Aar: the old term for Ger. Adler (adel ar) and means ‘eagle’: Frid dictus [called] Ar, near Konstanz 1258. See Ahr. Aaron

L

Laabs (freq. in Hbg.): Wend. pl.n. like Labes (Hbg., Ro.), cf. Labes in Pom.

La(a)ck(mann): freq. in Hbg., named after the dwelling in moist terrain (LGer. Lake ‘puddle, marshy pool’, also freq. pl.n. Laak). Biederlack [near the puddle], Auf der Lake.

Laade see Lade.

Laage see Lage.

Laarmann see Lahrmann.

Laasch (Meckl., Hbg.): pl.n. Gr.-Laasch in Meckl., pl.n. Laasche near Lüchow.

Laase: pl.n. near Bützow and near Lüneburg. Laas: pl.n. in Sax., hence Laaser, unless = Lazarus.

Laatz (Meckl., Hbg.): Wend. pl.n. like Laatzig in Pom.

Laatzen: pl.n. near Han., in old documents: Lathusen,cf. Weetzen (= Wet-husen) in Han. and Peetzen (Petehusen); lat, wet, pet = ‘damp dirt, mud, mire’ (see Bahlow ON, p. 285).

Labahn (Pom.): Slav. pl.n. like Labehn, Labuhn in Pom.; cf. Lebahn. Similarly Labann; Laband (pl.n. in U. Sax.): Dietrich von Laband,Ratibor 1401.

Labengeier (Labengyr,Stuttgart 1350) is a scolding word in the sense of ‘vulture, shark’; similarly Labenwolf (Pankraz L., founder (iron worker) in Nbg. around 1550).

Laber(er), Labermair: from the river name Laber (Laaber), tributary of the Danube (Bav., prehistor. Labara means ‘murky water’), likewise Naher in Spain and Engld., and Taber: Zaber in Wirt. (see Bahlow ON, p. 285).

Lab(e)renz (Hbz.) = Laverenz = Laurentius (Lorenz); cf. Lewerenz in Meckl. [E. Lawrence]

Labes, Labs (Meckl., Pom.): Slav. pl.n. Labes in Pom.

Lach, Lache (Sil., Lausitz, Sax.): a Czech sh.f. of Ladislav, likewise Jach (Jacha) of Jan (Johannes), Mach of Matthias, Stach of Stanislav.

Lachenicht, Lachnit (UGer.): means ‘does not laugh’ and is the opposite of Lachmund [laughing mouth], Cunrad Lachemunt,Han. 1311, Ro. 1274.

Lachmann (UGer., Sil., Lausitz): indicates a dwelling near a swamp or marshy pool (Heinrich in der lachun,Würt. 1280, Henzi ze der lachun,Waldkirch 1306; also Lachenman,Reutlingen 1409, Lachenmaier,Leutkirch 1452). The relative frequency of the name in Lausitz (Görlitz, also Neiße) however is indicative of the Slav. sh.f. Lacha (see Lach) of Ladislav. See Bahlow SN, p. 65. Cf. Lach: Lachmann like Jach: Jachmann in the same area.

Lachner (UGer.). from the freq. pl.n. Lachen (Bav., Aust., Würt.), or dwelling near a Lache = ‘pond’ (likewise Lachmann); variant is Lacher: Burkhart Lachner (Lacher),Freiburg 1434-1451.

Lack(e)mann (Hbg., Meckl.) see Laackmann.

Lackner (UGer.): pl.n. Lacken (freq. in Bav., Aust.).

Ladage (1510 in Lemgo) is probably a loc.n., cf. die Bessage in Lippe 1513; bess and lad are swamp words.

Laddig(e): (LGer.) = Leddig ‘single, unmarried’. Cf. Ledecgang,Strals. 1278 (idler).

Lade, Lademann (Hbg.) = Lode(mann) = Lodewig (Ludwig), cf. Ladewig and in some cases also from pl.n. Lade etc. (in Westph. etc.); cf. Ladebeck, Ladebusch, Ladeberg (lad, lod ‘murky or dirty water’). Also see Lademacher.

