßlingen 1360.

Heidloff, Heidlauff is the old Ger. pers.n. Heidolf,with exchange of -lf for easier pronunciation as in Reichloff, Rudloff, Radloff, Egloff (Eglauff). Heydolfus,Westph. 1288, Henr. Heidloff, Col. 1435, Georg Haidlauf,Würt. 1581. Cf. pl.n. Heidolfisheim 1299 (= Heidelsheim near Bruchsal). Heidolph freq. in Nbg., with UGer. -ph as in Adolph, Rudolph.

Heidner, Haidner (UGer.): from pl.n. Haiden, Heidenau etc.

Heidorn, Heydorn (freq. in Han., Hbg., Bremen) see Hagedorn.

Heidrich, Heydrich see Heidenreich.

Heiduk see Hayduk.

Heidwolf, Heydwolff (UGer.) means ‘heath wolf’, cf. Schneewolf, Heckwolf.

Heier, Heyer (UGer.): unrounded form of Heuer = Hauer [cutter, chopper]; less freq. from MHG heie ‘ranger, guard’. Cf. Kolbenheyer.

Heigl (UGer.-Bav.) see Heugel. Urban Heigl,Tyrol 1519.

Heigolt, Heikolt: (Würt.) unrounded form of Heugold = Hugold, old Ger. pers.n.

Heik(e), Heikens see Heick.

Heil, Heile, Heilmann (freq.): in Frkf.-Mainz-Worms area a popular nickname of Heinrich in the Middle Ages, also there Kuhlmann (Culemann) of Konrad; Rule, Rulman of Rudolf; Diele, Dielman of Diederich. Documented in Frkf: Heile Bule 1343, Heile (Heilman) Ziechener; in Mainz: Heilman Breithoubt 1350; near Worms: Heylo Herden 1365. Some have traveled east: Heilman Ditmars, Brsl. 1352. But LGer. Heile, Heileke is a fem. f.n., nickname of Hedwig, see there.

Heiland (UGer.): probably indicating healing or saving activity (-and, NHG -end is the participial ending corresponding to Engl. -ing, cf. MHG wîgand ‘fighter’). Cunrat Heiland,Zurich 1412, Alb. Hailant,Tübingen 1293, Heilant Zorn, Strasb. 1413.

Heilborn (also Jewish): pl.n. Heilbronn in Würt. etc.

Heilbutt: [halibut], name of fishermen, cf. Buttfanger (like Ahl [eel]: Ahlfänger).

Heilcke see Heilwig.

Heiler see Hailer.

Heilgans (Liegnitz) = Hagelgans (like Heylstroße = Hagelstraße in old Brsl.). Cf. Caspar Halgans,Liegn. 1438.

Heilig, Heiligmann, Heitigsetzer [heilig = ‘holy’]: carver of saints’ figures; cf. Walther von den Heiligen,Zittau 1310, Nickel der heyligen becker (Heylgebecker),Brsl. 1348, Hans Heiligenpfleger,Würt. 1442, Hermann Reilgenstößer,Ingelheim 1387 (door-to-door vendor of saints’ pictures), Georg Heiligenman,Kassel 1456; Cunrad Heylig,Wertheim 1331, Heylgesele/Brsl.

Heil(ig)geist: named for the residence at the hospital “Holy Spirit”. Niclos vom heiligen geiste der murer [the mason], Andres Heylgegeist,Brsl. 1372; Kersten Hilgegest,Greifawald 1367 (Lüneburg 1351), Diele Heilgeist,Frkf. 1387.

Heiligtag [holy day], Heiligabend [Christmas eve] like many names of time refer to occupational activities or tribute obligations (tax payments). Joh. der Heligabent,near Freiberg 1340, Heylgetag,Liegnitz 1372.

Heiling, Heilinger (Baden, Würt.): name of origin like Reiling, Reilinger. For pl.n. ending -ing see Bahlow DN, p. 91.

Heillos: having no luck, unhappy, frail. Hans Heylos,Zurich 1504, Hans Hayleß,Stuttgart 1449. Haylos in area near Eger 1392.

Heilmann see Heil.

Heilscher see Hielscher.

Heilwig: around 1100-1300 popular fem. f.n. indicating noble descent, with a younger variant Helwig; both also male f.ns. (heil ‘luck’, wig ‘battle, fight’), hence the FN Helbig, Helwig. Also cf LGer.-Fris. Heilburg, Helburg (Hebbel).Various documented U.Rhine forms in onomastic literature: A. Socin, pp. 56, 144, 22; Försternann, col. 729. The abbess of the convent Harvestehude (Herwardeshude) near Hbg.: Hei1wig, plus many other occurrences from Westph. through Bremen, Hbg., Ro. to Pomerania; sh.f. is Heile(ke):domina [lady] Heile,Ro. 1262, domina Heleke in Lüb., Heile (Helenwig),Stettin 1345, Conrad Heyleken,Greifswald 1350, as late as 1850 in Oldenburg a Heilke Detmers. (Also cf. Fris. Heike,likewise Eilke: Eike). Obvious metronymics are Gerhard der Heylen sun [G. son of Heyle], near Worms 1365, Cuoni fron Hei1wige [C.“man” of Heilwig], Breiagau 1293, probably a serf. But rnaster Heilwic (chorister), Sindelfingen 1323.

Heim, Heym, Haym Higme,Ro. 1257 (UGer.): reminiscent of the medieval Dietrich epics and their heroes Witege and Heime,thus freq. in U.Rhine region, Bav., Aust. (Socin, p. 20). Cf. her [sir] Heym and her Otte (brothers), Vienna 1293, Heimo of Gundingen, 12th c. in Bav. Hans Haym,Moravia 1414. Also sh.f. of Heimerad, Heimeram, Heimerich (see Stark, p. 17). Hans Heyme,Würzburg 1409.

Heimann, Heymann (UGer., Centr.Ger.)

Heinemann = Heinrich, cf. Reimann for Reinmann; Hamann for Hanemann. Heyman Hackenteufel, Iglau 1359, Hans Hai(n)man,Überlingen 1400.

Heimbrecht, Heimprecht (UGer.): old Ger. pers.n. Hagin-berht like Humbrecht, Lambrecht, Lamprecht. Sh.f. Heimpel (Hempel). In Hesse and SW Germany also Heimbrodt from Heimbrat for Heimbracht (Heimberacht), cf. Hembrad,near Gießen 1333. Cf. Westph. Hemmerd(ing).

Heimbrock, Heimbach see Heimsoth.

Heimbs see Heimes.

Heimbürge, Heimbürger: used to be the regular name for the mayor of a village in Franconia, from MHG heimbürge. Corrupted Heimburger, Heimberger (see Nied, FF, p. 68).

Heimen see Heimers.

Heimeran, Heimeram, Heimrant (UGer.-Bav.) Latinized form of Emmeram, bishop of Regensburg (St. Emmeram Monastery there): old Ger. pers.n. Heim-hraban, likewise Wolfram: Wolf-hraban (-ram ‘raven’ of Odin). Still used as f.n. in 15th c. in Straubing. Hence nickname Heimerl (Bav.), Haimerl.

Heimerdinger: from Heimerdingen in Würt.; cf. Heimertingen in Swab.

Heimer(s), Heimert: LGer. for Heimberts, like Eimers, Eimert for Eimberts and Reimers, Reimert for Reimberts. For sh.f. Heime cf. Heimes, Heimbs (like Eimes) and Heimen besides Heiming as patr.; Heiming is also pl.n. in Bav. (several times).

Heimert (in Meißen): in old documents Heymarckt 1483 (hence the meaning: at the hay market, cf. Vimert in Frkf. = Viehmarkt, ‘cattle market’).

Heimfahrt [return home]: MHG = Himmelfahrt [Christ’s or Mary’s ascension].

Heindtalt, Heimholt: LGer. loc.n. like Anhalt for Anholt.

Heimke, Heimicke (pl.n. near Olpe) is an old creek n. ending in -beke.

Heimlich: from MHG heimelich ‘confidential, secretly’; cf. H. heymelerede,Ro. 1289.

Heimpel see Hempel.

Heimrath, Heimroth: Rhineland or Hess. pl.n. ending in -rode.

Heimrich, Heimreich: rare old Ger. pers.n. which was displaced by the freq. noble and dynastic name, Heinrich. Heymerick Heyden, Aachen 1366, Arnold Heymerick,Xanten 1424 (canon), Heinrich Heympich,near Kassel 1368.

Heims see Heimes.

Heimsoth, Heimsath, Heemesaath: pl.n. Heimsath near Iburg/Westph. (1350 tom Hemsode). hem means ‘swamp, bog’: het Heem/Netherlands like het Moeras. (Bahlow ON, p. 206).

Heimwarth: ‘home warden, guard’, cf. Höllewarth [hell warden, devil], Holzwart [forest ranger], Grießwart [grain guard], etc.

Hein, Heyn = Heine, Heyne (Heinrich). But cf. Hain (Hayn).

Heinatz (E Ger.-Slav.) = Heintze. Heynacz Frederich, Brsl. 1400, Hinrich Heynatz,Haldsl. 1460. Cf. Geracz etc.

Heinbockel (Hbg.): pl.n. near Stade (Bokel = Bok-loh ‘beech wood or grove’).

Hein(e), Heyn(e): has always been a popular nickname for Heinrich. Enlarged Heinemamm, Heimann. With l-suffix (UGer.) Heinel, Heindl (like Meindl), Heinle, Heinlein. Also see Heinze, Heinzel, Heitz; Heinke (Henke), Heinkel (Henkel); Heinse, Hinse, Hintze; Heinisch, Heinsch. Patr. Heinsohn. Also Heil(mann).

Heine(c)ke, Heinicke: LGer. nickname for Heinrich (in Han., Hbg., Meckl. region), with k-suffix like Meinecke (for Meinhard), Reinecke (for Reinhard), Lüdecke (for Ludolf), Mahnke (for Mangold), Henneke (for Johannes), Behnke (for Bernhard), Brendeke (for Hildebrand). Heyneke Kunstenrike, Han. 1363. Patr. Heineken, Heineking (like Meineking, Gödeking).

Heinel, Heinle see Heine. Heynel Kolröser, Iglau 1377. Variation Heinelt like Weinel: Weinelt.

Heinemann see Heine. Contracted Heimann: older Heyman (Heynman) of Woycechsdorf, Brsl. 1318.

Heinen: LGer. patr. of Heine, cf. Meinen.

Heiner(t): UGer. for Heinrich like Frieder for Friedrich.

Heinichen (Sax., Sil.): pl.n. in that region (vom Heynechen,Brsl. 14th c.). Caspar Heinichen,Görlitz 1554.

Heinig: E Centr.Ger-Sax-Sil. sh.f. of Heinrich. Heynich Lausche, Dux 1397.

Heining: LGer. patr. of Heinrich.

Heininger: from Heiningen (several in Würt.), cf. pl.n. Heining/Bav.

Heinisch, Heinsch, Heinschke (Sil.): sh.f. with Slav. suffix -isch, -usch from Heinrich, likewise Reinisch, Reinsch from Reinhold. Heinusch (Heyncze) Schönhor, Brsl. 1345; patr. Hannus Heynischer,Braunau 1403. Also cf. Hänisch, Jänisch, Bänisch, etc.

Heinitz: Slav. pl.n. in Sax. (Heynitz, like Schleinitz, Kreinitz, Geinitz).

Reinke, Henke (Sil.): sh.f. of Heinrich with Slav. k-suffix. Heinke Hellefeuer = Heinrich H., Liegnitz 1380. Heinke (Henke) Clette, Brsl. 1371.

Heinkel, Henkel (Hesse-Nassau, N Hesse, centr. Rhine, S Westph.): around 1200-1350 popular nickname of Heinrich. Heinkele Heinkelin son [H. son of Heinkelin], Wetzlar 1348, Henkele Finkenouge, Wetzlar 1349. Henlin Henckelman, Hinckelman,Würzburg 1409. In Westph.: besides Henkelke also Henkelking (patr.) and Henkeler. Rhineland: Henckels.

Heinker (Westph. patr.) like Beinker (from Bernhard).

Heinle, Heinlein (UGer.) = Heinrich, like Künle, Kienle = Konrad.

Heinloth, Heinloth is a variant of Heinold (Heinhold), old Ger. pers.n., like Hunold (of Huhnhold), with reversed consonants like Ar(n)let, Artt for Arnold (Arnhold), Humblot for Humbold, Helmlot for Helmold. Herm Heynoltz kint, Würt. 1350.

Heinrich: in the Middle Ages the most widespread and popular Christian name (with various nicknames. Hein, Heinz, Heinel, Heinzel, Heineke, Heinkel, Henkel, Hinze, Heinse, Heitz), promoted by numerous rulers like Heinrich I, Heinrich II (sainted); then the Salians, Heinrich III, IV, V; the Hohenstaufen H. VI, the Luxemburger H. VII; in addition many rulers of principalities like (Heinrich) Henry the Lion (Brsw.); the name was a tradition with the princes Reuß (Thur.) for centuries. The current colloquial idiom “Hinz und Kunz” [everybody and his brother] is a reflection of the old imperial names Heinrich and Konrad. For fürther info. see Bahlow, VN (1965), p. 45. Heinreich (Heinreich Grünreuter, Eger 1340) is UGer. Patr. Heinricher. See also Henner. LGer. Hinrich(s), Fris. Hinnerk, L.Rhine Hendrichs; Hess. Heinritze (Ritz), scholarly Lat. Heinrici, Heinsius; Wend. Jendrich. According to E. Schröder, p. 76, Hein-rich issupposedly based on Heim-rich meaning ‘ruler in the home’.

Heinroth belongs to the group of Thur. pl.ns. ending in -rode like Billroth, Klapproth, etc.; cf. Hainrode.

Heins (Hein’s son), freq. in Hbg., is Fris. like Meins; cf. Heinen: Meinen.

Heinsch see Heinisch.

Heinse is LGer.Tris. = Heinrich. As in Strals. 1300 Heinse (Henricus) Broseke, 1277 Heinse (Hence) Hoke. The writer Wilhelm Heinse from Thur. spelled his name originally Heintze.

Heinsen (freq. in Hbg.), Heinssen is LGer. patr. of Heinrich; also Heinsohn occurs freq. in the N Ger. coastal region. Cf. Heinkind, Heinvetter. Probably not from pl.n. Heinsen (twice near Han.).

Heinsius: Humanist name for Heinse.

Heintschold: Sil.-Sax. enlarged form of Heintsch (Heinz) with -old, like Fritschold, Hitschold, Kitschold, Nitschold, Petzold, Guntzold, Hensold, etc. (For more info. see Bahlow, Studien, p. 13). Cf. Heyntschuld,Liegnitz 1383.

Hein(t)ze, Heinz(mann), Heinzel, Heinzelmann: sh.f. of Heinrich. The form without an ending, Heinz, Hainz (Heinzmann) is UGer., Hein(t)ze mostly Sil., Heintzsch Sax., Heinzel UGer.-Sil. (Cf. Künzel, Günzel, Menzel, Frenzel). Heynczel Kiczinger = Heinr.K., Brsl. 1346, Heyncze (Heyntich) Snydenwynd, Liegnitz 1386; Heinzeman (Heinrich) Wollebe, Freiburg 1297, Ruf Heinz,Eßlingen 1417. Cf. Heinzler.

Heinzerling (rare) was changed from Heinzerlin like Seiferling from Seiferlin and Heberling from Heberlin (all Franc.). Documented in Pfungstadt 1574: Joh. Heinzerling = Joh. Heinzerlin 1570.

Heinzeroth: like Hitzeroth, Günzerodt, etc. from a pl.n. ending in -rode, Rhineland -rath (former ­rode, -rade), in Nassau -roth (-ert). Cf. Heinzerath near Bernkastel/Mosel.

Heinzler, Heintzeler (Würt.): patr. of Heinzel. Cf. Haintzler von Wolterdingen, Villingen 1439 and Hainzli in der Guta, Furtwangen 1300. A family from Ulm, Heinzler, was always called Heintzel. But Heitzler in Frkf. (1493 heiczeler) probably derives from MHG heinzeler ‘carter with one horse’ (documented in Frkf.).

Heiperft, Heypertz (Rhineld.): ‘Heimbert’s son’, cf. Lanipertz etc.

Heipmann: dialect variant (through assimilation) of Heitmann Oike Dorpmund from Dortmund). Ladewig Heipmann,Lippe 1592 besides Lag Heitmann 1614.

Heirath, Heiroth see Heyrath.

Heisch, Heischmann: see Heusch(mann).

Heischrek (UGer.): dial. for grasshopper, locust (Heuschrecke). Cf. Jakob Hayschreck,Alzey 1490 besides Valentin Heuschreck,Alzey 1565. Haygadem,Moravia 1406, Hayleiter, Heyleiter (Heuleiter), Bohernia 1371.

Heise, Heiseke: documented as LGer. sh.f. of Heidenrich (see there). Around 1300 in Quedlinburg: Heyse (Heidenrik) Busere, Heyse (Heydeke)bi deme Clinghe; 1379 in Duderstadt: Heyse Spedekorn; 1449 in Hamelin: Heise Gansawe; 1309 in Han.: Heyseke Basseman; 1297 in Ro.: Joh. Heyse.The writer Paul Heyse was from Berlin.

Heisel (UGer.) like Heisler, Heyseler unrounded (­ei- from -eu-, -äu-) from Heusler, Häusler. Cf. Hoheisel besides Hoheusel. A farmstead Heisl (Häusl ‘little house’) in Tyrol.

Heismberg: UGer. pl.n. The physicist Werner H. was from Franconia.

Heiser (UGer.-Aust.): unrounded from Heuser (Mußer), see there. Cf. Tannheiser besides Tannhiuser, Hochheiser besides Hochheuser.

Heisig (freq. in Neiße area, Neustadt in U.Sax.): sometimes Heising. Probably from a pl.n. ending in -ing as well as Heisinger (Heusinger); Cf. FN Eisig, Mettig, Mödig: from the pl.ns. Eisingen, Metting, Mödingen, all in Bav.

Heisler (UGer.), Heyseler: unrounded from Heusler, Häusler, see there. Cf. writer Henry v. Heiseler (son: Bernt v. H.).

Heiß (UGer.) see Heuß. But also cf. Haiß.

Heißner, Heißer (UGer.): unrounded from Häußner or Häußer; cf. Dannheißer, Steinhiußer, Steinhäuser, from pl.ns. ending in -hausen and from Hausen, Hauß.

Heister (LGer.) means ‘young beech tree’, also Hester, MLG hêster, Dutch heester (Fr. hêtre); cf. Heysterbom 1413. Hence Buchheister, Inhestern, Angenheister (L.Rhine = ‘at the beech wood’), von Heister (freq. pl.n. in Rhineland), Heisterberg (pl.n. near Herborn), Heisterkamp, Heisterhagen (Westph.), Heisterer, Heistermann, Hestermeyer; Dutch Heesters.

Heitbrink, Heidbring, Heitkamp (Westph.) see Heide.

Heiter, Heiterer (UGer.) = Heider, Heiderer. Cf Arnheiter: from Arnheide, Henni Heiter,Baden 1429. Haitler besides HaidIer in Bohemia.

Heitgres, Heidgreß: probably Heidegraß [heath grass], Heidpriern.

Heitmann, Heitmüller see Heidemann, Hedemann.

Heitz (Alsace, Switz., Baden): Alem. variant of Heinz (Heinrich). Also Heitzmann. Thus documented in Baden 1427 and later: Heitz = Heitzmann = Haintzman = Hentzman = Heintz = Heyni.Likewise in Freiburg 1460 Heitzman (Heinrich)Widmer; near Bühl 1325 Heitze (Heinrich) Digensheim, squire.

Hektor see Hector. Likewise Heckter.

Helb (UGer.): from MHG helwe ‘chaff’, surname of a thresher or thresh farmer. Conrad Helwe (serf), Laupheim 1300, Fritz Helb (peasant), near Kirchheim 1403. Berthold Helwer,Bregenz 1301. Also cf. pl.n. Helba.

Helbach, Hellbach, Helpach see Halbach.

Helber: see Helb. But cf. pl.n. Helba near Meiningen (old creek name, see Bahlow ON, p. 209).

Helberg, Hellberg (N Ger. pl.n., loc.n.): like Hellbach, Hellbrock, Hellfeld, Hellrüsch (hel =‘swamp’). (See Bahlow ON, p. 207).

Helbert (LGer.): in some cases = Helmbert (shining like a helmet), cf. Helenbert van Quernharn 1354; but also variant of Hilbert (Hildebert), like LGer. Helmer besides Hilmer (Hildemer) and Helwert besides Hilwert. Patr. is Fris. Helbertsma (cf. Rodtnersina).

Helbig, also (variation) Helbing: in Sil., Sax. and Thur. documents Helwig (with sound change lw:lb as in Schwalbe from MHG swalwe, ‘swallow’). Popular f.n. in the Middle Ages from U.Rhine area to Sil., originally Heilwig (see there); -ig could be replaced by -ing as in Gerbing since in E Centr.Ger. -ing weakened to -ig: F. Helwig (Helbing), Freiberg/Saale 1454. Hilbig, Hilbing (Görlitz) shows a raised vowel (-e- to -i-) brought about by the -i- of the following syllable. Halbig shows the Silesian sound change e:a,cf. Albel = Elbel.

Helbling (UGer.): MHG = ‘half penny’ (LGer. Scherf); a knight Seifrit Helbling (13th c. in Aust.) is known as a MHG Poet. Ulrich Sparhelbling,Augsburg 1293, means a frugal or stingy person.

Helbok, Heilbock (UGer.): ‘hellhound’, the devil, see Hell.

Helbold see Helmbold.

Helbrecht see Helmbrocht.

Helck, Helke, Helken (Fris.) is a variant of Hilke (Hildeke), likewise Fris. Gelke vs. Gilke, Helmers vs. Hilmers, or Helbert vs. Hilbert. Also cf. Heleke besides Heilcke for Heilwig (see there).

Held, Haldt: the heroic, the brave one: the medieval epic Nibelungenlied speaks of “helden lobebaeren” [heroes worthy of praise]. Joh. Jungehelde, Jungehelt,Lüb. around 1330, Cuonrat der Helt,Villingen 1244, Hainrich der Helt,Prague 1301. Hence Heldmann (as early as 1135 in Col. Heldeman).A pl.n. Holte near Meppen: Conrad Helte,Han. 1344.

Helden: pl.n. near Olpe.

Heldenfinger: from pl.n. Heldenfingen/Würt.

Heldern: Joh. to Helderen 1540 (pl.n. Hellern near Osnabrück) (see Bahlow ON, p. 209).

Heldrich see Hildrich.

Heldriegel see Hellriegel.

Helena see Bahlow, VN, p. 46. Symbol of fem. beauty (in Greek mythology daughter of Leda and the god Zeus in the shape of a swan), Known in the Middle Ages through epic works on the Trojan War (Helena filia Helenae,Hbg. 1275). Also saint’s name (Hung. Ilona). Nickname Leni, Lenchen.

Helf, Helff, Helft (UGer.): from MHG helfe ‘helper, assistant’. Cf. Spathelf. Likewise Helfer (Helfert), UGer., and Helfmann.

Uolrich der Helfer,Baden/Aargau 1293. Cf. Nicl. Helflos,Villingen 1436.

Helfenbein [elephant bone] name for an ivory carver or turner (cf. MHG helphant ‘elephant’). Frenczel Helfant,Prague 1378, also house name: her Cunrat Bletz der Helfrand = C. Bletz zem Helfande,Rottweil 1290.

Helfenschneider (Mnch.): probably not ivory cutter or carver but like Helfenberger, Helfenbrunner, Helfensteiner (all UGer.-Bav.) from a loc.n. (ending in -schneid, -schneit meaning ‘a lane cut in a forest’ [e.g. a fire lane]), Likewise Helfensteller like Obersteller, Winterstaller, ­steller from the Bav.-Aust. loc.ns. anding in ­stall.

Helfer (UGer. = LGer. Helper: from MHG = ‘helper, assistant’, see Helf). W. Helfer,Iglau 1361. Cf. Spatholfer, Nothelfer. A pl.n. Helfern near Osnabrück.

Helferich, Helfreich (UGer., Centr.Ger.): reminiscent of medieval heroic epics, where H. was a follower of Dietrich (Theodorich) of Bern (Verona). Also cf. Chilperich (West Frankish king). Helferich (a knight of St. John, rel. order), Wetzlar 1315, Helpftich Dinkel, Würt. 1364, Helfrich Kruse, Hesse 1426. LGer. form of name cf. Helpitin (Helpo),Hbg. 1262, Helperad Koevoet 1271.

Helf(s)gott: cf. Jürge Hilfmirgott,Pirna 1412.

Helf(t) see Helf. Also cf. pl.n. Helfe near Hagen and Helfta near Eisleben.

Helgenmacher: carver of wooden saints’ figures, Peter Helgenmacher,Zurich 1504. Also Hans Helg (saints’ painter), Basel 1526, cf. Helch (Alsaco). Concerning the linguistic form cf. pl.n. Heigenberg (Hesse), Helgenstein (Alsace).

