Вшести томах Том 1 эргономика комплексная научно-техническая дисциплина под-редакцией канд психол наук А. И. Назарова Москва «Мир» 1991 ббк 30. 17 439

Handbook

of

Human Factors

Euitcd by

Gavriel Salvendy Purdue University

A Wiley-Interscience Publication John Wiley & Sons

NEW YORK • CHICHESTER • BRISBANE • TORONTO • SINGAPORE

ЧЕЛОВЕЧЕСКИЙ ФАКТОР

Под редакцией Г. Салвенди

Перевод с английского под общей редакцией ч.п.-корр. АПН СССР В. П. Зннченко и д-ра психол. наук В. М. Мунипова

В шести томах

Том 1

ЭРГОНОМИКА — КОМПЛЕКСНАЯ НАУЧНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКАЯ ДИСЦИПЛИНА

Под-редакцией канд. психол. наук А. И. Назарова

Москва «Мир» 1991

ББК 30.17 439 УДК 331.101.1

Авторы: Ж- Кристенсен, Д. Мейстер, П. Фоули, Н. Моури, К. Уикепс, К. Хойос, П. Килонен, Э. Аллуази, Д. Миллер, А. Суэйн, Дж. Найт, мл., Т. Смит, К- Смит, Р, Соркин, Б. Кантович,

Переводчики: канд. хим. наук И. Г. Городецкий (гл. !, 2, разд. 3.3.7—3.6, гл. 5, 8), канд. биол. наук О. В. Левашов (разд. 3.1—3.3.6, гл. 4, 7, 1!), И. А. Мещерякова (гл. 6), к?.нд психол. наук А. И. Назаров (гл. 9), Е. Б. Си-роткина (гл. 10).

439 Человеческий фактор. В 6-ти тт. Т. 1. Эргономика — комплексная научно-техническая дисциплина: Пер. с англ./ Ж. Кристеноен, Д. Мейстер, П. Фоули и др. —M.I Мир, 1991. —599 с, ил. ISBN 5-03-001710-0

Фундаментальное руководство по проблемам человеческого фактора, В настоящем томе, написанном авторами из США, Канады и ФРГ, рассмотрены краткая история и современное состояние ряда важнейших направлений зарубежной эргономики и инженерной психологии: общая характеристика профессии инженера по человеческим факторам, основные этапы проектирования и разработки автоматизированных систем, методы оценки их надежности и эффективности. Отдельная глава посвящена сводке фундаментальных н прикладных данных о процессах переработки информации человеком-оператором в различных видах деятельности.

Для специалистов по эргономике, психологии, научной организации и охране труда, инженеров-конструкторов автоматизированных систем, дизайнеров, архитекторов, преподавателей и студентов соответствующих специальностей.

2004080000—429 *041(01>—91

■ Подписное — 90

ББК 30.17

Издание осуществлено за счет средств Научно-исследовательского института авиационного оборудования

Редакция литературы по новой технике

ISBN 5-03-001710-0 (русск.)

ISBN 5-03-00I709-7

ISBN 0-471-88015-9 (аягл.)

© 1987 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Ail rights reserved. Authorized translation from English language edition published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

©

перевод на русский «чык, коллектив переводчиков, 1й!.»1

КОНСУЛЬТАТИВНЫЙСОВЕТ

Earl A. Alluisi

Chief Scientist

Air Force Human Resources

Laboratory

Brooks Air Force Base, Texas

Hans-Jorg Bullinger

Professor Dr.-Ing. habil and Director

Fraunhofer-Institut fur

Arbeitswirtschaft und Organization

(IAO)

Universitat Stuttgart

Stuttgart, West Germany

Don B. Chaffin

Director, Center for Ergonomics

and Professor of

Industrial and Operations Engineering

University of Michigan

Ergonomics Center

Ann Arbor, Michigan

E. Nigel Corlett

Professor and Head

Department of Production Engineering

and Production Management

University of Nottingham

Nottingham, England

Colin G. Drury Professor

Department of Industrial Engineering State University of New York at Buffalo Amherst, New York

