A social Scientific Approach to the Making of the Modern World

At the heart of Talmudic Judaism was the belief that Jews were God’s chosen people, that they had covenanted with the one God, after some debate and compromise, to be his people and to follow and study his 613 commandments in his Torah, the first five books of the Tanakh, the Jewish holy book, the Jewish Bible.

After Christianity became the religion of the Roman Empire in the fourth century Jews increasingly experienced prejudice, legal discrimination, limitations on what they could do to make a living, and increasing persecution in the Roman Empire. Because Christians were forbidden to engage in financial transactions requiring usury, the making of loans, Jews were channeled by Christian powers that be increasingly into finance and banking. During the Crusades Christian holy warriors pogromed Jews in the German speaking lands. During and after the twelfth century Christian powers that be required Jews to live in ghettos.

Early Christianity

Christianity arose, as I mentioned earlier, in Palestine. Very early on in its history it began to spread across Rome’s Mediterranean empire. The new Christian faith was at first persecuted by the Romans—Christians, apparently, would not take Caesar as a god before their God. But it continued to grow. Christians like Clement of Alexandria (150-215) and his student Origen (185-253) would blend Christianity with Greek philosophy, helping produce, in the process, a Christianity that seems to have been quite far from its original roots in Pharisaic Judaism. This Hellenised Christianity was the Christianity that spread across the Eastern part of the Roman Empire and into Rome.

But Christianity did not spread unimpeded across the Empire. The 250s saw a particularly virulent persecution of the faith by the Roman powers that be and by the Roman masses pumped up on fears of Christianity spread by Roman demagogues. The faith didn’t perish, however. By 304 probably 10% of the population of the Empire was Christian.

Very early on Christianity took on hierarchical form. There was a clergy at the top who were supervised by the more powerful bishops and a laity at the bottom. By the fourth century the most important bishops of the church were the bishops of Antioch, Alexandria, Carthage, Jerusalem, and Rome. Later, after the Emperor Constantine established the Empires new Capital in Constantinople, the former Byzantium, the bishop of the new imperial city would become one of the important bishops of the church as well.

Christianity’s fortunes would change forever in 312. Tradition has it that in that year Constantine, before his victories over his rival at the Milvian Bridge near Rome, had a vision or saw an apparition of a cross over the sun and heard a voice saying “conquer in this sign”. After he decorated the shields of his soldiers with this Christogram, Constantine won a decisive victory over his rivals for power in the Empire. In 313 the Emperor Constantine issued his famous Edict of Milan granting Christianity—as well as other religious faiths—official recognition throughout the Empire (http://home.snu.edu/~dwilliam/f98/milan/). In addition to toleration Christianity regained property which had been confiscated from it over the years and its clergy were given exemption from state obligations. Christian churches could now organize as legal entities.

Constantine was not done with church politics, however. In 325 he called a church council which was given the job of hammering out the “orthodox” doctrines and laws of the church. In 325 the bishops of the church met at Nicaea to do just this (http://www.fordham.edu/ halsall/basis/nicea1.txt). The bishops were able to create orthodox Christianity by marking it off against “unorthodox” forms of Christianity specifically, Arianism—the notion that only the father was pure god. Arianism was condemned as a heresy by powers that be at Nicaea. The notion that god conceived himself before he gave birth to himself, that the father preceded and produced the son, in other words—the doctrine of consubtantiation—became the orthodox banner of the orthodox Christianity created at Nicaea.

By 391 Christianity was the official religion of the Roman Empire. Proving that the new boss is much like the old boss church leaders immediately set about doing unto others as those others, they thought, had done unto them. They attacked pagans and set about destroying pagan temples. The church also continued to try to undermine heresy within at church councils at Ephesos in 431 (http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/ephesus.html) and Chalcedon in 451 (http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/chalcedon.html). Monophysitism, which held that the flesh of Christ was divine, was condemned, as was Pelagianism, which held that after conversion one’s sins were wiped away and that one could follow the will of god without hierarchical guidance.

