Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects

Massachusetts

Curriculum Framework

for

English Language Arts and Literacy

Grades Pre-Kindergarten to 12

Incorporating the Common Core State Standards

for English Language Arts and

Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects

March 2011



This document was prepared by the Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education

Mitchell D. Chester, Ed.D. Commissioner

Board of Elementary and Secondary Education Members

Ms. Maura Banta, Chair, Melrose

Ms. Harneen Chernow, Vice Chair, Jamaica Plain

Dr. Vanessa Calderon-Rosado, Boston

Mr. Gerald Chertavian, Cambridge

Mr. Michael D’Ortenzio, Jr., Chair, Student Advisory Council, Wellesley

Ms. Beverly Holmes, Springfield

Dr. Jeff Howard, Reading

Ms. Ruth Kaplan, Brookline

Dr. Jim McDermott, Eastham

Dr. Dana Mohler-Faria, Bridgewater

Mr. Paul Reville, Secretary of Education, Worcester

Mitchell D. Chester, Ed.D., Commissioner and Secretary to the Board

The Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, an affirmative action employer, is committed to ensuring that all of its programs and facilities are accessible to all members of the public. We do not discriminate on the basis of age, color, disability, national origin, race, religion, sex, or sexual orientation.

Inquiries regarding the Department’s compliance with Title IX and other civil rights laws may be directed to

the Human Resources Director, 75 Pleasant St., Malden, MA, 02148, 781-338-6105.

© 2011 Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education. Permission is hereby granted to copy any or all parts of this document for non-commercial educational purposes. Please credit the “Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education.” This document is printed on recycled paper.

Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education

75 Pleasant Street, Malden, MA 02148-4906

Phone 781-338-3000 TTY: N.E.T. Relay 800-439-2370

www.doe.mass.edu

Commissioner’s Letter ii

Acknowledgements iii

Introduction1

Key Design Considerations for the Standards 4

What is Not Covered by the Standards 6

Guiding Principles for English Language Arts and Literacy Programs in Massachusetts 7

Student Who are College and Career Ready 9

Standards Organization and Key Features 10

Grades Pre-K–5

Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects

Reading 13

Literature 14

Informational Text 17

Foundational Skills 20

Writing 23

Speaking and Listening 29

Language 33

Grades 6–12

Standards for English Language Arts

Reading 47

Literature 48

Informational Text 50

Writing 53

Speaking and Listening 60

Language 64

Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects

Reading 73

History/Social Studies 74

Science and Technical Subjects 75

Writing 76

Application of Common Core State Standards for English Language Learners and Students with Disabilities 81

Bibliography 85

Glossary 92

A Literary Heritage: Suggested Authors, Illustrators, and Works from the Ancient World to About 1970 105

A Literary Heritage: Suggested Contemporary Authors and Illustrators; Suggested Authors in World Literature 114

Massachusetts Department of

Elementary and Secondary Education

75 Pleasant Street, Malden, Massachusetts 02148-4906

Mitchell D. Chester, Ed.D.

Commissioner

March 2011

Dear Colleagues,

I am pleased to present to you the Massachusetts Curriculum Framework for English Language Arts and Literacy adopted by the Board of Elementary and Secondary Education in December 2010. This framework merges the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects with additional Massachusetts standards and other features. These pre-kindergarten to grade 12 standards are based on research and effective practice, and will enable teachers and administrators to strengthen curriculum, instruction, and assessment.

In partnership with the Department of Early Education and Care (EEC), we supplemented the Common Core State Standards with pre-kindergarten standards that were collaboratively developed by early childhood educators from the Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, EEC staff, and early childhood specialists across the state. These pre-kindergarten standards establish a strong, logical foundation for the kindergarten standards. The pre-kindergarten standards were approved by the Board of Early Education and Care in December 2010.

The comments and suggestions received during revision of the 2001 Massachusetts English Language Arts Framework, as well as comments on the Common Core State Standards, have strengthened this framework. I want to thank everyone who worked with us to create challenging learning standards for Massachusetts students. I am proud of the work that has been accomplished.

We will continue to collaborate with schools and districts to implement the 2011 Massachusetts Curriculum Framework for English Language Arts and Literacy over the next several years, and we encourage your comments as you use it. All Massachusetts frameworks are subject to continuous review and improvement, for the benefit of the students of the Commonwealth.

