Учебное пособие Издательство Томского политехнического университета 2009

Task 17. True/ false statements.

  1. Byzantine art was completely focused on the needs of the Catholic Church

  2. In the late 14th century Gothic Art developed into a more secular style known as International Gothic.

  3. The Early Renaissance was succeeded by the mature Late Renaissance period, which began circa 1500.

  4. The High Renaissance is notable for three of the greatest artists in history: Michelangelo Buonarroti, Raphael Sanzio and Leonardo da Vinci.

  5. In the 17th century, Baroque Art was replaced by the more elegant and elaborate Rococo art style.

  6. 19th Century there was a great popular interest in the region's lost civilizations and exotic cultures, which fuelled the rise of Classicism in Britain, and Orientalism.

  7. The earliest Realist work began to appear in the 18th centuryas a reaction to the excesses of Romanticism and Spiritualism.

  8. Academic Artis the painting and sculpture produced under the influence of the Academies in Europe and especially France.

  9. The Post-Impressionism movement's name was derived from Monet's early work, 'Impression: Sunrise'.

  10. The Impressionist style is still widely practiced today.

  11. The Pointillists are also generally included among the Post-Impressionists

  12. Pointillism is a form of painting in which tiny dots of primary-colors are used to generate secondary colors.

  13. The key concept of Cubism is that the essence of an object can only be captured by showing it from a single point of view.

  14. Expressionism is a style in which the intention is to express the inner state of the artist.

  15. An important part of American Modernism was inspired by the development of Cubism in Europe.

  16. Contemporary Realists are illiterate in the concepts of Modern Art and choose to work in a more traditional form.

  17. Common sources of Pop Art imagery include people in their natural environment

Task 18.Find in the following text the key phrases, characterizing each art movement. Give your own laconic one-sentence definition of them. Retell the text.

1.3. The History of Russian Fine Arts

In the history of Russian fine arts one can distinguish two periods. Peter the Great reforms marked the border between them. The difference is extremely deep and concerns the very essence of artistic perception of the world and a human being.

In Old Russia painting appeared and developed in a close connection with icon worshiping, the basis of which is the doctrine of Incarnation.

Alongside with Christianity the Russian masters adopted the Byzantium artistic style and technique developed through centuries.

Henceforth in Russian principalities icon-painting schools having their own peculiarities of painting were formed (Novgorod, Pskov, Yaroslavl, Tver icon-painting schools).

The highest flourishing of Russian medieval painting refers to the 14th-15th centuries and it is reflected in the works of Pheophan Grek and Andrey Rublev. The top of Russian icon painting is “Trinity” (1422-1427) by A. Rublev, which he created as a symbol of spiritual consent and unity of Russian people.

Since the middle of the 16th century icon painting undergoes the influence of Western fine arts. Developed icon painting of the court school used Western European plot schemes.

The end of the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th century is marked by the development of 'Stroganoff school' (despite the name it consisted mainly of court masters) that is distinguished by the refinement of color and careful working at details and by the tendency to some decoration and 'prettiness' of painting.

In the second half of the 17th century icons included the elements of Western European painting: oil colors and great verisimilitude in depicting people and nature. The most prominent representative of the trend is Simon Ushakov. The first attempts of creating a temporal portrait can also be referred to that time.

Until the 18th century in Russia, the reigning artistic influence was still the Middle Ages Byzantium style. Even to this day, Russian icons, with their soulful eyes, flattened perspective, elongated features and gold highlights, remain characteristic in the region's artistic output.

But in 1701 Tsar Peter Alexeevich - Peter the Great - set the foundation of a new Russian capital in St.Petersburg, as well as the foundation for a new culture and art forms conceived in imitation of Western European. Under his rule, artists were sent abroad to study, and painters from Western Europe were brought to work in Russia. A drawing school was established, and then many Academies were established.