Heling (freq. in Hbg.): pl.n., cf. Hehlingen near Wolfsburg.

Helk(e) see Helck.

Hell, Helle (cf. Hellmann): common field name (from MHG helle ‘hell’, for a wild precipitous area). Jacob von der helle,Liegnitz 1382, Lippoldt von der helle,Bonn 1437, Hannos in der helle,Brsl. 1369, Cunrat in der helle,Tyrol 1288. Berthold zur hellun,Strosb. 1270. To mention a few medieval names for the devil: Helbock, Hellgrebe (Höllengraf [earl of hell]), Hellgoth (from MHG hellegot [god of hell]), Hellevoigt [steward of h.], Hellewart (Höllwarth [hell guard]), Hellriegel (Höllriegel, Riegel = ‘latch’), Höllenfeger (hellefeger [hell’s sweeper]), also Hölldampf [Dampf = ‘vapor’], Hellfeier, Heilfaier (Hellefeuer,Liegnitz 1383), Hellenstrick, Hellebock, Hellemeister, Hellekopf [rascal, buck, master, head of hell] (Brsl., Prague, Worms) likewise Hellefuß [hell foot], Heittritt [hell step or kick]. Hellpape, Hellhund, Hellewirt[master of hell], Helleschlüssel [hell’s key], Hellekrapf (door hinge, hook) a house name in Worms 1322;Hellebrandt [hell fire] (from MLG scolding, abusive talk: “he is billich ein hellebrandy” [he is a real abuser, swearer]; but cf. Hillebrand. Helgahrt (Höllenfahrt [trip to hell]).

Hellberg (Hbg.) see Helberg.

Hellbut see Heilbutt.

Helldorff. pl.n. near Han.

Helldritt: pl.n. NE of Coburg. Hans von H.,15th c. in Bav.

Helle see Hell.

Hellebardt, Hellepart (UGer.): ‘halberd’. Cf. Bardenwerper.

Hellenberg, Hellenkamp (Westph.) see Hellenbroich.

Hellebrandt see Hell (Höllenbrand [hell fire]), but also Hildebrand. Cf. Nic. fil. [son of] Hellebrandi = Nic. Hildprandi,Prague 1303.

Hellenbrecht see Helmbrecht.

Hellenger see Helinger.

Hellenbroich (Rhineld.-Westph.) like Aschenbroich, Hakenbroich, Hucklenbroich. Cf. Hellbrock near Hbg. (Bahlow ON, p. 207: hel is an old swamp word. Pl.n. Helle in a bog of the Hase River was Hallithi, from hal of the same meaning).

Heller (UGer., Centr.Ger.) is the name of a coin from Schwäbisch-Hall (minted there since 1208), also Haller. Like Dreiheller, Achtzehnheller and other coin names indicates obligations of tribute and tax payments (peasants’ rents and city tax). Rudolf der Heller (peasant), near Zurich 1302,Joh. Heller (Haller),Görlitz 1378,but also her [sir] Hannus v. D., who was called Heller,Glatz 1353,her Volkhart der Heller,Freiburg 1278. Hellenvert (Frkf. 1387) isa name for a retail dealer and means ‘a penny’s worth’. Relation to the place of the mint is obvious in the name Ulr. Haller (called Obulus), mint master, Bamberg 1280.

Hell(e)rich, Heldrich: see Hilderich. Also cf. Höllrich near Gemünden/Franc. Hans Hellrich,near Günzburg 1451.

Hellermann (UGer.) see Heller. Heinrich Hellerman,Tauber area 1299.

Hellfahrt: ‘trip to hell’ (see under Hell. Likewise Hellgot).

Hellfeuer, Hollfeier, Hellfaier (Sil.) = ‘hell fire’, see Hell. Heinrich Hellefeuer,Liegnitz 1383.Also documented as name of a minstrel.

Hellfritz, Hellfritzsch, Hellfrisch, Höllfritsch: Sax.-Frank., = Fritz von der Helle (field name). Cf. Langfritz, Hoffritz.

Hellgarth, Hellgardt: like Hillgarth,see Hildegard.

Hellgrebe see Hell. UGer. cf. Hainrich Hellegrave,Radolfzell 1265.

Hellhammer (Bav.): from the pl.ns. ending in -ham = -heim in Bav., like Kohlhammer, Hundhammer, Forchammer, Werthammer. Ulrich Heilhamer, Augsburg 1342.

Hellig(e) = Heilig(e) [holy]; also Hellge. Cf. Helg. From MHG heilige, which can also mean saint’s picture.

Helling: from MHG hellinc = helbling ‘half penny’. Joh. Helling,Konstanz 1414. Sparhalling,Hbg. 1289, Hellingus in Lüb. But Hellinger: from Hellingen near Coburg.

Hellmair (Mnch.) like Hellmann.

Hellmann (Sil. also Hallmann) see Hell (Bahlow ON, p. 86).

Hellmer(s) LGer. see Hillmer.

Hellmich, Hellmig-, Helmich: documented from Westph. to Meckl.-Pom. as contracted form of Helmwig (‘helmet fighter’). Helmich (Helmwich) of Horst, Westph. Urkundenbuch [document register] 3, 1257. Helmicus (Helmwicus) Remensnidere, Hbg. 1258.In Sil.-Sax. however a younger variant of Helwig, Helbig: Joh. Helmich,Berka 1454. Cf. Bahlow SN, p. 41. In Sil. dialect: Halmich (like Halbig). In Lippe still in 1600 Helmich Sibolt. Geograph. distribution in Brech., p. 691.

Hellmund(t): Germanic pers.n. ending in -mund ‘protection’ (cf. Vormund = ‘legal guardian’), likewise Siegmund, Edmund, Reinmund, Richmund, Germund, Kunimund, Ratmund. Helmundus (sacristan), Kolberg 1309. Cf. Dutch Helmont.

HeIlmuth (Franc., Sax.): in the Middle Ages not documented as a f.n., thus probably based on Heilmut like Helwig on Heilwig. Also Helmut. Andr. Helmut,Radolfszell 1478 (bookkeeper from Basel), Hinr. Helmut 1491 (University of Leipzig), Bartholomäus Helmut,Brandis/Sax. 1494.

Hellner see Hillner.

Hellpap, Hellriegel see Hell.

Hellrich (UGer.): Hans Hellrich,near Günzburg 1451. See also Hellerich, Heidtreich.

Hellrung: from Heldrungen on the Heldra River near the Unstrut (prehistor. river name: see Bahlow ON, p. 209). Cf. Bodungen on the Bodo, Madelungen on the Madel, and several others. (For the names ending in -ungen see Bahlow, Niederdeutsches Korrespondenzblatt 1961.)

Hellvogt, Hollewart see Hell.

Hellwege (freq. in Hbg.): pl.n. in Wümme Bog east of Bremen. Also Hellwegen. Cf. Hellwinkel, Hellbrock etc. (hel is an old swamp word: Bahlow ON, p. 209).

Helm, Heims (freq. in Hbg.) besides Helm(e)eke is the LGer. sh.f. of Helmold, Helmbold, Helmwig, Helmrich, Helmbrecht, Helmbern. 1528 in Han.: Helmeke Dethmering. Hence patr. Helmker (Westph.) like Öhlker, Ötker und Helmsen (Helmsing) like Wilmsen, Almsen. Helmchen is Centr.Ger, Helmel, Helmle are UGer. (Helmelin,Würt. 1270, Helmlein = Helmhart,Kremsmünster 1380). In UGer. area Helm (protection of the head) may also be a name for a helmet smith or a soldier wearing a helmet; cf. Joh. underm Helm [under the helmet], Stuttgart 1350, Knight Albrecht called Helm,Baden 1273; Elbel Helm,Eger 1395, Andreas Helm,Prague 1404, there also helmer, heimsmid, helmschrot.

Helmberg(er): from Helmberg/Bav.

Helmbold(t): the old Ger. pers.ns. ending in -bald, -bold ‘bold, brave’ occur mostly in the UGer.-Franc. area. Long form: Hellenbold,Brsl. 1348 Oike Hellenbrecht,Brsl.).

Helmbrecht: name became a Franc.-Bav. pers.n. through the MHG epic about the peasant son, Meier Hehnbrecht by Wernher der Gärtner, around 1250. Cf. pl.n. Helmbrechts in U.Franc., Upper Pal.. Long form: Hellenbrecht,Brsl. 1254, Arnold Hellenbrecht,Liegnitz 1349 (also in Görl., Prague, Freiberg, Pirna, Pößneck); in Sil. later Hellbrecht, Häblicht (Görlitz) also Halbracht.

Helmburg (Hellenborch,Stralsund 1280, Lüb., Hbg.): noble fem. f.n.

Helmdag, Helmdach (Han., Bremen): L.Sax.-Fris. pers.n. (shining like a bright day), as early as 1322 in Bremen. Cf. Heildag, Aldag (Oldach), Reddag, Siddag. Long form: Helme(n)tag (cf. Allentag); see also Aldag.

Helmer: UGer. (Bav., Aust.) = ‘helmet smith’. Conrad der helmere zumftmeister [C., guild master of the helmet makers], Basel 1290, Henr. Freiberger helmer,Prague 1404. But LGer. = Hilmer (Hildemar). Helmer Seeger, Flensburg 1602.

Helmerding: LGer.-Westph. patr. like Elverding, Humperding, Deterding, etc., from Helmward. Cf. Helmeke Helmerdinges,Han. 1452. Contracted Helmering like Hilbering (from Hilberding). For Helmert see also UGer. Helinhart.

Helmers, Hellmers (LGer., Hbg., Bremen freq.) is a younger variant of Hilmers (from Hildemars), like Hel(l)mer vs. Hilmer, see there.

Helmger: rare UGer. pers.n. like Bernger, Engelger; knight Hellenger,Alsace 1224, Heinz Helnger,Würt. 1373.

Helmhart (UGer.): rare old Ger. pers.n.; Helmhart (Helmlein) der Anhanger, Kreinsmünster/Aust. 1380.

Helmhol(t)z, name became famous through the physicist Hermann v. H., derives from old Ger. pers.n. Helmold (see there) as Arnholtz from Arnold, Huhnholtz from Hunold, Weinholtz from Weinold, all in the N Ger. region; -old was reinterpreted as -hold,-holt and “standardized” to -holz along with the advance of NHG (during Luther’s time); this becomes evident in the church registers from around 1600. Also see Weinholtz.

Helmich see Hellmich.

Helm(i)chen (Centr.Ger.) see Helmecke.

Helming (LGer.): patr. of Helmrich etc. Thid. Helminges,Hbg. 1273; pl.n. Helmingdorp,Lippe 1369.

Helming(er): Mnch., pl.n. Helming freq. in Bav.

Helmkampf in Westph. = Hellenkamp like Bremenkamp, Gallenkamp = ‘swampy field’.

Helmke (Han., Hbg., Bremen) see Helm(s). Also for Helmker.

Helmle, Helmel (Würt., Baden) see Helm, Helmhart.

Helmold: once a popular pers.n. in N Germany (around 1250-1350 freq. in Lüneburg, Hbg., Lüb., Ro.), known there through the priest Helmold (12th c.) in Bosau on Plöner See [Lake], author of the Chronicle of the Slavs. Helmold (Helmerich)of Warne, Ro. 13th c., Helmold Reders, Lüneburg 1356, Helmold Thurcke, Han. 1306, Helmold Helmolds,Hildesheim 1440; Helmholt Schomaker, Meckl. 1586 and still 1612 Helmold Schnemann in Göttingen; also Helmlott besides Helmold in Meckl. document register (UB), vol. 17, cf. Humblot (Humbold). Used as f.n. by the Meckl. nobility as late as 1800, since then it evidently became our f.n. Helmut, see there.

Helmrich, Helmrichs, UGer. Helmreich: old Ger. pers.n. (rich = ‘mighty’). Helmerik (Helmold),Ro. 13th c., Helmerik Helmeriks,Stralsund 1309.

Helms, Helmsen, Helmsing see Helm.

Helmschmied (UGer.): Conrad Helmsmid,Prague 1338 (also in Freiberg, Brsl.), cf. Helmer; hence LGer. helmsleger (Barth, Greifsw., Lüb., Ro.).

Helmschrot(t): from MHG schrôten ‘to crush, smash with a sword’, schrôt ‘blow, cut’, surname of a tough old soldier. Enderlin Helmschrot,Iglau 1359. Cf. Schildeschroter in old Brsl.

Helmstedt: in old documents Helmenstede,from river pl.n. Helme (Helmana);see Bahlow ON, p. 210.

Helmund see Hellmund.

Helmut see Hellmuth. Not recorded as f.n. in the Middle Ages. Not until 1390 a Helmet Moltmeker in Lüneburg, where Helmold was common. Then 1598 in Wodarge/Meckl.: Helmut Schomaker. Probably the similarity with Helmold (see there) helped it advance as f.n. in Meckl. nobility around 1800, thus Helmuth v. Moltke. Cf. Meckl. dialect writer Helmut Schröder (see Bahlow, VN,p. 47).

Helmwig see Hellmich.

Helpap (LGer.) see Hellpape.

Helper (LGer.) see Helfer. A Helpere in Hbg. 1256.

Helweg(e) see Hellwege.

Helwert see Hilwert.

Helwig: popular pers.n. in the Middle Ages, see Helbig. Helwig of Bunzlau, Brsl. 1264, Helwig and Hannus, sons of Hentschel Helwig,Liegnitz 1375; Helwig Hase, Frkf. 1387, HeIwig glaswrechte, Ro. 1290; Helwig Hassenpflug, Hesse 1549. Patt. Hans Helwiger,Görlitz 1468.

Hemberle see Hemmerle: Hammer.

Hembold see Heimbold. Cf. pl.n. Heimboldshausen near Hersfeld.

Hembrecht see Heimbrecht.

Hembs = Heimbs, see Heimes.

Hemer: cf. pl.n. Hemer near Iserlohn (doc. Hede-mere), but also the Westph. field n. “bei den Hemern”, “im Hemerach”, = ‘swampy places in woods and meadows’ (see Bahlow ON, p. 206). Joh. Hemere (dominus [landlord, land owner]), Stralsund 1297.

Hemesath see Heimsoth.

Hemfler see Hanf.

Hemke(n) see Hemme(ke). Homke is also a pl.n. near Bramsche (from: Hem-beke). Hemkhaus, Hemminghaus: Westph. pl.n. (Heminghus). Hentleben, shortened Hemmleb, Hemlep: pl.n. on the Unstrut River (also Memleben; see Bahlow ON, p. 206). Cf. Memleb, Briegleb, Witzleb; Hartleb, Hartlepp; Ortlepp, Uthlepp, etc. (List in Bahlow DN, p. 93).

Hemling (Hbg.): pl.n. Hemelingen near Bremen.

Hemm: pl.n. near Stade, but see Hemme.

Hemmann (UGer.). according to old documents = Hanmann = Johannes, as in U.Rhine area (Baden, Alsace). Hemman (Johan) Löselin 1350, Hemman (Haneman) v. Liebeck 1391, Henman (Haman) v.Offenburg 1379 (Nied, p. 20). But in old Brsl.: Henman (Heinman) v. Woycesdorf 1295. For N Ger. Hemmann (Hbg.) cf. pl.n Hemme: Fred. Hemman,Bremen 1333 besides Herbord von Hemme,Bremen 1299.

Hemme, Hemmecke, Hemmes, Hemming (Hemingson), Hemmenga: all Fris., related to Hemmert, Heimbert like Remme, Remmert, Reimbert. Hemmeke Bremering 1428, Hemke Hyllerdes 1542, Hemmeke Hemminges 1428, Hemme Frerykes, Frisia 16th contury. A pl.n. Hemme in Holstein. Cf. Thid. Hemeke,Han. 1347.

Hemmer: cf. pl.n. Hemmern on the Möhne River.

Hemmerath: Rhineland pl.n. ending in -rode, likewise Beckerath, Hilberath.

Hemmerding (Westph. patr.): related to Hemmert, Hemmers = Heimbert, like Remmerding to Reimbert.

Hemmerich: changed by dialect from Homberg or Heimberg, see Hammerich. Documented in Franc. der Heimberge, Heimburge = mayor of a village (from MHG heimbürge). See Nied, p.68. A pl.n. Hemmerich in Rhineland.

Hemmerling, Hemmerle see Hammer.

Hemmersam: from Hemmersheim/Franc.

Hemming (Fris.) see Hemme, Cf. pl.n. Hemmingstedt. But Hemminger (UGer.): pl.n Hemmingen in Würt.

Hempel, Hempler, Hemprich, Hempe, Hemp see Hampe(l). Cf Hempe Rote, Brsl. 1366, Hempel Mechthilt, Dux 1390.

Hempfer (UGer.) see Hanf.

Hemptemnacher, Himpternacher (LGer.): MLG hemete, LGer. Himten was a (wooden) grain measure.

Hems (LGer.-Fris.) see Heimes. For Hemsen (Hbg.) also cf. pl.n. Hemsen near Soltau.

Hemshorn (Hbg.): cf. pl.n. Hemsloh near Diepholz, pl.n. Hemslar (Hemschlar) near Berleburg, Hemslingen on the Wümme River (hem ‘swamp, bog’: Bahlow ON, p. 206). Also Hem-moor on the Oste River.

Hemoth, Hemsath see Heimsoth.

Hemstedt: see Hemshorn.

Hen(c)ke, Hincke: LGer.-Westph. nickname of Henrich, Hinrich. Henke Hermen 1410, Henke Druden, Lippe 1488. Hence Grotehenke, Brokhinke etc. Patr. Henkken(s), Henking, Henker, Henkeler, Henkmann, also Hinken(s), Hinksen. In Sil. Henke is dial. variant of Heinke (Heinrich): Henke (Heinke) Dresden, Brsl. 1362, see Hincke.

Hen(c)kel see Heinkel. L.Rhine variant is Henckels (Solingen), Westph.: Henkelke, Henkelking.

Hendel, patr. Hendler, see Händel.

Hendeschuch, Hendschug see Handschuh.

Hendewerk see Handwerk.

Hendrich, patr. Hendrichs, Hendricks (Rhineld. Dricks) is LGer. form of Heinrich (see there). Cf. E Ger.-Slav. Hendriock, Handrischke.

Henfler see Hanf.

Henf(t)ling, Hempfling: surname of a bird seller. Cf. Stieglitz, Zeisig, Goldammer, etc. Nicolaus Henffling,Zittau 1419.

Hengehold (LGer.-Westph.) means ‘swampy woods’ (like Hengewood in Engld.); cf. Hengelo, Henge-lar, Hengeford, the Hengschlade (near Meschede), etc. For more info. see Bahlow ON, p. 196, 211.

Heng(e)ler (Hbg.): cf. pl.n. Hengeler near Dorsten, Henglarn near Paderborn and Hangelar near Bonn (see Hengehold). UGer. Hengel, Henglein probably (like MHG hengel) = Henkel [handle], Hängsel, Haken [hook]. Also cf. Henger = Henker [executioner]. Hengelhut in old Brsl. means floppy hat. Hengelhaupt, Henkelhaupt: from MHG hengelhoubten ‘to hang one’s head’. In Bohemia 1377 Nic. Hengel (Henkel).

Henggi (Switz.) see Hänggi.

Hengst, Hengstmann, LGer. Hingst, Hingstmann: also Hengstmeyer, Hengstwirth, probably owner of a stallion (horse breeder). Also cf. Kaphengst, Drücktenhengst, Hengstler. In some cases Hengst is loc.n. (meaning an elevation) or house n. (zum Hingst; domus Hengst). Heile Hengest,Speyor 1337, Cunzel Hengist,Budweis 1385; Ebbert Hengstmann,Han. 1476. For the pl.ns. Hengstbeck, Hengstlage, Hengsthorst, Hengstey, Hengstwerth (Hengsten), Hengeslar, and Hengster (Henges-hor 1289), swampy woods near Offenbach, see Bahlow ON, p. 211.

Hengstenberg (patrician family in Dortmund): pl.n. on the Ruhr. Known through 19th c. Ernst Wilhelm H., prominent Protestant theologian in Berlin.

Hengvoß (LGer.) like Ackervoß, Dickvoß, Sandvoß named for the place of dwelling, see Hengehold.

Henjes (Hbg.) = Hennies = Henniges, Hennigs: see Hennings.

Henke, Henkel see Hencke, Henckel.

Henkenhaf (Karlsruhe), Henkenschuh means potter or shoemaker, resp., from hanging out their wares. Also cf. Henkemantel,Ingelheim 1313, Heidelbg. 1369, probably for an old-clothesman [Mantel = ‘coat’] or a secondhand dealer.

Henle (UGer.) see Hähnel and Händel. Cf. Heinrich called Henli,Spaichingen 1280. The inventor of the watch, Peter Henlein,Nbg. around 1500, is also recorded as (contracted form) Hele (hence the FN Hehl). Henlin Menczel, Würzburg 1409, Henlin Hildeger, Glatz 1352.

Henne (Hesse, Westph.): the usual sh.f. of Johannes in Hesse in the Middle Ages; cf. Henne Gensfleisch zum Gutenberg = Joh. Gutenberg in Mainz, Henne Glyme, Frkf. 1387, Henne Eschewege, Kassel 1485, Henneman Weichebrod, Kassel 1427. Heinkel Henne,Frkf. 1398, Bernhard Lybehenne,Kassel 1489. But compounds like Hennenkopf, Hennenflügel, Hennenfuß (old Brsl.), Hennheppel (Moravia) are surnames of poultry breeders: mit der hennen in Brsl. A Hennfeynt in Prague 1397. Hennenfind in Brsl.

Henneberg: pl.n. near Meiningen (formerly Thur. county).

Hennefahrt (Thur.-Franc.): corrupted from Heinefrid, Heinefert like Rennefahrt from Reinefrid or Reinefert; cf. Hennemuth besides Heinemuth.

Henne(c)ke (LGer.): popular nickname for Johannes, from Bremen to Danzig around 1300-1400 (also cf. Henning). Henneke = Henning = Johannes Wulf, Ro. 1442, Henneke Joh.Ertmars, Stralsund 1304, Henneke = Joh.Elmars, Greifswald 1310.

Hennemann see Henne (= Johann). Henneman Weichebrod, Kassel 1427.

Hennen: LGer. patr. of Henne (Johann), see there. Cf. Fris. Mennen.

Henner (Baden, Pal.) = Heiner = Heinrich. Cf. Hofhenner, Schmitthenner (writer Adolf Sch., Baden).

Hennies, Henjes, Hennigs (LGer. patr.) see Hennings.

Hennig (Henning): in old documents in Sil. and Lausitz = Johannes, at times = Heinrich. See Hannig. Nitsche Hennyng,Liegnitz 1389. P. Hennig,Görlitz 1421. For more info. see Bahlow SN, p. 60.

Henning: in LGer. area (Han., Hbg., Holstein, Meckl., Pom.) around 1300-1500 popular nickname for Johannes like Henneke, with LGer. -ing, which is originally a suffix for a patr.; name was first used by the (feudal) nobility. Henning = Joh.Older, Stralsund 1290, Henning = Joh.Brunswik, Kolberg 1305, Henning =Joh. Dotenberg (knight), Greifswald 1326, Count Henning of Irkesleve, Haldsl. 1330, Henninck Mertzel a nobleman, 1374 near Hbg., Henning Henninges,Greifsw. 1426; still in 17th c. (a f.n. in Holstein still today): Henning Ruscheplat, Landdrost [district governor] near Hamelin, Henning Woyke, mayor, Neustettin 1681. Hence Hennings, Henningsen (freq. in Hbg.).

Henninger (UGer.): freq. in Würt-Baden and Franc. from pl.n. Henning or Heiningen (cf. Henner: Heiner); not from Königheim (as Nied, p. 70, and Brech., p. 699 claim), which was Kennenkeim in 14th c. (the one-time Hennenkein 1371 is a spelling or reading error). Joh. Henninger,Vaihingen 1489. Cf. Hans Hemminger,Vaih. 1486, from pl.n. Hemmingen.

Henrich(s), Henrichsen, Henrici see Heinrich. Cf. Möhlenhenrich [mill Henry] in Westph.

Hensch, Henschel, Henschke see Hentschel.

Henschenmeker see Handschuh.

Hense, Heusen, Hensing (LGer.) = Hans (Johannes) with umlaut (-ä- phonetically spelled -e-).

Hensel, Hänsel (cf. Hänsel and Gretel): most popular nickname of Hans from Johannes (see Hans) in UGer.-Sil. area, with Sil. -a-for -e-also Hansel; enlarged with -old: E Centr.Ger. Hensolt (like Petz-old). Hensel mit den liben owgen [H. with the friendly eyes] = Hannus m. d. l. awgen, Liegnitz 1372-85, farmer Johannes called Hänset,Isny 1363. Patr. Renseler:Hans der Henseler,Würt. 1364.

Hensiek: Westph. loc.n. (siek = ‘moist, marshy lowlands’); for the swamp word hen,Dutch hean ‘gully, channel, stream’, cf. Hen-schlade in Westph., see Bahlow ON, p. 212.

Hentig (Lausitz) see Hantig.