Lademacher (UGer.), Lademaker (LGer.): carpenter (who makes chests). Cf. Hans mit der guldeyn lad,Iglau 1413, Nic. Ladmacher,Brünn 1365, Jasper Lademaker,Flensburg 1572, Joh. zur Laden,Mainz 1395. H. Lade,Frkf. 1387.

Ladendorf (freq. in Hbg.): pl.n. Latendorf near Neumünster (around 1300: Latendorp).

Lade(n)gast (sentence name): [load the guest] surname for tavern owners. Cf. Schirmengast, Schreckengast, Rupfengast, Nagengast, Zerrengast [protect, scare, pluck, gnaw, tear the guest].

Lad(e)wig (freq. in Hbg.): LGer. variant of (older) Lodewig (Ludwig). Cf. Ladhewich, Lodhewich,Stralsund around 1300; 1592 in Lippe: Ladewig Heipmann; around 1600 Ladewig von Pfuel (ancestor of the statesman Otto v. Bismarck).

Ladiges (freq. in Hbg.): Lodiges,Bremen 1472.

Laffert (von): from the pl.n. Lafferde (Groß-L.) near Peine (Heinrich of Lafferde 1303).

Lafren(t)z (freq. in Hbg., Holstein) = Laverenz (Laurentius); shortened Frentz. As late as 1569 Lafrentz Friederich (Meckl.). See also Frenssen.

Lage(mann): Meckl., Hbg., from pl.n. Lage (quite freq. in N Germany), also Laage near Ro.: Joh. Laweman,Ro. 1304, van der Lawe,Ro. around 1270.

Lages, Loges see Ladiges, Lodiges = Lodwiges (son of Lodwig): Bartram Lodiges (= Lodewiges), Brsw. 1493.

Lahl (Meckl., Pom.): Herman Lale,Stettin 1344, Thid. Lale,Stralsund 1346 (Lale = ‘fool’, cf. Lalenbuch or Schildbürgerbuch 1597, i.e. late medieval stories of foolish villagers). Pl.n. Lalendorf in Meckl.

Lahmann (freq. in Hbg., Han.) = Lohmann, likewise Lahmeyer = Lohmeyer (loh, lah = woods: Hinrik van dem La,Han. 1433, hence Lahann = Johann im La, cf. Johannimloh, similarly Kerstenhann, Junghann). Cf. LGer. pl.ns. like Kamlah, Kelverlah, etc.

Lahme: [lame] Lame Johannes of Siggen, Holstein 1369; cf. Peter Lamhant [lame hand], Liegnitz. But Lahmer (UGer.) from pl.n. Lahm (freq. in Bav.).

Lahn (N Ger.): pl.n. near Meppen on the Ems River (similar to Lohn, which occurs freq. in Westph.-Oldenburg: lon ‘swamp’). But La(h)ner (UGer., Tyrol) from the loc.n. Lan: Egno an der Lane,Passeir 1379, C. an der Lane 1369; Mairanderlan. Michel Laner,Tyrol 1557.

Lahr (van der), Lahrmann (N Ger.): from the freq. pl.n. Lahr, Laar, Laer.

Lahrs, Larius: L.Rhine = Hilarius, see Klörs. Cf. Alem. Lähr, Lehr(le). In Schleswig-Holstein however Lahrs is Dan. Lars, from Laurentius [Lawrence], cf. patr. Lahrsen, Larssen.

Lahtz, Lahts, Lahrtz (Meckl., Pom.): Slav. pl.n., cf. Laatzig on Wollin Island.

Laible, Laiblin (Würt.) like Laib: surname for bakers (MHG leip ‘loaf of bread’); in some cases vowel was unrounded from Swab. Läuble, meaning ‘small bower, gazebo’: Peter Löublin,Reutlingen 1390. Cf. Schaible: Schäuble.

