A social Scientific Approach to the Making of the Modern World
At the heart of Talmudic Judaism was the belief that Jews were God’s chosen people, that they had covenanted with the one God, after some debate and compromise, to be his people and to follow and study his 613 commandments in his Torah, the first five books of the Tanakh, the Jewish holy book, the Jewish Bible.
After Christianity became the religion of the Roman Empire in the fourth century Jews increasingly experienced prejudice, legal discrimination, limitations on what they could do to make a living, and increasing persecution in the Roman Empire. Because Christians were forbidden to engage in financial transactions requiring usury, the making of loans, Jews were channeled by Christian powers that be increasingly into finance and banking. During the Crusades Christian holy warriors pogromed Jews in the German speaking lands. During and after the twelfth century Christian powers that be required Jews to live in ghettos.
Christianity arose, as I mentioned earlier, in Palestine. Very early on in its history it began to spread across Rome’s Mediterranean empire. The new Christian faith was at first persecuted by the Romans—Christians, apparently, would not take Caesar as a god before their God. But it continued to grow. Christians like Clement of Alexandria (150-215) and his student Origen (185-253) would blend Christianity with Greek philosophy, helping produce, in the process, a Christianity that seems to have been quite far from its original roots in Pharisaic Judaism. This Hellenised Christianity was the Christianity that spread across the Eastern part of the Roman Empire and into Rome.
But Christianity did not spread unimpeded across the Empire. The 250s saw a particularly virulent persecution of the faith by the Roman powers that be and by the Roman masses pumped up on fears of Christianity spread by Roman demagogues. The faith didn’t perish, however. By 304 probably 10% of the population of the Empire was Christian.
Very early on Christianity took on hierarchical form. There was a clergy at the top who were supervised by the more powerful bishops and a laity at the bottom. By the fourth century the most important bishops of the church were the bishops of Antioch, Alexandria, Carthage, Jerusalem, and Rome. Later, after the Emperor Constantine established the Empires new Capital in Constantinople, the former Byzantium, the bishop of the new imperial city would become one of the important bishops of the church as well.
Christianity’s fortunes would change forever in 312. Tradition has it that in that year Constantine, before his victories over his rival at the Milvian Bridge near Rome, had a vision or saw an apparition of a cross over the sun and heard a voice saying “conquer in this sign”. After he decorated the shields of his soldiers with this Christogram, Constantine won a decisive victory over his rivals for power in the Empire. In 313 the Emperor Constantine issued his famous Edict of Milan granting Christianity—as well as other religious faiths—official recognition throughout the Empire (http://home.snu.edu/~dwilliam/f98/milan/). In addition to toleration Christianity regained property which had been confiscated from it over the years and its clergy were given exemption from state obligations. Christian churches could now organize as legal entities.
Constantine was not done with church politics, however. In 325 he called a church council which was given the job of hammering out the “orthodox” doctrines and laws of the church. In 325 the bishops of the church met at Nicaea to do just this (http://www.fordham.edu/ halsall/basis/nicea1.txt). The bishops were able to create orthodox Christianity by marking it off against “unorthodox” forms of Christianity specifically, Arianism—the notion that only the father was pure god. Arianism was condemned as a heresy by powers that be at Nicaea. The notion that god conceived himself before he gave birth to himself, that the father preceded and produced the son, in other words—the doctrine of consubtantiation—became the orthodox banner of the orthodox Christianity created at Nicaea.
By 391 Christianity was the official religion of the Roman Empire. Proving that the new boss is much like the old boss church leaders immediately set about doing unto others as those others, they thought, had done unto them. They attacked pagans and set about destroying pagan temples. The church also continued to try to undermine heresy within at church councils at Ephesos in 431 (http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/ephesus.html) and Chalcedon in 451 (http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/chalcedon.html). Monophysitism, which held that the flesh of Christ was divine, was condemned, as was Pelagianism, which held that after conversion one’s sins were wiped away and that one could follow the will of god without hierarchical guidance.