Hentrich, Herntrich (Eichsfold, Thur.): like Hendrich = Heinrich, in docum. sometimes confused with Heidenreich, e.g. in Jena 1519: Nickel Hentricht = Hendtrich = Hentreich = Heindtreich = Heidenreich!

Hentschel, Henschel (U.Lausitz, Sil.), also Hen(t)schelmann: around 1300-1400 popular nickname of Johannes (Hensel). Hentschel = Hensel Pechman, Brsl. 1369, Hentschel = Hensel stellemecher [cartwright], Liegnitz 1382, Hentschel = Hantsche Grofeenderlin, Liegnitz 1411-24. Hence Liebehenschel. Patr. Henschler (like Hensler): Henczeler,1392 near Eger. At times name comes from Heinrich as Heynel (Henczel),Iglau 1372.

Hentscher see Handschuh.

Hentsch(ke), Hensch(ke): Sil., Lausitz, like Hentschel = Hantsch = Johannes, less freq. = Heinrich. See also Hanschke. Henczke = Heynczke = Heinke v. Öls,Brsl. 1370, Heynczel (Heinrich) Kiczinger, Brsl. 1346.

Hen(t)ze: like Hintze nickname for Heinrich, especially popular in LGer. region. Hence = Heinse = Henricus Vöge, Stralsund 1270, Hence (Henricus) Bitterolf, Ro. 1273. Hen(t)zen is L.Rhine patr.; UGer. cf. Henczman Lustel, Iglau 1369, Hentzman Harperg, Britzingen in Baden 1384, today Hentzmann. UGer. also Henzel(mann), Henzler.

Heper, Hepermann: Westph., from loc.n. Hepern near Büren (cf.Heppern near Waldeck). A Heppe River near Meschede, cf. pl.n. Heppen and Heepen in Westph., Hepstedt near Bremen. For hep ‘rotting wood, bog’ see Bahlow ON, p. 212.

Heppe, Heppel, Hepp(l)er (UG-.): surname of a winegrower, vintner or worker in a vineyard, from MHG hepe, heppe, happe ‘(curved) vintner’s knife’ (cf. heppenguot ‘statute property’, unowned property of a laborer or tenant). Also Hepperle (like Seuterle). See also Happ. Herman Heppe (Hepe),Mainz 1328, Heilo Heppele,Rhinehesse 1351, residence Heppel,Tauber (river) 1390, Nikodemus Hepper,Reutlingen 1583, Jos. Hepperlin,Kürnbach 1527, Auberlin Heppeler,Stuttgart 1503. For pl.n. Heppen near Soest: P. van Heppen,Soest 1300.

Hep(p)ner: UGer.-Sil. unrounded form of Höppner ‘hop farmer’, rarer Heptner (Höptner). Langehannus der heppener (hoppener),Liegnitz 1429-26.

Hepting, Hepding, Hobding (UGer.): probably not = Epting (pl.n. Ewattingen/Baden according to Nied, p. 35 and Brech., p. 700). But rather from Aust. pl.n. Hebeting,now Höbeting. There was no FN Hepting in Würt.-Baden in the Middle Ages until 1602 in Rohrbach.

Herb (UGer.): a harsh person, see Harbsleben. Jesco Herb,Olmütz 1375.

Herbel see Herbord.

Herbener (Hbg.) may be a Westph. patr. (besides Herben), like Drudener (besides Druden) and Figener (besides Figen) in Lippe.

Herber(s) see Herbert and Harber(s). Herpers.

Herberg, Herberger: owner of a lodging inn (from MHG her-berge which originally meant army shelter, then night lodging for travelers, in Sil. dialect Herberich, Herbrig, hence FN Herbrig, Herbricht in Sil.) A Niclos Kaldeherberger,Brsl. 1387 (named for a lodging inn: ‘cold inn’). Valerius Herberger (Fraustadt), a well-known writer of church hymns.

Herbert (old Ger. Heri-berht ‘shining in the army’): UGer. FN is Herbrecht, Rhineland Her(i)bertz (archbishop of Col.), LGer. Harbert, Harbers (patr. Harberding, Harbring/Westph.), see there. In LGer. region also cf. Herbord. Both names occasionally run together in old documents Herberius (Herbart, Herburdus) de Stuterslo, Werden/Ruhr 1401. Herbart is famous from the philosopher J. F. H. from Oldenburg. For the f.n. Herbert (in vogue around 1900) see Bahlow, VN,p. 48. UGer. patr. Haintz Herbrechter,Reutlingen 1360.

Herbig, Herbing see Herwig.

Herbold (Baden). Herpoldt (UGer.): rare old Ger. pers.n. Cf. Bertold Herbolds Sohn [B. H.’s son], Lochheim/Nassau 1209, knight Walther Herbolder (patr.), Lindau 1252. Also pl.n. Herbolzheim (in Franc., Baden freq.).

Herbord, Hubord (LGer.): Germanie bord ‘shield rim, shield’. In the Middle Ages popular pers.n. from Westph. to Pom., Dutch Heereboord. Nickname Borde(ke),see there. Herbord,son of Herbord,Lüb. 1300, Herbord Meibom, Ro. around 1250, HerbordBordeken,Han. 1408, Bordeke of Brakel, Stettin 1350. Centr.Ger. form was Herbort:Herbort of Fritzlar was a poet at the court of Hermann of Thur. around 1220, became known for his epic Song of Troy.Cf. Herbort Clemme, Brsl. 1371; Herbert, Moravia 1297, Fridel Herbart,Eger 1395, for the form cf. Schubort: Schubart. Note Rhinehess. nickname: Herbelin (Herbord) zum Lamme, Mainz 1342, Herbel Hiltwin, Algesheim near Bingen 1347, Herbelo fil. Herbelonis [son of Herbel] Mainz 1315.

Herboth, Harboth: corresponds to the Germanic pers.n. Hario-baudes (Heri-bod), king of the Alemannians around 400; means ‘master of the army’, cf. Sig-bod (Sibot: Seibt), Mar-bod (Merobaudes): Mirbt.

Herbrand Bav. Hörbrand, LGer. Haarbrandt: cf. “Hiltibrant Heribrantes sunu [H. the son of Heribrant] in the heroic epic Hildebrandslied around 800 (brand =‘flaming sword’, hêr =‘army’).

Herbrecht see Herbert. Cf. pl.n. Herbrochtingen in Würt.

Herbrig, Herbricht (Sil.) see Herberg.

Herbsleben [rough life]: Hensel Herbsleben,Prague 1363, Anderl Harbslaben,Budweis 1411 (cf. Herbsweter, Moravia 1414). Similarly Freiesleben [free life], Sanftleben [easy life]. But see Herbstleb.

Herbst: [fall, autumn] like the FNs Sommer and Winter, may be explained from a seasonal obligation of the peasants or vintners to pay taxes (from MHG herbesthuon [fall labor], herbesschaf [sheep], herbesgarbe [sheaf], herbesvronde [statute labor], herbesbete, all are taxes (to be paid in fall); MHG herbest also = ‘grape harvest’. Cf. Herbstmeister, Herbstmayer. Marquart Herbst,Würzburg 1220, Nitsche Herbist,Liegnitz 1372, Herbisthane,Wetzlar 1320. See LGer. Harfst (Harvest).Herbster probably means vintner, grape picker.

Herbstleb: = pl.n. Herbstleben on the Unstrut River, cf. Memleb, Hernleb, Witzleb, etc. But see Herbsleben.

Herbstritt, Herbstrieth, Herbstreuth, Herbstreith: pl.n. Herbstreuth near Bayreuth (cf. Herbisried, Memmingen). Chuno Herewistiute 1109, Herburg, Herborg: metr., especially in LGer. region was a popular (noble) fem. F.n. in the Middle Ages. Cf. domina [lady] Herborg (Hereborch),Stralsund 1285. Cristian filius [son of] Herburgis,Hbg. around 1300. In the same area: Gerburg, Eilburg, Hildburg, Walburg, Lutburg, Litburg, Alburg, He(i)lburg, Wendelburg, Fredeburg, Helmburg, Otburg, Wiburg, Siburg, Swaneburg.

Herch, Herche, Herch(n)er, (Sax., Lausitz, Bohemia) see Hürche and Hirche. Cf. N. Herche,Friedland/Bohemia 1381, Henr. Herch,Saar/Moravia 1357.

Herchenröder, Hergenröther: from Herchenrode or Hergenroth in Hesse. Cf. Allmenröder, Blumenröder, Bleichröder.

Hercks, Hercksen (Fris.) see Harcks, Harcksen.

Herde (LGer.): freq. in Hbg., see Harde. Cf. Herdemerten(s): Martin the shepherd. Does not derive from pl.n. Herda on the Werra like Herde in Westph.) since the old pl.n. was Herithi (see Bahlow ON p. 213), which is based on har, her ‘dirty water’.

Herdecke: pl.n. near Wetter on the Ruhr (see Bahlow, p. 213). Also cf. LGer. f.n. Herdeke (= Herdrad),Lüb. 1358 or = Herdeger.Wulveke Herdeke.Lüb. 1320.

Herdegen (LGer. Hardegen, see there), Heerdegen (Thur., Franc.), Hördegen (Bav.), contracted Herden, Herdein (from Hesse to Sil.): old Ger-Franc. pers.n., from MHG. degen = ‘young hero’ (compare NHG Haudegen), see Degen, Degenhard. A Breslau councillor Herdegen (Herden)was documented 1266 (see Bahlow SN, p. 41); furthermore Herdegen (Herden) Faltzner, Prague 1394 (Nbg. 1408), Herdeyn,Erfurt 1311, Herdein (Herden) in Bav. 1277, Herdan schuwurcht [shoemaker], Brsl. 1348, Herdan der koch [the cook], Frkf. 1383, Heyle Herden,1365 near Worms, Petsche Herdan,Liegnitz 1383. SeealsoHardegen. For Bav. Hördegen cf. Hörmann.

Herden see Herdegen. But cf. Hans (von) Herden,Thur. 1603: from pl.n. Herda on the Werra River.

Herder: like the writer, poet and philosopher J. G. Herder (from E Prussia) his name stems from the N Ger. region; it used to be a popular Fris.-LGer. pers.n., with the LGer. sound change er: ar after 1300 also Harder (Harders), freq. in Hbg.-Bremen (in Flensburg 1562 still Harder Vake). Also cf. Hirdir of the epic Thidreks Saga,a brother ofHertnid, both are from the clan of the “Hardinge”. Herder Hokeman, Stralsund 1288, Herder(us) also in Greifswald, Ro., Lüb., Holstein. Patr. Herdering, Hardering.

Herderer (UGer.), shortened Herder (in Breisgau): from Herdern (in Baden, Thurgau), Gotfrid von Herdern 1291, Rüdiger Herderer (Herder),Würt. 1324. In some cases UGer. Herder is a dialect variant of MHG herter ‘shepherd’, cf. Herdrich = Hertrich. In Würt. also a field n. “auf den Herdern” (1455), see Brech., p. 702.

Herdle, Herdler (Swab.) see Härtel.

Herdrich, Hördrich see Hertrich.

Herdt (UGer.): from MH herte, hert ‘hard, coarse, crude’. Joh. called Hert,near Zurich 1378. Otherwise (as in Frkf.) also nickname for Hertwig, Hertwin: Herte Hasenstaup 1387, Herte Goltstein, Frkf. 1387 (Cf. Orte for Ortwin). But LGer. hert ‘stag’ (NHG Hirsch) appears today as Hardt, Hart (cf. Hert, Hart 1262 meant ‘stag’ in Ro.). The name Hans hinder dem herde [H. behind the stove] derived from a house name, Liegnitz 1380.

Hereth, Höreth, Hiereth (Bav., Aust.) = Herold, see there, or Herrand; cf. Geretsberg/Aust.: 1120 Geroltsporg; Heretsried on the Lech.

Herfa(h)rt, Herrfardt, Her(r)forth, Her(r)furth, Her(r)fert (from Thur. to Sil.) = MHG mer-vart ‘war expedition’, or for participants of it; cf. Merforth for MHG mer-vart ‘voyage, sea expedition’. Heinrich hervart,Freiberg/Sax. 1392, Nikel Herffart (Herfort),Jena 1487, Hans Herferth,Neiße district 1465. Hans Herfurt,Jena 1446. A certain C. Heregelt [army money], Lüb. 1340. In N Ger. Herford refers to the city in Westph.: Albertus de Hervorde,Greifswald 1359.

Herfert see Herfahrt. Likewise Herfurth. But Herfer (Brsl.) = UGer. Herpfer ‘harpist’.

Herff (von): from the creek and pl.n. Herfa or Herpf near Vacha on the Werra River or near Meiningen, in 779 Herifa ‘swamp water’ (see Bahlow ON, p. 213).

Hergardt (L.Rhine) see Hersel.

Herger, Hergert (UGer.): Heri-gêr means ‘spear fighter of an army’. Name is known through the traveling minstrel Herger around 1150. Cf. pl.n. Hergersdorf, Hergershausen/Hesse. For Hörger (Bav.) cf. Hörmann for Hermann. A Hergerus in Bremen 1300.

Hergesell (UGer.) = ‘military or war companion’, fellow knight in battle. Ulrich der Hergeselle (nobleman), Würt. 1287; in Aust. Hiergesell.

Herglotz see Herklotz.

Hergt, Herget (Franc.) is contracted from Her(r)gott, likewise Weigt from Weigand or Seibt from Sibot, Mirbt from Merbot. A cleric Hergothilf [Lord God help!], 1363 near Prague; Hergot faber [smith], Iglau 1373, Heinrich Herregot, Frkf. 1284. Frommerhergot hessen.

Herhahn: pl.n. in Eifel, -hahn = -hain [grove].

Herholdt, Herholtz see Herold.

Herich, Härich, Hörich (E Centr.Ger.) see Hering.

Hering: occurs throughout and mostly means a herring dealer (MHG heringer), cf. Hensel hering (heringer), Brsl. 1352-1360, Ruland der heringer, Liegnitz 1435, Nic, Heringer = Nic. alleca vendens [N. selling fish broth], Prague 1410 (cf. the writer Willibald Alexis, whose name originally was Häring!). In old Brsl. four persons named Hering: they are distinguished as “the white, the blind, the bald, the beaten Hering”. A vivid name is Heringlake [herrinz brine]. Hence Brathering [fried herring] (freq. on the Fischland Island in Meckl.), Sauerhering, all of them occupational surnames; also Höring (Bav.), Haring (LGer., see there) along with Haringweschere [herring washer, cleaner], Lüb., Hbg. around 1300, Haringmester in Ro. where Joh. Haring occurs as early as 1290. In some cases from a house name: Hertwig zumHeringe, Oppenheim 1314.

Herke(n) (LGer., Fris.) see Harcken. Likewise Herking.

Herkel, Herkle (UGer.): unclear sh.f., cf. Herkelmann. Herklin of Lurunge, Würzburg 1409. Herklin,1351near Waiblingen.

Herkelmann: see Herkel.

Herkenrath: pl.n. near Col., (-rath = -rode meaning a clearing), name becomes clear through pl.ns. Herkenbusch, Herkenstede, Herkensee, Herkensen on Herks Creek near Hamelin, Herkeloo/the Netherlands, Herkstrot and Herk Creek in Brabant; “In der Herke” in Westph., Herken Hills in Westph. (herk, hark ‘dirt‘, see Bahlow ON, p. 214).

Herker, Herkert see Herkner.

Herklotz, Heerklotz, Härklotz, Herkloß, Heerklotzsch; Herglotz-. Sax.-Thur., uninterpreted as yet, obviously Slavic.

Herkner: probably unrounded form of Hörckner (in Görlitz), cf. pl.n. Horka near Görl. (old: Hörcke). Nitsche Hörkner, Friedland in Bohemia 1381, likewise M. Hurkner (Olmütz), cf. pl.n. Horka on the March (1363 Hurken); Cuncz gener [son-in-law] Herkner,Iglau 1381. Also cf. pl.n. (FN) Herkewitz.

Herkom(m)er: from Herkheim/Bav., likewise Vollkommer, Vollkammer, etc.

Herkt see Hergt.

Herlein, Herl(e), Herrle (patr. Herrler): UGer. nickname of Hermann. Herlin servus [servant], Liegnitz 1315, Herlin Rülbner, Mies/Bohemia 1362. Likewise Hierl (Aust.). In Bav. Hörl, Hörlin (1388 Herel).

Herlet see Herold.

Herling, Herrling (UGer.), also Hörling (Bav.). probably patr. of Hermann (nickname Herle) like Gerling (Görling) of Gerold, etc. Hardly from MHG plant name herlinc ‘common groundsel’ [Senecio vulgaris]. For Herrling also cf. pl.n. Herrlingen near Ulm.

Herloff, Herleff (of. Herlufsen): old Ger. pers.n. Herolf, likewise Gerloff, Gerleff for Gerolf. As early as 500 A.D. a Burgundian Hari-ulf (‘army wolf’).

Herlt, Herlet see Herold.

Hermann, Herrmann, Bav. Hörmann, Aust. Hiermann, LGer, Harmen: famous old Ger. pers.n. (see Bahlow, VN, p. 49), cf. Duke of the Saxons, Hermann Billung around 950, Landgrave Hermann of Thur. (patron of MHG poets around 1200) and many others; was revived as f.n. by Klopstock and the Romantics (around 1800). (Cf. Goethe’s long poem Hermann und Dorothea). Alsosee Herms, Hesse, Menzel.

Hermannutz (Würt.) = Uotzeherman (1342) = Ulrich Hermann. Cf. Fleschutz, Schmidutz.

Herms (Hermes), Hermsen are LGer. patronymics of Herm = Hermann, with LGer. sound change er: ar in Harms, Harmsen, likewise Herm: Harm. Hence the nickname Herm(e)ke (LGer.): Luder Hermeken,Oldenburg 1457, Hermeke (Herman),Travemünde 1278, patr. Hermeking (in Westph., like Gödeking, Lüdeking); also Hermeling, Hermeler (Lippe 1595); Hermichen. Hermle, Hermel is UGer.

Hermuth, Herrmuth: rare old Ger. pers.n.; Hermodus (councillor), Kolberg 1309 (cf. King Heremod,a Dane, in Beowulf).

Herntrich see Hentrich.

Herold: was a popular f.n. in the Middle Ages (Germanic Hariowald ‘leader in the army’), was mentioned by Tacitus as leader of the Batavians. In some cases MHG heralt ‘herald, messenger’ might be involved. Corrupted forms Herholdt, Höhrold, Hierold (Aust.), Herholz, Hörholz; with the l switched: Herl(e)t (Franc.-Thur.) like Berlet, cf. in Liegnitz 1491 “Petern dem herlat” [instead of heralt ‘herold’]; Bav. Hörldt. In Frisia: Hajo Harelda 1383 (Harrelt, likewise Gerold: Garrelt). As f.n.: Herold Reinfrid, Franc. 1323, Herold Hengestberg, Sax. 1417, Herold Hock, Würzburg 1343, Haroldus,Hbg. 1251.

Herpel: UGer.-Rhine nickname of Herpold, Herprecht, Herport. Cf. Herpe Kappus, Frkf. 1352, Phil. Herpel,Worms 1537. See under Herbel. A pl.n. Herpel (Harpe-lo) near Olpe, Herpen (Harpene)/the Netherlands. Herpers (LGer.-L.Rhine) besides Herperts (= Herberts) like Alpers, Volpers (= Volkberts). But Herpfer (UGer.), Härpfer, Centr.Ger. Herfer = ‘harpist’: Rüdeger Härpfer (Bav. minstrel 1220), Herpher Jekel, Iglau 1377.

Herpich (Lpz.) see Herbich.

Herr, Herre (UGer.): in the service of a lord, thus also a peasant name as in U.Rhine area Peter Herre (peasant) 1329. Cf. Herren-becker, Herren-müller, Herren -Schmied [smith], Herren-knecht [farmhand], Herren-schwager. At times the name refers to a lord (Cuonrat plebanus nomine Herre [C.,the citizen or burgher, called H.], 1235 near Lörrach). Likewise Herde (unless Herrel = Herle = Hermann, Herrmann), Gotfried Herrelin,Würzburg 1296, also Herrlein, Heerlein. See also Grundherr, Halbherr, Selbherr, Schönherr, Liebherr. Sometimes lengthened: Heer, Halbheer, Eigenheer.

Herrad: noble fem. Ln., famous through Abbess H. of Landsberg (Alsaco) and her encyclopedia: Hortus deliciarum,around 1170. In Ro. 1275 as metr.: Joh. longus Herradis Rall J., son of Herrad], also in Han. 1315: Thid. Herradis.

Herrand (UGer.-Aust.): rare Germanic pers.n. like Bertrand (from OHG rand ‘rim of a shield, shield’, cf. Randolf). Name is known through the Styrian Herrand of Wildonie (MHG poet around 1260), ministerial. Several Herrands listed in the document register (Urkundenbuch) of Kremsmünster (as early as 1140). In Moravia 1414. Hans Herrant.

Herrgott see Hergt.

Herri(n)g: cf. pl.n. Herringen in Westph. or Herrig/L.Rhine, Herrgen, Herrchen (Centr.Ger.) is the equivalent of UGer. Herrelin ‘small lord’: Arnold Henichen,1295 near Gießen, Herrigel (Würt.) see Igel.

Herrle, Herrlein see Herr.

Herrlich see Herling. (Cf. Gerlich, Sperlich).

Herrling see Herling.

Herrmann see Hermann.

Herrnbrodt: receiving his bread [livelihood] from a lord or master, opposite: Eigenbrodt [one’s own bread].

Herrnring: like Güldenring probably a goldsmith who makes rings.

Herrschaft, Hirschoff. from MHG hêrschaft ‘dignity of a lord, pride’, but also ‘vassal lord (and his family)’, name probably meant a man liable to feudal service or taxes. Nic. Herscheftel,Prague 1341, Heinrich Herschaft,U.Bav. 1293.

Herrscher (UGer.): probably = Harscher, see there. Cf. Herster besides Harster, Cuntz der Herscher (tenant farmer), 1383 near Tübingen. Also Herrschner.

Hersch, Herschel, Herschmann: unless = Hirsch, Hirschel, Hirschmann (also Jewish), the Czech sh.f. Heresch (Hersch) = Hermann may be involved, cf. Hennannus alias Hersso,Olmütz 1397, Heresch Arunger, Olmütz 1413, Herscho Herborth, near Brünn 1400, Herusch in old Brsl., Dietel Herusch,Brünn 1365; Herseman (Herman)lebküchler [gingerbread baker], Prague 1362.

Herschhorn like Hirschhorn; Herschthal (Jewish); Herschtritt.

Herschleb like Hirschleb(er): from the Thur. pl.ns. ending in -leben. Cf. Hemleb, Memleb.

Herse (LGer.) = Hirse [millet], occupational surname, cf. hersemüller in Haldsl., Hennig Herse,Han. 1367.

Hersel: pl.n. near Bonn (like Her-sele, Flanders 977 A.D. = ‘swampy lowlands’: see Bahlow ON, p. 214; also cf. Hergardt: Hergarten, Aachen, Herigarda 864).

Hertbrich, Hartbrich (Sil.): from Hartenberg on the Eger (1265 Hertenberg) like Weißbrich: Weißenberg.

Herteisen see Härteiß.

Hertel (E Centr.Ger.-UGer.) see Härtel. Patr. Hertler.

Herter (UGer.), Hörter (Bav.) = MHG hertaere ‘shepherd’ of the town herd, Hans Herter,Moravia 1414, Hainrich der Herter,Würt. 1353, Knight Frid. Herter,Würt. 1267.

Hertig, Herting (E Centr.Ger.) = Hertwig, cf. pl.n. Hertigswalde/Sax. besides Hertwigswalde.

Hertling: like Hertlin, Hertlein from Hertwig, Hertwin, cf. pl.n. Hertlingshausen/Pal. A certain Hertwin Hertlich,Frkf. 1387, where sh.f. Hertle occurs freq.: Hertle oleyer 1387. Cf. Andreas Reichling (Reichlein),Franc. 1450.

Hertnagel (UGer.) see Hartnagel.

Hertneck: UGer. pl.n. ending in -eck.

Hertnid see Hartneid.

Hertrampf, Hartrampf (Hartrumpf): Sil. distorted from Hert(e)ranft (from MHG herte ‘hard’, ranft ‘rim, bread crust’, Sil. Ränftel ‘end of the loaf of bread’, LGer. Knust). Thus a surname for a pauper. Cf Hartebrodt (in Glatz) and Ranft, Rarnpft; in the Baroque novel Simplizissimus:Nagenranft [gnaw the crust]. Nicl. Herteranft,Görlitz 1437, N. Ranft,Glatz 1400, Hans Renftel,Liegnitz 1397.

Hertrich, Härttrich (UGer.): old Ger. pers.n. In U.Rhine area: Hertrich (knight) 1296, Joh. Hertrich (tailor); in Moravia:. Tilo Hertreich,Brünn 1365.

Hertweck (UGer.) means ‘hard roll (biscuit)’, surname of a baker, likewise Spitzweck (Spitzweg), Altweck, Butterweck.

Hertwig see Hartwig.