The prevailing painting genre through the 18th century was portraiture, based primarily on classical aesthetics. In the 18th century and at the beginning of the 19th century fine arts in Russia, following cultural needs of the society, experiences all the main stages of Western art: Baroque, Classicism, Romanticism. Foreign painters and sculptors, invited to Russia, play an important role but very talented home masters appear. The highest achievement of the epoch is portrait painting in the works by I. Argunov, А.Antropov, F Rokotov, D. Levitskiy, V. Borovikovskiy, O. Kiprenskiy. The first great Russian master of a sculpture portrait was F.Shubin. D.Levitskiy: Portrait of

Catherine the Great

The flourishing of an academic school refers to the first half of the 19th century. K. Brullov’s canvases are characterized by the combination of academic Classicism with Romanticism, by novelty of plots, by the theatrical effect of plastic and lighting, by complex composition and by brilliant virtuosity of a painter's brush. A. Ivanov added some character of sacrificial devotion to the idea and he managed to overcome lots of patterns referring to academic technique. At that time P.Fedotov followed his own way. He was considered to be a brilliant dilettante, a subtle observer and a witty satirist, who anticipated further trends of Russian genre-painting.

Social aspiration of 1860-1870s awakes the painters' interest in the themes connected with people's life. In 1872 in contrast to the Academy of Arts the Association of traveling art exhibition is founded (I. Kramskoy, G. Myasoedov, K. Savitskiy, I. Pryanishnikov, V. Makovskiy, I. Yaroshenko, V. Perov, etc). The Itinerants F.Vasilyev: Village (1869) (or The Peredvizhniks) became serious rivals to Academy-trained artists, and by 1870 had become the key force in Russian art. They emphasized realistic, socially concerned images of Russian life. Genre painting acquires some exposing character in their works.

The appeal to national themes resulted in unprecedented flourishing of historical and battle painting. V. Surikov, I. Repin, N.Ghe, V. Vasnetsov, V.Vereschagin, F. Rubo created real masterpieces in those genres. The first Russian Art Galleries were opened during those years; the works of Russian painters were exhibited regularly in international exhibitions and foreign art salons.

I. Repin: Barge Haulers on the Volga

The end of the 19th century is also marked by awakening interest in an icon as 'a great world art' (E.Trubetskoy). It was possible thanks to clearing of ancient samples grown dark and discovering their real color. Artistic principles of icon painting were used creatively by both single Russian icon-painters (V. Vasnetsov, M. Nesterov, K. Petrov-Vodkin, foreign ones (A.Matisse) and by the whole trends and vanguard schools.

Having achieved independence in their creative activity landscape painting is ousting genre painting. Since the end of the 19th century Russian painting follows the same European course of fine arts. Striving for depicting air and light, peculiar to Impressionism, can also be found in the I.Shishkin: Oak-wood (1887)

works of F. Vasilyev, I. Levitan, V. Serov, K. Korovin, A. Arkhipov, etc.

The 1910s are marked by the appearance of Russian vanguard, as an aspiration to rebuild the very essence of art up to the denial of art itself. A number of artists and creative associations set new schools and new trends, which influenced radically the development of world's fine arts - Supermatism (K.Malevich), 'the style of improvisation' and abstract art (V. Kandinskiy).

V.Kandinsky: Composition VIII

"Bytovoi zhhanr", the painting of everyday life, particularly depicting serfs in the country, remained influential through the Soviet years.

The Renaissance of Russian vanguard is referred to 1960s. So-called “allowed”, but not the official part of Russian art of the 1960s is represented by the works of the masters of “severe style” (T.Salakhov, S.Popkov). In 1970-1980s the works of Soviet painters (R.Bichuns, P.Tordia, D.Zhilinsky, E.Shteinberg, M.Romadin, M.Leis, V.Kalinin, etc.) were generally recognized. Those painters proved that there existed not only 'propaganda' in the USSR.

Crash of Communism in the USSR destroyed artificial cultural barriers between Russia and the rest of the world. Nowadays Russian art is a welcome visitor almost on every part of the world. This inspires optimism as cross-cultural communication is a real sign showing the state of world's art.

