An imagological survey of Britain and the British

Drawing Conclusions:

An imagological survey of Britain and the British

and Germany and the Germans

in German and British cartoons and caricatures,

1945-2000

von

Lachlan R. Moyle

Dissertation zur Erlangung des Grades

eines Doktors der Philosophie

angenommen von dem

Fachbereich Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaft

Universität Osnabrück

Hauptberichterstatter:

Prof. Dr. Harald Husemann

Mitberichterstatter:

Prof. Dr. Colin Seymour-Ure

2004

On Satire

Satyr is a sort of Glass, wherein Beholders do generally discover everybody’s Face but their own; which is the chief Reason for that kind of Reception it meets in the World, and that so very few are offended with it. But if it should happen otherwise, the Danger is not great; and I have learned from long Experience never to apprehend Mischief from those Understandings I have been able to provoke.

‘The Preface of the Author’ in Jonathan Swift, The Battel of the Books

(London, [1697] 1704)

And Symbols

Heil dem Geist, der uns verbinden mag;

Denn wir leben wahrhaft in Figuren.

Und mit kleinen Schritten gehn die Uhren

neben unserm eigentlichen Tag.

Rainer Maria Rilke (1875-1926), Sonette an Orpheus, XII: erster Teil (1922)

---

‘Using other people to think with’; that is, using them as symbols for points on your map, values in your scheme of things. When you get used to imposing meanings in this way, you silence the stranger’s account of who they are; and that can mean both metaphorical and literal death. Death as the undermining of a culture, language or faith and, at the extreme, the death of tyranny and genocide. [...]

The collective imagination needs the outsider to give itself definition - which commonly means that it needs somewhere to project its own fears and tensions. [...]

Living realities are turned into symbols, and the symbolic values are used to imprison the reality. At its extreme pitch, people simply relate to the symbols. It is too hard to look past them, to look into the complex humanity of a real other.