Hertwin (Hartwein): old Ger. pers.n. like Hertwig (win = ‘friend’), cf. Baldwin, Berwin, Gerwin, Trutwin, Goswin, Ortwin. Hertwin Becker, Wetzlar 1302, Hertwin Hertlich,Frkf. 1387, Joh. Hertwin (knight), Lorch/Rhine 1366.

Hertz- see Herz-.

Herwarth, Heerwarth, Herwerth see LGer. Harwardt. In UGer. area only as FN (alternating with Herwort, Herbort). Conrad Herwart (canon), Augsburg 1251. Berchtolt Herwart (Herbort),Eßlingen 1376; cf. the Augsburg patrician families Herwarth v. Bittenfeld and H. v. Hohenburg.

Herwig, Herbig (E Centr.Ger.), Herbing, Harbig (in Glatz): see Harbig. For sound change rw:rb compare Gerwig: Gerbig: Gerbing. In LGer. area: Harwig (since ca. 1300): Herwich Slippenese, Ro. 1301, Herwich kolere, Stralsund 1285. Younger variants: Herweg (documented e.g. in Quedlinburg 1739 for Herwig, 1623), cf. Hartweg. But Herweger (Hierweger) as well as Dietweger probably mean living on or by an army route (Heerweg, Heerstrage). Rudolf Herweger (peasant), 1228 near Zurich.

Herxemer: from Herxheim/Pal. (cf. Bockemer, Stockemer, etc.).

Herz, Hertz: in some cases name derives from the meaning ‘person with a (kind) heart’, cf. Frommherz [pious heart], Gutherz, Hochherz (Hogeherte), Idelherz (Worms 1352). But in other cases = Hirz ‘stag, red deer’ as in Herzberg, Herzfeld, Herzsprung. Sometimes Jewish as Herzel, Hersch, Herschel or Hirsch, Hirschel. Cf. Herzel (father and son), Mainz 1310. Martin Hercz,Iglau 1383.

Herzer, Hertzer, Härzer: in Thur. ‘from the Harz Mountains’, UGer. (along with Herzner) = ‘resin gatherer’ (herzen = ‘to cover with resin or tar’).

Herzig (E Centr.Ger-Sil.): through weaker stress on the second syllable of Herzog [duke] (see LGer. Hartog), likewise Knoblich from Knoblauch, Weihrich from Weihrauch; cf. Herczigenwalde 1425 (Herzogswaldau), Hans Herczigen (dative!) = H. Hertzog, Liegnitz 1561, Nikel Herzing (Herzog),Jena 1533. As peasant name probably indicating tax or rent obligations (to a duke): Berchtold Herzog,peasant in Muspach/U.Rhine around 1200.

Hesch see Heesch. But Heschredder (field n. near Hbg.) is the equivalent of Morredder near Hbg.

Heschele see Höschele.

Heschold, Heschel see Hetschold.

Hesebeck (Hbg.): bog village near Bevensen; also Heisebeck on the Weser 1151 was called Hesebike ‘bog creek’ (more info. in Bahlow ON, p. 208). Cf. Hese(mann).

Heseke see Heesch.

Hesekiel: the biblical prophet Ezekiel ‘God is strong’. Name is known through the minister and the writer Fr. and G. H., 19th c.

Heseler, Heßler: UGer.-Centr.Ger, name of origin from the pl.ns. (loc.ns.) Hasel, Hesel or Heßlar, Heßler, Häßler (Thur., Franc., Westph., Hesse). Nic. Hesler,Brünn 1343, Cunrad of Heseler (knight), Glatz 1287, Cunad Heseler (mayor in Liegnitz 1339), of the noble family named for a castle and town Heßlar in Thur. (Bahlow ON, p. 201). A Heinrich Heßler was a 14th c. poet.

Hesmert corresponds to the Bergisch pl.ns. Edemert (Ihmert), Ludemert, etc., all contracted from -bracht, -brecht (swampy thicket, underbrush), likewise Plettmert for Plettenbracht (Plettenberg). For hes see Hesebeck.

Hespe (Hbg.): pl.n. near Bückeburg. Cf. pl.n. Hesepe ‘bog creek’ on the Ems River.

Hespeler (UGer.): cf. Walther Hespler (Haspelar),Schwäb.-Gmünd 1278, Andreas Hespelin,Breisach 1625, Haspel 1359 in U.Bav., Joh. Haspi,Bohemia 1380. Name for a manufacturer of spools, bobbins or reels. But also cf. MHG haspelspil ‘buffoonery, clownery’.

Hess, Heß: refers in general to a member of the tribe of the Hessians like the FNs Franke [Franconian], Bayer [Bavarian], Schwabe [Swabian], Sachs [Saxon], Flemming [s.o. from Flanders], Friese [Frisian], Böhm [Bohemian], Pohl [Pole]; in some cases only a relationship with a certain tribe is implied. Cf. Margrave Rudolf of Baden, “who was called a Hessian” 1325. In U.Rhine area H. is also nickname for Hermann. Also Hessel, Hetzel: Hesso (Hesselin)in the pharmacy, Strasb. 1281, Hesso (Hezo),soldier around 1100, Hesso Sydelin, Schlettstadt/Alsace 1426, Herimannus qui ei Hezelo [Hermann who was also called Hezel] (bishop of Strasbg.) around 1050, Hesso and Hezelo (with son Herman!)were the founders of the monastery St. Georgen. Hetzel Marx (of Eckwersheim), a Strasbg. family 1339, whose members sat in the city council (Nied, p. 3).

Hesselbacher: pl.n. Hesselbach freq. from Franc. to Hesse.

Hesselbart, Hässelbart, Höselbart (Thur., Sax.): meaning is unclear (probably from Hessel = Hasel; related to Hösel cf. Höselhurst, Höselwang).

Hesselbein see Hesselbart.

Hesselmann: Hbg., from Hesseln on the Hessel, tributary of the Ems, likewise Hamelmann from Hamelin on the Hamel. A1so from field ns. 1ike Hesselkamp/Westph.

Hesselschwerdt = Hosselswerth (pl.n.).

Hessemer: from Heßheim/Pal. or Hessenheim/Alsace, cf. Herxemer, Bullemer, Mannemer, Hegemer, Hatterner, Reinemer (see A. Götze, p. 36; Bahlow DN, p. 88: -heim). Cunrad Hesseheimer,Worms 1304.

Hessler, Heßler see Heseler. Also cf. Hentze Heßeler,Grünberg/Hesse 1494 (from the pl.n. Heßlar/Hesse). But Henr. Heseler,Baden 1302 from loc.n. Hasel (Heselicht), likewise Heinrich Häseler,Stuttgart 1328.

Hessling: from Hesslingen near Rinteln. But Heßlinger (UGer.) from Heßlingen on the Tauber River.

Hester, Hestermann (Westph.) see Heister. Likewise Hesterberg. Heinrich Hester,Paderborn 1403.

Hetling (Hbg.): from Hetlingen near Wedel near Hbg.

Hetsch, Hetschel, Hetschi (UGer.) = ‘toad’.

Hetscher, Hätscher, Hatscher see Hädscher.

Hett (Fris.) see Hedde. Cf. Hettema (Fris. patr.) like Ubbema, Edema, Herema. Also Hetting is patr. like Hedding.

Hettel (UGer.) = ‘goat’, still the current dial. word in Baden today. Fridel Hotelsprung,Iglau 1386. Hence Hettler ‘goat farmer or herdsman’ (Hans Hättler,1446 near Überlingen, with a goat’s head in his coat of arms).

Hetterich see Hedderich.

Hettich, Hättich (freq. in Stuttg.): Hänsli Hättich,1430 near Balingen. Based on old pers.n.: nickname Hattich (Würt. Urkundenbuch = document register), related to Hatto,see Hatt.

Hettinger (Ger.): from Hettingen (Baden-Würt.), freq. in Karlsruhe, Mannheim, Heidelberg.

Hettlage: Westph. loc.n. like Rettlage, Settlage, Schnettlage, Harplage, Amlage, Hiltlage, all indicating boggy terrain (see Bahlow ON, p. 216).

Hettler see Hettel.

Hettling: pl.n. Hottlingen in Thurgau, also near Dillingen.

Hetmann (U.Sax., Moravia): dial. variant for Hauptmann, Heuptmann, Heiptmann. Cf. Hettfleisch = Hauptfleisch, see there.

Hettmer, Hettemer: from Hettenheim, see Hossemer.

Hettner (UGer.): contracted from Hettinger (see there) like Usener from Usinger (for more info. see Defner).

Hettrich see Hedderich.

Hettwer (Neustadt/U.Sax.): name is formed like Hegwer (1538 near Liegnitz), Quägwer, Regber, probably not of German origin.

Hetzel: UGer. nickname of Hermann, examples under Hesse.

Hetzer (UGer.): from MHG = ‘hunter with hounds’, chaser. Cf. Friedr. der Windhetzer,Fulda 1498. Hetzehase,Strasb. 1400. Frenczel Heczer,Moravia 1362. Hetzbold: from MHG hetzebolt ‘track hound (for hunting)’, surname of a hunter (with hounds). Also name of a minnesinger, court poet from Thur. 1325.

Hetzger (Würt.): Joh. der Retzger,Villingen 1347. Supposedly from Swab. hätzgen ‘to belch’. It is unlikely to derive from Hetzinger (as that form does not appear until 15th c. in Swab.).

Hetzold, Hetzschold, Heschold (Sax., Bohemia): obviously nickname for Hermann as Hitschold for Heinrich, Nitschold for Nikolaus, Petzold for Peter. Cf. Mikess Hessold (Nik. Hesolt),Prague 1405. Also cf. Hetschick.

Heu means a hay farmer (cf. FN Stroh ‘straw’) or hay mower: Heumader, see there. Cf. Heu Nickel,Brsl. 1356. Vivid names are Heuleiter [hay ladder], Heureufel, Heubüschl [hay bundle], Heuteuer (see there), Heugadem [hay loft], 14th c. in Bohemia-Moravia, Heurechen [hay rake], Zurich 1400. Heutreter [hay treader] (derisive nicknames like Schollentreter, Klutentreter ‘clod hopper’). Also Heuer (from MHG höuwer) = ‘hay maker, mower’ (unless = Hauer), unrounded form is Heier, Heyer (likewise Heyleyter [hay ladder], Heischreck in Moravia (grass hopper]). Hauwemenger,Frkf. 1387 = ‘hay dealer’, likewise Heumann like Strohmann, Salzmann (unless = Heymann = Heinrich!). The Heumaier [hay steward] supervised the delivery of harvested hay (cf. Strohmaier). Also see Hatheyer.

Heubisch: pl.n. near Sonneberg/Thur.

Heubner, Heubler, Heubel, Heibl see Hauber.

Heuch(e)le (Würt.): not related to the German verb “heucheln” [to feign, simulate, be a hypocrite] since in UGer. “gleißen” is used. Neither can it be traced as a variant of Heugle (Hugo). Therefore the Würt. pl.ns. Heuchelheim (Heuchlingen), Heuchelberg, Heuchelbach (tributary of the Kocher), documented as Huchelheim,etc. come into question, also Heuchstetten, all containing a word huch, huchel for rotting wood, bog (see Bahlow ON, p. 217). But cf. MHG phathûche ‘waylayer, highway robber’ (MHG hûchen ‘to crouch’), likewise mûchen and meucheln ‘to assassinate’. A C. Heuchelin,Lauingen 1592.

Heuer see Heu (e.g. Konstanz 1372 had a rake and a pitchfork in its seal!). Cunrat der Hewer,Würt. 1329, etc. But LGer. (freq. in Hbg.) = Hauer or Hoyer.

Heugel (UGer.), Heugle: = Hügle, Hügli

Hugo, see there. As f.n. Heugel in Görlitz 1357, Ravensburg 1403 (there also Hagli, Hügel); as FN in Liegnitz 1383, in Budweis 1385: Andreas Heugel (Hauglini);in Tyrol 1519: U. Heigl.

Heuke, Heuck(e): freq. in Hbg.; Ro.; Hoike in Flensburg, ftom MLG hoike ‘coat (with a collar)’, cf. 1330 in Haldsl.: hoyke and vrowenhoyke ‘lady’s coat’; Schönehoyke,Barth 1431; Wendehoyke;Herman Hoyke,Stralsund 1336, Albert Hoyke,Lüneburg 1336, Tuke Hoike,Flensburg 1562. But in some cases the Fris. pers.n. Hoyke (Hoyco, Hoyo) is involved: Hoico Swindrivere, Hbg. 1271, Hoyco Pramvorer, Hbg. 1276, Ro. 1250, Thid. Hoyken,Hbg. 1290.

Heumann see, Heu. E Centr.Ger-Franc. also unrounded as Heimann (Heinemann) like Reumann in old documents = Reimann; Heuder = Heider: see Bahlow, Studien, p. 124). Cf. FN Hewman,Liegnitz 1372, Zittau 1415.

Heun, Heune (UGer.-Sax.): in some cases from MHG hiune ‘giant’: Jakob der Hüne,Schaffhausen 1324; but in others = Heine (Heinrich), as in E Centr.Ger.; thus Heunisch (in Lpz.) = Heinisch. Mertin Hewne,Görlitz 1427. Nickel Hewne (Hane),Chemnitz 1458. Sypel Hune,Frkf. 1359.

Heuprecht (UGer.-Franc.) = Heiprecht (Hagin-berht) like Reuprecht = Reiprecht (Ragin-berht). Nickname Heupel.

Heusch, Heuschmann (UGer.) see Heuschkel.

Heuschkel (freq. in Lpz.): see Hauschke, Huschke.

Heuser, Häuser see Hauser.

Heusinger: UGer. name of origin, cf pl.n. Heising/Allgäu. Hans Heusinger,Brünn 1393.

Heusler, Heisler see Häusler.

Heuß, Heussi (Alem.-Swab.): from MHG hiuße ‘lively, fresh’. Hainrich der Muße,Kempten 1293.

Heußner see Haußner.

Heuteuer (UGer.) [Heu = ‘hay’, teuer ‘expensive’], dial. Heitheyer, Haitheyer,

Hatheyer (Aust.): Heyndl Hewtewer, Iglau 1388, Matheis Heytheure,Allgäu 1546; -a- stands for ­ai-, -ei- in Halayter besides Heylaiter, Heulaiter ‘hay ladder’, Bohemia 1371 (see E. Schwarz, p. 140). For interpretation cf. Kornteuer [grain], Mehlteuer [flour]: a person who charges exorbitant prices.

Heuvel (Heuvelmann). L.Rhine for Hövel, Hübel ‘hill, knoll’.

Hewecke(r) see Habeck(er).

Hey, Heye, Heyen, Heyenga (Fris.) see Hay. UGer. Hey, Hay see Hei.

Heyck (Fris.) see Heick.

Heyd- (compounds) see Heid-(and compounds).

Heydenaber (von): Mnch., from the little Heide-Nab River as opposed to Wald-Nab/Upper Pal. (For Naab see Bahlow ON, p. 345).

Heydolph see Heidloff.

Heyer (UGer.) see Heuer (hay maker) and Hauer.

Heyken see Heick.

Heyl, Heylmann see Heil.

Heyland see Heiland.

Heym see Heim.

Heymann see Heinemann, Heimann.

Heyn(e), Heynen, Heyns(en) see Heine.

Heyrath, Heyroth corresponds to Baurath, Bauroth and similar forms, thus derived from a pl.n. ending in -rode (Hesse, Thur.) or -rath (Rhineland). Cf. pl.n. Heyerode (Hess., Thur.) and Großheirath, distr. of Coburg.

Heyse see Heise.

Heyseler see Heisler (Heusler).

Heyser see Heiser (Heuser).

Hibbe, Hibben (Frisia): nickname for Hilbert (Hildebert), likewise Hibbel for Hilburg. Cf. Fris. Ribbe = Rikbert; Abbe = Albert. Wübbe = Wülber, etc. Patr.: Hibbing.

Hibler see Hiebler.

Hick(e), Hick(e)l, Hickmann, Hickisch: recorded as pers.n. around 1300-1400 in Bohemia, Moravia, Sax., obviously nickname for the Czech Hinek = Heinrich (or possibly for Nikolaus). For Hickisch cf. Nickisch, Mickisch for Nikolaus, cf. Hickel and Nickel, Hickmann and Nickmann. Documented: Hickel Reppenitz, Freiberg 15th c., Hik Hübler, Chrudim 1399, Hykinan Füger, Chrudim 1399, Nicoman Hikman,Kolin 1375, K. Hickmann, Schleusingen 1523; patr. Hykuscher,Mährisch-Trübau 1385, likewise Pinkuscher, Petruscher. Also See Hitschold, Hinke, Hicke. But Fris. Hicke(n) = Hilke.

Hickler (UGer.): from MHG hickeln ‘to leap, jump, hop’. Hans Hickeler,Rottweil 1441.

Hidde: old LGer.-Fris. nickname for Hildebert, Hildebrand, Hildeger, etc. As early as 776 Hidda = Hildiberga,around 850 Hiddi (son of Hildiburch),778 Hidde Gauchen. In Lüb. 1298 Hiddo Blok, in Hbg. 1303 Wolder Hidden.Hence patr. Douvo Hiddenw,Frisia 1500; also Hidding. Cf. Hiddens-ö Island, now Hiddensee and pl.ns. like Hiddesen, Hiddenhausen, Hiddingen.

Hieber (freq. in Mnch.) see Huber, Hueber.

Hi(e)bler (Bav.-Tyrol.) = Hübler, named for the dwelling place at a hill, knoll: Hieb(e)l, Hübel. Hengel Hibler,Iglau 1404; Nykel Hybel (Habel),Iglau 1379. In standard Ger. the UGer. word Hübel has been displaced by the LGer. Hügel today.

Hiebner see Hübner.

Hi(e)dl (freq. in Mnch.): Bav. word for ‘a stream that dries up temporarily’, hence Hi(e)dler.

Hief (UGer.): MHG hiefe ‘rose hip’. Dietrich Hieff,1359 near Stuttgart.

Hieke (Mnch.) see Hicke.

Hielscher (Lausitz, Sil.): a typical metr. in Sil., likewise Alscher (son of Adelheid), -er indicates affiliation, -usch, -isch is a Slav. suffix; in old documents: Helusch (Hilusch) and Alusch. First interpreted in Bahlow SN (1953), p. 60 as Slav. (Wend.) nickname for Elisabeth, with the Wend. initial h- sound (like Helesch for Elias, Handrick for Andreas), nowadays Hylza. Records: Helusch (Hylusch)di lange Cristaninne, Glatz 1344, Mertin Heiusch,Liegnitz 1397, Heynke Heluscher,Friedland 1381, George Helischer,Görlitz 1437, Elisabeth Hylischerynne,Liegn. 1491, Hans Hylischer,Görlitz 1490.

Hiemer (freq. in Mnch.) contracted from Hiebmer,originally Hiebmeier, Huebmeier (owner of a land unit called Hube), likewise Stromer (Bav.) according to documents from Strohmaier. The Anabaptist Rev. Balthasar Hubmaier is also mentioned as Hiebmayr (Brech., p. 715). Cf. J. H. Hiemer (Hüemer) 1594-1602. Nowadays also Huemer (Meindlhuemer) and Huebmer.

Hien (Mnch.) see Hühn.

Hiendl (Bav.) = Hühndl for a poultry breeder or dealer (Hienler) [Huhn = ‘chicken’]. Hence Hiendlmaier: steward and collector of poultry delivered as tribute or ground rent.

Hient(z)sch (freq. in Lpz.): like Heintzsch Heinrich.

Hiepe, Hiepp (UGer.) see Hippe. Hans Hiepp,Ober-Günzbg. 1527, Herman Hypp, Eßlingen 1371. Likewise Hiepler Hippler (Hans Hiepplin,Stuttg. 1500).

Hiereth (Bav.) like Hereth, Höreth (Herath, Hörath).

Hiergeist see Heergeist.

Hiergesell see Heergesell.

Hierhanuner, Hierholzer, Hierstetter (Bav.): = Hirnheimer, Hirnholzer, Hirnstetter; hirn = hürn ‘swamp, mire’, see Hirn.

Hierl, Hierlein, Hierlmeier (Aust.) see Herlein. Cf. Hiergesell, Hiermann (Hermann).

Hiermaier (Bav.-Aust.), contracted to Hiermer (Hürmer), means Hirnmaier or Hürnmaier, named for the dwelling place near a Hürn = ‘swampy terrain’; cf. pl.n. Hierbach (in old documents Hirnbach), Hierhammer, Hierholzer. See also Hirn.

Hiermann see Hermann.

Hiermer, Hirmer see Hiermaier. Cf. Stromer for Strohmaier.

Hierneis (Mnch.) see Hirneis.

Hierold (Aust.) see Herold.

Hieronymus (Bav., Rhineland): Greek ‘with a holy name’; Saint Jerome, Church Father famous as the first translator of the Bible (Vulgate) around 400. His cult thrived in the 15th and 16th centuries. Several variants as FNs like Kronymus (from Jeronimus), Ronymus, Ohnymus, contracted: Grolms, Schrom, Schrömbgen, Fr. Jerôme. See Behaghel, p. 231 for the change j:g before a stressed syllable.

Hiersemann, Hiersemenzel see Hirse.

Hierundar: a vagrant. UGer. Hieunddo, Breisach 1425.

Hierstetter (Mnch.): from Hirnstetten/Bav., see Hiermaier.

Hiertsiefer (Westph.) like Hirzsiefen: belongs to the loc.ns. ending in -siefen ‘moist terrain along a creek’.

Hiesel, Hiesler see Matthias. Cf. the “Bavarian Hiesel” (Matthias Klostermeier). Likewise Hies, Hieß (freq. in Aust.); cf. Heiß, Haiß, Hießmannseder.

Hiestermann (Hbg.) see Heister. Likewise Hiestrich.

Hietschold see Hitschold.

Hihn see Hühn.

Hilarius see Klörs.

Hilbeck: pl.n. near Werl/Westph. (likewise Helbeck, Halbeck, Holbeck, all indicating ‘swampy, boggy bodies of water’: see Bahlow ON, p. 218).

Hilber, Hilberer see Hülber.

Hilberath: pl.n. in Rhineland (-rath = -rode ‘a clearing’).

Hilbert, Hilbers, Hilber, patr. Hilberling (Westph.-Rhineland), Hilbertz (Rhineld.), Hilpert, Hilprecht (UGer.): derive from an old pers.n. Hildeberht (‘shining in battle’), also saint’s name. Also see Hibbe. For Hilbrecht see Hilbrich. For Hilber(s) cf. Wilber(s), Wolber(s), Alber(s), for Hilbertz cf. Albertz, Wilbertz, Wolbertz.

Hilbig (Lausitz, Sil.): variant of Helbig, see there. Likewise Hilbing (Michel Hilbing,Görlitz 1458), cf. Gerbing; patr. Hilbinger (Chr. Hilbiger,Görl. 1496).

Hilble see Hülb.

Hilbrandt see Hildebrand.

Hilbrich(t), Hilbrig (Lausitz, Sil.) is a dialect form for Helmbrecht, see there. Related is the pl.n. Hilbersdorf (Sax., Thur., Hesse) unless it derives from Hilbrecht (Hildebrecht): Lukas Hilbrecht,Würt. 1515, Hiltbrecht 1280 UGer.

Hilbring, Hilbrink = Hilberding (Westph. patr.); also cf. pl.n. Hilbringen on the Saar.

Hilburg(er), Hilberg(er): UGer., cf. pl.n. Hilburg in Odenwald Mountains.

Hilck, Hilcken (Fris.) see Heick. Likewise Hilke(n), freq. in Hbg. Patr.Hil(c)ker (Hbg., Westph.), Hil(c)kert cf Öhlker.

Hild, Hildt, Hildemann, UGer. Hilt, Hiltl, Hiltmann, Hilty: sh.f. of Hildebrand, Hildebrecht, etc. Compare Fris. Hidde, Conrad Hilde,Wetzlar 1329, C. Hill,Friedberg/Hesse 1358.

Hildebold: infreq. Germanic pers.n., formerly favored by the nobility (bald ‘bold, brave’, hild ‘battle, fight’). LGer. Hillebold (Hildeboldus,Bremen 1319; Hbg., Lüb.), UGer. Hiltpold (cf. medieval court poet Hiltbolt of Schwangau from Swabia around 1200), Hiltbold Stahler, Rottweil 1425, Jordan Hillebolt,Han. 1363.

Hildebrand: the famous armorer of Theoderich (6th c. king of the Goths), popular legendary figure, still figuring in the 15th c. epic Jüngeres Hildebrandslied (father: Heribrand,son: Hadubrand):brand ‘flaming sword’, hild ‘battle, fight’. UGer. Hiltebrant. In Breisgau Hildenbrand (Hillenbrand, in 16th c. still without the n;cf. Götze, p. 8). L.Rhine forms are Hildebrands, Hilbrands, LGer. Hillebrand, Hilbrand, Westph. patr. Hillebrenner, UGer. Hillebrand, Hüllebrand, corrupted Hillerbrand, Hüllerbrand. Further info. under Brandt, Brendeke (popular LGer. sh.f.), or Brant(l), also under Hild, Hiltl, Hildemann, Hille, Hillmann.

Hildebrecht see Hilbert.