For the writings of the Early Church Fathers see… /fathers.html

The prominence of Christianity in the Empire meant greater prominence for Christian thinkers. One of the most influential Christian thinkers was Augustine of Hippo (http://www.augustinian.villanova.edu/writings/index.html), who lived from 354 to 430. Drawing on the dualism of Neo-Platonism, the revival of Plato, and Aristotelian teleology, the notion that there was a first mover to everything, Augustine argued that all humans were fallible and that it was impossible for humans to do good without god’s grace. His famous treatise De civitate Dei/City of God is one of the first attempts at a Christian systematic theology. His Confessions is one of the earliest Christian conversion tales. In the former Augustine distinguished between the perfect heavenly city of eternal happiness and the imperfect earthly city of fire, war, famine, and sickness, which, despite its imperfectness did point toward the city of god.

Thinkers were not the only Christians gaining prominence throughout the Empire. Saints, celibate workers of wonders, dedicated prayers and fasters—all who had tenuous ties to the developing hierarchical “orthodox” Christian church—were becoming models of virtue for many Christians elite and non-elite. Many devout Christians sought out saintly heroes like St. Antony so that they might intercede with god on their behalf. After they died many Christians held on to their bones, their relics, and their clothes thinking that these too might serve as conduits to god’s grace. At first saints were sometimes buried on the estates of the wealthy. Increasingly, however, as the church hierarchy became more powerful, bishops took charge of the holy relics of the saints.

For saint’s lives see… http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/sbook3.html.

By the 6th century monasteries became important and prominent particularly in the Western of the Empire. Monasteries seem to have began in Egypt and spread throughout the Empire from there. One important early Christian monastic community was the Benedictines, an order named after their founder St. Benedict who wrote the rules for his order around 530 and 540 (http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/rul-benedict.html). On Monte Cassino in what is today Italy the Benedictine monks gave up lives of wealth, family ties, and worldly offices in order to lead a daily life of devotion, prayer, psalm chanting, worship, labour, and bible reading. Increasingly monks would be seen by Christians in general as the embodiment of Christian virtue. In the 9th century the Carolingian powers that be would make Benedictine monasticism the norm throughout their realm.

On Mediaeval monasticism see… http://www.faculty.de.gcsu.edu/~dvess/ids/medieval/benmon.html

Over time Christianity’s numbers would grow throughout Europe. In time it would provide what we today call Europe with a sense of identity and a name, Christendom.

General Links: The West: The Hebrew, Greek, Roman and Christian Background:

On Jewish history see

http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/jewish/jewishsbook.html

For a map of the region see

http://oi.uchicago.edu/research/lab/map/maps/syria.html

For the Tanakh see

/jsource/Bible/jpstoc.html

For materials on the Old Testament see

/index.htm

On First Century CE/AD Judaism and Early Christianity see…

http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/asbook11.html and /resources/resourceCategoryDisplay.aspx?categoryid=429&rsid=478

Maps of Ancient Israel and Judea

/geography/ancient-israel/ntisrael-sitemap.html

For the New Testament see

/

For the NT in Greek

/multibib/greek.htm

For the Bible see

/multibib/bible.htm

Viewings and Listenings: The West: The Hebrew, Greek, Roman, and Christian Background

Greece

Philosophy

The Greeks: Crucible of Civlisation

Empire of the Mind

/watch?v=mCUj__4gDEw

/watch?v=IUCggDbJiUI

/watch?v=U-rN_3F-qGc

/watch?v=I_s96juUO9I

/watch?v=RD16nHVMlko

/watch?v=ORgPbIQLftE

PBS, 2000

Philosophy: A Guide to Happiness, “Socrates on Self-Confidence”

/watch?v=ZVb07c_jrQc

/watch?v=28VIz9gg0po

/watch?v=nNaeL7vdax8

Channel 4

Philosophy: A Guide to Happiness: Socrates on Self Confidence

/videoplay?docid=-2176561406097734530&q=source:015967095465106503065&hl=en

Channel 4

Philosophy: A Guide to Happiness: Epicurus on Happiness

/videoplay?docid=-7108920267114081897&q=source:015967095465106503065&hl=en

Channel 4

Philosophy: A Guide to Happiness, “Epicurus on Happiness”