Vocabulary

the Itinerants (the Peredvizhniks/ the Wanderors) – передвижники - painters of Russian realistic school with democratic tendencies.

the very essence – сама суть

artistic perception - художественное восприятие

icon worshiping – преклонение перед иконописью

worship - культ; поклоняться, почитать

alongside with – наряду с

Byzantium - Византия

artistic technique –художественная техника

henceforth - с этого времени, впредь

to flourish - расцветать

a symbol of spiritual consent and unity – символ духовного согласия и единства

to undergo the influence of - подвергаться влиянию

temporal portrait – светский портрет

to conceive – зарождать, зачать, задумывать

to hold sway – иметь влияние

plot - фабула, сюжет

novelty of plot – новизна сюжета

gist – основное содержание рассказа

to be distinguished by - отличаться чем-либо

careful work at details – тщательная работа над деталями

the tendency to decoration and 'prettiness’ - тенденция к украшательству

verisimilitude - правдоподобие

representative of the trend - представитель направления

to be marked - быть отмеченным

to be characterized by - характеризоваться чем-либо

awakening interest in - пробуждающийся интерес к

the refinement of color - утонченность, изысканность чвета

academic manner - акдемическая манера

plastic – пластичный, гибкий

plastic art – искусство ваяния, скульптура

brilliant virtuosity - блестящая виртуозность, понимание тонкостей

sacrificial devotion to the idea – жертвенная преданность идее

to sacrifice - жертвовать

to shake the traditions of - потрясти традиции

dilettante - дилетант, любитель

a subtle observer - тонкийб (острый) наблюдатель

a witty satirist – остроумный сатирик

to anticipate - предчувствовать

to acquire - приобретать

exposing character – обличабщий характер

to result in – приводить к чему-либо

to exhibit - экспонировать

to oust - вытеснять

to strive for – стремиться к чему-либо

peculiar to – характерный для

to destroy artificial cultural barriers – разрушить искусственные культурные барьеры

Vanguard - авангард, авангардный

Baroque - барокко, барочный

Classicism - классицизм

Romanticism - романтизм

Task 19. Chose the answer (a, b, c) which you think fits best according to the text

1. In Old Russia painting appeared and developed in a close connection with

a) portrait painting

b) icon worshiping

c) intensive study of the human body

2. The highest flourishing of Russian medieval painting refers to

a) the 14th-15th centuries

b) the 10th-11th centuries

c) the 12th-13th centuries

3. The end of the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th century is marked by the development of

a) Leonardo’s school

b) Rublev’s school

c) Stroganoff ‘s school

4. The highest achievement of the 18th century is

a) historical painting

b) landscape painting

c) portrait painting

5. K Brullov’s canvases are characterized by the combination of

a) careful working at details and by the tendency to some decoration

b) academic Classicism with Romanticism

c) independence in his creative activity and classical aesthetics

6. The traveling art exhibition was founded in

a) 1782

b) 1872

c) 1987

7. Social aspiration of 1860-1870s awakes the painters' interest in the themes connected with

a) people's life

b) nature life

c) Middle Ages Byzantium style

8. Since the end of the 19th century Russian painting follows

a) unique Russian course of fine arts

b) Renaissance style

c) the same European course of fine arts

9.The influence of Imporessionism can be found in the works by

a) A. Vrubel

b) V. Kandinskiy

c) I. Levitan and K. Korovin

10.K Malevich is considered to be a representative of the trend, called

a) Supermatism

b) Symbolism

c) Abstract art

Task 20. Translate froм Russian into English.

  1. В истории русского искусства различают два периода

  2. Русская живопись развивалась в тесной связи преклонением перед иконописью.

  3. Наивысший расцвет русской средневековой живописи относится к 14-15 векам.

  4. Вершиной русской иконной живописи является картина А.Рублева «Троица».

  5. С середины 16 века русская иконная живопись находится под влиянием западного искусства.

  6. Строгановская школа отличается изысканностью цвета, тщательной отработкой деталей и тенденцией к украшательству.

  7. Восточная европейская живопись этого периода уделяет большое внимание сходству в изображении людей и животных.

  8. В 1701 году русский царь Петр Великий заложил основы новых форм искусства , основанные на имитации искусства Западной Европы.

  9. В 18 вере превалирующим жанром в живописи был классический портрет.

  10. Для русских икон характерна плоская перспектива, удлиненные черты, глаза, раскрывающие душу, и золотые блики.

  11. Передвижники стали серьезными соперниками художников, представляющих академическое искусство.