Hildegard: compared to the more popular Hildegund (nickname Hille), Hildegard was a noble fem.n. in the Middle Ages (Charlemagne’s second wife was called H., also Saint H. of Bingen around 1150). Cf. Bahlow, VN(1965), p. 50. Therefere rare as FN; occurs as metr. in U.Rhine area 1294 Henr. Hildegardis (Hildegardere)[H. belonging to Hildegard] in Hesse 1334 Ludwig Hildegerter.

Hildeger see Hilger.

Hildegund see Hiller.

Hildemar see Hillmer.

Hilden (freq. in Col.): pl.n. near Benrath.

Hilderich: name of a king of the Vandals around 500; rare in the Middle Ages, Hildericus,Hbg. 1270, cf. Georg Hilderich (Helderich)from Brüx, Görlitz 1518. Wolf Heldtreich,Ellwangen 1574. Today also Heldrich, Hellrich, Hillrich(s). Meaning: ‘war lord’.

Hilderun: rare fem. f.n. (cf. Gudrun: runa, rune, ‘secret knowledge’, hence the name means something like ‘woman in battle skilled in magic, Valkyrie’); Hilderun,wife of the governor Heinrich, Freiberg 1227.

Hildeward: ‘battle warden’, today Hildewerth, Hillewerth, Hellwert; only LGer.: Hildewardus,Hbg. 1266, Bremen 1289, also Ro., Stralsund 1277, there also as patr. Bernardus Hiltwording 1348, likewise in Westph. 1235. E. Helpwording,cf. Helferding. Hence Henneke Hilwerdes,Han. 1357, D. Hilwardes,Oldenburg 1507.

Hildewig (UGer. Heltewig): rare Germanic pers.n. (hild or wig = ‘battle’). Hildeudgus,Hbg. 1275.

Hildewin (win = ‘friend’), UGer. Hiltwin, Hildwein, Heldwein. Herbel Hiltivin,Algesheim 1347, Albrecht Hiltwin,Brsl. 1314.

Hildleff (LGer.-Frig. like Detleff, Redleff-. -lef = ­leib ‘scion, descendant’). Rare; name of the nobility. Cf. Hildelevus Bruchtorpe (father and son), knight, Lüb. 1358.

Hild(e)man see Hild.

Hildner (Bav., Aust.): cf. field n. “in der Hilden”, Tyrol 1377.

Hilfarth: pl.n. in Rhineland.

Hilfrich see Helferich. Hilf, Hülf see Helf. Cf. J. Hilfli,near Zurich 1454, P. Hilfdirselb [help yourself], Prague 1363, Jürge Hilfmirgot [God help me], Pirna 1412, Haman Hilfreich [helpful], Schweidnitz 1404, Ph. Hülfreich,Brünn 1402. P. Hülfüber,Prague 1359.

Hilgedach: ‘holiday’ [holy day].

Hilgemann (LGer.): was the word for church council members in the Middle Ages. Werner Hylgheman,Greifsw. 1315, there also 1349 Hinr. Hilghenbiter,Kersten Hilgheghest 1367 (likewise Fricke de heilighe gheist,Haldsl. 1340), see under Heiligegeist.

Hilgenfeld: pl.n. like Hilgenroth and Hilgendorff.

Hilger, Hilgers (LGer.-Rhineld.) = Hildeger (‘battle spear’). Hildegerus,Ro. 1295; Eylebracht Hildegers,Schwalm 1415. Hilger(t), Hilliger is E Centr.Ger.-Sil.: Henlin Hildeger,Glatz 1352, Adam Hildiger (Hilliger),Liegnitz 1453, Hans Hilliger (Hilger),Dresden 1412. Also a saint’s name in the L.Rhine area (an archbishop of Col. in 8th c.); there also the form Heilgers; Hilger Hardefust, Col. around 1300.

Hilke, Hilken, Hilker (LGer.-Fris.) see Hilck. Cf. Clawes Hilleken sone [son of Hilke], Lüb. 1317, Joh. fil Hilleke,Hbg. 13th c. In LGer. Hille, Hilleke was mostly a fem. f.n.: nickname for Hildegun, Hillegund. Cf. Joh. maritus [husband of) Hilleken,Hbg. 1274, Hyllike = Hildegunt,Stralsund 1281, Hille (Hildegunt)de Rode, Strals. 1295.

Hill(e), Hillen, Hill(esmann: nickname for Hillebrand, Hillebold, Hillebrecht, Hilleger, Hillemar, etc. but also for Hillegund, Hilleburg and similar names, masc. and fem. like Hilleke = Hilke, see there. Conrad vom Hillen,near Kassel 1353, Konrad Hillen son,Canstatt 1341. Bernardus Hille,Ro. 1297, Hermann Hille,Brieg 1362. Also see Hiller.

Hillebrand, Hillebrecht, Hillebold, Hilleger, Hillemar see Hilde-.

Hillemneyer, Hillmeier (UGer.): like Hallinayer see Hüller. Cf. Grashüller, Grashiller; from MHG hal ‘swamp pool’.

Hiller (freq. in Sil., Lausitz) is metr. of the nickname Hille for Hildegund (which was popular all over through the legend of Walther and Hildegund). (Thomas called) Vomhiller (vorn = vern ‘woman, lady’), Massow near Krossen 1313, cf. C. vom Hillen,1353 near Kassel; Mertin der Hille,1381 near Sorau, Merten Hyller,Liegnitz 1547. Further info. in Bahlow SN, p. 42. See also Hille and Hilke. But 1-Ger.-Fris. Hiller(s), freq. in Hbg. (besides Hillert), corresponds to Willers (Willert), Allers (Allert), is a masc. pers.n. (Hylleri Icken, 16th c.). Also cf. Fris. Hillern(s). For Hillermann (Hbg.) cf. pl.n. Hillern near Soltau.

Hillesheim (Hbg.): pl.n. Hildesheim (in documents Hildenesheim);for interpretation see Bahlow ON, p. 218.

Hillewerth see Hildewart.

Hillgartner like Höllgartner (Aust.): from loc.n. Hellgarten.

Hillgrewe (Westph.) = Hellgrewe ‘prince of hell’, See Hell.

Hillig (LGer.) = Heilig [holy].

Hilliger see Hildeger, Hilger.

Hillmann (LGer., freq. in Hbg.), patr. Hillemanns, = Hille (for Hildebrand, Hildebert, Hildeger). Cf. Hildeman,Bremen 1320, Hilleman,Bremen 1348.

Hil(l)mer (freq. in Hbg.), Hil(l)mers, Hel(l)mer, Hel(l)mers = Hillmar = Hildemar(‘battle famous’); once a popular pers.n. in LGer.-Fris. area (still today f.n. Hilmar). In Lüneburg 1294 Hillemarus filius [son of] Hildemari,1374 Joh. Hildemers,Haldsl. 1350 her Hilmer of Övisvelde; in Flensburg 1602 Helmer Seeger. In Oldenburg 1466 Wübbeke Hilmeringes.

Hillner (Sil.) see Hiller. Nicclos HyIner,Liegnitz 1397, Andreas Hillner,Liegnitz 1540.

Hilmer (freq. in Mnch.): UGer., contracted from Hilmeier, like Stromer from Strohmeier. Cf. Michel Hilmer (Hilmar, Hilmayer),Stuttgart 1583.

Hilpert (freq. in Mnch., Lpz.), Hilprecht see Hilbert. A 6th c. king of the Franks, Hildibert. Hiltbrecht,Möhringen 1280. Also an assimilated form Hilpold from Hiltbold, see Hildebold. Hiltpold,Konstanz 1150, Hiltbolt of Schwangau, a Swabian court poet around 1200. Hence the nickname Hilpl. Also cf. Hilprant Kerspamer, Tyrol 1474. Pl.n. Hilpertshausen, Hilpoltstein in Franc.

Hilscher See Hielscher.

Hilse (UGer.), Hilsbecher, Hilsenbeck, see Halse.

Hilt(e)l see Hild.

Hilten: pl.n. near Nordhorn, besides Hiltenkamp (in the same area also Haftenkamp, Breklenkamp, all indicating ‘swamp, bog’, cf. current Fris. hild (held)= ‘bog’). A Hilten Hill NE of Driburg. Hilternmn: from Hilter (Ems and Osnabrück, 854 Helderi),cf. Salteri (Selter), Ickati (Icker), Vanapi,all ‘bog places’ (see Bahlow ON, p. 219). Similarly Haltermann, Geltermann.

Hiltmann, Hiltmaier (UGer.) see Hild.

Hiltner (freq. in Mnch.) like Hildner from field n. “in der Hilden” (e.g. 1377 in Tyrol).

Hiltwein see Hildewin.

Hiltrop (on the Ruhr): pl.n. (near Bochum, Münster) from bog word hil (as in Hilscheid, Hillmicke, Hilbeck) see Bahlow ON, p. 218.

Hilz (freq. in Mnch.) = Hils, see Hüls. Also in Hilzmann, Hilzensauer (like Ramsauer from “Aue” meaning meadow, field).

Himme, Himmen (Fris.) see Hemme. Pope Hymmen,Frisia 16th c.

Himmel [sky, heaven] : UGer. field n., also Himml; hence Himmler, Himmelhuber, Himmelbauer, Himmelmann. In U.Rhine area also house name (as in Mainz); Burcardus zem Himele,Basel 1297. Also Himmelreich [kingdom of heaven] is found as field or pl.n.: Ghereke van me Hemmelrike,Lüneburg 1362; in Frkf. 1402 also as surname: Herman Winsperger, the man mit dem Hymelreich.Himmelstoß, Himmelheber, Himmelstützer [push, lift, support the sky] probably are nicknames for very tall fellows: Meynrich Hymmelstoeter (presbyter), document reg. in Werden 1412, Knight Godefrid and Frid. Himelstoß,Braubach 1242. For Himmelseher [sky gazer] cf. Sternseher [star gazer], Freiburg 1333, Sternenkiker,Bremen 1482, der Himmelseher,Ehingen 1327. A certain J. Hymeitau [sky dew], Görlitz 1474, Dietrich Hymelboge [curve of the sky], Eßlingen 1339 (cf. the medieval court poet Barthel Regenbogen [rain bow]). But Himmelgeist (Col.) is a pl.n. in Bergisch area (formerly Hamelgise ‘bog water area’, like Wider-gis and others). Also cf. Himmelischerküng [heavenly king], Franc. 1347, Himmelischer Vater [heavenly father], Gürlitz 1380.

Himmer (freq. in Mnch.), Himmerer: see Hümmer (freq. in Mnch.).

Himmler (UGer.) see Himmel.

Himpe, Himpel (Lausitz) is a variant of Hempe, Hempel, see there. Nickel Hympel,Görlitz 1486, Hans Himpe,Lechtal 1492 (new resident in the area). The sound change e: i is caused by the following nasal consonant, cf. Henke: Hinke.

Himptemacher (LGer.) see Hemptenmacher. Cf. 12 hympten roggen [Roggen = ‘rye’; Himpte must be an old measure], Haldsl.

Himstedt (Hbg.): pl.n east of Hildesheim, variant of Hemstedt ‘bog place’.

Hinck- see Hink-.

Hindelang: pl.n. in Allgäu area, Behrtolt Hündellang 1361; cf. Hindelwangen in Baden.

Hindemith: someone who runs along at the end, behind; cf. Hindenôch [meaning: at the end, after] in old Brsl.; Hinde(r)mit on the Neiße River.

Hindenburg: freq. pl.n. (area E of the Eibe) besides Hindenberg. The general’s actual name was Paul von Beneckendorff and von H.

Hinder(er), Hindermann (UGer.). named for the place of dwelling behind the village. Cf. Niederer [below ... ], Oberer [above...]; Niedermann, Obermann. Also Dahinden, Hinnen.

Hinderk(s), Hinnerk (LGer.) see Heinrich.

Hingerl (Bav.), Hingerle: = Hüngerle, see Hunger.

Hingsamer (Mnch.): belongs to the group of pl.ns. ending in -heim (in Bav. -ham), like Greilsamer, Ulsamer.

Hingst (LGer.): variant of Hengst, see there.

Hinke, Hin(c)k: nickname of Heinrich, see Hencke. In the Bohemian-Sax.-Sil. region Hinke is based on Slav. Hinek = Hinrich, likewise Hanke on Hanek. (E. Schwarz, p. 141). Hinco Hut, Brsl. 1387. Hinke Nawacz, Leipa 1401. Hynko Bret, Prague 1414.

Hinkel see Heinkel: Wenczel Hynkehnan, Leitomischl 1417, Konrad Hinkelman, near Rothenburg 1289.

Hinkeldey, Hinkelthey: Westph. field n., likewise Dingeldey, Dauthendey, etc., see Dilthey. Arnold Henkeldey, Paderborn 1407.

Hinkfoth (LGer.): ‘limp foot, limper’. Joh. Hinkende, Stralsund 1324.

Hinneberg: pl.n., cf. Hinnebeck near Bremen.

Hinnen (Zurich): living ‘back there’; Cuni Dahinden, Zurich 1440, Cuni Dahinnen 1469 (later Hinnen). Cf. Tobler-Meyer, p. 134.

Hinners (Hbg.). LGer.-Fris. = Hinnerks Hinrichs.

Hinrichs, Hinrichsen (freq. in Hbg.): LGer. for Heinrichs (son). Cf. nicknames Hinke, Hintze, Hinsch.

Hinsch, Hinsche (freq. in Hbg.): patr. Hinsching: nickname for Hinrich, originally Hinse(ke).

Hinsel(mann): from Hinsel near Essen.

Hinst see Hingst. Cf. pl.n. Hinsbeck: 890 Hengistbeki.

Hinte, Hintmann (Hbg.): pl.n. near Emden.

Hintel, Hintelmann (Hbg.): equivalent would be Fintel(mann), Rintel(mann); Hintel, Fintel, Rintel(n) are ‘bog places’ in Oldenburg-Han.; see Fintel.

Hinterthan (UGer.): = Hinterthanner, named for the place of dwelling (MHG dertan = [pine] woods) meaning: behind the woods. Cf. Hinterauer [Au = ‘field, meadow’], Hinterberger [Berg = ‘hill, mountain’], Hintereder, Hinteregger, Hinterholzer, Hinterkircher, Hintermaier, Hinterthür (pl.n. -thürn in Aust.).

Hintner (UGer.): in Tyrol a farmstead is recorded 1415 as “curia dahinten” [the farm back there] as well as a FN Hindner in the same place.

Hintz(e), freq. in LGer., Hinz(mann), Hintzke, patr. Hin(t)zer: used to be a popular nickname for Hinrich. Hinceke (Hinricus) Eselsvot, Strals. 1300. Hence Hintzpeter (freq. in Hbg.).

Hinundher [back and forth]: 1366 in Iglau, 1389 in Nbg., probably name for a messenger or servant.

Hiob see Job.

Hipp, Hippe, Hippel, Hipper, Hippler (UGer.) mean waffle baker (MHG hipe, hippe ‘waffle’), Hippmann the waffle dealer; also cf. MHG holhipe(r). See also Hiepp, Hiepper, Hipp der Hipper! But Hippenstiel = Heppenstiel, see Heppe.

Hirber (UGer.) see Hürber.

Hirche (freq. in Görlitz) see Hürche and Herche.

Hirl(er) see Hürler.

Hirmer (freq. in Mnch.) see Hiermaier.

Hirn, Hirner (Bav.): from loc.n. Hirn, Hürn (Hur-n) ‘swamp, mire’. Cf. field ns. “Im Hirn, Hirnrain, Hirnbühel” and pl.ns. Hirnbach, Hirnheim (1210 Hurnheim), Hirnstetten (Hirwin-). Gerung amHirne, 1294 near Linz. Eberhard Hirn, Bamberg 1416. But Bleichshirn [pale brain], Freieshirn [free brain], Thumbshirn, Muckenhirn [mosquito brain], Spinnenhirn [spider b.], Hirnlos [brainless], Hirnschedel [brain head], Hipoß [brain joke], Himstoß [brain shock], Hirnschrot [brain grist] are obviously pers. surnames; Henne Hirnworst [brain sausage], Frkf. 1434, refers to a butcher. Hirnschall = -schale [bowl]. Hirneiß (Mnch.), Hierneis probably = ‘helmet’ (cf. hirnhube, hirngupfe ‘brain cap’).

Hirsch [stag, red deer], Hirschel, Hirschle, Hersch, Herschel (in some cases Jewish, cf. Genesis 49:21), Swiss Hirzel: in cities on the Rhine freq. from (the sign of) the house name: Jacob zumHirze, Worms 1304, or there “zu dem Hirtzeshorne” (Hirschhorn is also a pl.n.). Inns and pharmacies are still called “zum Hirsch” today. Cf. her [Sir] Joh. derHyrß, Brsl. 1368. Hirschbiegel = -bühel [hill], Hirschbichler = ­bühler. Hirschbrich = Hirschberg. Hirschleber (Thur.): derives from pl.n. ending in -leben (like Fallersleber). Hirschbold (Mnch.) probably = -hol ‘hill, knoll’. Hirschvogel: Heinrich Hirsvogel, Tyrol 1257. But Hirschkorn = Hirsekorn [millet grain], cf. Hirschkrämer [millet dealer], Hirscher (in old documents: Hirser), of the same meaning, Hirschmehl [millet flour].

Hirse: millet farmer or dealer, likewise Hirsekorn; Hirsemeyer, Hiersemann, Hiersernenzel. Hirsestemper in Brsl. = Hirsemüller. UGer. also Hirsch-korn and similar forms. LGer. Herse.

Hirter (UGer.-MHG): = Hirt, Hirth, Hirtl (Bav.), all meaning herdsman; see also Herter (UGer.) and Herde, Harde (LGer.).

Hirtler (UGer.): related to pl.n. Hirtl/Bav. Also cf. Hürtler.

Hirtreiter (Bav., Aust.) like Bärnreiter, Gamsreiter from the pl.ns. ending in -reut [clearing in a forest].

Hirtz (UGer.) = Hirsch [stag, red deer], cf. Schönhirtz. Likewise Hirzel (Switz.).

Hischke, Hischer = Hitschke, Hitscher (cf. Nischke, Mischke = Nitschke, Mitschke).

Hi(t)schke, Hitzschke, Hitzke (Sax., Sudeten), uninterpreted as yet, can only be a nickname of Slav.-Czech Hinco, Hinek, Hincek = Heinrich, analogous to Nitschke, Mitschke = Nikolaus; enlarged with -old: Hietschold (like Nietschold, Kitschold = Christian; Hetzschold, Heintschold, Petzold). Patr. Hi(t)scher (like Mitscher). Cf. Benedikt Hitzscholt of Pegau/Sax. 1503, Thomas Hitzsch, sax. 1544.

Hiß, Hieß see Heiß.

Hitler (Aust.) see Hiedler (questionable). Cf. Hüttler like Hüttner: Hittner).

Hitz, Hitzel, Hitzler (Bav.): Hicz, Hiczlo, baker, Mies/Bohemia 1368, Nicl. Hiczel, Böhmisch-Kamnitz 1402.

Hitzeroth: pl.n. Hitzerode near Eschwege (on the Werra); similar Hitzigrath, Hitzegrad (in Rhinetand -rath = -rode ‘clearing’), cf. pl.n. Hitzgerode in Hesse.

Hitziger (UGer.) besides Hitzinger: typically Alemannic, likewise Bessiger, Fruttiger, Schmutziger, etc.

Hobbe (Fris.); equivalent of Fris. Habbe, Hebbe: nickname of Hadebert, today Habbert, Hobbert, cf. Robbert for Rodebert, Robert. Hence patr. Hobben (Habben), Hobbing (Habbing), Hobbema (Habbema). Cf. Hobbe(ke) Roben, Oldenburg 1428, Hobben Siveke 1581, now Hobbensiefken in Oldbg., likewise Henkensiefken. Joh. Hobbe, Bremen 1425. See also Hubbe.

Hobe, Hobemann: Hessian form for Hofmann, like Grebe for Greve, Graf. Cf. Gudele immehobe [in the court], Frkf. 1350, Arnold Hobeman of Vache, Frkf. 1351. Likewise Hobeherre 1369.

Hobein (LGer.) = Hochbein [high leg]. Cf. Hobohm, Homann, Hogreve, Homuth, Hobusch [Ho is shortened “hoch” = ‘high’]. Hensel Hochbeyn, Liegnitz 1368.

Höbel (Hbg.): means LGer. hövel ‘hill’, cf Sturmhöbel besides Sturmhöfel.

Höber, Höver, Höbermann, Hövermann: Hbg., from Höver near Ülzen or Han.

Hoberg (Sil., Sax.) see Hubrich.

Hobohm (LGer.): standardized Ho(ch)baum, from the dwelling place at a tall tree; in Worms 1299 a house “zum hohen boume”. Cf. Hobusch.

Hobrecht = Hubrecht = Hubrich, see there.

Hobusch see Hobohm.

Hoch: cf. MHG hôch ‘distinguished, proud’; also Hochmann (like LGer. Homann). Cf. Ulin Hochherre, 1424 near Augsburg.

Hochapfel: MHG hôch ‘excellent, oustanding’, surname of a fruit groLGer.

Hochdanz: surname for a dance master; see under Tanz. Joh. Hochedans, Hodans, Stralgund 1323.

Hoche (Sudeten, Bohemia): probably Hache (Czech Hacha = Johannes), likewise Joche = Jache; verified by Pawel Hochan, Brsl. 14th c. likewise Jachan, Pechan: Peter etc.). Cf. Bahlow SN, p. 61.

Höcherl (Bav.) like Höch, Höchli from an elevated place of dwelling. Cf. the farmstead Höch in Tyrol.

Hochgräber: falsely interpreted and thus changed from Hochgribe, Hochgräfe ‘“high” count, earl’ (LGer.-Westph.), likewise Holzgräber (Holzgräwe), Diekgräber (Diekgräwe) = Deichgraf [supervisor of dikes]; Gräber however comes from the verb graben and means digger.

Hochgürtel: probably ornate belt.

Hochherz [high, generous heart]: Hinr. Hogheherte, Lüb. 1323.

Hochmuth, Ho(h)muth: from MHG = ‘high spirits, noble mind’, but then already had the (later) meaning: arrogance. Cf. the similar FN Hochtritt (Hoentritt) [high step] unless = Hochdanz.

Hochsang, Hochsänger: UGer., a spot in the forest cleared through singeing. Cf. Asang, Asanger; Feuersang, Feuersänger.

Höcht, Höchtl (Bav.) = Hecht, Hechtl, see there. Also Staudenhechtl.

Hochtritt like Hochgang (Iglau 1372): the proud or arrogant one.

Höck (freq. in Mnch.) besides Höckmaier becomes clear through Höckenstaller, Höckenreiner; analogous to Heckenstaller, Heggenreiner: name derived from the dwelling place [near a hedge or village enclosure]. But MHG höcke ‘street trader, huckster’ is also involved.

Hockauf: sentence name for a peddler, who shoulders his pack basket (a basket with his wares to be carried on his back). A secondary meaning (in later superstition) is that of a night ghost that sits on the back of a migrant wanderer. Katherin Hukufyn, Dux, Bohemia 1400. Cf. Bohemian Hockewanzel.

Hocke (UGer.-Centr.Ger.-Sil.), also Hucke = ‘huckster, small retailer’. Also Höcker, Höckner, Heckner. Still 1547 in Liegnitz: Hans Koschwitz ein Hocke,- in Liegnitz 1397 Nicclos hökener. For further info. see Bahlow SN, p. 107. Michel Winterhoke, Sorau 1381. The corresponding LGer. form is Haack, Haacker, see there.

Hodapp (Würt.): 1637 Hochdapp; dapp ‘clumsy’ (cf. Dilltapp).

Hodemacher, Hodemaker (LGer.): hat maker. Cf. Hodwalker, Hodwelker, Hotwarker, Hotfilter [hat felter]; Hodemann [hat dealer], also short Hodt, Hoth. See also Filter, Filthot. Henrik Hod, Han. 1361, besides Hotman 1352; Joh. Hodman, Hotman, Lüb. 1320, Rolf Hotbindere, Ro. 1260. Hence Joh. Hotbant, Hudbant, Greifsw. 1330. Hodwalkere, Hbg. 1260-70, Lüb., Ro., Stralsund (also Hodwelkere).

Hodermam (UGer.): see Hader(mann) ‘ragman’. Wacziaw Hoderer, Chrudim 1399, Hoder, Brünn 1354.

Höding: pl.n. Hödingen near Helmstedt (see Bahlow ON, p. 220: hod: ‘dirt’). Cf. von der Höden/Westph.

Hodler: name is known from the painter Ferdinand Hodler (Swiss). Means a waggoner or carter who is also a retailer; also short Hodel. Dytl Hodler, Iglau 1359, St. Hädel, Moravia 1414.

Höfel(mann) see Hövel(mann).