/watch?v=20LTTRQcZ8c

/watch?v=sz1ItMUafgY

/watch?v=pCyIohPjVs8

Channel 4

Nova, “Infinite Secrets: The Genius of Archimedes”

/watch?v=H4GIhfyLXwc

/watch?v=XdIxX_58C_U

/watch?v=h74tg42rfdY

/watch?v=4QW2hMuFbTo

/watch?v=kCQ5PPl3eMM

/watch?v=u6uR92UA5Ac

PBS

Genius, Pythagorus

/watch?v=arA_28i4IS0

/watch?v=XyHfekelW6s

/watch?v=Gl2utvaL5ek

/watch?v=7w9NzzHPWNs

/watch?v=fhjw91FxMZI

Theatre

Aescylus, Agamemnon

/watch?v=vqFgCGuBn4A

/watch?v=BT259CRSZfw

/watch?v=ct2irS7ZRq8

/watch?v=xn0MGnq5CQ0

/watch?v=XHV65PA9Y5g

/watch?v=JrEJvLgvOhs

/watch?v=kPikNIfBGIo

/watch?v=K8po_rtpXEg

/watch?v=Rtd63H_o1kI

/watch?v=E3hMAYtuFms

458 BCE

Euripides, Trojan Women, excerpt

/watch?v=lVk8OdJH7Wg

415 BCE

Sophocles, Oedipus Rex

/watch?v=WtMHltBFqlo

/watch?v=OpqVmviDEvk

/watch?v=gUPuCTdGIw0

/watch?v=-XYeuZaQg0M

/watch?v=v3HhTJOt6DE

/watch?v=4MOagIc20WI

/watch?v=zmrHgStYL9w

/watch?v=fOLmfbeACoQ

/watch?v=ieO4DtH6L4

/watch?v=t0RNmFK3SRI

/watch?v=gVCTN1YKl1g

/watch?v=P_OLef_j4P4

429 BCE

Sophocles, Oedipus at Colonus

/watch?v=fcfBYR9ezvE

/watch?v=ksIechI0Fwg

/watch?v=nUDwdSvbkYE

/watch?v=9Kg-X6YloOg

/watch?v=k434351Gv4c

/watch?v=noa8MbW3Jwk

/watch?v=pTcEuPJWjH8

/watch?v=NGkzB5YlsFM

/watch?v=tHZEv0tOhIo

/watch?v=ZHEmiwEDSVI

/watch?v=FO58_aaDJvw

/watch?v=M8tO9bwkY0k

prior to 406 BCE

Aristophanes, Lysistrata, excerpts

/watch?v=hOOJ1Emr0LI

/watch?v=YtWcjLnGBlM

/watch?v=jc1WT8evhcs

411 BCE

Representations

Gustav Holst, “The Planets”

/watch?v=F4oDDmoWf1M

/watch?v=oKvG0RU4_fI

/watch?v=TrBXtI1jd6k

/watch?v=_A-LNkuqq6g

/watch?v=VQ0Z6kD06Us

/watch?v=SeF2mMUiw9o

/watch?v=c0i7advgnUk

1918

Maurice Ravel, “Daphnis et Chloe”, “Le lever du jour”, 1912

/watch?v=BotBJVg0ECM

Claudio Abbado, LSO, 1970s

Kansas, Icarus, Don Kirschner’s Rock Concert, Syndicated, 1975

/watch?v=rBRj7AF8YjQ

Troy, directed by Wolfgang Petersen, 2004

/watch?v=uNwuhjqSLCc

/watch?v=tq4tfL3ggtc

Hector Berlioz, “Les Troyans” (“The Trojans”), 1858, “Death of Dido”

/watch?v=BOnShOj2Q_0

Berlioz, “Les Troyans”, “Adieu fiere cite”, 1858

/watch?v=CEPsskcf9GU (in English)