For the writings of the Early Church Fathers see… /fathers.html
The prominence of Christianity in the Empire meant greater prominence for Christian thinkers. One of the most influential Christian thinkers was Augustine of Hippo (http://www.augustinian.villanova.edu/writings/index.html), who lived from 354 to 430. Drawing on the dualism of Neo-Platonism, the revival of Plato, and Aristotelian teleology, the notion that there was a first mover to everything, Augustine argued that all humans were fallible and that it was impossible for humans to do good without god’s grace. His famous treatise De civitate Dei/City of God is one of the first attempts at a Christian systematic theology. His Confessions is one of the earliest Christian conversion tales. In the former Augustine distinguished between the perfect heavenly city of eternal happiness and the imperfect earthly city of fire, war, famine, and sickness, which, despite its imperfectness did point toward the city of god.
Thinkers were not the only Christians gaining prominence throughout the Empire. Saints, celibate workers of wonders, dedicated prayers and fasters—all who had tenuous ties to the developing hierarchical “orthodox” Christian church—were becoming models of virtue for many Christians elite and non-elite. Many devout Christians sought out saintly heroes like St. Antony so that they might intercede with god on their behalf. After they died many Christians held on to their bones, their relics, and their clothes thinking that these too might serve as conduits to god’s grace. At first saints were sometimes buried on the estates of the wealthy. Increasingly, however, as the church hierarchy became more powerful, bishops took charge of the holy relics of the saints.
For saint’s lives see… http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/sbook3.html.
By the 6th century monasteries became important and prominent particularly in the Western of the Empire. Monasteries seem to have began in Egypt and spread throughout the Empire from there. One important early Christian monastic community was the Benedictines, an order named after their founder St. Benedict who wrote the rules for his order around 530 and 540 (http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/rul-benedict.html). On Monte Cassino in what is today Italy the Benedictine monks gave up lives of wealth, family ties, and worldly offices in order to lead a daily life of devotion, prayer, psalm chanting, worship, labour, and bible reading. Increasingly monks would be seen by Christians in general as the embodiment of Christian virtue. In the 9th century the Carolingian powers that be would make Benedictine monasticism the norm throughout their realm.
On Mediaeval monasticism see… http://www.faculty.de.gcsu.edu/~dvess/ids/medieval/benmon.html
Over time Christianity’s numbers would grow throughout Europe. In time it would provide what we today call Europe with a sense of identity and a name, Christendom.
General Links: The West: The Hebrew, Greek, Roman and Christian Background:
On Jewish history see
For a map of the region see
For the Tanakh see
For materials on the Old Testament see
On First Century CE/AD Judaism and Early Christianity see…
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/asbook11.html and /resources/resourceCategoryDisplay.aspx?categoryid=429&rsid=478
Maps of Ancient Israel and Judea
For the New Testament see
For the NT in Greek
For the Bible see
Viewings and Listenings: The West: The Hebrew, Greek, Roman, and Christian Background
The Greeks: Crucible of Civlisation
Empire of the Mind
Philosophy: A Guide to Happiness, “Socrates on Self-Confidence”
Philosophy: A Guide to Happiness: Socrates on Self Confidence
Philosophy: A Guide to Happiness: Epicurus on Happiness
Philosophy: A Guide to Happiness, “Epicurus on Happiness”
Nova, “Infinite Secrets: The Genius of Archimedes”
Euripides, Trojan Women, excerpt
Sophocles, Oedipus Rex
Sophocles, Oedipus at Colonus
prior to 406 BCE
Aristophanes, Lysistrata, excerpts
Gustav Holst, “The Planets”
Maurice Ravel, “Daphnis et Chloe”, “Le lever du jour”, 1912
Claudio Abbado, LSO, 1970s
Kansas, Icarus, Don Kirschner’s Rock Concert, Syndicated, 1975
Troy, directed by Wolfgang Petersen, 2004