  12. Представители направления передвижников особое внимание уделяли реалистичности изображения и социальной значимости объектов.

  13. Полотна К. Брюллова характеризуются сочетанием академического классицизма с романтизмом, новизной сюжета, световыми эффектами, сложной композицией и блестящей виртуозностью кисти художника.

  14. Хотя П. Федотов и считался блестящим дилетантом в живописи, он был тонким наблюдателем, остроумным сатириком, предвосхитившим дальнейшие тенденции русской жанровой живописи.

  15. В 1872 году было основано общество передвижников. В их работах жанровая живопись приобретает обличающий характер.

  16. В конце 19 века пейзажная живопись вытесняет жанровую живопись.

  17. Русское искусство идет в том же направлении, что и современное европейское искусство.

  18. Ренессанс русского авангарда относится к 60- ым годам 20 века, а работы советских авангардистов были признаны во всем мире.

  19. Крушение коммунизма в Советском Союзе разрушило культурные барьеры между Россией и остальным миром.

  20. Межкультурная коммуникация - это важный индикатор состояния мирового искусства.

Task 21. Translate into Russian in writing.

Until the 18th century in Russia, the reigning artistic influence was still the Middle Ages Byzantium style. Even to this day, Russian icons, with their soulful eyes, flattened perspective, elongated features and gold highlights, remain characteristic in the region's artistic output. But in 1701 Tsar Peter Alexeevich - Peter the Great - set the foundation of a new Russian capital in St.Petersburg, as well as the foundation for a new culture and art forms conceived in imitation of Western European. Under his rule, artists were sent abroad to study, and painters from Western Europe were brought to work in Russia. A drawing school was established, and then many Academies were established.

Task 22. Read this text and tell your friends about Russian folk handicraft.

Zhostovo painting

Zhostovo painting (Жостовская роспись) is an old Russian folk handicraft of painting on metal trays, which still exists in a village of Zhostovo in the Moscow Oblast. It appeared in the early 19th century mainly under the influence of the Ural handicraft of flower painting on metal. Subsequent development of the Zhostovo painting handicraft was stylistically related to porcelain and enamel painting techniques, used by factories near Moscow, flower motifs on printed cotton, produced by the Ivanovo factories, and Lukutin miniature (see Fedoskino miniature).

Zhostovo painting is a handicraft of painting on metal trays, preliminary coated with a few layers of priming (putty) and oil varnish (usually, black). Painting is done in a few consecutive energetic and firm strokes with a soft brush and oil paints, richly diluted with linseed oil. The most widely used motif of the Zhostovo painting is a bunch of mixed garden and wild flowers, which is simple and laconic in its essence. The edges of a tray are painted with a light golden ornament called уборка (uborka). A finished tray is then covered with three layers of light lacquer and polished to brilliance.

In the late 19th - early 20th century, the Zhostovo painting handicraft fell into decline. During the Soviet times, it was brought back to life after a number of artels had united themselves into one called Металлоподнос (Metal Tray) in 1928. Today, it is called the Zhostovo Factory of Decorative Painting (Жостовская фабрика декоративной росписи).

(retrieved from "/wiki/Zhostovo_painting")

Task 23. Read this text and tell your friends about Russian folk handicraft

Palekh miniature

Palekh miniature (Палехская миниатюра) is a Russian folk handicraft of miniature painting, which is done with tempera paints on varnished articles made of papier-mâché (small boxes, cigarette and powder cases etc.).

Palekh Russian lacquer art on papier-mâché first appeared in 1923 in the village of Palekh, located in the district of (Ivanovo Oblast), and is based on a long local history of icon painting.

This handicraft and style of miniature painting bore different names throughout its development, such as the Palekh Artel of Ancient Painting (since 1924), Palekh Artists’ Association (since 1932), and Artistic Production Workshops of the Artistic Fund of the USSR (since 1953).

The technology of making a semi-finished product was borrowed from the lacquer handicraft masters of Fedoskino. The Palekh miniatures usually represent characters from real life, literary works, fairy tales, bylinas, and songs. They are painted with local bright paints over the black background and are known for their delicate and smooth design, abundance of golden shading, and accurate silhouettes of flattened figures, which often cover the surface of the lids and sides of the articles completely. Poetic magic of the Palekh characters, decorativeness of landscapes and architecture, and elongated proportions of the figures go back to the icon-painting traditions. The miniatures are usually set off with a complicated pattern made with gold dissolved in aqua regia.