Rowan Williams, Writing in the Dust

(London: Hodder & Stoughton, 2002), pp. 67-68

CONTENTS

Acknowledgements i

Abbreviations used in the text iii

0 INTRODUCTION 1

0.0 Aim 1

0.1 Hypothesis and analytical approach 2

0.2 Textual focus 2

0.2.1 Limitations 4

0.3 Sources of material 5

0.4 The sample 5

0.5 Context of research 6

0.6 Form and language usage 7

1 IMAGOLOGY – CONCEPTS AND APPROACH 9

1.0 Introduction 9

1.1 Image Studies 9

1.2 The imagological approach 10

1.3 Imagological concepts and their definitions 12

1.3.1 Stereotype 12

1.3.1.1 Development of stereotype theory 13

1.3.1.2 Towards a contemporary definition of ‘stereotype’ 15

1.3.1.3 In- and out-groups: hetero- and autostereotypes 16

1.3.1.4 National stereotypes 18

1.3.1.5 A working definition 20

1.3.2 Prejudice 21

1.3.3 Clichés 22

1.3.4 The image of the enemy / Feindbild 23

1.3.5 Image 25

1.4 Rhetorical and aesthetic considerations 26

1.5 In conclusion 27

2 CARTOONS AND CARICATURE 29

2.0 Introduction 29

2.1 Definitions and typology 29

2.1.1 Caricature 30

2.1.2 Cartoon 32

2.1.3 Cartoon typology 34

2.2 Historical survey 35

2.2.1 Preparing the ground 35

2.2.2 The invention of portrait caricature 36

2.2.3 The birth of the cartoon 37

2.2.4 ‘The Golden Age’ in Britain 38

2.2.5 L'âge d'or in France 40

2.2.6 Punch and the Victorian Age 41

2.2.7 The development of cartooning in Germany 42

2.2.8 From the First to the Second World War 44

2.2.9 German cartooning since 1945 46

2.2.10 British cartooning since 1945 47

2.2.11 In conclusion 48

2.3 The nature of cartoons and caricature 49

2.3.1 Image power: psychological impact 49

2.3.2 Relation to reality and truth 51

2.3.3 Cartoons as rhetoric 52

2.3.4 Use of symbolism 54

2.4 The function of cartoons and caricature as identified by commentators and cartoonists 55

2.4.1 Entertainment 55

2.4.2 In-group service 56

2.4.3 Social and political criticism 57

2.4.4 Watchdogs of democracy and public morality 59

2.4.5 Informing and educating 60

2.5 The cartoonist’s influence 61

2.5.1 Evidence of history 61

2.5.2 Creating images and sustaining myths 62

2.5.3 Shaping opinions 63

2.5.4 Reflecting and reinforcing 65

2.5.5 In the medium 66

2.6 Boundaries 68

2.6.1 Libel, ethics, and taste 68

2.6.2 Offensive behaviour 69

2.6.3 Newspaper parameters 70

2.6.4 Publish or perish 71

2.7 Cartoons and print media 72

2.7.1 The British press in profile 72

2.7.2 The German press in profile 73

2.7.3 The press cartoonist’s job 75

2.7.4 Editorial input 76

2.7.5 Part of the press package 77

2.8 Stereotypes, cartoons and the media 78

2.8.1 National stereotypes and cartoons 79

2.8.2 ‘The cherished community’ 80

2.9 In conclusion 81

3 THE IMAGE OF GERMANY AND THE GERMANS IN BRITISH CARTOONS AND CARICATURE FROM 1945 83

3.0 Introduction 83

3.1 Historical overview: The cartoon image of the Germans and Germany to 1945 84

3.2 German stereotype content in British cartoons since 1945 91

3.2.1 General stereotypes: The adult, child, and family 92

3.2.1.1 The man 92

3.2.1.2 The woman 95

3.2.1.3 The child and family 96

3.2.2 The businessman 96

3.2.3 The soldier/officer 97

3.2.4 The (neo-)Nazi 98

3.2.5 Locomotion 99

3.2.6 Humour, food, and leisure 99

3.2.7 Housing and geography 101

3.2.8 Auto- and heterostereotype content 102

3.2.9 Humorous and harmless, or serious and seditious? 104

3.2.10 Conclusion 107

3.3 Symbols 108

3.3.1 Allegorical human figures 108

3.3.1.1 Germania 109

3.3.1.2 The Bavarian 112

3.3.2 Historical figures 115

3.3.2.1 Adolf Hitler 115

3.3.2.2 Helmut Kohl 117

3.3.3 Military symbolism 120

3.3.3.1 The Prussian officer 120

3.3.3.2 The simple soldier 122

3.3.3.3 The spiked helmet 123

3.3.3.4 The Iron Cross 125

3.3.3.5 The Panzer (tank) 127

3.3.4 Allegorical and animal figures 129

3.3.4.1 The eagle 129

3.3.4.2 The Dachshund 130

3.3.5 Monuments 131

3.3.5.1 The Berlin Wall 132

3.3.6 Emblems 133

3.3.6.1 National colours and the flag 133

3.3.6.2 The swastika 134

3.3.6.3 The deutschmark 136

3.3.7 Symbolic phrases 138

3.3.7.1 Deutschland, Deutschland über Alles 138

3.3.7.2 Vorsprung durch Technik 139

3.3.8 The beach towel 140

3.3.9 Conclusion 142

3.4 Principal cartoon themes 142

3.4.1 Rearmament 143

3.4.2 Neo-Naziism 144

3.4.3 The military presence 146

3.4.4 German national character: the Ridley-Chequers affair 148

3.4.5 The Unification of East and West Germany 149

3.4.6 Deutschmark versus sterling: re- and devaluation 151

3.4.7 European issues: the BSE crisis and Monetary Union 152

3.4.8 Conclusion 154

3.5 ‘Once a German – Always a German!’: In summary 155

4 THE IMAGE OF BRITAIN AND THE BRITISH IN GERMAN CARTOONS AND CARICATURE SINCE 1945 159

4.0 Introduction 159

4.1 Historical overview: The cartoon image of Britain and the British to 1945 161

4.2 British stereotype content in German cartoons since 1945 168

4.2.1 General stereotypes 169

4.2.1.1 The Englishman or ‘Britisher’ 169

4.2.1.2 The umbrella 170

4.2.1.3 The newspaper 171

4.2.1.4 The bowler hat 171

4.2.1.5 The woman 174

4.2.2 Members of Parliament and Civil Servants 174

4.2.3 The businessman 174

4.2.4 The aristocrat 175

4.2.5 The officer/soldier 176

4.2.6 The bobby 177

4.2.7 The Scott 178

4.2.8 Locomotion 178

4.2.9 The press 179

4.2.10 Food, drink, leisure, and social behaviour 180

4.2.11 Architecture, geography, and climate 181

4.2.12 Auto- and heterostereotype content 181

4.2.12.1 Deutscher Michel 183

4.2.12.2 ‘As others see us’ 185

4.2.13 Conclusion 186

4.3 Symbols 187

4.3.1 Allegorical human figures 187

