Учебное пособие для студентов II курса специальности
Федеральное агентство по образованию
Bridges and Tunnels
для студентов II курса
«Мосты и транспортные тоннели»
Рецензенты: Г.Г. Сёмкина, канд. филол. наук, доцент каф. английской филологии ОмГУ; В.М. Левшунов, канд. техн. наук, доцент каф. механики и технологии строительства ОмГАУ
Работа одобрена редакционно-издательским советом академии в качестве учебного пособия по английскому языку для студентов II курса специальности «Мосты и транспортные тоннели»
Учебное пособие по английскому языку для студентов II курса специальности «Мосты и транспортные тоннели». – Омск: Изд-во СибАДИ, 2006. – 232 с.
Учебное пособие содержит упражнения и тексты для студентов специальности «Мосты и транспортные тоннели». Упражнения направлены на формирование у студентов речевых грамматических навыков на основе профессиональной лексики.
ã Л.Ф. Герасимова, М.В. Цыгулева, 2006
Read the text and say what new facts have you found out.
The ancient world
The first bridges were simply supported beams, such as flat stones or tree trunks laid across a stream. For valleys and other wider channels – especially in East Asia and South America, where examples can still be found – ropes made of various grasses and vines tied together were hung in suspension for single-file crossing. Materials were free and abundant, and there were few labour costs, since the work was done by slaves, soldiers, or natives who used the bridges in daily life.
Some of the earliest known bridges are called clapper bridges (from Latin claperius, “pile of stones”). These bridges were built with long, thin slabs of stone to make a beam-type deck and with large rocks or blocklike piles of stones for piers. Postbridge in Devon, England, an early medieval clapper bridge, is an oft-visited example of this old type, which was common in much of the world, especially China.
After reading the text write its short summary.
Roman arch bridges
The Romans began organized bridge building to help their military campaigns. Engineers and skilled workmen formed guilds that were dispatched throughout the empire, and these guilds spread and exchanged building ideas and principles. The Romans also discovered natural cement, called pozzolana, which they used for piers in rivers.
Roman bridges are famous for using the circular arch form, which allowed for spans much longer than stone beams and for bridges of more permanence than wood. Where several arches were necessary for longer bridges, the building of strong piers was critical. This was a problem when the piers could not be built on rock, as in a wide river with a soft bed. To solve this dilemma, the Romans developed the cofferdam, a temporary enclosure made from wooden piles driven into the riverbed to make a sheath, which was often sealed with clay. Concrete was then poured into the water within the ring of piles. Although most surviving Roman bridges were built on rock, the Sant’Angelo Bridge in Rome stands on cofferdam foundations built in the Tiber River more than 1,800 years ago.
The Romans built many wooden bridges, but none has survived, and their reputation rests on their masonry bridges. One beautiful example is the bridge over the Tagus River at Alcántara, Spain. The arches, each spanning 98 feet, feature huge arch stones (voussoirs) weighing up to eight tons each. Typical of the best stone bridges, the voussoirs at Alcántara were so accurately shaped that no mortar was needed in the joints. This bridge has remained standing for nearly 2,000 years. Another surviving monument is the Pont du Gard aqueduct near Nîmes in southern France, completed in AD 14. This structure, almost 900 feet long, has three tiers of semicircular arches, with the top tier rising more than 150 feet above the river. The bottom piers form diamond-shaped points, called cutwaters, which offer less resistance to the flow of water.
You have to make a report on Asian and European bridges. Use the information below for help.
Asian and europian cantilever and arch bridges
In Asia, wooden cantilever bridges were popular. The basic design used piles driven into the riverbed and old boats filled with stones sunk between them to make cofferdam-like foundations. When the highest of the stone-filled boats reached above the low-water level, layers of logs were crisscrossed in such a way that, as they rose in height, they jutted farther out toward the adjacent piers. At the top, the Y-shaped, cantilevering piers were joined by long tree trunks. By crisscrossing the logs, the builders allowed water to pass through the piers, offering less resistance to floods than with a solid design. In this respect, these designs presaged some of the advantages of the early iron bridges.
In parts of China many bridges had to stand in the spongy silt of river valleys. As these bridges were subject to an unpredictable assortment of tension and compression, the Chinese created a flexible masonry-arch bridge. Using thin, curved slabs of stone, the bridges yielded to considerable deformation before failure.