Hector Berlioz, “Les Troyans” (“The Trojans”), 1858, “Death of Dido”
Berlioz, “Les Troyans”, “Adieu fiere cite”, 1858
/watch?v=CEPsskcf9GU (in English)
“O Brother Where Art Thou”, Coen Brothers, 2000
Homer’s Odyssey updated
Dan Tyminksi, “Man of Constant Sorrow”, 2000
Loreena McKennitt, “Penelope’s Song”, Great Performances, PBS 2007
This song is based on Homer’s Odyssey
The Warriors, directed by Walter Hill, excerpts
based on Xenophon’s Anabasis
The 300, excerpts
/watch?v=4iT27TKz_UI (becoming Spartan)
Philosophy: A Guide to Happiness, “Seneca on Anger”, Channel 4
Spartacus, directed by Stanley Kubrick and Anthony Mann, excerpts
Rome (the TV show)
/watch?v=41BjWZ-NSzs (death of Julius)
/watch?v=s_hgcC2NFwo (Battle of Philippi)
/watch?v=EtGEToHoFWc (Antony arrives in Egypt)
/watch?v=2X9ZpNQTXXg (death of Antony and Cleopatra)
/watch?v=F8hNaCnOdcw (Octavian in the Senate)
I Claudius, BBC TV programme, excerpts
The Fall of the Roman Empire, directed by Anthony Mann, excerpts
First Century CE Judaism
Nova, “Ancient Refuge in the Holy Land”
Dead Sea Scrolls, Channel 4
Frontline, From Jesus to Christ: The First Christians
Peter and Paul and the Christian Revolution
Talking History: Jesus, 22 December (Real Media)
Talking History: Jesus the Apocalyptic, 20 December (Real Media)
Talking History: The Death of Jesus, 30 March (Real Media)
King of Kings, directed by Nicholas Ray
The Passion of the Christ, directed by Mel Gibson
Ben Hur, directed by William Wyler, excerpts
The Robe, directed by Henry Koster, excerpts
- V. exist, be; have being &c n.; subsist, live, breathe, stand, obtain, be the case; occur &c (event) 151; have place, prevail; find oneself, pass the time, vegetate.
- 2. Inexistence N. inexistence†; nonexistence, nonsubsistence; nonentity, nil; negativeness &c adj.; nullity; nihility†, nihilism; tabula rasa [Lat.], blank; abeyance; absence &c 187; no such thing &c 4; nonbeing, nothingness, oblivion.
- Hithes.doc is a hierarchically-organized thesaurus derived by reorganization of the version of Roget s Thesaurus published in 1911. The new organization is intended to allow use of ISA and other semantic relational markers.
- 1. This is a book. It is my book. 2. Is this your pencil? — No, it isn t my pencil, it is my sister s pencil. 3. I have a sister. My sister is an engineer.
А. Л. Пумпянский написал серию из трех книг по переводу нашей научной и технической литературы на английский язык: «Введение в практику перевода научной и технической литературы на английский язык», «Пособие по перево (1)ДокументА. Л. Пумпянский написал серию из трех книг по переводу нашей научной и технической литературы на английский язык: «Введение в практику перевода научной и технической литературы на английский язык», «Пособие по переводу научной и технической
А. Л. Пумпянский написал серию из трех книг по переводу нашей научной и технической литературы на английский язык: «Введение в практику перевода научной и технической литературы на английский язык», «Пособие по перево (2)ДокументА. Л. Пумпянский написал серию из трех книг по переводу нашей научной и технической литературы на английский язык: «Введение в практику перевода научной и технической литературы на английский язык», «Пособие по переводу научной и технической
- (Besides the consolidated scheme on "Untouchables or children of India s Ghetto " included in Book I in this Volume, there are several other essays by Dr.
- Учебное пособие содержит упражнения и тексты для студентов специальности «Мосты и транспортные тоннели». Упражнения направлены на формирование у студентов речевых грамматических навыков на основе профессиональной лексики.
- Работа одобрена редакционно-издательским советом академии в качестве учебного пособия по английскому языку для студентов II курса специальности «Мосты и транспортные тоннели»
Задача настоящего учебника помочь учащимся овладеть как навыками перевода, так и навыками устной и письменной английской речи. Для достижения этой цели учащиеся должны приобрести определенный запас слов и изучить грамматический строй языкаЗадачаЗадача настоящего учебника — помочь учащимся овладеть как навыками перевода, так и навыками устной и письменной английской речи. Для достижения этой цели учащиеся должны приобрести определенный запас слов и изучить грамматический строй языка.