Laicher, Leicher (UGer.): MHG = ‘minstrel, musician’ [leich = ‘song, melody’], also ‘fraud, swindler’. Auberlin Laicher,Reutlingen 1442. But see Leichner.

Laig, Lajus (Westph.-LGer.) = Nicolajus, cf. Laig Vosse, Lippe 1590, Lag Bote, Lippe 1654, Lajus Hagedorn, Lippe 1783.

Laim- see Leim-.

Laiser, Leiser (UGer.), Leiseder, Leismüller: from loc.n. Leis, Lais, Laist see Leist.

Lakeband: (LGer.) surname for a (bed) sheet maker. See Lakenmacher.

Lakenmacher, Lakenmaker (LGer.): ‘cloth maker’, likewise Lakenscherer, Lakensnider. L.Rhine also Läkemäker. Lakemann see Laackmann.

Lambeck (Wer.): old stream name and pl.n., cf. Lambeek Creek near Hückeswagen on the Wupper River. Lambach(er) is UGer.

Lambert (LGer.) besides Lamberts (Rhineld. Lambertz) and Lambertsen, also Lambrecht (Lambrich) and UGer. Lamprecht, all go back to the Germanic pers.n. Land-berht,who became a popular saint (through Bishop Lambertus of Maastricht around 700); Lambert is still a Cathol. f.n.; land (also in Landholt, Landfried) probably means ‘owned land’ (of a clan or family), berht ‘shining’. Also the umlauted forms Lempertz, Limpertz (Rhineld. patr.) belong here. Assimilated forms from Lamber(t)s are: Lammers (freq. in Hbg.) besides Lammert, Lammertz, with umlaut Lemmers, Lemmertz. Patr. Lammer(d)ing (Westph.), Lammenga (Fris.). Sh.fs. are LGer. Lampe, Lampke, Lamke, Lempke, Lemcke, Lemme; UGer. Lamp(e)l.

Lambrich (Sil.): dial. for Lemberg = Löwenberg.

Lamcke(n): LGer. sh.f. of Lambert; Gerke Lammeken,1428 in Oldenburg.

Lamers see Lammers.

Lameyer = Lahmeyer, see Lahmann.

Laminit (UGer.): = laß mich nicht [don’t leave me].

Lamm, Lämmle (UGer.): [lamb] surname or house name. Cunrad das Lamb,Würt. 1281, but Godebolt zum Lamme,Mainz 1305, Joh. Wyße zum Lemchen,Frkf. 1434, Hug vom Lemble,Basel 1296. Today Lamm is also a Jewish FN.

Lammers, Lammerich see Lambert.

Lämmerzahl (UGer.): zahl = zagel ‘tail’, thus = ‘lamb tail’, cf. Hasenzahl (Hasenzagel = ‘hare t.’), Rübezahl, etc.

Lamparter (UGer.): MHG = ‘money changer from Lombardy (they were called Lamparten), Lombarde’. There is a Lombards Bridge in Hamburg. Heinrich der Lamparter 1329.

Lamp(e) is a sh.f. of Lampert, Lamprecht; Lampe Spisse, Oldenburg 1469 (see F. Stark, p. 124). Likewise LGer. Lampke, Lamke, also patr. Lamps, Lamping; UGer. Lampl.

Lampenscherf (LGer.): scherf = ‘bowl, pot, container’.

Lampert (LGer.) = UGer. Lamprecht, see Lambert. See also Lombert.

Lampolt. pers.n. like Lamprecht (bolt = ‘bold’). Peter Lampolt,Alsheim 1316.

Lancken (von der): Pomeranian family (from pl.n. Lancken near Saßnitz on Rügen Island); dominus [sir] Pritbur de Lancken 1285.