In the Great Stone Bridge in Chao-chou, Hopeh Province, China, built by Li Ch’un between 589 and 618, the single span of 123 feet has a rise of only 23 feet from the abutments to the crown. This rise-to-span ratio of 1:5, much lower than the 1:2 ratio found in semicircular arches, produced a large thrust against the abutments. To reduce the weight, the builders made the spandrels (walls between the supporting vault and deck) open. The Great Stone Bridge thus employed a form rarely seen in Europe prior to the mid-18th century, and it anticipated the reinforced-concrete designs of Robert Maillart in the 20th century.
After the fall of the Roman Empire, progress in European bridge building slowed considerably until the Renaissance. Fine bridges sporadically appeared, however. Medieval bridges are particularly noted for the ogival, or pointed arch. With the pointed arch the tendency to sag at the crown is less dangerous, and there is less horizontal thrust at the abutments. Medieval bridges served many purposes. Chapels and shops were commonly built on them, and many were fortified with towers and ramparts. Some featured a drawbridge, a medieval innovation. The most famous bridge of that age was Old London Bridge, begun in the late 12th century under the direction of a priest, Peter of Colechurch, and completed in 1209, four years after his death. London Bridge was designed to have 19 pointed arches, each with a 24-foot span and resting on piers 20 feet wide. There were obstructions encountered in building the cofferdams, however, so that the arch spans eventually varied from 15 to 34 feet. The uneven quality of construction resulted in a frequent need for repair, but the bridge held a large jumble of houses and shops and survived more than 600 years before being replaced.
A more elegant bridge of the period was the Saint-Bénézet Bridge at Avignon, France. Begun in 1177, part of it still stands today. Another medieval bridge of note is Monnow Bridge in Wales, which featured three separate ribs of stone under the arches. Rib construction reduced the quantity of material needed for the rest of the arch and lightened the load on the foundations.
Work in two groups. After reading the text draw up a questionnaire for another group of students to find out how attentive these students are and how many facts they can remember.
The Renaissance and after
During the Renaissance, the Italian architect Andrea Palladio took the principle of the truss, which previously had been used for roof supports, and designed several successful wooden bridges with spans up to 100 feet. Longer bridges, however, were still made of stone. Another Italian designer, Bartolommeo Ammannati, adapted the medieval ogival arch by concealing the angle at the crown and by starting the curves of the arches vertically in their springings from the piers. This elliptical shape of arch, in which the rise-to-span ratio was as low as 1:7, became known as basket-handled and has been adopted widely since. Ammannati’s elegant Santa Trinità Bridge (1569) in Florence, with two elliptical arches, carried pedestrians and later automobiles until it was destroyed during World War II; it was afterward rebuilt with many of the original materials recovered from the riverbed. Yet another Italian, Antonio da Ponte, designed the Rialto Bridge (1591) in Venice, an ornate arch made of two segments with a span of 89 feet and a rise of 21 feet. Antonio overcame the problem of soft, wet soil by having 6,000 timber piles driven straight down under each of the two abutments, upon which the masonry was placed in such a way that the bed joints of the stones were perpendicular to the line of thrust of the arch. This innovation of angling stone or concrete to the line of thrust has been continued into the present.
By the middle of the 18th century, bridge building in masonry reached its zenith. Jean-Rodolphe Perronet, builder of some of the finest bridges of his day, developed very flat arches supported on slender piers. His works included the Pont de Neuilly (1774), over the Seine, the Pont Sainte-Maxence (1785), over the Oise, and the beautiful Pont de la Concorde (1791), also over the Seine. In Great Britain, William Edwards built what many people consider the most beautiful arch bridge in the British Isles—the Pontypridd Bridge (1750), over the Taff in Wales, with a lofty span of 140 feet. In London the young Swiss engineer Charles Labelye, entrusted with the building of the first bridge at Westminster, evolved a novel and ingenious method of sinking the foundations, employing huge timber caissons that were filled with masonry after they had been floated into position for each pier. The 12 semicircular arches of portland stone, rising in a graceful camber over the river, set a high standard of engineering and architectural achievement for the next generation and stood for a hundred years.
Also in London, John Rennie, engaged by private enterprise in 1811, built the first Waterloo Bridge, whose level-topped masonry arches were described by the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova as “the noblest bridge in the world.” It was replaced by a modern bridge in 1937 – 45. Rennie subsequently designed the New London Bridge of multiple masonry arches. Completed in 1831, after Rennie’s death, it was subsequently widened and was finally replaced in the 1960s.