Hofer (UGer., Bav., Aust., Tyrol): name became famous through the Tyrolean Andreas Hofer. In the mountain areas with farms it indicates farm owner, farmer [Hof = ‘farm’]. Also umlauted: Höfer, whereas Hofner, Höfner may also derive from the pl.ns. Hofen. Rarer is Höfler, Höfl(e), Höflmaier; Höfle is also a loc.n. Numerous compound names ending in -hofer, -höfer like Ganghofer, Haushofer, Mayerhofer, Stadelhofer; Binzenhäfer, Schweighofer, Schweighöfer; Ganghofner, Maihöfner.

Hoff (Westph.-L.Rhine) [Hof means ‘farm’]: also von Hoff, Imhoff, Uphoff, ten Hoff (zum Hoff), etc., all in an area of Westphalia. where the farmsteads are far apart. Hence many compounds ending in -hoff like (at) Zehnthoff, Diekhoff, Eckhoff, Aschoff, Gillhoff, Küchenhoff (Käkenhoff), Lehnhoff, Moorhoff, Vietinghoff.

Hoffahrt: from MHG hôchvart ‘pride, superciliousness’. Geruscha Hoffart, Prague 1353.

Hoffendrunk: vagrant, minstrel, person hoping for a free drink.

Hoffer(t), Hofer(t) see Hofer: For double ff cf. Frauenhoffer, Bonhöffer, Dörnhöffer. Hans Hoffer, Moravia 1414. P. Hoffner, Prague 1364.

Hoffgaard (Dan.-Schleswig): pl.n., likewise Möllgaard, Knudsgaard, Kierkegaard.

Höffgen, Höffken (L.Rhine) see Hoff.

Hoffheinz: Heinz on a farm (Hof = ‘farm or estate’), Hoffull, Moravia 1414.

Hoffleuchter (UGer.) = Leuchter (Leichter) = Gelzenleuchter, Gelzer ‘castrator of pigs’ (on a large farm, estate).

Hoffmann (Sil., Lausitz, Sax.): besides Scholz, Müller, and Schmidt, Hoffmann was the most freqent occ. n. in Sil., like Meier in W Germany and S Germany, also manager of estates owned by the nobility or of country estates owned by patricians; cf. Eckehard, hern Otten Buzwoys hoveman [E., Sir Otte Buzwoy’s estate manager or steward], Liegnitz 1383, Hans Kosche hoffmanimweißenhoffe, Liegnitz 1558. As FN: Nickel Hofeman the belt maker, Görlitz 1425. Note the different spelling: Hofmann is S Ger. In Hesse also Hobemann, LGer. Havemann: Hamann.

Hof(f)meister, LGer. Havemeister: from MHG = ‘supervisor of the farm personnel’, also of a monastery. Hans der Hoffmeister of the Leubus Monastery 1560.

Hoffrichter (MHG hoverichter): highest judge at a court that settled the legal affairs of the country around it (see Bahlow SN, p. 107). Nitsche Ungeroten derhoverichter, Liegnitz 1394.

Hoffschläger (LGer.): blacksmith; Hofslagere, Hbg. 1268, Ro. 1259, Strals. 1277, Bremen 1304. Cf. Hofnagel, Ro. 1285; Hans Hofschlag (Hofsmedt), Brsw. 1543.

Hoffsümmer (Hoffsommer) LGer-Rhineland: doc.: Hopsomer, Hoffsömmer, -sümmer; ‘hope for the summer’ (surname of a farmer or gardener).

Höfler, Höffler, Höfflin, Höfle see Hofer.

Höflich: from MHG hovelich ‘courtly mannered’. Peter Höfleich, Budweis 1309, P. Heflich, Prague 1382.

Höfling (UGer.), Höflinger. pl.n. (Bav., Aust.).

Hofmann (cf. under Hoffmann): UGer., man from a farm, farmer. Ulrich Hofman, Ehingen 1275, Ullin Hofman, Sarntal/S Tyrol 1340.

Hofmeister, Hofrichter see Hoff.

Hofsommer see Hoffsümmer.

Höfs, Hoefs (LGer.-Fris.) = Höfts (Höft, Hövet = Haupt ‘head’): cf. FN Hövesbrunken (in Oldenburg): 1693 Bruncke Hövedes = Bruno Haupts (son).

Hofstätter, Hofstetter: from Hofstetten in Bav.

Höft, Hoeft (freq. in Hbg.): LGer. Hovet = Haupt [head], cf. Lamshöft, Bredehöft, Witthöft, Düvelshöft [lamb’s head, wide h., white h., devil’s h.], also in pl.ns. like Bornhöved (FN Bornhöfft), Visselhöved (i.e. ‘spring area’ of the Vissel River). Henneke Hovet, Lüb. 1335 (also there Hardehovet, Mildehovet, Schonehovet, Wittehovet).

Hoge (LGer.): high, noble person like Hogemann (Homann); cf. Ludeke Hogheherte, Greifsw. 1358. But in pl.ns. = elevated: Hogehus, Hogeweg, Hogekamp, Hogebusch, Hogelücht, Hallig Hooge. With umlaut Höge (Hbg.), Högemann. But Höger (freq. in Hbg.) like Höjer see Hoyer.

Högel (Flensburg): pl.n. near Husum.

Höger (Bav.) = Heger, see there: (Also cf. pl.n. Hög, Högen in Bav.). Hence Högerl (Bav.), Högl (cf. Hegel), Höglmeier, Höglauer, Höglberger, Högler (cf. Hegler). Högner (Bav.) see Hegner.

Hogetop see Hotop.

Hogevel (LGer.): = ‘high gable’ (house name), cf. Joh. vom roden Gevel.

Högg, Höck (Bav.): = Hegg ‘hedge’.

Hogrefe see Grebe.

Hoh (cf. LGer. Hoge) like Hohmann (cf. LGer. Hogemann, Homann) see Hoch and Homann.

Hoheisel (Neiße, Neustadt in U.Sax. freq.): besides Hocheisel, Hochheiser, Hoheiser indicates origin in Hochhäusl, Hochhaus (freq. pl.n. in Aust. and Bav.) meaning ‘highly-situated little house’. Cf. Neuhäusel in Bohemia. For Hochheiser compare Thannheiser. Also Hoheusel. Cf. LGer. Hohaus (Hbg.): vammehoghenhus [from a high house], Lüb. 1320.

Hohenester (freq. in Mnch.) see Ester.

Hohl: documented as field n. (“das Hohl”), from MHG hol ‘cavity, depression in the ground’, cf. Vohenhol ‘fox hole’. Hence Hohler (UGer.).

Hohlbaum: loc.n. from the dwelling place near ‘a hollow tree’? Borchard Holebom, Lüb. 1331. Cf. the writer Robert H. (Aust.).

Hohlbein see Holbein.

Höhler: related to loc.n. Höhl(e) [cave]. Lotze Hoeler, N Hesse 1356.

Hohlers (LGer.) see Hölck.

Hohlfeld: loc.n., cf. Coneze Holfield, Frkf. 1396.

Hohlicke, Höhlke, Höhlich: Wend.-Czech variants of Gohlicke, Göhlke, Göhlich: all from holy, goly ‘bald’, ‘baldhead’.

Hohlweck: ‘hollow bread roll’, surname of a baker, likewise Spitzweck (Spitzweg); in Würt. “Hohlweg” [ravine, narrow pass] may be involved. Giselbert Holewecke, Col. 1159, C. Holewegge, Ro. 1284. Cf. Holbecker, Holhippe.

Hohlwein: sentence name for a wine pourer (holeWein! means get the wine), cf. Holebier (Brsl., Prague); Holefleisch (Hohlfleisch) [get the meat]; Holetappe, Holesten (Ro.) [get the stone]; Holeschacht (Barth; ‘grab the spearshaft’); Holrat [get advice] (Greifsw.); Holaus [raise your hand to strike]; perhaps also Holebom [hollow tree]: bom = ‘beam, post’, cf. Setzbaum [set the beam] LGer. Hahlbaum unless loc.n. (also Höhlbaum).

Ho(h)mann (LGer. and UGer.), Hoh: high, proud, aristocratic (MLG homan). Hensgen Homann, Lüdenscheid 1505, Hinr. Hogman, Lüb. 1320. Cf. Heinrich (der) Hohe, Bamberg 1278. Probably also from a highly-situated dwelling like Hohmeyer (Westph.), Höhmann.

Ho(h)muth see Hochmuth. Evert Homut, Ro. 1294.

Hohn (LGer.) = Huhn [chicken], surname of a poultry grower or dealer. Also Höhnke. Cf. Westph. Kluckhohn [brooding hen], Ketelhohn [kettle hen], Witthohn [white hen]. Joh. Hon, Honeke, Lüb. 1319. Joh. Honesben, Lüb. 1317. (Today Ho(h)nsbein, Ho(h)nsbehn = chicken leg or bone); Radeke honerdreger, Lüb. 1339. But also note the ancient word hon for ‘swamp, bog’: the Hohn (forest near Osnabrück, documented as silva [forest, woods] Hone), the Hohne (bog in the Harz Mts.), pl.n. Hona: Hahn in Oldenburg, pl.n. Hohn near Rendsburg, bog town Hohne near Celle, Honovere: Hannover, Hone-pol: Hönnepel near Kleve, also the Hohn fields (swampy meadows) in Londorf/Hesse (see Bahlow ON, p. 197). Joh. torHone, Osnabrück 1482.

Höhn(e): UGer. from MHG hoene ‘scoffing, scornful’; Cuonrat called Höne, Tübingen 1303, Hainrich der Hön, Villingen 1388. But the N Ger. FN Höhne (freq. in Hbg.) contains the geographical characteristic of swampy lowland (see also Hohn): “at the Höhne” (besides pl.n. Höhnau), bog town on the Oste River near Bremervörde; Hönebach at the Seuling Hills.

Hohner (UGer.): may derive from MHG hônen ‘to sneer, scoff; cf. Broger, Schaller ‘braggard’; documented Honer, Villingen 1439. But cf. pl.n. Hohn (freq.), pl.n. Honau (near Reutlingen, Kehl): Joh. Honouw, Rottweil 1379.

Höhner see Höner.

Hohnholt, Hohnholz: LGer. loc.n. (‘near the high woods or forest’).

Höhnke, Hohnsben see Hohn.

Hoier see Hoyer.

Hoike see Heuke.

Hoiß, Hoisl see Haiß.

Holbein (also Hohlbein): the name of the famous painter (Hans Holbein) has been recorded in Ravensburg since 1250. Its equivalent in Baden/Aargau is Holschenkel: for a person whose legs form a cave-like (hollow) space, bowlegged. Similar is Sichelbein [sickle leg], Würt. 1500; Holfueß [Fuß ‘foot’is used for leg in Bav. and Aust.] in Vienna 1376.

Holch, Holg (Würt., Franc.): as early as 1282 Herman Holge in Salem, 1383 Heincz and Albrecht Holche in Öhringen/Würt., thus hardly meaning ‘holy’ as in the E Franc. dialect today (as Brech. claims). MHG holche means ‘freighter, barge’ (cf. LGer. holk). Also cf. field and creek Holchen(bach) in Baden.

Hölck (Hbg.): according to form and meaning, the name may be a variant of Fris. Helck (see there). Both are old pers.ns. (nickname has a suffix). Hole (FN Hohle, Holen) is still a Fris. f.n. today (see Strackerjan, p. 24), it compares with Bole as Holeke (Hölck, Haalck) with Boleke (Bölck, Baalck) and Holeman with Boleman (see under Böhlke and Bahlke) and Holje siefken with Hobbiesietken. From here Holert (freq. in Hbg.), patr. Holers become clear. For Holje cf. Bolje, for Hohlers cf. Wohlers, for Hohls cf. Bohls.

Höld (Bav.) see Held.

Holder(baum): UGer., from the dwelling place near an elderberry bush, also see Hölderlin. In Worms 1290 Conrad Holderboum. The tree was praised as medicinal by Caspar Lohenstein (Baroque writer) around 1670.

Hölderlin, Hölderle: the poet Friedrich H. and his name are both natives of Würt.; the poet’s coat of arms shows an elderberry branch. From the dwelling place “am hölderlin” [at the little elderberry] 1386, “hinder dem holderbusche“ 1322, “zer holderstuden“ [at the e. shrub]; also as house n., e.g. in Basel around 1300 “zemholdern”, in Strasb. 1327 “zemholderstock” (Hans Holderstock, Strasb. 1405); “zumholderboume”, Mainz 1323. Also Holder(er), Holdermann: Heinrich der Holderman, Eßlingen 1294, Burkart der Holder, Eßlingen 1319, Counrat Holderlin, 1314 near Freudenstadt.

Holdmann (Hbg.): = Holtmann (Holzmann), cf Holdhoff, Holdschuh.

Holdorf (freq. in Hbg.): pl.n. in Oldenburg. Cf. Heltorf.

Holdt (von): freq. in Hbg., see Holt.

Holert, Holers (Hbg.) see Hölck.

Holger, Holgers: Dan-Fris. pers.n., cf. Holger Danske, Dan. national hero. Note the well-known story by Selma Lagerlöf: NilsHolgerssonsMarvelousTripWiththeWildGeese.

Holk, Holke (LGer.): the captain of a large freighter (with a flat bottom), cf. Prahm. See also Schnicke, Kogge, Krake. Henneke Holk, Lüb. 1350, Jacob Holk, Greifsw. 1398.

Holl (Holle): freq. in UGer. area, in some cases from loc.n. Holl, in others contracted from Holde, like Holler from Holder. Hiltbold Holle, Meßkirch 1329.

Höll (Hölldobler, Hälldampf, Höllriegl, etc.): Bav. variant of Hell.

Holland: in some cases = Hollander (UGer.), Holländer [from Holland or the Low Countries]; in Sax. and Lausitz Slav.-Wend. Holan(Golan) related to hol(gol) ‘bald’ may be involved. Cf. Hollack, Hollatz, etc.

Holle, Hollmann (N Ger.): from pl.n. and loc.n. Holle, Hollen (freq.), which contain the bog word hol (see Bahlow ON, p. 221); cf. Hollen Bog near Lüneburg, Hollen Bog in Würt. Henne Holleman, Kassel 1367. Albert Hollekenbecke, Dorteur 1397.

Holleben (von): pl.n. near Halle (in eld documents: Hunleve 1185, like Billeben from Beneleve from hun, ben ‘bog, swamp’). Cf. Hollar from Hunlar.

Holler (freq. in UGer.): contracted from Holder, likewise Höller from Hölder, unless (as in Holl) from field n. “Holl”: Berchtold Holler, Marbach 1460.

Holling (Hbg.): Fris. patr., also Hollenga; cf. Holje under Hölek. But Hollingstedt in Holstein derives from Hollenstede (‘bog place’). Hollinger (UGer.): from pl.n. Hollingen (e.g. in Lorraine).

Hollmann, Hollmeier (Westph.) see Holle. Joh. tomHolle 1507.

Hollnagel (Hbg.) see Nagel.

Hollstein (freq. in Hbg.) see Holstein. Also cf. pl.n. Hollstein on the Werra River.

Hollub see Gollub.

Hollweck (UGer.) see Hohlweck.

Hollwede(l): pl.n.s of Delmenhorst (‘bog ford, passage’), cf. Maewedel) etc.

Holm (freq. in Hbg.): pl.n. in and around Hbg. and in area east of it, = ‘small island’, cf. Bornholm, Dänholm, Engholm, Lindholm. Herman Holme, Han. 1350, Andr. Holm, Stralsund 1298.

Hölscher (Westph.): = UGer. Holzschuher (Nbg.), Holdschuer, Holdschuh, manufacturer of wooden shoes, LGer. holschen (holsken), also Holschemacher. Cf. Herman Holscher 1491 (guild master of the shoemakers in Osnabrück); H. Holschenmaker, Haldsl. 1393. Also see Patinenmeker.

Holst (freq. in Hbg.): person from Holstein = Holste, originally Holt-säte ‘wood dweller’, Diderik Holtsete, Osnabrück 1266. Holsten = Holstein: Rabbert of Holtzeten, Osn. 1367. Holster (Hbg.): probably = Holst(en) unless from pl.n. Holsten near Han. (cf. Broxter: from Brokseten).

Holt, Holdt (von): freq. in LGer. = UGer. Holz [wood, woods], loc.n. and pl.n. (mostly Holte); cf. “von Holten” (Hbg.). Holtmann, Holtmeier: from the dwelling place near a woods (UGer. Holzmann), cf. Tomholte, Tenholte, Vormholte: Bernt vor demHolte, Lippe 1380. Henneke Anderhalfholt (‘on the other side of the woods’), Lüneburg 1357. In Westph, also Hölter, Hülterling. But Holtermann (Hbg.) like Haltermann (both in Münster around 1580) from pl.n. Haltern in Westph. or Han.

Holtappel (LGer.): = Holzapfel (crab apple). Joh. Holtappel, Lüb. 1319.

Holtdreyer (LGer.): = Dreyer = Drechsler [turner, wood worker]: Henseken Hottdregher, Greifsw. 1370.

Holtey: Westph. loc.n. (wooded swampy meadow, wet field, likewise Hülsey, Espey, Effey, Wiedey). Theodor deHoltoye 1289; Everhard deHoltey, around 1412 in the Werden document register, Gertrud uter [from] Hottey, Werden 1411, Schulte inderHoltey 1359. Cf. Karl Holtei, Sil. dialect writer.

Holtfoth, Holtvoth (LGer.) = Holzfuß [wooden foot]. Joh. Holtvot, Greifsw. 1308.

Holtfreter, (Holtfreder) [wood eater]: LGer. (Meckl., Hbg.), derisive nickname for a wood cutter or sawyer, likewise Hoppenfreter for a hop grower or hopper. Cf. Speckfreter [ham eater], Anklam 1413.

Höltge(n), Höltje (LGer.): = Holt, likewise Büschgen = Busch, name from the dwelling place near the woods. Likewise Hölting (Westph.), Büsching. Cf. pl.n. Höltinghausen in Oldenburg. Höltgebaum = ‘crab apple’.

Holtgrewe, Holzgrefe (LGer.-Westph.): ‘overseer of a forest, forest ranger’, see Grewe. Bruno Holtgreve, Greifsw. 1351.

Holthusen (freq. in Hbg.): freq. N Ger. pl.n., today also Holthausen, UGer. Holzhausen.

Holtiegel: (Brsw.): ‘wood hedgehog’. Heyse Holtegel, Einbeck 1505.

Holtkötter (Westph.): like Buschkötter, Heitkötter, Strotkötter, name from the location [near woods] of the Kote or Kate [cottage] = ‘small farmstead mostly without (owned) land’.

Holtmann, Holtmeier see Holt.

Holtorf: freq. LGer. pl.n., also Holtorp, Holtrup in Westph.

Hölty (Han.). name of the 18th c. poet is contracted from Hölting, likewise Dörry from Döring (cf. pl.n. Dörrieloh for Döringeloh).

Holtz- see Holz.

Holwede see Hollwede.

Holz, Hölzl, Hölzle, Hölzer (all UGer.): [Hölzl, Hölzle is the diminutive form used in UGer.] name from the dwelling place in a woods or forest. Cf. Heinrich im Holz (peasant), Baden 1355, Hans imHölzle, Meßkirch/Baden 1515. Also Hölzler (Würt. 1301). But Frühinsholz [early to the woods] is a name for a forest laborer, lumberjack, Holzhauer, likewise Holzmann (from MHG) unless it means lumber merchant (cf. Salzmann etc; LGer. Holtköper). Holzner is an UGer. name of origin (unless = Holzer). Hence Holzfurtner, Holzgartner, Holzhauser, Holzhammer (= Holzheimer), all are Bav.; Holzwimmer see Wimmer.

Holzapfel see Holtappel.

Holzbecher: (UGer.) from Holzbach.

Holzfuß see Holtfoth.

Holzgrefe see Holtgrewe.

Holzhey (UGer., from MHG) = ‘forest ranger or warden’, see Hei.

Holzlöhner (Bav., Aust.) = Holzlehner: ‘tenant farmer’.

Holzmaißer: ‘carver’. N. Holczmaißer, Moravia 1414.

Holzmann, Holzmeier, Holzmüller see Holz. Holzmühle is a freq. pl.n.

Holzschuher (UGer.) see Hölscher: Name is known through the Nbg. patrician who was painted by Dürer. A Friedrich Holzschuher 1376 in Nbg.

Holzweißig (freq. in Lpz.): pl.n. near Merseburg.

Homann (freq. in Hbg.): LGer. = ‘person from a high social class’, see Hohmann.

Homeister, Homester (LGer.): in Han., Westph. = from MLG Hovemester ‘steward, manager of a farm’, see Hofmeister. Cf. Hameister for Havemeister, Hovemeister. Also = Hochmeister.

Horneyer (Westph.) see Hohmeyer.

Homfeldt (Hbg.): pl.n. near Verden.

Homm, Hommen, Hommes: Fris. pers.n. (nickname, patr.) besides Humm, Hummen; cf. the long form Hummer(s), Hommer(s). HummoHumminga, Frisia 1422, Feddo Hommius 1514. Cf. Momme, Mumme, Momke (like Homke). Probably all based on Hunibert (Humbert), analogous to Munibert, Mummert.

Hommel: = Hummel ‘bumble bee’, surname for restless, nervous persons. For the change u:o compare Rummel: Rommel. Nickel Homel, Kamenz 1358, Hans der Humel, Würt. 1398. Latinized: Homilius (in Lpz.).

Hommerich: pl.n. near Lindlar in Col. area. Cf. Hammerich.

Homolka see Gomolka, Gemoll. Cf. Wend. homola ‘hill, knoll’.

Hompel (see Hompel): L.Rhine field name.

Hompertz see Humpert.

Homuth see Hochmut. Cöne Homut, Haldsl. 1400.

Honcamp: Westph. loc.n.

Hondelmann see Handelmann.

Höne, Hönecke, Hönemann (LGer.): derive from Huno like Köne, Könecke, Könemann from Kuno (Kunrad); see Hünecke, Hunold. Likewise Hönk(s) like Könkes.

Honegger, Honecker (UGer.): belongs to the pl.ns. ending in -eck, -egg, cf. Rosegger, Rienecker.

Höner, Höhner (LGer.-Westph.) like Hilgenhöhner, Wellhöhner, also Wippenhohn contain a field name, cf. “Bei der Höhne”, also Hönau (bog town near Bremervörde); Höne in Oldenburg; similarly Lohn, Löhne (meadow near Schieder in Westph.). Hence Honemeyer etc. Also cf. Hüner. Origin becomes evident in Joh. torHone, Osnabrück 1482.

Hönerlage, Hönerloh: a loc.n. in Westph. (loh, lage ‘wet lowlands’).

Honig: an occ. surname for the beekeeper or honey dealer (Honigmenger from Lat. mango ‘dealer, merchant’). Likewise Honigmann. Thid. Honich, Kiel 1383. Clawes Benehonnich, Lüneburg 1353, Gerhard Honic-büsse, Haldsl. 1350, C. Honingesser, Frkf 1345. Honigmesser (city official) 1350 in Brsl.

Hönig, Hönack, Hönatsch, Hönisch, Hönsch (Lausitz) are Ger-Wend. variants of Heinig, Heinatsch, Heinisch, nicknames of Heinrich.

Hönig(er): cf pl.n. Hönig in Bav.

Honold (Bav., Würt.) see Hunold. (Hans Honolt, Kempten 1451).

Honsbein see Hohnsbehn.

Honschopp, Hohnschep (LGer.): with a mop of hair standing up [hoch, hoh- = ‘high’], cf. Breitschopf, Grauschopf. Also see Hotopp.

Hons(e)l (UGer.-Bav.) = Hansel (Hans).

Hoock (Hbg.): a Fris. field n. as in Hocksiel, Greetsiel etc. But Hokema is a Fris. patr. (from the clan of the Hok), cf. Hocks.

Hoof(e): LGer.-Rhineld. = vom Hofe from a farm or estate], Hove, van Hooven.

Hoog(e) see Hoge.

Hoop, Hoops (freq. in Hbg.): Hope, Hopen, Hoope, Hoopte are pl.ns. from the marsh and bog region of Frisia to the Elbe, which mean something like ‘elevated place in the bog’, ‘hummock’ also simply ‘bog’ (cf. dung, donk which has two similar meanings); see also Bahlow ON, p. 223. Joh. vandemHope, Han. 1352. Cf. Hop Lake in Schleswig.

Hoor(mann) (Hbg.) see Hormann.

Hoose(mann) see Hose(mann).

Höper (LGer.-Westph.); Hopmann: related to loc.n. and pl.n. Hop, Hope, see Hoop.

Hopf, Höpfli, Höpfl (UGer.) see Höpfner. Likewise Hopfensack, Hopfenstock.

Höpfner, LGer. Höppner, also in E Centr.Ger.-Sil. area besides Höptner, Heptner, Heppner; Bav. Hopf(n)er: hop farmer and dealer; the importance of hop for beer brewing in the Middle Ages is reflected by the freq. street name “Hopfenmarkt”; the cities also had so-called Hopfenhäuser [hop buildings], where the burghers who had a brewing license could buy their hops (Peter Rote “im hopfenhowse”, Liegnitz 1387); hence hop gardens or fields show up in pl.ns. like Hopfgarten, Hoppegarten. Surnames for hop growers are. Hoppenfreter = Hoppener, Barth 1326, Hoppensack, Ro. 1270 (from a register of hop growers), Hopfenstock (Brsl., Görlitz: today Hopfstock), Hopferebe [both mean ‘hop vine’] Kirchheim 1275, Hoppestrunk, Col. 1142; also Hopf, Höpfl, Hoppe, see there.