Land, Landt: not always a person from the country; Land, Landen is also a loc.n. and pl.n. (besides Hardeland, Harland, Nieland, etc.). Compounds: Landmann, Landschade (MHG = ‘highway robber’), Landöse or Landeß ‘and ravager’ (Würt. 1295), Landsiedel (= Landsasse, Hintersasse ‘rear vassal’ correspond to LGer. Landsedel, Landzettel), Landschoof (LGer. schoof ‘bundle of straw’), Landschreiber (scribe at the district court): Lantschriber,Worms 1341; Landvogt [district governor]; Landzwinge (Zimmern in Würt. 1312); Landgraf ‘landgrave’ (Hess. Landgrebe, which was interpreted as and then became Landgräber ‘land digger’); Landwehr, Landwer (loc.n.) meaning: (regional) line of fortification, living at the fortified border trench; Landfahrer ‘pilgrim, vagrant’: Hinrich Lantfarer,Greifswald 1397; Landreiter (Hinrich Lantrider,Barth 1398).

Landahl (freq. in Hbg.): Slav-E Ger. like Pufahl, Kufahl.

Lander(er): named after the dwelling (MHG lander ‘plank, picket fence’; in Tyrol a person from the Lander farmstead is meant), hence Landerkasper.

Landfried (UGer.): old pers.n. like Landolt, Landbert (Lamprecht). Lanfridus (cleric), Regensburg 1150. Westph.-Rhineld. Lenfers, Lenferding, UGer. Lempfert.

Landolt (UGer.): old pers.n. (Landolt Schrot, Würt. 1367). Sh.f. Lanz.

Landschoof see Schoof.

Langbehn (LGer.) besides Langbein: a long-legged person (cf. Hochbein, Hohlbein, Krummbein, etc.), but in some cases the LGer. sh.f. Bene = Beneke (Bernhard) is involved. Joh. Langben,Hbg. 1293 (cf. Röreben, Han. 1459), Gerolt Lancbein,Eßlingen 1270. Cf. Langhals, Langohr, Langkopf.

Lang(e), Langer: a tall person (opposite: Kurz). Tyle der Lange = Tyle der Große,Glatz 1356. For the strong form of the adjective Langer (freq. in U.Sil.) see Bahlow SN, p. 131. Numerous compounds: Langhans, Langhein, Langmaack (LGer. Maack = Markward, likewise Wittmaack), Langlotz (Hess. Lotze = Ludwig), Langnickel, Langdietrich, etc. Langelütje: H. Langelüdeke,Han. 1528, cf. Langehenneke, Han. 1464.

Lang(e)loh (freq. in Hbg.): pl.n. near Trittau northeast of Hbg.

Langen (von): pl.n. (frequently in the Ems, Weser areas etc.).

Langenscheidt: W Ger.-Rhineld. pl.n. ending in ­scheid.

Langewiesche: LGer. = Wiese [meadow].

Langhagel = Langhage(n) [Hag(en) = ‘hedge’].

Langkabel, Langkavel (LGer.), Langhabel see Kabel.

Langmaack, Langlotz see Lange.

Langner (freq. in Sil.): from the freq. pl.n. Langenau in Sil., likewise Reichner from Reichenau. Cf. “zween Langnawer” [two Langnauers], Görlitz 1374, Hentschel of Langenaw,Liegnitz 1399, Francze Langener,Liegnitz 1438.

Langnese (LGer.) = Langenase (UGer.) [long nose]. Petrus Langenese (cum longo naso), a Wend, Ro. 1329.

Langohr: cf. Hans of Gumpenberg “mit den langen Ohren” [with the long ears]. Copke Langh-ore, Hbg. 1359.

Langrehr (Langreder): pl.n. Langreder near Han.

Langwost (Hbg.): ‘sausage maker’. Kath. Langworst, Han. 1596.

Lanken (see Lancken), Lankau, Lankow, all from Slav. lonka ‘wet meadow’. Cf. pl.n. Lanken in Guhrau district, Lankau in Namslau district in Sil., also near Mölln.