John G. Fox

Director, European Ergonomics and

Economics Council

Bridel, Luxembourg

Gideon Gerhardsson Professor

Scientific Adviser to the Swedish Employers' Confederation Stockholm, Sweden

Etienne Grandjean

Professor Emeritus and Former

Director of the Department of

Ergonomics

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

Zurich, Switzerland

Hal W. Hendrick

Professor and Chairman

Department of Human Factors

Institute of Safety and Systems

Management

University of Southern California

Los Angeles, California

Richard S. Hirsch

Program Director, Human Factors

IBM Corporation

Purchase, New York

Carl Graf Hoyos Professor and Head Department of Psychology Technical University of Munich Munich, West Germany

Ilkka Kuorinka Assistant Director Department of Physiology Institute of Occupational Health Vantaa, Finland

Б. Ф. Ломов

Д-р пснхол. иаук, директор Института психологии АН СССР, Москва

6___________Консультативныйсовет

Ernest J, McCormick

Professor Emeritus

Department of Psychological Sciences

Purdue University

West Lafayette. Indiana

David Meister

Senior Scientist

Human Factors Program

U. S. Navy Personnel Research and

Development Center

San Diego, California

В. М. Муинпов

Д-р психол. наук, зам. директора Всесоюзного научно-исследовательского института технической эстетики, Москва

Masamitsu Oshima

The Chief Director

The Medical Information System

Development Center

Tokyo, Japan

Olov Ostberg

Director of Human Factors Research

Technology Department

The Swedish Telecommunications

Administration

Stockholm/Farsta, Sweden

Walter Rohmert

Professor and Head

Department of Arbeitswissenschaft

University of Technology Darmstadt

Darmstadt, West Germany

Andries Sanders Professor and Director Institute fur Psychologie Aachen, West Germany

Rabindra N. Sen Head, Department of Physiology Ergonomics Laboratory Calcutta University Calcutta, India

Brian Shackel

Professor

Department of Human Science

University of Technology

Loughborough, Leicestershire, England

Michael J. Smith

Associate Professor

Department of Industrial Engineering

University of Wisconsin.

Madison, Wisconsin

Sadao Sugiyama Professor, School of Sociology Kwansei Gakuin University Nishinomiya, Hyogo, Japan

Harold P. Van Cott

Vice President and Director,

Systems Operability and Design Group

Essex Corporation

Alexandria, Virginia

Robert С Williges

Professor

Department of Industrial Engineering

and Operations Research

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State

University

Blacksburg, Virginia

Alain Wisner

Professor and Director, Institute of

Ergonomics

Conservatoire National Des Arts et

Metiers

Paris, France

АВТОРЫ

Earl A. Alluisi

Chief Scientist

Air Force Human Resources

Laboratory

Brooks Air Force Base, Texas

Lynn Y. Arnaut

Doctoral Candidate

Department of Industrial Engineering

and Operations Research

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State

University

Blacksburg, Virginia

M. M. Ayoub

Horn Professor of Industrial

Engineering and Biomedical

Engineering

Texas Technological University

Lubbock, Texas

Woodrow Barfield

Doctoral Candidate

School of Industrial Engineering

Purdue University

West Lafayette, Indiana

Dennis B. Beringer Assistant Professor University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, Wisconsin

Nicholas A. Bond, Jr.

Director

Office of Naval Research

Science Liaison Office Far East

Tokyo Akasaka Center

APO San Francisco, California

Donald M. Broadbent External Staff Scientist Department of Experimental Psychology

University of Oxford Oxford, England

John F. Brock

Manager, Man-Machine Science

Honeywell Systems and Research

Center

Minneapolis, Minnesota

Hans-Jorg Bullinger

Professor Dr.-Ing. habil and Director

Fraunhofer-Institut fur

Arbeitswirtschaft und Organization

(IAO)

Universitat Stuttgart

Stuttgart, West Germany

Don B. Chaffin

Director, Center for Ergonomics and

Professor of Industrial and Operations

Engineering

University of Michigan

Ergonomics Center

\nn Arbor, Michigan

Tien Chien-Chang

Assistant Professor

School of Industrial Engineering

Purdue University

West Lafayette, Indiana

Julien M. Christensen

Chief Scientist: Human Factors and

Logistics

Universal Energy Systems

Dayton, Ohio

Gerald P. Chubb Principal Consultant SofTech, Inc. Fairborn, Ohio

8_________Авторы_______________

Е. Nigel Corlett

Professor and Head

Department of Production Engineering

and Production Management

University of Nottingham

Nottingham) England

Brain Crist Ergonomic Consultant Human Factors Group Rochester, New York

William H. Cushman Ergonomic Consultant Human Factors Group Rochester, New York

Sara J. Czaja

Visiting Associate Professor Department of Industrial Engineering State University of New York at Buffalo Amherst, New York