Höpke(n), Höpcker (LGer.-Westph.) see Höper.

Hoppe: E Ger.-Sil., LGer., occ. surname for a hop grower or hopper; documented in Liegnitz 1417-33: Hannus Hoppe = Hans Hopphener, in Glatz: Höpfel = Hopfener.

Hoppenrath (Berlin, Ro.): pl.n. Hoppenrade (Brandenburg, Meckl.).

Horak: Czech for old Slav. Gorak (gor = ‘mountain’).

Horand (rare): unless of E Ger.-Wend. origin (= Horan, like Iwan[d]) it probably is the name of the famous singer from the Hilde-Gudrun epic. Evidence: Helmbricht filius Horandi [son of Horand], M.-Frk. 1316, Cunrat Horant, Frkf. 1323, Cuonrat called Horant, Meßkirch/Baden 1320.

Hörath, Höret (cf. pl.n. Hörezder) see Herath, Hierath.

Horbach (LGer. Horbeck): ‘swampy, dirty creek’, several pl.ns. (Pal., Rhineland, Hesse, Würt.), also several creeks by the name in Baden, Würt., Hesse (from OHG horo), Nik. Horfürer (carter of refuse), Moravia 1365. Cf. Horbruch, Horburg (Harburg), Horlach, Horstedt, etc. (see Bahlow ON, p. 223). Hence also Hör (Würt.), Hören (Rhineld.), cf. Hörenkuhl (Horkohl), Auf der Hören (Rhineld.), Bettnang “in der Höri”, 1535 near Konstanz. But Horbasch, Horbahn, Horband, Horbank (Lausitz), Horbat (Lith.) are nicknames of Wend. Horban = Orban, Urban.

Horb(er): from Horb/Würt. or Horben/Breisgau; a Horb Creek (‘dirty water’) is a tributary of the Bibers near the Kocher River. For Horb(en): Colt. Korb(en) see Bahlow ON, p. 223.

Hörbiger: Tyrolean family; also Hörbinger (Hörbing is a färmstead name there).

Hörbrand (Bav.) see Herbrand.

Hörbst see Herbst.

Horch: means Horcher [eavesdropper], likewise Brauch means Braucher [user, indulger]; Grein means Greiner [crier]; Gamp means Gamper [jumper], all are UGer. verbs of action. Cf. der Horch, 1336 near Wolfach; Horcher, Brsl. 14th c.

Horchemer: from Horchheim/Rhine (hork ‘dirt’).

Hördrich (Bav.) see Hertrich.

Horger (Würt.): from Horgen near Rottweil. Frid. Horger, Rottweil 1324. Also cf. pl.n. Horgau (Swabia, Switz.): from MHG horec ‘dirty’, horgen ‘to soil’. But Hörger (Bav., freq. in Mnch.) see Herger, Horeis.

Hörhold (Bav.) besides Herhold see Herold.

Höring, Hörig see Hering. (Hans Hering, Höring 1518-49).

Horkohl, Hörenkuhl (Bremen) see Horbach.

Hörl, Hörlein (Bav.) see Herl.

Horlach(er): pl.n. Horlachen in Würt. or Horlach/Bav. A meadow Horvelache (dirty or swampy puddle) 1287 near Weilderstadt, cf. pln. Horblach. Hence Horlohe ‘swamp woods’, likewise pl.n. Horla near Mansfeld: FN Horl (Quedlinburg), 1330 Horle. Horlebusch see Hurlebusch. Cf. Horlbeck, Hurlbeck.

Hormann (Hoormann): Hbg., freq. in Lüb. is an assimilated form of Horn(e)mann (rare today) = person from Horn (freq. pl.n. and loc.n. near Hbg., Bremen and east of it).

Hörmann (Bav.) see Hermann.

Hönnle (Swab.) see Hermle (Hermann).

Hormuth (UGer.-Alem.) = Harmuth, Hartmut.

Horn: found in all areas of the German-speaking world; mostly a field or pl.n., sometimes house n. in the SW (Rhine area) (Col., Worms: 1352 Henlin zu demHorne; vamGuldenhom). Albert Horn (Hornenwn) 1296-1301 in Hbg. (pl.n. Horn near Hbg.). Also Hörnle is a freq. UGer. field n.: Berchtold Hämli, Würt. 1310, Cunrad Hörnler, Freiburg 1280, Hainrich der Horner, Kempten 1333. Also cf. Balhorn ‘swampy nook’.

Hornack: Wend.-Czech = Berger.

Hornbogen: surname of a bow maker or archer (from MHG horn-bege). Tylo Rorneboghe, Han. 1363.

Hornbostel: pl.n. near Celle.

Hornef(f): an old form of the river name Horloff (Wetterau area), 948 Hurnaffa, related to hor-n, hur-n ‘swamp’ (see Bahlow ON, p. 224).

Hörn(e)ke (LGer.) see Horn and Hornemann.

Hornel: pl.n. near Sontra.

Hornemann see Hormann. Also cf. Joh. Hornke (also called Homeman), Frisia 1561.

Horner, Hörner (UGer.): related to loc.n. (pl.n.) Horn, see there. Cf. Oberhorner. In some cases the name might indicate the manufacturer working with horn as in Nuremberg where the “Horners” and comb makers formed a guild. Horn may also be an rname for a horn player. Heile Horn, Frkf. 1383; Rotcher Horn, Ro. 1282; Nitsche Horn, Liegnitz 1372; Berent Homeken 1482.

Horney(t), freq. in Brsw.: Eastphalian for Hartneid. Horneyd Brakenhoff, Flettmar 1438, Hans Horneyt, Haldsl. 1451.

Hornfisch: surname for a fisherman. Hornvisch, Ro., Strals. 1279.

Hornig: unless the name is a contracted form of Horning, Hornung (see there), it may have its origin (in Sax., Lausitz) in Czech-Wend hornik ‘miner’; hence also Hörnig (Hörning), Hörnicke, Hornicke, Hornicek, Hornicky. For other evidence cf. Gornig, Gornick, Gornich: Pol. gornik = Czech hornik(gora: hora ‘mountain’). Petsche Hornik, Liegnitz 1438, Gregor Hornig, Görlitz 1465 besides Hans Horning, Görl. 1412.

Horns (Hbg.): with patr. suffix -s, cf. Hoops etc.

Hornschuch: probably from the fashion of the pointed shoes, so-called krakows; -schuch is UGer.

Hornung: the name for February in the Middle Ages. Name taken from a time unit like April, Mai, or Herbst (autumn). Heinrich Hornung, Gelnhausen 1244. Nickel Hornung, Graupen/Bohemia 1491. Cf. Walther von der Vogelweide’s song (28,32): “nu enfürhte ich nicht den hornunc an die zehen” [now I am not afraid of the February cold on my toes any more].

Hörold (Bav.) see Herold.

Hörpel (Hbg.): pl.n. near Seltau (Horp-lo): Dutch horp ‘mire’ (see Bahlow ON, p. 225).

Horsch (freq.) in Lpz. besides Horschel, Horschig) is of Slav. origin. Cf. pl.n. Horscha in Lausitz district. But Bentz Horsch reveals the Swab. dialect variant for Horst ‘little woods’, cf. “hof zu dem horsche” 1351; likewise “im Hürschle”, Balthasar Hörschlin, Würt. 1494.

Hörselmann (Hörschelmann): Lpz., von der Hörsel near Eisenach, 979 Hursila, with the legendary Hörsel Hill or Mount of Venus (cf. Wagner’s opera Tannhäuser). For info. on hur-s, hor-s ‘swamp’ see Bahlow ON, p. 225 (Horsmar, Horsbach, Hörsingen, old: Hures-lede are pl.ns. containing the word).

Horst(mann): N Ger-Westph., from freq. loc.n. and pl.n. Horst = woods. Also Von der Horst, Terhorst (L.Rhine = zur Horst), cf. torHorst, Gütersloh 1369; Hörster (like Büscher). Hence numerous compounds: Brunkhorst, Habighorst [Habicht = ‘hawk’], Scharnhorst (mucky woods), Mordhorst [Mord = ‘murder’], Windhorst.

Hort, Horter (Bav.-Aust.): = Hart, Harter, name taken from the dwelling place or origin; cf. in Moravia: Nicolaus Hort 1400 besides Jorig Hart 1414; a place Hortau near Aussig besides Harthau in Sax., in old Brsl.: vonderHart.

Hörter (Bav.) see Herter.

Hört(e)rich see Hertrich.

Hörth: probably pl.n. like Hürth near Col. or Hördt in Pal.

Hörtnagel see Hartnagel.

Horwege (freq. in Hbg.): corresponds to Hollwege, Hornweg, Hetzwege, Hellwege, all ‘bog places’ between the lower Elbe and lower Weser (-wege = -wede ‘ford, crossing place’). Also cf. Luther Herwade, Hesse 1344 (wade ‘ford’).

Horwitz, Haurwitz (Jewish): pl.n. Horovitz in Bohemia.

Hosang (LGer.): can only mean ‘Hochgesang, Festmusik’ = ‘high song, music’ = ‘hymn’, at a celebration or festival: Heinrich Hosank, Ro. 1270, Georg Hosank, Lüb. 1300; becomes evident in the FN Hochgesang.

Hösch (Hbg., Han.): in LGer. contracted form of Hovesche for ‘a courtly-mannered and educated person’ (see Bahlow NN, p. 244). Dominus [master of the house or manor] Conrad Hovesche, Goslar 1227, Welter Hovesche, Hbg. 1272.

Hösch, Höschele (Würt.): besides Hesch, Heschele very likely mean ‘mocker, scoffer’ (from MHG hoschen ‘to mock’, hosche ‘mockery’, hence FN Hosch in Basel; but MHG heschen ‘to sob’). Joh. Häsch, Zurich 1345, Heinrich Höschel, Eßlingen 1405, Hans Hösch and son Jodocus Hesch, Würt. 1480-1500. But Hosch, Hoschek, Hoschka in Lpz. are of Slav. origin (cf. Haschek, Haschke Johannes): Peter Hosche, Brieg 1390.

Hose: occ. surname of a pants maker or hose knitter (in the Middle Ages pants were of knit material and tighter like leggings or hose); name was rarely from a personal (conspicuous) way to dress; cf. Dietrich inderHosen, Baden 1284, Rodehose [red pants], Stralsund 1321, Grawehose [gray pants], Brsw. 1370, Stuvehose [stove pipes] in Lüb., Kortehose [short p.], Col. 1411, Bunthose [colorful p.], Fulda 1497, Linenhose, Wetzlar 1342, also Ledderhose [leather p.], Lodderhose [sloppy p.], Schlotterhose [baggy p.]; a very vivid name is Hinrich Kerehose [turn the p.], Strals. 1343; hence hosemekere, Lüb. 1324, hosenmacher, Prague 1389, hosennestler, Prague 1404 besides Dytl hosler 1378; Hosebendet [pant strap], Liegnitz 1346; Hosenbüßerly = ‘hose mender’. Heinrich Hosenmecher goltsloer, Brsl. 1375 besides Hosenstricker [p. knitter].

Hosemann (besides Ho[o]se): occurs freq. in U.Sax. (Neustadt, Neiße) that apparently the Czech pers.n. Hos was involved; cf. Hoske, Hosena in Lausitz. Franz Hosman, Kuttenberg 1381, Hoseman, Meißen 1349.

Hösle (UGer.): see Hose. Liutfrid Höselin, Swab. 1228. Hence Hösler. But Hößler (UGer.) sometimes = Häßler, see there. Cf. Hößelbart.

Hospe (1333 in Kempten): from MHG haspe ‘(yarn) reel’.

Hoßbach: cf. pl.n. Hosbach near Sontra. Hoßfeld. Höß = Heß, Hössel = Hessel.

Hößelbarth (Thur., Sax.): = Häßelbarth, Heselbarth, Hesselbarth, see there. Cf. Höselwang, Höselhurst (pl.ns.).

Hostrup (Hbg.): pl.n. near Schleswig.

Hoth (LGer.): [hat] = Hotfilter, Hotwalker, see Hodemacher. See also Hauth (Filthaut!).

Hothmer (Hbg.): related to the pl.n. Hötmar in Westph. and Dutch Hotmar, Hottemere ‘mucky lake’; cf. Hotepe (Hoppecke) near Brilon. Further info. under Hottenrott.

Hotopp (LGer.), Hotopf: based on Hogelop ‘tall braid’. Cf. Gratop (‘gray braid’), Siedentop (‘silk braid’). Hautop is Westph. like Hauschopp: = ­schopf [mop of hair].

Hottelmann: from the pl.n. Hotteln near Hildesheim.

Hötte(mann) see Hüttemann. Cf. Hötmar, Hottenrott.

Hottenrott: Hess. pl.n. ending in -rode [a clearing in the forest]; Hottenbrauk (Westph.), Hottenbach near Idar, Hotten-Berg near Seesen all indicate ‘moist dirt, mire’ (cf. Dutch hot ‘curdled milk’, Hottendegel 1486 in Han. = Tiegel [shallow saucepan] to hold the curd). A lake Hottemere 1329 in the Netherlands (see Bahlow ON, p. 226).

Hotze, Hotz (UGer.): documented are Berchtold Hozzo, 1284 near St. Gallen, Conrad Hozzo 1221 near Würzburg, Hotze 1320 in the Tauber area, Peter Hoccz 1414 in Moravia. Cf. MHG hotzen ‘to run fast’. But Hotzan (in Lpz.) is Slavic.

Hotzel(mann) see Hutzel(mann).

Houten (van), Dutch = van Holten; Houtman = Holtman. See there.

Hove, Howe (freq. in Kiel, Hbg.): from the dwelling place or origin.

Hövel, Hövelmann (LGer.) see Höbel. Also Höveling, Höveler.

Hövermann (freq. in Hbg.), Höver-: from Höver near Han. or Ülzen (in old documents: Hovederen).

Hövet (LGer.): ‘head’ see Höft.

Howaldt, Howoldt (Hbg.): LGer. loc.n. like Howedel, Howindt.

Höxter: pl.n. on the Weser (in old documents: Huxori), named for swampy terrain: see Bahlow ON, p. 226. Huxer, Greifswald 1388.

Hoyer (Bav.) see Hayer.

Hoyer (Hoger): old LGer. pers.n., once popular with the aristocracy. Earl Hoyer of Mansfeld, killed in battle 1115; Earl Hoyer of Falkenstein etc. Hoger(us), Ro. 1275, Hbg. 1265, Hannes Hoyeres (son of Hoyer), Haldel. 1350. Also pl.n. Hoistorf in Holstein was formerly Hoyerstorp, cf. Hoyershausen on the Leine River, Hoyershagen on the Aller.

Hoyler (Swab.) see Hailer.

Heym: pl.n. in the E Harz Mountains.

Hoymann (Hbg.): from Hoya on the Weser. Hans vanderHoye, Han. 1379, Nik. vanderHoya, Hbg. 1554.

Hubach (W Ger.): a place Hubach near Ahrweiler was recorded 1140. (Cf. DeutchesGeschlechterbuch, vol. 153 (1970), p. 247 and 289). Like Huscheid was a ‘bog place’.

Hubatsch: Czech = ‘loudmouth, braggart’.

Hübbe, Hübben (LGer.-Fris.): shortened from its full form Hübbers as Lübbe, Lübben from Lübbers (see Hubert and Lubbert). Patronymics in Rhineld. are Hübgen(s) and Lübgen(s). Without the umlaut: Hubbe, Hubbert and Lubbe, Lubbert; Rhineld. Hubbertz.

Huber (UGer.-Bov.), also Hueber (with a diphthong like MHG huober) means peasant or farmer, i.e. owner of a “Hube” (unit of farmland; LGer. Hufe). Cf. Heinrich inderHuobe (farmer), Thurgau 1301. E Ger.-Sil. is Hübner, Franc. (rare) Hüfner. A rich “Huber” was evidently Hartman Hubenrich, near Karlsruhe 1390. Also numerous compounds: Bachhuber, Hinterhuber, Mitterhuber, Halbhuber; Anderhub, Vierhub, Schönhueb, Hueb, Hube, Hubl, etc. Also see Hubmaier, Hubschmid and similar names.

Hubert: known as St. Hubertus, patron saint of the hunters, saint from the Rhineland, apostle of the Ardennes Mountains, thus a freq. FN in the Rhineld., especially Huppertz, sh.f. Hübgen(s), Hüpgen(s), etc. Cf. LGer.-Fris. Hübbe, Hübbers. Germanic Hugi-berht means ‘standing out through intellectual strength’ (still in MHG hügen ‘to think, ponder, enjoy’); cf. sh.f. Hugo. With umlaut Hübert, Hübers.

Hübethal: pl.n. Hübenthal on the Werra, likewise Hilbenbach near Göttingen (1032 Huvina) from a prehistoric creek name; cf. Hüven at the Hümmling Hills; Hüvede on the Ems.

Hübler (UGer.): from the dwelling place on or at a hill = Hübel, see Niebler, Hiebel. Cf. Hirschhübel, Gießhübel. LGer. Hövel.

Hubmaier, Hubmeier (UGer.-Bav.), contracted form Huebmer, Huemer (Meindlhuemer), means steward of an estate (Maier) who owns a “Hube” [unit of farmland], cf. Hubschmid, Hubmüller.

Hübner (freq. in Lausitz and Sil.): corresponds to UGer.-Bav. Huber, see there. Hempel Hübener, Sorau 1381, Chunrat Hübener, Budweis 1334. Andreas Freyhube, Sprottau 1547. Further info. see Bahlow SN, p. 108. The standard German form for Hube since the 15th c. is LGer. Hufe (cf. Franc. Hüfner).

Hubold see Haubold.

Hübotter (Han., Magdeburg): Hans Hugebottere, Han. 1431, surname of a butter dealer, like Sötebotter, Farsch-(Frisch-)botter; Dutch hui, MLG hoie ‘whey’ (the Engl. word is directly related!). For fürther info. see Brech., p. 746; for Bergwald Huy near Halberstadt and Huy River (Hogia), near the Maas River see Bahlow ON, p. 226.

Hubrich, Hubrig, Hubricht, Hubrecht, Hobrecht (Sil., Lausitz, Sax.): a dialect variant of Hoberg (today pl.n. Hohberg near Goldberg or Hohburg in Sax.), likewise Herbrich for Herberg, Vorbrich for Vorwerk, Hirschbrich, Weißbrich, Zeißbrich, etc. Joh. Hoberch, Liegnitz 1339, Caspar vonHabergk (Rubrik), Glatz 1558, Cunrad vonHoberch, near Meißen 1185.

Hübsch, Hübscher, Hübschmann: ‘a courtly, well-educated person’ (from MHG hövesch, hüvesch, hübesch, LGer. also hösch). Ritter Cuonrat of Ysenburc, called der habische, Pal. 1280; Nickel Frauenhöbscher (‘gallant courtly womanizer’), Glatz 1476, C. Hübeschman, Freiburg 1284. Hence Hübschle, Hübschhans, Hübschwerlin (= Werner). LGer. Hovesche (1265 ff. in Ro., Strals., Hbg.).

Hubschmid (UGer.): = a smith who owns a “Hube” [unit of farmland] (cf. Hubmüller, Hubmaier), in some cases (falsely) changed to Hufschmied [blacksmith]. In old documents: Huobschmid.

Huch (LGer.) = Hugo, see there. Huch unde Henning, Stendal 1378, Huch (Hugho) Pisker, Halle 1368, Hughe Bukstock, Ro. 1385, Hughensone in Krempe.

Hucht(mann), Huchthausen, Huchtkötter, Huchting (pl.n. near Bremen): all contain a word for thicket. For Huchtkötter (Westph.) cf. Marschkötter, Pohlkötter, Schlautkötter, Meerkötter, all synonyms; uf der Hülshucht, Lippe 1617.

Huchzermeyer: pl.n. Huchzen in Westph.

Huck (Hbg.): can be explained through NW Ger. field ns. like Huckriede (Westph., Oldenburg) corresponding to Seckriede, Schlickriede. There is Huckland, an area near Remscheid, Hückschlage (Hukes-lage) near Iserlohn, or pl.ns. like Hückeswagen, Hüxholl, Hücker near Herford, Hückstadt, Huckfeld, Huckingen, all indicating ‘bog, swamp’ (for further info. see Bahlow ON, p. 227). Likewise Huckenbach, Hückel(hoven), Huckelriede, Huckenbeck, Huckendieck, vom Huck. But UGer. Huck (Mnch., Lpz.) means Hocke ‘huckster, (street) trader’.

Huckauf see Hockauf.

Hucke (freq. in Lpz.) see Hocke.

Huckfeidt (Hbg.): pl.n., see Huck.

Hückstädt: pl.n. like Lückstedt (huck ‘bog’, luck ‘swamp’).

Huckstorf (Ro.): pl.n. near Ro.

Hüdding: pl.n. Hüddingen on the Eder River.

Hüde, Hude (Hbg.): LGer. loc.ns. and pl.ns. (probably a grazing area), in Holstein, Oldenburg, Han.; hence Hudemann (Hbg.). Albert Hudepol, Lüb. 1340 Occ.n.), also Hüttelpohl; apudHudam [near (the) Hude], Ro. 1269; Eilard von der Hude, Verden 1590.

Hudetz, Hudeczek (Mnch.); Hudy, Hudasch: from Slav. hud- ‘miserable’.

Hudler, Hudel (UGer.): rag(man). Hence Hudelmeyer, Huttelmeyer. Konrad Hudeler, Eßlingen 1295.

Hudtwalcker see Hodwalker. Hodemacher.

Hufeisen [horseshoe], Hufnagel [hobnail]: occ. surnames of blacksmiths.

Hufeland: famous physician and friend of Goethe, from Thur.; name is probably loc.n. meaning ‘farmland’.

Hüffel (UGer.): from MHG = ‘cheek’; Reinhold Hüffelin (knight), Strasbg. 1324.

Hüffmann, Hüffer(mann): from pl.n Hüffe in Westph.

Huffziger: uninterpreted as yet, cf. SiebmachersWappenbuch [book of heraldry], plate 39. Phonologically the word is Aleman. like Fruttiger, Schmutziger, a derivation from pl.ns. ending in -ingen. Occurred since 17th c. near Merseburg.

Hufnagel (Huffnagel) [hobnail]: freq. in Nbg., Mnch., surname of a blacksmith: Huf(f)schmidt. Cf. Andreas Hufnagel, (smith), Bav. 1280, Martin Hufnagel (smith), Prague 1387, Joh. Hofnagel, Ro. 1285. Also see Hoffschläger (LGer.).

Hüfner, Hüffner (Franc.) see Hübner, Huber.

Hug (UGer.), Hugk, Hügle, Hüglin, Alem. Hüge (Hugin), with diphthong Hang, Hauck, Heugel, Heigl, mean Hugo (see there). Haglin Haffner, Kirchheim [Würt. 1406, cf. “Ich Huk der Huginsun” [I, Huk, son of Hug], Wimpfen 1352. For Hugenbenz cf. Eidenbenz.

Hügel(mann), Hüggel(mann): LGer.-Westph., from the dwelling place at (on) a hill (= Hügel or Hüggel). Also Centr.Ger. Hügler: Hans Hägeler, Friedland 1381.

Hugo: very old sh.f. for Hug-bert (Hubert),Hug-bald, Hugold. Hugin and Munin (‘thought’ and ‘memory’) were the names of the ravens that accompanied tho Germanic god Odin; still MHG hüge ‘spirit, intellect’, hügen ‘to think, ponder, enjoy’. Through the West Frankish kings (Hugo the Great and son) name also became popular in France, in Germany almost only among the Franks, Swabians, Alemannians, Bavarians: dial. Hug, Hüge, Hügle, later Haug, Heugle, Heigl. Returned as f.n. centuries later through the novels of chivalry around 1800 (likewise Kuno, Benno, Bruno).

Hugold: rare UGer. pers.n. (see Hugo). Hugold of Slewicz, 14th c. Also in the pl.n. Hugoltes-: Hugeishofen in Thurgau; more recent is Hugoldadorf/Meckl. As FN in Mühlhausen/Thur. since 1311.

Huhle (Lpz.): probably a variant of Wend. Juhle (Guhle) ‘bald(head)’ or ‘barren land, heath’, Wend.-Czech holy, Pol. goly. Cf. Hulke: Gulke. But Hühler (Hüler Reutlingen 1508) from MHG hüle ‘puddle’. Conrad Hüler (= uffderHuel = super palude ‘above the swamp, puddle’), Eger 1309.

Huhn: Centr.Ger. and UGer. = ‘chicken’, surname of a poultry grower or dealer, as in Speyer 1311 Sigelo Huon (Latinized Pullus); likewise Huhnfleisch [chicken meat]. Hence Hühnle: Cuonrat Huonli, Rottweil 1284, Johel Hünel, Prague 1332. See also Hühner. In the LGer. area as in Hbg., the name Huhn is based on the nickname Huno for Hunold (since LGer. for Huhn is Hohn). Cf. Huno of Holstein 1175, Henrik Huno, Col. 1185, Nicol. Huneken (Huneconis), Hbg. 1275; Joh. Huneke, Han. 1353, Werner Huno, Lüb. 1278; UGer. today is Haun: Rüdi Huno, 1270 near Basel.