Lankisch, Lanksch (Sil.): sh.f. of Slav. pers.n. Lankomir, likewise Lubisch from Lubomir. Paszko filius [son of] Lankomiri,Kosten 1396, Nikel Lankusch and Stephan Lankisch gebrüdere [brothers], Liegnitz 1437.

Lanner (Tyrol) likewise Laner see Lahner.

Lanser, Lans: a farmstead name in Tyrol.

Lant(z)sch (freq. in Sax.): Slav., cf. Lantschke, Lanzke, Lanzig and others. Joh. Lantzeke,Greifswald 1372.

Lanz, Lanzl, Lantz (UGer.): sh.f. of Landolt, Landfried, Lamprecht. Landefredus quiet [also known as] Lanzo 985; Lambertus qui et Lanzo 958, Lampaldus qui Lanzo vocatur (see Socin). Mert Lanncz,Nikolsburg 1414.

Lapp(e): from MHG lappe ‘naive person, simpleton, fop’. Joh. of Zimmern, called Lapp around 1440 in Würt. Hence Schwaderlapp (MHG swaderer ‘blabbermouth’). Rolappe (LGer., i.e. Rodelappe) like Lappeschuch means cobbler, also Lapper (Frkf. 1387): mester [master] Hermen de Lapper,Lüneburg 1369. See also Lepper.

Larcher (Tyrol): named after the dwelling at a larch tree or larch woods (MHG larche, lerche, Lat. larix). Perchtold Larcher,Tyrol 1379. Also Lerch(n)er, Lerchbauer.

Lardschneider: a farmstead Lartschneid in Tyrol.

Larisch (freq. in U.Sil.), Larsch: sh.f. of Laurentius (Laurisch). G. Latisch,Brieg 1538.

Lars(s)en (Hbg., Schleswig-Holstein), also Lassen (cf. Nilsen: Nissen): patr. of Lars (still today a Scandinavian f.n.) = Laurentius; also Lahrs(en). See also Lassen. But Larius = Hilarius, see Klörs.

Lasch: from MHG lasche ‘rag’. Cf. squires Wernher and Gotfrid (brothers) called Lasche,Rohrbach in Hesse 1366.

Laschke, Laschka (Glatz and U.Sil.) = Laske, Laska (U.Sil.) = Laslaw: Ladislaw,actually Vladislaw,a Slav. king’s and saint’s name. Cf. Raschke, sh.f. of Ra(d)slaw. Kunik Lasla (Laslaw)of Bohemia 1452. Lasla, Laske,Brsl. 14th c. Lasker (Jewish) from pl.n. Lask near Lodz.

Laser, Lasar: = Lazarus (Hebrew Eleasar ‘God is my salvation’).

Laspe: prehistor. creek name Las-apa ‘swamp water or murky water’, e.g. a Laspe near Remscheid, analogous to Aspe, Maspe, Raspe; also the pl.n. Laasphe (Lahn area) derives from it (see Bahlow ON, p. 285).

Lass (LGer., freq. in Ro.): = Lachs [salmon], surname for a (salmon) fisher, fishmonger. Henning Laß,Hbg. 14th c. Bernd Las-snider [salmon cutter], Bremen 1387. Cf. Lascorf ‘salmon basket’, Han. 1314.

Lassa(h)n: pl.n. in Pom. and Meckl. (Ludwig of Lassan, Greifswald 1274).

Lassalle: Frenchified from Slav. Lassal (Heyman Lassal,Jew, father of the famous Ferdinand Lassalle), probably from pl.n. Losslau in U.Sil.

Lassen (freq. in Hbg.): assimilated from Larssen, son of Las, Lars, see Larssen.

Lasser see Lausser.

Lassmann, Lasse, Lassig, Lassing (U.Sil.) see Laschke.

Last (UGer. and LGer.): probably surname of a porter, especially in trade cities. But Lastig (E Ger.) is Slav., cf. Lastowsky.

Latendorf (Hbg.): pl.n. in Holstein.