During the Industrial Revolution the timber and masonry tradition was eclipsed by the use of iron, which was stronger than stone and usually less costly. The first bridge built solely of iron spanned the River Severn near Coalbrookdale, England. Designed by Thomas Pritchard and built in 1779 by Abraham Darby, the Coalbrookdale Bridge, constructed of cast-iron pieces, is a ribbed arch whose nearly semicircular 100-foot span imitates stone construction by exploiting the strength of cast iron in compression. In 1795 the Severn region was wracked by disastrous floods, and the Coalbrookdale Bridge, lacking the wide flat surfaces of stone structures, allowed the floodwaters to pass through it. It was the only bridge in the region to survive – a fact noted by the Scottish engineer Thomas Telford, who then began to create a series of iron bridges that were judged to be technically the best of their time. The 1814 Craigellachie Bridge, over the River Spey in Scotland, is the oldest surviving metal bridge of Telford's. Its 150-foot arch has a flat, nearly parabolic profile made up of two curved arches connected by X-bracing. The roadway has a slight vertical curve and is supported by thin diagonal members that carry loads to the arch.
The use of relatively economical wrought iron freed up the imaginations of designers, and one of the first results was Telford's use of chain suspension cables to carry loads by tension. His eyebar cables consisted of wrought-iron bars of 20 to 30 feet with holes at each end. Each eye matched the eye on another bar, and the two were linked by iron pins. The first of these major chain-suspension bridges and the finest of its day was Telford's bridge over the Menai Strait in northwestern Wales. At the time of its completion in 1826, its 580-foot span was the world's longest. In 1893 its timber deck was replaced with a steel deck, and in 1940 steel chains replaced the corroded wrought-iron ones. The bridge is still in service today.
Work in three groups. Render the article. Discuss all the variants and choose the best one.
the Forth Bridges
In 1818 James Anderson designed a bridge of chains, which also came to naught, a design which was later described as “so light a structure that it would hardly have been visible on a dull day, and after a heavy gale, it would no longer be seen on a clear day either”. In 1865 an Act of Parliament authorized the North British Railway and its engineer Thomas Bouch to construct a bridge across the Forth. He proposed a suspension bridge, bridging the Forth in twin spans of 1600 feet. Bouch was also the designer of the Tay Bridge, a project that culminated in him being knighted.
On the night of 28 December 1879, Sir Thomas Bouch received a telegram from Dundee at his house in Edinburgh. The Tay Bridge had been in operation for barely 19 months. The telegram Sir Thomas Bouch received that night read as follows: “Terrible accident on bridge one or more of girders blown down am not sure of the safety of the last down Edinbr train will advise further as soon as can be obtained”.
The Tay Bridge had collapsed in a hurricane and 75 railway passengers had been swept to their fate. The disaster put paid to Bouch’s Forth Bridge and he died a broken man a year later.
The Scottish poet McGonagle records the tragedy thus:
Beautiful Railway Bridge of the Silvery Tay!
Alas! I am very sorry to say
That ninety lives have been taken away
On the last Sabbath day of 1879,
Which will be remembered for a very long time.
Bouch’s design for the Forth was abandoned and a new design by Benjamin Baker adopted in 1882. Not a suspension bridge this time, but the massive cantilever structure now so familiar throughout the world. Baker conveyed the cantilever principle to audiences nationwide. At the Royal Institution in 1887 he described it thus:
“Two men sitting on chairs extended their arms, and support the same by grasping sticks which are butted against the chairs. There are thus two complete piers, as represented in the outline drawing above their heads. The centre girder is represented by a stick suspended or slung from the two inner hands of the men, while the anchorage provided by the counterpose in the cantilever end piers is represented here by a pile of bricks at each end.
When a load is put on the central girder by a person sitting on it, the men’s arms and the anchorage ropes come into tension, and the men’s bodies from the shoulders downwards and the sticks come into compression.
The chairs are representative of the circular granite piers. Imagine the chairs one-third of a mile apart and the men’s heads as high as the cross of St. Paul’s, their arms represented by huge lattice steel girders and the sticks by tubes 12 feet in diameter at the base, and a very good notion of the structure is obtained”.
The contract for the bridge was awarded on 21 December 1882 and work started on the caissons to support the three cantilevers. By 1887, the year of Queen Victoria’s Golden Jubilee, the core of the cantilevers themselves had reached their full height and it remained to extend their arms towards each other and close the gap. In September 1889 a brigger clambered from the Queensferry to the central Inchgarvie cantilever across a ladder placed between crane jacks working on the cantilever arms some 200 feet above the water. On 15 October a more secure and formal crossing was made and by 6 November the central girder was ready to be connected. This was delayed for over a week until the temperature changed sufficiently to cause the necessary expansion to allow the key plates to be driven in and the girder fixed between its supporting cantilevers.