Thank you again for your ongoing support and for your commitment to achieving the goals of improved student achievement for all students.

Sincerely,

Mitchell D. Chester, Ed. D.

Commissioner of Elementary and Secondary Education

Lead Writers

David Coleman Student Achievement Partners, Common Core State Standards

Jim Patterson ACT, Common Core State Standards

Susan Pimentel StandardsWork, Common Core State Standards

Susan Wheltle Director of Humanities and Literacy, Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education

Massachusetts Contributors, 2007–2010

Sandra Baldner English Department Chairperson, South Shore Vocational Technical High School

Alfred J. Bird Master Teacher, Science, Charlestown High School, Boston

Jennifer M. Brabander Senior Editor, The Horn Book

Maria Calobrisi Literacy Facilitator, Lawrence Public Schools

Mary Ann Cappiello Assistant Professor, Language and Literacy Division, School of Education, Lesley University, Cambridge

Valerie Corradino Reading and Language Arts Specialist, Haverhill Public Schools

Marianne Crowley Department Chair, English, Foxborough Regional Charter School

Martha Curran English Teacher, Natick High School

Ann Deveney English Language Arts Senior Program Director, Boston Public Schools

Valerie Diggs Library Director, Grades K-12, Chelmsford Public Schools

Lori DiGisi Middle School Reading, Framingham Public Schools

Titus DosRemedios Policy Analyst, Strategies for Children

Eileen Edejer Data Specialist, Boston Public Schools

Megan Farrell Grade 5 Teacher, Oak Bluffs

Jody Figuerido Institute for Education and Professional Development

Elise Frangos Director of English, MassInsight Education

Janet Furey English Language Arts Consultant, Pathways Int’l, Concord

Meg Gebhard Associate Professor, University of Massachusetts Amherst

Phyllis Goldstein English Language Arts Liaison, Grades K-12, Worcester Public Schools

Stephanie Grimaldi Associate Professor, Westfield State College

Holladay Handlin English Language Arts and History/Social Science Director, Grades 6–8, Watertown Public Schools, retired

Cynthia Hardaker-Blouin Grade 5 Teacher, Ware Public Schools

Anne Herrington Professor of English, University of Massachusetts Amherst

Lorretta Holloway Associate Professor of English, Framingham State College

Gregory Hurray Director of English Language Arts, Newton Public Schools

Carolyn A. Joy K–12 Mathematics Leader, Medford Public Schools

Barbara Kozma Education Coordinator, Head Start Program, Cape Cod Child Development

Stephanie S. Lee Regional Director of Public Affairs, Verizon

Barbara McLaughlin Literacy/ELA Senior Program Director, K–5, Boston Public Schools

Eileen McQuaid Middle School Department Head, English Language Arts, Brockton Public Schools

Cynthia Maxfield Early Childhood Coordinator, Nashoba Regional School District

Mary Mindness Professor, Lesley University

Kathleen Moore Grade 8 English Teacher and Curriculum Leader,

Carver Public Schools

Lauri A. Murphy Youth Programs Coordinator, The Career Place

Middlesex Community College

Beverly Nelson Assistant Superintendent, Medford Public Schools

Thomas O’Toole Director of English grades 6–12, Waltham Public Schools

Martha V. Parravano Executive Editor,The Horn Book

Rosemary Penkala English Teacher, Smith Vocational & Agricultural High School, Northampton

Bruce Penniman Director, Western Massachusetts Writing Project and English Instructor, University of Massachusetts Amherst

Sandy Putnam-Franklin Early childhood consultant

Frank Reece Founder, Human Capital Education, Cambridge

Danika Ripley Grade 3 Teacher Chelsea Public Schools

Maryanne Rogers School Committee Chair, Weston Public Schools

Jane Rosenzweig Director of the Harvard College Writing Center, Harvard University, Cambridge

Ben Russell Assistant Director of Early Childhood Education, Boston Public Schools

Jay Simmons Professor, Language Arts and Literacy, University of Massachusetts Lowell

Roger Sutton Editor in Chief, The Horn Book

Chris Tolpa English Language Arts Director, Westfield Public Schools

Schools

Massachusetts Contributors, 2007–2010 (cont’d.)