Lathwesen (LGer.), Lattwesen, Latwäs: ‘let it be’ (as it may)! Similar Lategahn ‘let it go’! Surname for indifferent, lighthearted people. But Latföhr (N Ger.) = pl.n. Latförde, likewise Lehmföhr, Lentföhr.

Lattke, Lattka, Lattisch (U.Sil.), also Latton (in Ratibor): = Slav. Vladka, Vladon (cf. Miklosich, no. 40), sh.f. of Vladislav, Vladimir (vlad ‘property, domain’). See also Laschke. Lattich = Vladiko.

Latt(e)mann (Hbg.): cf. Lattenkuhle [wet or watering hole], Lattenkamp [wet field], Lattenberg [wet hill], all from N Ger. lad, lat ‘wetness, decay, bog’. Cf. Lattorff.

Lattner (UGer.), Lattenbauer, Lattenmayer; named after the dwelling at a picket fence.

Lattorff: Westph.-Dutch pl.n. (Lattrop in the Netherlands, Latrop in Rothaar Hills), from lad, lat ‘wetness, bog’, likewise Hattorf (Haddorp) from had, hat.

Latzke, Latze, Latza, Latzel: sh.f. of Slav. Ladislaw. See also Laschke.

Lau (freq. in Hbg.) besides Laue (freq. in Hbg.): LGer. = Löwe [lion] (from MLG lauwe); Henry the Lion (in MLG) was called hertog [duke] Hinrich de Lauwe, Brsw. around 1500. Name also contained in pl.ns. Lauenburg, Lauenberg, Lauenbrück, Lauenförde, Lauenstein. Also cf. pl.n. Lauen near Ratzeburg (“von der Laue” 14th c.). In Schleswig (Flensburg) Laue was also a sh.f. of Laurentius (which is obvious in the patr. Lausen): cf. Lorenz or Laue Fabricius, minister near Apenrade 1725, Lowe Dreier, Flensburg 1589. But: Claus Lowe (=Löwe) around 1400 in Haldsl., Joh. Lawe (Leo), Hildesheim 1655. Wildelouwe,Stralsund 1326, Lauwenkopp,Han. 1413.

Laub, Lauber (UGer.): from pl.n. Laub (freq.). Bentz Laub,Eßlingen 1386.

Laube (Sil., Sax.): from Slav. pl.ns. like Lauba, Lauben in Sax. (old: Lub-), cf. pl.n. Laube in Bohemia and Lauban (Luben). See also Laubner, Laubisch.

Laubender: from Laubend near Bamberg.

Laubengeier see Labengeier.

Lauber (UGer.): see Laub. Cuonrad Louber of Loubegge, near Stockach 1274.

Laubert (Sax., Sil.) see Laube. But: Marg unter der Louben [under the arcades], Basel 1289. [Lauben in S Germany, Aust. and S Tyrol are vaulted shopping streets, arcades].

Laubisch, Laubsch (Sil.): sh.f. Lubisch from the Slav. pers.n. Lubislaw, Lubomir (ljub- ‘dear’, Czech lib-, cf. Liebisch). Peter Lubisch,Sax. 1381, Georg Laubisch,Görlitz 1593. (For further information see Bahlow SN, p. 65.)

Laubmann (UGer.): from the loc.n. Laub. cf. in Eßlingen 1450 Nicolaus Loubman,1386 Bentz Laub.

Laubner (Lausitz): from Lauban, like Sagner from Sagan. Hannos vom Luban (lubaner),Brsl. 1345-59, Nikel Lubner,Glatz 1371.

Lauchert, Lauche (freq. in Leipzig): from pl.n. Laucha (Thur., Bohemia), luch ‘swamp’. Cf. Lauchstädt. Similarly Tauchert, Tauche from Taucha. Knight Heinrich von Loucha 1373.