The art of miniature painting is still alive today. Nowadays there are workshops of the Artistic Fund of Russia, as well as small private studios and independent artists in Palekh. Palekh miniature artists are trained at the Palekh Art College founded in 1935. Works by Palekh masters are kept in numerous museums of Russia and abroad. The State Palekh Art Museum in Palekh boasts the biggest miniature painting collection, comprising over two thousand works ()

Task 24. Translate into Russian.

Color and tone are the essence of painting as pitch and rhythm are of music. Color is highly subjective, but has observable psychological effects, although these can differ from one culture to the next. Black is associated with mourning in the West, but in the East, white is. Some painters, theoreticians, writers and scientists, including Goethe, Kandinsky, Newton, have written their own color theory. Moreover the use of language is only a generalization for a color equivalent. The word "red", for example, can cover a wide range of variations on the pure red of the visible spectrum of light. There is not a formalized register of different colors in the way that there is agreement on different notes in music, such as C or C♯ in music. For a painter, color is not simply divided into basic and derived (complementary or mixed) colors (like, red, blue, green, brown, etc.). Painters deal practically with pigments, so "blue" for a painter can be any of the blues: phtalocyan, Paris blue, indigo, cobalt, ultramarine, and so on. Psychological, symbolical meanings of color are not strictly speaking means of painting. Colors only add to the potential, derived context of meanings, and because of this the perception of a painting is highly subjective. The analogy with music is quite clear—sound in music (like "C") is analogous to light in painting, "shades" to dynamics, and coloration is to painting as specific timbre of musical instruments to music—though these do not necessarily form a melody, but can add different contexts to it.

Rhythm is important in painting as well as in music. Rhythm is basically a pause incorporated into a body (sequence). This pause allows creative force to intervene and add new creations—form, melody, coloration. The distribution of form, or any kind of information is of crucial importance in the given work of art and it directly affects the esthetical value of that work. This is because the esthetical value is functionality dependent, i.e. the freedom (of movement) of perception is perceived as beauty. Free flow of energy, in art as well as in other forms of "techne", directly contributes to the esthetical value.

Modern artists have extended the practice of painting considerably to include, for example, collage, which began with Cubism and is not painting in the strict sense. Some modern painters incorporate different materials such as sand, cement, straw or wood for their texture. Examples of this are the works of Jean Dubuffet and Anselm Kiefer. (There is a growing community of artists who use computers to paint color onto a digital canvas using programs such as Adobe Photoshop, Corel Painter, and many others. These images can be printed onto traditional canvas if required.)

Photogragh. In 1829, the first photograph was produced. From the mid to late 19th century, photographic processes improved and, as it became more widespread, painting lost much of its historic purpose to provide an accurate record of the observable world. There began a series of art movements into the 20th century where the Renaissance view of the world was steadily eroded, through Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, Fauvism, Expressionism, Cubism and Dadaism. Eastern and African painting, however, continued a long history of stylization and did not undergo an equivalent transformation at the same time.

Directions. Among the continuing and current directions in painting at the beginning of the 21st century are Monochrome painting, Hard-edge painting, Geometric abstraction, Appropriation, Hyperrealism, Photorealism, Expressionism, Minimalism, Lyrical Abstraction, Pop Art, Op Art, Abstract Expressionism, Color Field painting, Neo-expressionism, Collage, Intermedia painting, Assemblage painting, Computer art painting, Postmodern painting, Neo-Dada painting, Shaped canvas painting, environmental mural painting, traditional figure painting, Landscape painting, Portrait painting, and paint-on-glass animation.

Style” is used in two senses: It can refer to the distinctive visual elements, techniques and methods that typify an individual artist's work. It can also refer to the movement or school that an artist is associated with. This can stem from an actual group that the artist was consciously involved with or it can be a category in which art historians have placed the painter. The word 'style' in the latter sense has fallen out of favor in academic discussions about contemporary painting, though it continues to be used in popular contexts. ()

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