The bridge was formally opened by the Prince of Wales on 5 March 1890. It had taken 54,000 tons of steel, 194,000 cubic yards of granite, stone and concrete, 21,000 tons of cement and almost 7 million rivets. It also cost 57 men their lives from a workforce of 4,600 at the height of construction.
Benjamin Baker was knighted in 1890. In addition to the Forth Bridge, he was also responsible for the development of the London “tube” system, the transport of “Cleopatra’s Needle” by sea from Egypt to Britain, and he acted as a consultant to the old Aswan Dam. He said of the Forth Bridge:
"If I were to pretend that the designing and building of the Forth Bridge was not a source of present and future anxiety to all concerned, no engineer of experience would believe me. Where no precedent exists, the successful engineer is he who makes the fewest mistakes".
Read the text and say how tunneling methods have changed by now.
It is probable that the first tunneling was done by prehistoric people seeking to enlarge their caves. All major ancient civilizations developed tunneling methods. In Babylonia, tunnels were used extensively for irrigation; and a brick-lined pedestrian passage some 3,000 feet (900 metres) long was built about 2180 to 2160 BC under the Euphrates River to connect the royal palace with the temple. Construction was accomplished by diverting the river during the dry season. The Egyptians developed techniques for cutting soft rocks with copper saws and hollow reed drills, both surrounded by an abrasive, a technique probably used first for quarrying stone blocks and later in excavating temple rooms inside rock cliffs. Abu Simbel Temple on the Nile, for instance, was built in sandstone about 1250 BC for Ramses II (in the 1960s it was cut apart and moved to higher ground for preservation before flooding from the Aswān High Dam). Even more elaborate temples were later excavated within solid rock in Ethiopia and India.
The Greeks and Romans both made extensive use of tunnels: to reclaim marshes by drainage and for water aqueducts, such as the 6th-century-BC Greek water tunnel on the isle of Samos driven some 3,400 feet through limestone with a cross section about 6 feet square. Perhaps the largest tunnel in ancient times was a 4,800-foot-long, 25-foot-wide, 30-foot-high road tunnel (the Pausilippo) between Naples and Pozzuoli, executed in 36 BC. By that time surveying methods (commonly by string line and plumb bobs) had been introduced, and tunnels were advanced from a succession of closely spaced shafts to provide ventilation. To save the need for a lining, most ancient tunnels were located in reasonably strong rock, which was broken off (spalled) by so-called fire quenching, a method involving heating the rock with fire and suddenly cooling it by dousing with water. Ventilation methods were primitive, often limited to waving a canvas at the mouth of the shaft, and most tunnels claimed the lives of hundreds or even thousands of the slaves used as workers. In AD 41 the Romans used some 30,000 men for 10 years to push a 6-kilometre tunnel to drain Lacus Fucinus. They worked from shafts 120 feet apart and up to 400 feet deep. Far more attention was paid to ventilation and safety measures when workers were freemen, as shown by archaeological diggings at Hallstatt, Austria, where salt-mine tunnels have been worked since 2500 BC.
You were told to write one page for the textbook on tunnel building. Use the following information. Do not forget to add pictures and charts.