Lauck, Laucka, Lauckenmann (Hesse): sh.f of Lauckhardt (in old documents: Luke, Lukart, i.e. Lutgard, Liutgard, a noble fem. f.n.; liut ‘people’. The daughter of Otto I and Charlemagne’s wife were called L.). Cf. the metr. vern Luckarde,Wetzlar 1347, Luder Lutgardis,Bremen 1327. Hence Phil. Lauckhard,Echzell (Hesse) 1565 and Master Fr. Chr. L. (known through his memoirs 1792). The corresponding UGer. form is Leuckart etc., CentrGer. also Luckard; sh.f. also Lückel (UGer.-Hess.): Lückelin. For the sh.f. Lucke cf. FN Henne Laucke,Frankenberg (Eder) 1531, Henr. Lauck,near Hanau 1600. Note also pl.n. Lauken (Taunus) (from creek n. Luca).

Lauda(h)n (freq. in Hbg.): Slav. like Lensahn, Lassahn, Rogahn, Moltzahn, all pl.ns. in the area of Ratzeburg-Wagrien. Also cf. Laudon, Laudien, Laudehr, Laudi. The Slav. pers.ns. Ludmilla, Luda etc. contain the stem ljud- ‘people’.

Laudert (Rhineld.): from pl.n. Luderode in Hunsrück Mountains.

Laue see Lau.

Lauer, Laur (UGer.): in some cases from MHG lûre ‘sly,deceitful, cunning person’ (a saying in S Germany: Der Bauer ist ein Lauer = ‘farmers are cunning’), Frid. Lûr,Michelfeld 1343, Luerlin, Laur (in Brsl.) but MHG lower = ‘tanner’ (Lohgerber), cf. the Lauergasse [tanners’ lane] in Speyer. A creek and town Lauer in Franconia (Lure ‘murky water’).

Lauf(f)er (UGer.): from Lauffen in Würt. (freq.), or Laufen; Lauf. Cf. FN “von Lauffen”, later “Lauffer” in Switz. But Läufer, Vorläufer mean running servant = ‘messenger’, LGer. Löper, especially in the service of a city. Hans Behaim lauffer,Nbg. 1392.

Laufkötter, Laufhäger (Westph.): see Lindloff.

Lauks = Luks: Lukas.

Läule, Laulin: Alem. sh.f. of Nikolaus. Louwelin Scheffer 1448, Schottenlawel =Claus Schott, Alsace 1434. Cf. Surläuly.

Laumann = Lo(h)mann, cf. Imlau = Imloh ‘in the woods’.

Laun, Launer, Launhardt (UGer.): like Lohn, Lohner, Lohnhardt from loc.n. Lohn etc.

Laupichler, Laubichler (Bav., Aust.): dwelling on the Laubühel or Lohbühel [Bühel = ‘hill, knoll’].

Laupp (Würt.) see Laub.

Laur see Lauer.

Laurich, Laurisch (E Ger.-Sil.) = Laurentius [Lawrence]. Cf. Larisch, Lauruschkat. Benisch Lauring 1532 (U.Sax.).

Lauritzen (Schleswig): Dan. = Laurentius’ [Lawrence’s] son. Cf. Laverenz, Lafrenz.

Lauryn (Hirschberg, Brsl., Görlitz): refers to the dwarf king Laurin of the Dietrich epic (see Bahlow SN, p. 44). Lauryn, Laureyn,Brsl. around 1350, Görlitz 1408, Heinrich Lauryn,Frkf. 1373, Lutz Lauryn,Wetzlar 1335, Walther Laurin,Schwäbisch-Hall 1277.

Lauschke, Lauschmann = Luschke, Luschmann (Wend. luscha, Sil. Lusche ‘puddle’). Cf. pl.n. Lauschka in Sax.

Lauschner: (E Ger.-Sil.) see Lauschke, Lauscha.

Lausen (Schleswig) see Lau. Carsten Lowsen,Flensburg 1580.

Laußer (UGer.): from MHG lûßer ‘person lying in wait for deer’ (Ruod. der Lûßer,near St. Gallen 1294). In Würt.-Bav. however = MHG laßer ‘person who bleeds the people’: guild of barbers and bleeders (Laußer),Eßlingen 1331 (Herman der Lâßer, Augsburg 1320, Laßer besides Laußer,Rottweil 1393).