“O Brother Where Art Thou”, Coen Brothers, 2000

/watch?v=krwywj_gIjk

/watch?v=oxlyKA9O9LA

/watch?v=wcUvVDMwC2w

/watch?v=hfTUvFj6kvc

Homer’s Odyssey updated

Dan Tyminksi, “Man of Constant Sorrow”, 2000

/watch?v=wymsDBJEIZY

Loreena McKennitt, “Penelope’s Song”, Great Performances, PBS 2007

/watch?v=A4hVXLmvrR8

This song is based on Homer’s Odyssey

The Warriors, directed by Walter Hill, excerpts

/watch?v=MV4cgs-bPic

/watch?v=JawHRggFPGo

/watch?v=xITVFgxcDIg

1979

based on Xenophon’s Anabasis

The 300, excerpts

/watch?v=4iT27TKz_UI (becoming Spartan)

/watch?v=Vk91LJK78M4

/watch?v=R-6M5FukAoE

Rome

Philosophy

Philosophy: A Guide to Happiness, “Seneca on Anger”, Channel 4

/watch?v=hJ0g7IKWG7E

/watch?v=bUxCL7hbQiA

/watch?v=KFKBxDC8L9U

Representations

Spartacus, directed by Stanley Kubrick and Anthony Mann, excerpts

/watch?v=bOgEJVM_gnI

/watch?v=EvZ7BbNGDco

1960

Rome (the TV show)

/watch?v=41BjWZ-NSzs (death of Julius)

/watch?v=s_hgcC2NFwo (Battle of Philippi)

/watch?v=EtGEToHoFWc (Antony arrives in Egypt)

/watch?v=2X9ZpNQTXXg (death of Antony and Cleopatra)

/watch?v=F8hNaCnOdcw (Octavian in the Senate)

BBC/HBO/RAI

I Claudius, BBC TV programme, excerpts

/watch?v=2BD5kNi6D7E

/watch?v=E9cKGYhuQKQ

/watch?v=0zJbah86QOI

/watch?v=9_oRPUVqlVg

/watch?v=lNyFAa_nAPI

/watch?v=33JUVV8mOB4

/watch?v=rS1KuEWZY60

/watch?v=woo-zMPjlBM

/watch?v=gzQxIfbtdsU

/watch?v=tbbBj1j9aZk

/watch?v=Z0IW157-ElI

/watch?v=Gp1mk9bdsdM

/watch?v=QNDpHtSL0dI

/watch?v=-pJ-xSI4rOQ

1976

The Fall of the Roman Empire, directed by Anthony Mann, excerpts

/watch?v=t-pXYCV8xkc

1964

First Century CE Judaism

Nova, “Ancient Refuge in the Holy Land”

/watch/23348/nova-ancient-refuge-in-the-holy-land#x-0,vepisode,1

PBS

Dead Sea Scrolls, Channel 4

/watch?v=RROAMfG82BY

/watch?v=TLWJChL47oM

/watch?v=N2LJLJ7S2-c

/watch?v=CEyFcDvRR2U

/watch?v=YG_GfMGABak

/watch?v=1Z4Sf7ScVgY

Early Christianity

Frontline, From Jesus to Christ: The First Christians

/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/religion/watch/

PBS

Peter and Paul and the Christian Revolution

Episode 1

/watch?v=dosud_aeAX0

/watch?v=QGx6UPkGGk0

/watch?v=I-RM6rahZFU

/watch?v=cV38UAYFf9c

/watch?v=z7vFgG9F1tQ

/watch?v=R3rHd6ZcaN0

Episode 2

/watch?v=BSOdcTy1TiU

/watch?v=1aCPQNyxj-0

/watch?v=fQpER1DUcjQ

/watch?v=-CQgMhXeqVQ

/watch?v=VRoNjm_z7o0

/watch?v=6DjLOsPKpis

PBS, 2003

Talking History: Jesus, 22 December (Real Media)

/arcH2997.html

Talking History: Jesus the Apocalyptic, 20 December (Real Media)

/arcH2999.html

Talking History: The Death of Jesus, 30 March (Real Media)