Shannon Ventresca Grade 7 Science Teacher, Stoughton Public Schools

Henry Venuti Department Chair, English, Georgetown Middle High School

George T. Viglirolo English teacher, Brookline High School, retired

KathyAnn Voltoline English Teacher, Grade 7, Pittsfield Public Schools

John M. Wands Department Head, English, Cohasset Middle High School, retired

Lisa White English Language Arts Coordinator, Grades K–12, Plymouth Public Schools

Writers of the 1997 and 2001 Massachusetts English Language Arts Curriculum Frameworks and the 2004 Supplement

Massachusetts Department of Early Education and Care

Janet McKeon

Sherri Killins, Commissioner

Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education

Office of Literacy and Humanities

Alice Barton

David Buchanan

Jennifer Butler O’Toole

Mary Ellen Caesar

Amy Carithers

Elizabeth Davis

Kevin Dwyer

Dorothy Earle

Susan Kazeroid

Marybeth Keane

Cheryl Liebling

Kathleen Lord

Joan McNeil

Jennifer Malonson

Nicole Mancevice

Tracey Martineau

Lurline Muñoz-Bennett

Anne G. O’Brien

Elizabeth Niedzwiecki

Laurie Slobody

Office of Science, Technology, and Mathematics

Jacob Foster

Roxane Johnson De Lear

Barbara Libby

Sharyn Sweeney

Emily Veader

Office of Special Education, Policy, and Planning

Emily Caille

Shawn Connolly

Madeline Levine

Office of Student Assessment

Pam Spagnoli

Office of Student Support

Min-Hua Chen

Donna Traynham

Julia Phelps, Associate Commissioner, Curriculum and Instruction

Jeffrey Nellhaus, Deputy Commissioner

Copyeditor

Gayla Morgan


Introduction

In 2007 the Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education convened a team of educators to revise its existing 2001 English Language Arts Curriculum Framework and, when the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) and the National Governors Association (NGA) began a multi-state standards development project called the Common Core State Standards initiative in 2009, the two efforts merged. The Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects were adopted by the Massachusetts Board of Elementary and Secondary Education on July 21, 2010.

Unique Massachusetts Standards and Features

The Massachusetts Curriculum Framework for English Language Arts and Literacy presents both the Common Core State Standards and standards and features, identified by an “MA” preceding the standard number, that are unique to Massachusetts. These unique elements include standards for pre-kindergartners; expansions of the Common Core’s glossary and bibliography; and two sections that suggest appropriate classic and contemporary authors for different grade-level ranges.

Staff at the Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education worked closely with the Common Core writing team to ensure that these Massachusetts standards and features were academically rigorous, comprehensive, and organized in ways to make them useful for teachers. The pre-kindergarten standards were adopted by the Massachusetts Board of Early Education and Care on December 14, 2010. The additional standards and features were adopted by the Massachusetts Board of Elementary and Secondary Education on December 21, 2010.

The Massachusetts Pre-Kindergarten Standards

The Massachusetts pre-kindergarten standards are guideposts to facilitate young children’s understanding of the world of language and literature, writers and illustrators, books and libraries. The preschool/pre-kindergarten population includes children from the age of 2 years, 9 months until they are kindergarten-eligible. A majority attend education programs in diverse settings––community-based early care and education centers, family child care, Head Start, and public preschools. Some children do not attend any formal program. In this age group, the foundations of reading, writing, speaking and listening, and language development are formed during children’s conversations and informal dramatics, while learning songs and poems, and from experiences with real objects, as well as while listening to and “reading” books on a variety of subjects.

The Massachusetts pre-kindergarten standards apply to children who are at the end of this age group, meaning older four- and younger five-year olds. The standards—which correspond with the learning activities in the Massachusetts Guidelines for Preschool Learning Experiences (2003)—can be promoted through almost all daily activities, from play and exploration activities to talking about picture books, and should not be limited to “reading time.”

Breadth of the Pre-K to Grade 12 Standards

The standards in this Framework set requirements not only for English language arts (ELA) but also for literacy in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects. Just as students must learn to read, write, speak, listen, and use language effectively in a variety of content areas, so too must the standards specify the literacy skills and understandings required for college and career readiness in multiple disciplines. Literacy standards for grade 6 and above are predicated on teachers of ELA, history/social studies, science, and technical subjects using their content area expertise to help students meet the particular challenges of reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language in their respective fields. It is important to note that the 6–12 literacy standards in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects are not meant to replace content standards in those areas but rather to supplement them.

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