Louis E. Davis

Professor of Organizational Sciences

Graduate School of Management and

Chairman of the Center for Quality

of Working Life

Institute of Industrial Relations

University of California

Los Angeles, California

Colin G. Drury Professor

Department of Industrial Engineering State University of New York at Buffalo Amherst, New York

Ray E. Eberts

Assistant Professor

School of Industrial Engineering

Purdue University

West Lafayette, Indiana

Ward Edwards

Professor and Director

Social Science Research Institute

University of Southern California

University Park

Los Angeles, California

Jay Elkerton

Doctoral Candidate

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State

University

BJacksburg, Virginia

John R. Etherton Safety Engineer

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Division of Safety Research Mofgantown, West Virginia

Don&ld L. Fisher

Associate Professor

Department of Industrial Engineering

and Operations Research

University of Massachusetts

Amherst, Massachusetts

Ralph E. Flexman Professor Emeritus of Aviation University of Illinois Champaign-Urbana, Illinois

Patrick J. Foley

Professor

Department of Industrial Engineering

University of Toronto

Toronto, Ontario, Canada

King-Sun Fu

Goss Distinguished Professor of

Engineering

School of Electrical Engineering

Purdue University

West Lafayette, Indiana

Chaya Garg-Janardan

Doctoral Candidate

School of Industrial Engineering

Purdue University

West Lafayette, Indiana

Irwin L. Goldstein Professor and Chair Department of Psychology University of Maryland ' College Park, Maryland

Etienne Grandjean

Professor Emeritus and Former

Director of the Department of

Ergonomics

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

Zurich, Switzerland

Joel S. Greensiein

Professor

Department of Industrial Engineering

Clemson University

Clemson, South Carolina

Аеторя

Susan M. Grey

Research Associate

Department of Production Engineering

and Production Management

University of Nottingham

Nottingham, England

Lewis F. Hanes Manager, Human Sciences Westinghouse R&D Center Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

John E. Harrigan

Professor

Architecture and Environmental Design

California Polytechnic State University

San Luis Obispo, California

Martin G. Helander Associate Professor

Department of Industrial Engineering State University of New York at Buffalo Amherst, New York

Hal W. Hendrick

Professor and Chairman

Department of Human Factors

Institute of Safety and Systems

Management

University of Southern California

Los Angeles, California

Ronald A. Hess

Professor

Department of Mechanical Engineering

University of California

Davis. California

Dennis H. Holding

Professor

Department of Psychology

University of Louisville

Louisville. Kentucky

Carl Graf Hoyos Professor and Head, Department of Psychology Technical University of Munich Munich. West Germany

Stacy R. Hun I

Manager, Human Factors Department

General Electric Corporation

King of Prussia, Pennsylvania

Bernard C. Jiang Research Assistant

9

Department of Industrial Engineering Texas Technological University Lubbock, Texas

Barry L. Johnson

Director

Division of Biomedical and Behavioral

Science

National Institute for Occupational

Safety and Health

Cincinnati, Ohio

Dylan M. Jones

Senior Lecturer

Department of Applied Inclining)

University of Wales Institute of Science

and Technology

Cardiff, Wales

Barry H. KantowiU

Professor

Department of Psychological Sciences

Purdue University

West Lafayette, Indiana

Peter Kern

Head of Department of Ergonomics Fraunhofer-Institul fur Arbeitswirtschaft und Organization

(IAO)

Universitat Stuttgart

Stuttgart, Germany

James L. Knight, Jr.

Senior Research Psychologist

AT&T Consumer Products Laboratory

Neptune, New Jersey

Koji Kobayashi

Chairman of the Board and Chief

Executive Officer

NEC Corporation

Tokyo, Japan

Stephen A. Konz

Professor

Department of Industrial Engineering

Kansas State University

Manhattan, Kansas

Volker Korndorfer

Head, Robotics Department

Fraunhofer-Instituf fur

Arbeitswirtschaft und Organization

(IAO)

Universitat Stuttgart

Stuttgart, West Germany

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