An Interdisciplinary Overview of Canadian Research on Identity

Some of the research explores the nature of inter-group attitudes in greater detail, and focuses on tolerance, inter-group tensions, as well as xenophobia. It then examines the role of cross-cultural contact, in-group similarities and differences, diversity, ethnic composition, geographical proximity, education (type and level) and the media (newspapers, television) in the formation of inter-group attitudes. Variations according to socio-economic status or class are also addressed.

The literature includes the development and discussion of relevant psychological measures, and reflects various theoretical perspectives, including cognitive developmental, perceptual-affective balance and psychodynamic explanations.

Inter-Group Relations

The literature on actual inter-group behaviour –as opposed to attitudes – is largely focused on issues of discrimination, particularly discrimination on the basis of race. Where age is considered, the focus is on children: other age categories are not specifically addressed.

The existing research briefly touches on inter-group accommodation, intermarriage patterns (including dating and mate selection), sense of belonging and perceptions of social acceptance. Most of the work examines discrimination based on ethnicity, "race," religion, and sex / gender. The literature distinguishes between discrimination at the group level and at the personal level, and also considers personal/group discrepancies in the reporting of perceived discrimination. Racism (institutional and situational), ethnic jokes, and hate-activities receive particular attention, as does the stigmatization (based on "race"), marginalization, oppression, subordination, and segregation of various social groups. While much of the focus is on race, religion and religious communities also receive explicit attention.

Explanations are sought in the nature of cross-cultural contact, degree of contact, spatial organization and value differences between relevant social groups. In-group/out-group comparisons are also examined, as are specific contact preferences. Various responses to existing inter-group dynamics receive attention as well. These include anglo-conformity and cultural dominance, as well as personal and collective resistance and ethnic mobilization. The various contexts (education, mass media; at school, at work) in which inter-group relations are expressed are also addressed.

The impact of Canada’s pluralism and official multiculturalism policy on intergroup relations is also explored, while the role played by language receives special mention. Much of this work attempts to determine the connections between existing patterns of inter-group relations and a) the formation of a national identity, b) social incorporation of all citizens (civic participation), and/or c) social cohesion. The literature also points to existing inequities, social divisions, status differentials, and other forms of social stratification within Canadian society. It furthermore reflects on the role of politics and power differentials in determining the nature of inter-group relations, and points to inter-group competition, conflict, tensions, and polarization as common expressions thereof. Transformations in inter-group relations also receive mention.

Finally, the existing literature also examines the social psychology of inter-group relations, as well as the impact thereof on self-definition. International comparisons are also made, and the role of academia and research in influencing particular inter-group relations explored. Other work presents various sociological approaches to, and theoretical perspectives on, the subject.

The specific types of inter-group relations addressed in the research literature include cross-cultural, colonizer/colonized, majority/minority, Black/White, and English/French relations. Canada’s relations with its a) aboriginal, indigenous, native, First Nations peoples, b) ethnic minority groups, and c) visible minorities, also receive attention, as do Canada/Quebec and Canada/USA/Mexico relations. Native/ethnic group relations and native/non-native relations are addressed as well, as are Quebec’s relations with its ethnic minorities and aboriginal, indigenous, native, First Nations peoples. Host society/immigrant and refugee relations are also examined.

Intra-Group Attitudes

The research literature regarding both intra-group attitudes and behaviours is much smaller than that on inter-group dynamics. In-group attitudes toward acculturation and cultural change, immigrants and immigration, multiculturalism and national identity are addressed in this body of work, as are tolerance, group pride and ethnic pride. The role of cross-group comparisons and of ideology is considered, as are variations in the degree of acculturation and sense of security. Predictors and psychological measures of intra-group attitudes are also presented and some international comparisons made.

Intra-Group Relations

The literature on in-group interactions is similarly modest. It addresses self/group relations as well as self-reliance. Attention is also given to community development, leadership, institutions and infrastructure (including institutional completeness), organization, politics and support. The role of the family in in-group dynamics, as well as that played by food preferences, is also considered. The existing research further examines the impact of internal diversity, intergenerational differences, internal divisions or discord on intra-group relations. Cultural resistance vis-à-vis the host culture and the integration of newcomers into the group, are two additional topics addressed.

5. The Role of the State

State sponsorship, promotion, obstruction or denial of various socio-cultural identities is logically subsumed under Section 3) – Identity Processes: Identity Negotiation; the role of the state. This topic has, however, been separated out for special attention in this review in order to facilitate reflection on the linkages between identity and issues of social justice (discrimination, human rights), civic participation, and social cohesion. Materials analyzed are limited to those retrieved via an academic/scholarly literature search; additional "gray" materials (internal reports and other such documents) exist within various governmental ministries but were not readily accessible for the purpose of this literature review. Note too that given the relatively small volume of research material in this area—as well as sometimes changing jurisdictions—federal, provincial and municipal levels have been collapsed together, unless otherwise indicated.