From the Middle Ages to the present
Because the limited tunneling in the Middle Ages was principally for mining and military engineering, the next major advance was to meet Europe’s growing transportation needs in the 17th century. The first of many major canal tunnels was the Canal du Midi (also known as Languedoc) tunnel in France, built in 1666 – 81 by Pierre Riquet as part of the first canal linking the Atlantic and the Mediterranean. With a length of 515 feet and a cross section of 22 by 27 feet, it involved what was probably the first major use of explosives in public-works tunneling, gunpowder placed in holes drilled by handheld iron drills. A notable canal tunnel in England was the Bridgewater Canal Tunnel, built in 1761 by James Brindley to carry coal to Manchester from the Worsley mine. Many more canal tunnels were dug in Europe and North America in the 18th and early 19th centuries. Though the canals fell into disuse with the introduction of railroads about 1830, the new form of transport produced a huge increase in tunneling, which continued for nearly 100 years as railroads expanded over the world. Much pioneer railroad tunneling developed in England. A 3.5-mile tunnel (the Woodhead) of the Manchester-Sheffield Railroad (1839–45) was driven from five shafts up to 600 feet deep. In the United States, the first railroad tunnel was a 701-foot construction on the Allegheny Portage Railroad. Built in 1831–33, it was a combination of canal and railroad systems, carrying canal barges over a summit. Though plans for a transport link from Boston to the Hudson River had first called for a canal tunnel to pass under the Berkshire Mountains, by 1855, when the Hoosac Tunnel was started, railroads had already established their worth, and the plans were changed to a double-track railroad bore 24 by 22 feet and 4.5 miles long. Initial estimates contemplated completion in 3 years; 21 were actually required, partly because the rock proved too hard for either handdrilling or a primitive power saw. When the state of Massachusetts finally took over the project, it completed it in 1876 at five times the originally estimated cost. Despite frustrations, the Hoosac Tunnel contributed notable advances in tunneling, including one of the first uses of dynamite, the first use of electric firing of explosives, and the introduction of power drills, initially steam and later air, from which there ultimately developed a compressed-air industry.
Simultaneously, more spectacular railroad tunnels were being started through the Alps. The first of these, the Mont Cenis Tunnel (also known as Fréjus), required 14 years (1857–71) to complete its 8.5-mile length. Its engineer, Germain Sommeiller, introduced many pioneering techniques, including rail-mounted drill carriages, hydraulic ram air compressors, and construction camps for workers complete with dormitories, family housing, schools, hospitals, a recreation building, and repair shops. Sommeiller also designed an air drill that eventually made it possible to move the tunnel ahead at the rate of 15 feet per day and was used in several later European tunnels until replaced by more durable drills developed in the United States by Simon Ingersoll and others on the Hoosac Tunnel. As this long tunnel was driven from two headings separated by 7.5 miles of mountainous terrain, surveying techniques had to be refined. Ventilation became a major problem, which was solved by the use of forced air from water-powered fans and a horizontal diaphragm at mid-height, forming an exhaust duct at top of the tunnel. Mont Cenis was soon followed by other notable Alpinerailroad tunnels: the 9-mile St. Gotthard (1872–82), which introduced compressed-air locomotives and suffered major problems with water inflow, weak rock, and bankrupt contractors; the 12-mile Simplon (1898–1906); and the 9-mile Lötschberg (1906–11), on a northern continuation of the Simplon railroad line.
Nearly 7,000 feet below the mountain crest, Simplon encountered major problems from highly stressed rock flying off the walls in rock bursts; high pressure in weak schists and gypsum, requiring 10-foot-thick masonry lining to resist swelling tendencies in local areas; and from high-temperature water (130° F [54° C]), which was partly treated by spraying from cold springs. Driving Simplon as two parallel tunnels with frequent crosscut connections considerably aided ventilation and drainage.
Lötschberg was the site of a major disaster in 1908. When one heading was passing under the Kander River valley, a sudden inflow of water, gravel, and broken rock filled the tunnel for a length of 4,300 feet, burying the entire crew of 25 men. Though a geologic panel had predicted that the tunnel here would be in solid bedrock far below the bottom of the valley fill, subsequent investigation showed that bedrock lay at a depth of 940 feet, so that at 590 feet the tunnel tapped the Kander River, allowing it and soil of the valley fill to pour into the tunnel, creating a huge depression, or sink, at the surface. After this lesson in the need for improved geologic investigation, the tunnel was rerouted about one mile (1.6 kilometres) upstream, where it successfully crossed the Kander Valley in sound rock.
Most long-distance rock tunnels have encountered problems with water inflows. One of the most notorious was the first Japanese Tanna Tunnel, driven through the Takiji Peak in the 1920s. The engineers and crews had to cope with a long succession of extremely large inflows, the first of which killed 16 men and buried 17 others, who were rescued after seven days of tunneling through the debris. Three years later another major inflow drowned several workers. In the end, Japanese engineers hit on the expedient of digging a parallel drainage tunnel the entire length of the main tunnel. In addition, they resorted to compressed-air tunneling with shield and air lock, a technique almost unheard-of in mountain tunneling.
- Учебное пособие содержит упражнения и тексты для студентов специальности «Мосты и транспортные тоннели». Упражнения направлены на формирование у студентов речевых грамматических навыков на основе профессиональной лексики.
- Подготовлено и рекомендовано к печати кафедрой высшей математики и физики Государственного университета по землеустройству (протокол № 10 от 30.08. 2006 г).
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