4.3.1.1 John Bull 187

4.3.1.2 Britannia 191

4.3.2 Historical figures 193

4.3.2.1 The Queen 194

4.3.2.2 Margaret Thatcher 196

4.3.3 Allegorical animal figures 199

4.3.3.1 The lion 199

4.3.3.2 The bulldog 202

4.3.4 Monuments and natural features 203

4.3.4.1 ‘Big Ben’ 204

4.3.5 Emblems 206

4.3.5.1 The Union Jack 206

4.3.6 Symbolic phrases 207

4.3.6.1 ‘God save the Queen!’/ ‘God save our gracious Queen’ 207

4.3.6.2 ‘Made in England’ 208

4.3.7 Sporting symbolism: football 209

4.3.8 Conclusion 211

4.4 Principal themes 212

4.4.1 Great Britain: the occupying and protecting power 212

4.4.2 Joining the European club 214

4.4.3 The Royal Family 215

4.4.4 Britain in conflict 218

4.4.4.1 Northern Ireland 219

4.4.4.2 The Falklands War 220

4.4.5 Thatcher’s approach to Europe and her Euro-sceptic legacy 222

4.4.6 European Monetary Union 223

4.4.7 The BSE crisis 225

4.4.8 Thematic round-up 229

4.5 Concluding observations 229

5 DRAWING CONCLUSIONS 233

5.0 Summary 233

5.0.1 A unique place in the pantheon 233

5.0.2 ‘An imbalance of affection’ 235

5.0.3 In perspective 237

5.0.4 Don’t mention the war? 238

5.0.5 Signs of change 240

5.1 Outlook I: German and British stereotypes 242

5.2 Outlook II: Cartooning in Britain and Germany 243

5.3 Suggestions for further research 246

Postscript 249

Appendix 251

Biographical list of artists whose cartoons are discussed in the text 251

BIBLIOGRAPHY 287

Acknowledgements

My thanks are due to many people who have assisted me in achieving the goal of submission:

Prof. Harald Husemann, as my indefatigable supervisor, constantly encouraged and egged me on and never lost hope in the work’s Vollendung; Dr Karin Herrmann, whose interest in the medium of cartoons as a source of source of British-German understanding and her financial support as Head of Programmes at the Goethe-Institut London first got the ball rolling with ‘Coping with the Relations’ in 1992.

The curators and book delivery staff in the Humanities 2 Reading Room at the British Library were unfailingly friendly and helpful over the many years I worked in this superlative European research facility. In particular, Chris Michaelides of the curatorial staff helped make sense of tricky passages of mid-seventeenth-century Italian.

I owe a debt of gratitude to my ‘sub-editors’ Martin Holt, Sara Marsden, and Elisabeth Stöcklin, without whose wise counsels and well-trained eagle eyes many a muddy argument and orthographical oversight would have escaped correction; Jane Wainwright, Mark Bryant, Paul Gravett, Rosemarie Mayr, Dorit Pieper, Prof. Colin Seymour-Ure, and Prof. Peter Mellini for help in season; Jane Newton at the Centre for the Study of Cartoons and Caricatures at the University of Kent, Canterbury, and Anita O’Brien of the Cartoon Art Trust; Annelies Schramm of the Axel-Springer-Verlag in Berlin for e-mails of assistance; Dr Elinor Shaffer, who cast an expert eye over the manuscript and made helpful suggestions and final corrections; Dr Chris Churches for her words of encouragement and experience; Adonica Gieger for making electronic sense of the text; and the practising cartoonists both in Germany and Britain who so generously provided me with feedback, interviews, biographical help, and tips. Principal amongst them was the late Fritz Wolf, who drew to his last breath and was, in his own words, ‘ein eingefleischter Englandliebhaber’.

I am also grateful to the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) for providing me with a scholarship for nigh on two years of my research.

Finally, those closest to me kept me at it despite the odds: Kevin for his patience, Ursula, Joy, and Sara for their encouragement, and most significantly Will, my chief support in this undertaking over many years, without whom little would have been possible. I dedicate this work to him as well as in memory of three specially supportive friends who would have been proud to have seen its completion: Joy, Audrey, and Andreas.

Abbreviations used in the text

BAOR — British Army of the Rhine

BSE — bovine spongiform encephalopathy

CAT — British Cartoon Art Trust

CCC — ‘Cartoon Caricature Contor’, Munich

CDU — Christlich-Demokratische Union

CSU — Christlich-Soziale Union

CWTR — Coping with the Relations

DAS— Deutsche Allgemeine Sonntagsblatt

EC — European Community

ECU — European Currency Unit

EEC — European Economic Community

ES — Evening Standard

EU — European Union

FAZ Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung

FDJ — Freie Deutsche Jugend

FDP — Freie Demokratische Partei

FR — Frankfurter Rundschau

FT — Financial Times

GDR — German Democratic Republic

NATO — North Atlantic Treaty Organization

NDR — Norddeutscher Rundfunk, Hamburg

NRZ — Neue Rhein-Zeitung, Düsseldorf

NWDR — Nordwestdeutscher Rundfunk, Hamburg

NOZ — Neue Osnabrücker Zeitung

[n.a.] — artist/author unknown

[n.p.] — page(s) unknown

[n. place] — place of publication unknown

[n. pub.] — publisher unknown

[n.y.] — year unknown

ORF — Österreichischer Rundfunk, Vienna

repr. — reprinted

reprod. — reproduced

RP — Rheinische Post, Düsseldorf

SPDSozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands

SZ — Süddeutsche Zeitung

THES — Times Higher Education Supplement

TLS — Times Literary Supplement

tz — tageszeitung München

WAZ — Westdeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung

WDR — Westdeutscher Rundfunk, Cologne

ZDF — Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen, Mainz

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