In addition to a few General works on the role of the state in the negotiation of socio-cultural identities, the research literature addresses several specific areas of governmental jurisdiction. Research in the area of identity and Citizenship/Naturalization Policy has focused on: aboriginal, indigenous, native, First Nations peoples; immigrants or refugees; ethnicity; multiculturalism; nationality, national sovereignty, national symbols; citizenship education, citizenship/civic participation; democracy; technological change; and globalization. A few studies also offer international comparisons. The work on Constitutional Legislation and Discourse considers the impact of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, constitutional reform and Canada’s social diversity.

In terms of Cultural Policy, attention is given to Canada’s pluralism, its Multiculturalism policy, and ethno-racial policy, as well as to relevant discourses. The state’s role in defining citizenship and national identity, as well as in promoting various modes of acculturation (assimilation, integration, segregation, marginalization), is also considered. Other work focuses on international comparisons, research, and theory. The literature on Education Policy and Practices focuses on the specific needs of aboriginal, indigenous, native peoples, as well as those of parents. It reflects on the education system’s role in the assimilation and marginalization of particular social groups, as well as on group, individual and parental rights. Anti-racist education (including that of racial minority teachers), bilingualism and multicultural education all receive considerable attention, while thought is also given to the school and university contexts in which these important socialization processes take place. Student assessments also receive mention.

Research on Immigration Policy and Practices considers its relationship with citizenship, the demographic needs and economic factors that inform policy, as well as the impact of immigration policy and practices on race or ethnic relations. Other relevant materials focus on the social contributions of immigrants and on experiences of racism. The state’s impact on identity processes through Language Policy is addressed in work on Bilingualism (including public support thereof), immersion programmes, the Multilingualism debate, English-as-a-Second Language (ESL), French language instruction, heritage languages and minority languages. Special attention is given to language policy in education. Legislation, Policies and Practices regarding Canada's Aboriginal/Indigenous/Native Peoples also receive some consideration in work on the state’s naming of indigenous peoples as well as on its role in the area of education.

Relevant work in the area of Communications considers the impact of information technology and new media. The state’s impact on identity processes through its Support for the Arts also receives mention.Materials addressing Human Rights issues focus on education, employment equity, freedom of religious expression, affirmative action, discrimination, racism and civic participation, while research on the Justice System examines historical redress and land tenure. Finally, the research literature on Human Resources explores identity issues in employment, while work on Social Services focuses on welfare policy/social assistance as well as on the special needs of Canada’s youth.

V - Conclusions

This interdisciplinary literature review has provided an overview of research themes and topics in the Canadian literature on identity. A number of recommendations regarding further research emerge from a consideration of this body of work; several gaps in the literature are also evident.

Greater attention needs to be given to the rich cultural diversity that exists among Canada’s native aboriginal, indigenous, native, First Nations people; much of the research literature simply lumps linguistically and culturally distinct groupings together. In light of Canada’s changing demographic profile, new research in the area of ethnic identity might also begin to focus on various African-based ethnic identities as well as on cultural variations within Caribbean- and Asian-origin populations. The intersection of Canadian national identity and ethnicity—together with the possible permutations thereof—is another area that has been largely unexplored. Regional identities should also be accorded more emphasis; regional snapshots of major representative identities and intergroup dynamics (both attitudes and behaviours) would also be particularly useful. Religious identity remains an especially underdeveloped research area and yet is particularly salient among several newcomer immigrant and refugee groups. It too merits greater consideration.

More research might also be undertaken on identity development/formation, construction and negotiation within, among and by recent immigrant and refugee groups in Canada more generally. In this era of globalization, transnational identities also require additional attention. Further analyses of inter-group and intra-group dynamics is also needed. The research on inter-group attitudes regarding cultural diversity is largely limited to a consideration of anglophones versus francophones, as well as to dominant group attitudes towards and relations with Canada’s ethnic groups; relatively little attention is given to inter-group attitudes and behaviours among Canada’s various immigrant cultural communities. The literature on intra-group attitudes and behaviours (ie group dynamics) is particularly weak and needs further development. The retrieval and analysis of internal government documents (reports, commissioned studies, workshop papers, briefing notes, etc.) would also contribute greatly to our understanding of the role of the state in identity processes.