Hühn(e), Hüne, Hihn, Hien-: from MHG hiune ‘Hun, Hungarian’, also ‘giant’ (hun ‘strength’, cf. Siegfried der huneske: the man with giant’s strength). A King Hunimund of the Ostrogoths! Jakob der Hüne, Schaffhausen 1324; see also under Heune.

Hühner: from MHG hünerer ‘poultry dealer’; Wenc. hünerer, Kolin 1378, also (Wigman) huonermenger, Col. 1197, Frkf. 1387; see also LGer. Hohn. Hence Hü(h)nerbein, -fuß, -kopf, -wadel [chicken leg, foot, head, tail]. Hü(h)nerfauth (Hil(h)nervogt) -see Fauth- refers to the (feudal) official who supervised the delivery of chickens (as tax or rent payment); likewise Hünergrebe. Hü(h)nerfürst (Lpz.) = ‘a poultry grower called Fürst’; Hühnerjäger = ‘partridge hunter’. A female, Hünernestin, in Brünn 1345.

Huhnholdt, Huhnholtz (Pom.): based on Hunold (see there), but was (falsely) considered a variant of -holt [woods]; through change to standard German around 1550-1600 resulted Weinholtz (Pom.) from Win(h)olt and Helmholtz from Helm(h)olt. Joachim Huhnholtz, Pom. 1639.

Hühnken (LGer.) see Huhn. Cf. Hünecke.

Huismann (L.Rhine) see Husmann.

Huke see Hucke.

Huk-, Huck-riede see Huck. Cf. Hücker Bog near Bünde in Westph.

Hülber(t): UGer., cf. Hainrich inderHalben, 1294 near Linz/Würt., Albrecht der Hülwer, Horb 1331, living at a hülwe (from OHG huliwa) ‘pool, puddle’, with unrounded stem vowel: Hilber (Tyrol), cf. Pfützer; “bei der Hilb” 1693. Also pl.n. Hülben near Urach; Hülbenwasen; Hülbenbach in Kocher (river) area.

Hülbrock (LGer.) see Hüllen.

Hulde (Hesse): from MHG holde ‘devoted friend, faithful servant’ (cf. Unhold = ‘spirit, demon’). Heyle Hulde, Frkf. 1346. Cf. Henning Holdrfrünt, Quedlinburg 1631; Huldermann probably = Holdermann, see Hölderlin.

Hülf see Hilf and Helf.

Hulke, Hulka (Wend.-Czech): like Gulke, Gulka see Huhle.

Hüllen: pl.n. on the Ruhr (Hulini around 1000), also there the Hüllen Bog. hulis an old swamp word, cf. OHG huliwa ’swamp pool or puddle’. Hence Hüll(e)mann (Hbg.), unless UGer. = Hillemann. Pl.ns. with the word are: Hüllbrock, Hüllsiek, Hüllsiepen, Hüllhorst, Hüller (wooded hill near Herford), Hüllstede in Oldenburg, Hülscheid, Hülsten (Hulseten), Hülm (Hul­heim), Hüllenhagen. See Bahlow ON, p. 228. Like Hüllmann also Hüllmeier (Westph.). Pl.n. Hüll near Stade.

Hüller (UGer.): means Hüler, Hülwer: see Hülber. Albert Hüller (Hülwer), Horb/Würt. 1343. Cf. Eichenhüller. from Eichenhüll/Bav. But Hüllweber, Hüllenkremer (Rhineld.-UGer.) contain MHG hül, hülle ‘head scarf, veil’. Cf. Hüllmantel [Mantel = ‘coat’] in Würt., Cunzi Hültuach in Basel.

Hüls(e), Hüls(e)mann (freq. in L.Rhine area, Westph.): from field n. and pl.n. Hüls in the above area (von der Hülß), i.e. wood thistle (Dutch Hulst), in numerous loc.ns. and FNs, relating to swampy terrain: Hülsebrock, -bruch, -bach, -dunk, -horst, -busch, -wede (-weh, -witt), Hülshoff (von Droste-Hülshoff, 19th c. woman writer), Hülsberg, Hülsstrunk, Im Hülsen (also pl.n. Hülsen near Verden); Hülsey like Elsey; Hülsdunk like Elsdunk; Hülsede; Hülsing; Hülsmeyer. See Bahlow ON, p. 228. Hence Hils-berg, Hilsbecher, Hilsenbeck.

Hülst, Hülster (LGer.-Westph.) see Hüls. Albert zumHülst, Maastricht 1619, A. Hutstere, Lüb. 1318.

Hultsch(er): Franc. = LGer.-Westph. Hölscher ‘wooden shoe maker’ = Holzschuher, see there, of Hentscher

Handschuher) for glove maker; also as surname Hultschig (Franc.) for wooden shoe like Hentschig for Handschuh and Freundschig (Franc.) besides Freundschuh and Frauenschuh (see Nied, FränkischeFN, p. 51-52).

Humbach: (today Montabaur in Westerwald) formerly Hunebach ‘mucky creek’.

Humboldt (Humblot): name became famous through the brothers Alexander and Wilhelm von H.; a rare Germanic pers.n. Hunibald, cf. Hunimund (king of the Goths), Hunirik (king of the Vandals), Hunibert (Humbrecht, Humperding), Huniward, Hunold, Hunifrid (Humfrid: Engl. Humphrey). Hun means ‘strength’, cf. ONorse hûnn ‘bear’; or it may be related to an old tribe (according to Kluge); in the ONorse epic Edda, Siegfried is called huneske: a giant or Hun. Hunibald, Lorsch 8th c. A (holy) bishop Humbold around 1100 in Burgundy. Hombold 1300 in Westph., Hildebrand Hunbolt, Lemgo 1464; Joh. Humpolt, 1497 near Stockach.

Humbrecht, Humbert, Humprecht, Humpert(z): all in Rhineld. and Franc., derive from Germanic Huni-berht (see Humboldt). Humbert was a traditional name in Savoy, thus Ital. Umberto; Westph. patr. is Humperdink (see there), also cf. pl.n. Humprechtshausen in Franc.; Humbrecht, Frkf. 1390, J. Humprecht, Speyer 1389. Still 1646 in Alsace Humprecht Mura.

Humke: loc.n. in Lippe (besides Humfeld near Lemgo), a creek Hunebeke ‘mucky creek’ like Humbach, cf. Munebach: Mumbach. But see Hummen.

Humme, Hümme (Hbg.): cf. Hans vanderHumme, Han. 1394 (hum ‘bog, mire’: Bahlow ON, p. 229); cf. Hümme near Hofgeismar and Humme-lo on the Ijssel River. The Humme (river) corresponds to Hümmling (hills) like the Gramme to Grammling. But see also Hummen (Fris. pers.n.: HummoHunminga).

Hummel (freq.) see Hommel. Hence also Hummler (UGer.): Hensel Humler, near Budweis 1364; Hans Humelman, König-Grätz 1390. Cf. Nied, p. 58.

Hummen: Fris. patr. of Humme, of HummoHumminga, Frisia 1422, like Hommen and Homme, see there. Cf. Hummers, Hommers. With a k-suffix: Hummecke, Humpke, Humke (Hbg.) like Mummeke, Mumke.

Hüm(m)er (freq. in Mnch.): contracted form of Hüebmer, Hüemer, originally from Hubmaier (see there). Cf. Oberhuemer, Oberhummer.

Hummerich: loc.n. and mountain n. (contracted form of Humberg, like Hammerich and Heinmerich, see there); cf. Hümmerich near Linz on the Rhine.

Hummitzsch (freq. in Lpz.): Slav. pl.n. like Delitzsch, Panitzsch, Glebitzsch, all in the area Lpz.-Bitterfeld. Cf. FN Hummisch, Humbach (Lpz.).

Hümöller (Wismar): LGer. contracted from Hüdemöller, like Peemöller from Pedemöller, name taken from the location of the mill (see Hüde and Pede).

Hümpel (freq. in Mnch.): der Hümpler (MHG) ‘bad, slow worker, bungler’. But Humpeler (MHG) means ‘skipper with small boat without sail’; hence Humpl (Mnch.) Humplmaier. Humpf, Humpfer (UGer.) probably field n., cf. Humpenröder. Herman Humpfer, 1396 near Heilbronn.

Humperding, Humperdinck: Westph. patr. of Humpert (Humbert), see Humbrecht. Cf. Detharding, Egberding, Borcherding, Sieverding; see Alferding. Known through Engelbert H., composer of the fairy tale opera HanselandGretel.

Humpke (Hbg.) see Hummeke and Humke.

Hunäus: Lat. for Hüne [giant, Hun].

Hunck, Huncke (LGer.): = Hunecke.

Hund(t), Hündl(e), Hündgen(s): [dog]; in the Middle Ages popular surname of knights (Dietrich von Berlichingen, called Hunt, Würt. 1287, knight Henggi Huntbiß, Ravensburg 1384), = ‘a biting, dangerous person’; in some cases probably ‘hound, hunting dog’, cf. Herte mitdenhunden, Frkf. 1387, Jacob mitdenhonden (baron) 1498; knight Hündelin (sons: Hündelin, Dietrich, Heinrich) 1291 near Schweinfurt. Hundeman, Hundeknecht = ‘guards of the hunting dogs’. Hundesgugel, Iglau 1372 = ‘helmet made of dog leather’ (Liegnitz 1420). Derisive nicknames: Huntvuoß [dog leg or foot] Ulm 1299, Huntbayn, Konstanz 1392, Hanthoubet [dog head] 1267. Hundgeburth (freq. in Col.) is loc.n. near Bergheim-Col., likewise Junggeburth, Schwertgeburth probably corrupted from -gebûr ‘peasant’. A Pecze hundegasse, Brsl. 1355, likewise Heinrich Huntgesser, Worms 1363. Bertold Hundiken, Ro. 1268.

Hundertmark: [hundred marks] (freq. in Han., Brsw., Hbg.) like Hundertgulden and Hundertpfund indicating wealth, thus name mostly in merchant and patrician families. Henr. Hundertmark, Col. 1196, Godeke Hundertpunt, Hbg. 1209. Cf. Achtemark, Göttingen 1378, Dusentmark, Lüb. 1290, Drittichmark, Halle 1300.

Hundewadt (Hbg.): loc.n. ending in -wade (UGer. watt) ‘swamp puddle, ford’, likewise Hundepohl, Hundekuhle, cf. Luther Horwade, Hesse 1344. Hence Hundeloh, Hundelage.

Hundgeburth see Hund.

Hundhammer (Bav.): pl.n. Hundham (Hundheim) several times in Bav.

Hüne, Hünecke see Hühne, Hühnke, Huhn.

Hünemörder: common in Meckl., Brandenburg, Pom., never Hü(h)nermörder [chicken killer] and therefore probably ‘giant killer’ (muscle man). As early as 1375 Jakob Hünemärder, Brandenbg. But the following FNs always with an -r-: Hünerjeger [chicken hunter], Hünermenger [chicken dealer], Hanergrebe, Hünerfaut [supervisor of chicken deliveries paid as tax or rent], Hünerfürst [person called Fürst, who grew or sold chickens].

Hüner (Hbg.) see Höner.

Hunger, Hungar: the word for Ungar [Hungarian], Unger in the Middle Ages, cf. Hungerland = Ungarland [Hungaria]. But in general probably a name for a starving person, starveling, therefore a derisive nickname; UGer. also Hüngerle, Hingerl (Tyrol). Hensel Hungerich = Hungriger Hensel, Prague 1393, Godeke Hunger, Ro. 1284.

Hünig (freq. in Lpz.), Hünisch, Hünsch (freq. in Lpz.) see Hönig and Heunisch.

Hüning (LGer.): patr. of Huno, see there.

Hunkel (Lpz.): probably Rhinehess. sh.f. of Huno, like Kunkel of Kuno, Kuneke. Henne Hunkel, 1388 near Alzey.

Hunnemann (Hbg.): from the Hunne near Essen (indicating ‘swamp water’ as the creek names Funne, Gunne, Munne). Pl.n. Hunnebrock near Herford.

Hunold: old Ger. pers.n., see Humboldt. Hunold, Ro. 1275, Bremen 1329, Lüb., also UGer.: Heinrich Hunolt, Breisgau 1300. See also Huhnholtz. Also in the pl.n. Hunoldshausen on the Werra.

Hunrichs (LGer.): cf. Hunirik, king of the Vandals, see Humboldt. Likewise Honrichs, Huhnrich.

Hünsch (Lpz.) see Hünig. But Hunscha, Hunschok, Huntschka (Lpz.) besides Honscha, Honschek are Slavic.

Hunte, Hunternann (Hbg.): from the Hunte (boggy tributary of the Weser), there is also a Honte in Holland (see Bahlow ON, p. 230); cf. Huntelo: Hüntel on the Ems; Huntebrink, Huntebrück, Huntlosen, Hunte(n)burg are all pl.ns. in that area. Therefore freq. FN in Bremen. Also Huntermann (cf. Huntercumbe ‘bog pit’ in Engld.); Hüntemann, Hünten. Jobst Hunte (Huntemann), Han. 1653.

Hunwartsen (Holstein): patr. of Hunward (around 1300 in Lüb.), see Humboldt.

Hunzinger (Baden): from Hintschingen (1497 Huntzingen); but Hunziker from Hunzikon, Huntziken/Switz., likewise Albiker: Albikon.

Hupe, Hüper (freq. in Han.): cf. pl.n. Hüpede near Han. Variants of Hope, Höper.

Hüpede(n): pl.n. Hüpede south of Han. (like Hüpstedt = ‘bog place’, see Bahlow ON, p. 230). Borchard (von) Hupede, Han. 1351.

Hupf, Hupfer, Hüpfer (UGer.): like Hupp, Hüpper (Centr.Ger.-LGer.) mean ‘hopper, jumper’ (at fairs); likewise Hupfauf, Hüpauf, Hüppuff, Hüppop; Hippauf. Hence Hüper (Lpz.): Peter Huppauff (Hupfauf), Iglau 1360 besides P. Hupper 1359; Hannos Hupfe, Braunau 1413.

Hupfauer (Mnch.) like Hopfauer an UGer. name of origin [Au = ‘meadow, field’]; cf. Hupfeld: Hopfelde, a pl.n.

Hupfeld: “hupf ins Feld” [hop into the field] has not been documented, but Springinsfeld, Eilinsfold. Therefore the name derives probably from a pl.n. (Elbel Hüpfinsgrübel, Eger 1383, means pit or ditch digger, grave digger); Joh. Huppesadel, Han. 1345, refers to a rider, horseman. Cf. Joh. Huppeschuch, Ursel 1361.

Hupka, Hopka (Lpz.): Slav. = Jakob, cf. Kupka; also Hopsch like Kopsch; likewise Jopke, Joppich.

Hupp see Hupf. Otherwise like Huppmann (Franc.) = Hupprecht.

Huppertz, Huppert, Huppers see Hubert. Hence UGer. Hup(p)recht (cf. Rupprecht). Heintz Hupprecht, Memmingen 1395.

Huppold see Haupold. Knight Burkhart Hupolt, 1270 near Überlingen.

Hurban see Urban.

Hürber (Hirber), Hürbler, Hürbner (Würt.) besides Hürbe, Hürbling: indicate mucky, swampy terrain (from MHG hurwîn, hürbin ‘dirty, mucky’), cf Grete inderHurben, Aust. 14th c. Hence pl.n. Hürben, loc.n. Hürbel, Hürbe creek in Würt.

Hürch(e), Hürcher, Hurch, Hurich (Lpz.) like Hirche, Herche, Horche: may be Wend. variants for Georg. Cf. Jurich, Gurich, Jirik, Girik, Jerche.

Hürdler (UGer.): from MHG hurdeler ‘small retailer’ (in a booth at the market). Hördeler in old Brsl. Henni Hürteler, Breisgau 1350. But Cune vondenhürden, Breisgau 1345 received his name from his dwelling place near the woven fence or hedge.

Hurlebaus (Würt.): a type of cannon in the late Middle Ages (from MHG hurren ‘to move fast’); came to mean commotion, uproar, noise.

Hurlebusch (Hbg.), Hurlebrink (Westph.), Hurlbeck: contain hurl = hur ‘dirt, swamp’; a creek Hurlebach (Hirlenbach) in Würt., also a Hürlebach (Hirlenbach). See also Hurrel(mann). Jost Hurlebusch, Han. 1533. Also Hordel near Bochum was called Hurle 1160. Cf. UGer. Hürler, Hirler.

Hürlimann (Switz.), Hirlimann: i.e. Hürnlimann, from the river name Hürnli. Cf. Heinrich Hürnelin, Rottweil 1290.

Hürmer see Hiermaier.

Hurnaus, Hornaus (UGer.): from MHG hornuß ‘hornet’. Surname like Bremse [horsefly]. Hainrich Hurnaus, Augsburg 1339.

Hürner, Hirner see Hirn.

Hurrelmann (Hbg.): from Hurrel (bog town near Delmenhorst), in old documents: Hur-lo ‘swampy lowland’; cf. Garrel(mann). Scharrel(mann). See Bahlow ON, p. 230. In Würt. and Bav. cf. pl.n, Hurlach, Hurloh ‘swampy woods’.

Hurrer (UGer.): ‘hasty person’ (from MHG hurren ‘to hurry’, cf. hurra ‘go on!’). Nic. Hurrer, Brünn 1365; Hans Hurrenbain, Allgäu 1469.

Hurst, Hürst (UGer.) = LGer. Horst (see there): = woods, underbrush: Wernher (zer) Hurst, Altkirch 1285.

Hurt(er): UGer., from loc.n. Hurt (MHG woven fence, hurdle). Hürtler see Hürdler.

Hurzler: (Nbg.) MHG hurzel ‘gravel, pebble’.

Husche(n)beth (Franc.-Thur.): probably loc.n., cf. Susenbeth, Quendlinburg 1669, pl.n. Maithenbeth in Bav. Herman Huschenbet, Matrikel [student register] in Lpz. 1423 (1568 in Wanfried on the Werra).

Huscher (Lpz., Nbg.). see Huschke. Cf. Hascher: Haschke (Lpz.).

Huschke, Huschek, Huschka (Lpz., Mnch.): Wend.-Czech, also Hauschke. Cf. Juschke, Juschka and Guschke.

Huse(mann), Hüs(e)mann (LGer.): from the dwelling or origin; also cf. the name of origin (von) Husen (pl.n. e.g. near Paderborn). Hüseler see Häusler, Heusler. Hüsigen (LGer) = ‘little house’. See also Hause. Hushahn (Hbg.) like UGer. Haushahn [rooster] (Gilko Hushan, Budweis 1380).

Hüsing (LGer.) = ‘dwelling, abode’, thus from the living place: Hans Husing, Han. 1403; but Husung (Lpz.) probably not from MHG husung ‘dwelling’.

Huskummer: (LGer.) = Hauskummer [domestic trouble, sorrow] (MLG kummer also means ‘arrest’). Jacob Hauskummer, Wittstock 1636.

Husmann, Hußmann (LGer.) = UGer. Hausmann, Häusler: Lüdeke Husman, Lüb. 14th c.

Hüsmert (Hbg.) corresponds to Hesmert, Plettmert, Edemert, Ludernert, Hützemert, Effmert, all loc.ns. in the Lenne area: according to documents -mert is contracted from -nbert, -nbracht, thus Ludenbracht ‘decaying woods’; likewise Husenbracht like Husenbeke became Hüsmecke, cf Hüsdonk, Hasede; for hus ‘decay, rot’ see Bahlow ON, p. 231.

Huß (Mnch., freq. in Lpz.), Hußlein, Hußla, Hussel, Husserl (all UGer.): cf. Czech hus ‘goose’, but MHG hussen ‘to chase’, C. Husse, Würt. 1275.

Hust(e), Huster, Hustig: evidently from pl.n. Huste near Melle or Husten in Westph. (several times) or Hustwig (like Horstick from -wig); hust means ‘decay, swamp’ (see Bahlow ON, p. 231). Also cf. Wend. hosta = ‘woods’.

Hustedt (Hbg.): name of several bog towns near Celle, Verden, and on the Hunte River. Hu-stede corresponds to Alstede, Horstede, Harpstede, Walstede, etc; for hu ‘mud, bog’ (also in pl.n. Hunscheid) see Bahlow ON, p. 231.

Husung see Hüsing.

Huth (LGer. Hoth, Hodt) = Hutmacher [hat maker], see Hodemacher. Lüder Hut, Han. 1366, Albrecht der Huot, Rottenberg 1309. Likewise Huthmann: Hotman, Han. 1352; Hut(h)er is UGer. (MHG): Hainrich der Huoter, Würt. 1258, also Hütel: Hainrich Hütli, Meßkirch 1329. Cf. Wünschhütl. Gelhut [yellow hat], Rauhut [coarse h.], Grünhut, Hochhut, Breithut [wide h], Anhuth [without h.]; Spitzhut [pointed h]; Staldhut [steel h.], Eisenhut [iron h.] (MHG hut also means ‘helmet’).

Hüter (UGer.): from MHG hüeter ‘field watchman, guard’. Baumhüter, Holzhüter [tree and/or timber guard], Sauhüter [swineherd]; in some cases with -tt-: Hütter, cf. Feldhütter, unless from loc.ns. ending in -hütte like Erdhütte(r). Cf. Hütte dich [guard yourself], Berlin 1583, Widekind Hütdich, Frkf. 1429.

Huther see Huth. In Vienna still today Huterer [hat maker]: Hutmacher.

Huthmann (LGer.) = Hothmann, see Huth, Hoth. But also cf. MHG huotman ‘guardian, herdsman’.

Hütköper (Meckl., Hbg.): MLG hüdeköper means ‘hide buyer’, who sells the animal skins and hides to the tanners. Nicol. Dene hüdeköpere, Stralsund 1296 (also in Lüb. and Ro. 1270 a Hütköper Street). Also cf. similar occupations: Garnköpere [yarn buyer], Wullenköpere [wool b.], Isernk. [iron or metal b.], Holtk. [wood b.], Repk. [rope b.], Perdek. [horse b.], Hönerk. [chicken b.].

Hutschenreut(h)er; Hutschreuter, Hutschreiter: from Hutschenreut in Franc., like Kotschenreuther etc. (-reuth = -rüt ‘a clearing’).

Hutten: pl.n. near Schlüchtern on the Kinzig River in Hesse, hometown of Ulrich von Hutten, occurs several times as name of bog towns (see Bahlow ON, p. 231).

Hüttenheber (UGer.): a cottager by the name of Heber; cf. Grundheber.

Huttenlocher (Würt.): from Huttenloh, Huttenloch; cf. Schottenloher.

Hüttenrauch: ‘a charcoal burner or smith in a smelting plant’, likewise Stubenrauch a name for the barber (who ran the local bathhouse). Cf. Dietrich Hütterouch, near Mainz 1275.

Hutter, Hutterer (UGer.) = Huter, Huterer ‘hat maker’, see Hut.

Hütter (UGer.): refers to the living place or work place in a hut (ironworks, smelting works, lumberjack hut, mountain hut, etc.); cf. Erdhütter, Seehütter, Siebenhütter. Similarly Hüttler (in Bav. part of Swabia, name also means carpenter).

Hutwalker see Hodwalker under Hodemacher.

Hutzel, Hutzelmann, Hutzelmeyer, Hutzler (UGer.): from MHG hützel, hutzel ‘dried, shriveled pear’. Hence Hutzelbeck (unless the Bav. creek name is involved, cf. loc.n. Hutzlenbühl, Hutzlabrand). Herman Hutzel, Waiblingen 1350. But Hutzelsieder probably from Hutzels-öd, cf. Geißelsieder etc. Of different origin is Hutzenbach (pl.n. in Würt.), Hutzenlaub (Würt.).

Hutzfeld (freq. in Hbg.): pl.n. near Eutin.

Hüve (Hbg.): from Hüven near Meppen on the Ems River (around 800 Huvinni), where also the collective name Hüvede occurs; huv means bog (see Bahlow ON, p. 232).

Huwald (freq. in Hbg.) see Howald.

Huwe: from MHG ‘great horned owl, owl’; house name in Freiburg 1388: zudemhûwen; Hamnan zemhuwen, Freibg. 1460. A Sifrit Huwenloch [owl woods] 1292 near Heilbronn.

Hüweler see Hübler.

Huxdorff see Hucksdorf.

Huxhold, Huckshold, besides Huxoll, Huxohl, Huxel: pl.n. Hüxholl in Westph., in 1189 Hukes-hol (like Medes-hol), i.e. ‘mud hole, bog hole’ (cf. Hücker Bog near Herford). For more info. see Bahlow ON, p. 227. See also Huckriede. A knight Gedeschalk Hukeshole, Rügen 1255.

Huyop (LGer., MLG): = ‘driver’ (of animals or humans). Hinr. Huyop, Ro. 1385.

  1. Anonymous (leach w. E. ?)

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