/arcH2998.html

Representations

King of Kings, directed by Nicholas Ray

/watch?v=1keVjZfXHYE

/watch?v=Vi3D1k24Qv4

/watch?v=sC0qVHZ1DVg

/watch?v=_ZKZA8mYTP8

/watch?v=6X0T6PlOl7g

/watch?v=RrH5iPPz_tg

/watch?v=szbNZtVifLk

/watch?v=OAhhp3Pkd4Y

/watch?v=B402tqIsdbk

/watch?v=YE_VoUobxlg

/watch?v=svmTGlP_VP4

/watch?v=f2Ulo0o_hsc

/watch?v=mD5zyWqgcZs

/watch?v=gFxjwn03AC4

/watch?v=hACJgJDecVU

/watch?v=HzE1SNEwyxI

/watch?v=tpAFUgUrW0k

1961

The Passion of the Christ, directed by Mel Gibson

/watch?v=ORJ92d9qzC0

2004

Ben Hur, directed by William Wyler, excerpts

/watch?v=uUYJFSvVli8

/watch?v=pbQvpJsTvxU

1959

The Robe, directed by Henry Koster, excerpts

/watch?v=wWf2K3DonoA

/watch?v=bjrkQ2rMqTg

1953

Chapter Two:

  1. Of english words and phrases (1)

    Документ
    V. exist, be; have being &c n.; subsist, live, breathe, stand, obtain, be the case; occur &c (event) 151; have place, prevail; find oneself, pass the time, vegetate.
  2. Of english words and phrases (2)

    Документ
    2. Inexistence N. inexistence†; nonexistence, nonsubsistence; nonentity, nil; negativeness &c adj.; nullity; nihility†, nihilism; tabula rasa [Lat.], blank; abeyance; absence &c 187; no such thing &c 4; nonbeing, nothingness, oblivion.
  3. Copyright (C) micra, Inc. 1991, 1992

    Документ
    Hithes.doc is a hierarchically-organized thesaurus derived by reorganization of the version of Roget s Thesaurus published in 1911. The new organization is intended to allow use of ISA and other semantic relational markers.
  4. Ю. Б. Голицынский 4-е изд., Спб.: Каро, 2003. 288с

    Документ
    1. This is a book. It is my book. 2. Is this your pencil? — No, it isn t my pencil, it is my sister s pencil. 3. I have a sister. My sister is an engineer.
  5. А. Л. Пумпянский написал серию из трех книг по переводу нашей научной и технической литературы на английский язык: «Введение в практику перевода научной и технической литературы на английский язык», «Пособие по перево (1)

    Документ
    А. Л. Пумпянский написал серию из трех книг по переводу нашей научной и технической литературы на английский язык: «Введение в практику перевода научной и технической литературы на английский язык», «Пособие по переводу научной и технической
  6. А. Л. Пумпянский написал серию из трех книг по переводу нашей научной и технической литературы на английский язык: «Введение в практику перевода научной и технической литературы на английский язык», «Пособие по перево (2)

    Документ
    А. Л. Пумпянский написал серию из трех книг по переводу нашей научной и технической литературы на английский язык: «Введение в практику перевода научной и технической литературы на английский язык», «Пособие по переводу научной и технической
  7. Essays on Untouchables and Untouchability: Social

    Документ
    (Besides the consolidated scheme on "Untouchables or children of India s Ghetto " included in Book I in this Volume, there are several other essays by Dr.
  8. Учебное пособие для студентов II курса специальности (1)

    Учебное пособие
    Учебное пособие содержит упражнения и тексты для студентов специальности «Мосты и транспортные тоннели». Упражнения направлены на формирование у студентов речевых грамматических навыков на основе профессиональной лексики.
  9. Учебное пособие для студентов II курса специальности (2)

    Учебное пособие
    Работа одобрена редакционно-издательским советом академии в качестве учебного пособия по английскому языку для студентов II курса специальности «Мосты и транспортные тоннели»
  10. Задача настоящего учебника помочь учащимся овладеть как навыками перевода, так и навыками устной и письменной англий­ской речи. Для достижения этой цели учащиеся должны приобрести определенный запас слов и изучить грамматический строй языка

    Задача
    Задача настоящего учебника — помочь учащимся овладеть как навыками перевода, так и навыками устной и письменной англий­ской речи. Для достижения этой цели учащиеся должны приобрести определенный запас слов и изучить грамматический строй языка.

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