Finally, syntheses of research findings within each of the subsections and/or internal subheadings developed in this literature review would be enormously helpful to researchers and policy makers alike. A review of theoretical developments regarding identity development/formation, identity construction and negotiation would be especially important in this regard. Ideally such synthesis would also encompass social identities that were beyond the scope of the present literature review, including those associated with various sub-cultures (youth; gay/lesbian communities) as well as non-cultural identifications based on age, sex, gender; sexual orientation, dis/ability and socio-economic status/class.

VI - Appendix

Literature Searches

Sample Search Strategies

Full Bibliography

Literature Searches

  1. Journal Articles and Conference Papers

(using the Silver Platter search service)

On-line Search Services included:

Sociological Abstracts

Humanities Index

PsychInfo

Psychlit

Medline

Dissertation Abstracts

Microlog (Canadian Government Documents)

Social Sciences Abstracts (Social Sciences Index)

Current Contents (an interdisciplinary search service)

B. Books, Theses, Reports, Videos, and Government Documents

On-line Catalogues:

Library of Congress

York University Library

University of Toronto Library

C. Research Reports, Workshop Papers and Unpublished Documents

Website Searches included:

Canadian Heritage

Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Metropolis Centres of Excellence

Policy Research Initiative (PRI)

Sample Search Strategies

A. Journal Articles (using the Silver Platter search service)

Online database: Sociological Abstracts

  1. ‘Cultural identity’ and ‘Canada’ in the words anywhere field

  2. ‘Social identity’ and ‘Canada’ in the words anywhere field

  3. ‘Culture’ and ‘Canada’ in the DEM (major descriptors) field

  4. ‘Identity’ and ‘Canada’ in the DEM field

  5. Identity and Plural* and Canad* in the DE (all descriptors) field

6. (Aboriginal or indigenous or native) identity and Canada in DE

  1. Ethnic identity and Canada in DE

  2. Ethnic * and Canada in DE

  3. Rac* and Canad* in the DE (all descriptors) field

Online database: Humanities Index

  1. ‘Identity’ and ‘Canada’ in the DE (descriptors) field

  2. ‘Identity’ and ‘Canad*’ in the words anywhere field

Online database: PsychInfo, PsycLit and Medline

  1. Identit* and Canad* in the DE [descriptors] field

  2. Social identity and Canada in DE

  1. 3. Group identity and Canada in DE

  2. 4. Cultural identity and Canada in DE

  3. 5. (Aboriginal or indigenous or native) identity and Canada in DE

  4. 6. Ethnic identity and Canada in DE

  1. Ethnic * and Canada in DE

  2. Rac* and Canad* in DE

  3. Self concept and Canad* in DE

Online search service: Current Contents(an interdisciplinary search service)

  1. Cultural identity and Canada

  2. Social identity and Canada

  3. Group identity and Canada

  4. Identi* and Canada

  5. Race* and Canada

  6. Ethni* and Canada

  7. Ethnic identity and Canada

  8. Self concept and Canada

  9. Black and Canada

  10. MicMac and Canada

  11. Gaelic and Canada

  12. Celtic and Canada

  13. Native* and Canada

  14. Quebecois and Canada

Also:

  1. identification

  2. ethnic

  3. ethnicity

  4. identity

  5. identity conflict

  6. identity development

  7. identity formation

  8. identity marker

  9. ethnic identity or Ethnic-Identity

  10. ethnic attitudes

  11. ethnic consciousness

  12. ethnic groups

  13. race

  14. racial identity

  15. racial identity theory

  16. racial preference

  17. racial identification and self concept

  18. racism

  19. etc.

AND Canada or Canadian

B. Books and Other Documents or Materials

Library of Congress, York University and University of Toronto on-line catalogue search for all types of documents (e.g. books, videos, government docs, sound recordings, etc.) using keyword field. Search terms included:

  1. Identity and Canada

  2. Ethnicity and Canada

  3. [Ethnic identity] and [Canada] and not (ethnicity and Canada]

  4. Cultural identity and Canada

  5. Aboriginal / indigenous / native identity and Canada

  6. Linguistic Identity and Canada

  7. National Identity and Canada

  8. Racial identity and Canada

  9. Regional identity and Canada

  10. Religious identity and Canada

  11. Group identity and Canada

  12. Social identity and Canada

  13. Blacks and Canada

  14. Aboriginals and identity and Canada

  15. Natives and Canada

  16. Natives and Identity

  17. [Quebecois] and [identity] and not [federalism]

  18. Quebecois identity

  19. [Quebecois] not [Federalism]

  20. Acadian and Canada

  21. MicMac and Canada

  22. Gaelic and Canada

  23. Celtic and Canada

  24. etc.

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