Laußmohr, Lausberg etc.: contain the swamp word lus (SW Ger. and Rhineld.) see Bahlow ON, p. 312.

Lausterer, Laisterer (UGer.): = MHG lusterer ‘lurker, eavesdropper’.

Lautenschlager, Lautenschläger: from MHG lutenslâher ‘lute player’, a minstrel’s name. Cf. Laute, Lautensack. LGer. CentrGer. with umlaut: Geseke Ludtensleger,Bremen 1351, P. Lutensleger,near Meißen 1405.

Lauter, Lauterer (UGer.): freq. creek n. and pl.n. Lauter; cf. Lauterbach.

Laux, Lauxmann (UGer.): was popular for Lukas (luks) around 1500. Laux Eninger, Heilbronn 1510, Lux Laux (Lukas, Laux Laux!), Stuttgart 1568. Cf. Marx (Markus). See also Lux.

Lavater: (Lat. lavator ‘washer’) in Zurich, pronounced Láfater.

Lawrenz (freq. in Hbg.): like Laverenz, Laurentius [Lawrence]; see Lafrenz. 1535 in Stettin: Laverenze Brandenborch.

Lax, LGer. Lass = Lachs [salmon], name for a fisher or fishmonger. Cf. fish names like Stör, Stint, Bars, Hecht, Hering, etc. which became FNs. Hence Laxgang, Lachsgang ‘salmon dealer’ [gang = gänger ‘dealer’].

Lay, Layer, Layh, Layher (UGer.): from the freq. pl.n. Lay or field name Layh. But in Ulm 1550: Lay = Löw = Lew = Löwe ‘lion’.

Lazar, Lazer, Lazary (sometimes Jewish, cf. Leser, Löser): Bible-Lat. form for Hebr. Eleazar, Eliser ‘God is my salvation’.

Leander: (Greek) Humanist name for Volkmann, see there.

Lebart, Lebert (UGer.): from MHG 1êbart ‘leopard’ (also house name in Mainz 1300). Cf. Ekkard Lebart,Würzburg 1295.

Lebede: Slav. pl.n., like Lebode: now Laboe near Kiel.

-leb(en) is a freq. pl.n. ending in Thur., Hesse, see Bahlow DN, p. 93, Heintze and Cascorbi, p. 321. See also Auleb, Briegleb.

Leber (UGer.): [liver] probably surname of a butcher (cf. Leberwurst), unless = OHG leber ‘reed grass’ (an old document mentions a tax paid in “leber und har” = ‘reed and flax’). A Leber River in Alsace (prehistoric name). As early as 1350 in Stuttgart Wölfelin Leber. But cf. Schönleber, Wohlleber under Keuerleber.

Leberwurst: surname of a sausage maker, butcher (Henr. Leverworst,Han. 1303).

Lebkuch(er) see Küchler. Cf. Lebzelter.

Lebsanft (UGer.) [live pleasantly] likewise Lebschön [nicely], Lebfromm [well mannered and honestly], Lebwohl [well], Lebgern [like to live]: cf. Sanftleben, Schönleben, Wohlleber.

Lebzelter (UGer.) = Lebküchler (from MHG lebezelte ‘gingerbread’). Cuonrat der Lebzelter [gingerbread baker], Ulm 1293. Cf. Zelter, Zeltner.

Lechler (UGer.): ‘smiler’ (from MHG lecheln also ‘to have a cunning smile’). Walther der Lecheler,Villingen 1280.

Lechner (UGer.), variant of Lehner: peasant or other person holding a fief (feudal tenure); hence numerous compounds (in Bav. and Aust.) like Bachlechner besides Bachlehner, Mooslechner besides Mooslehner.

Leck (Hbg.): pl.n. in Schleswig.

Leckband (Holstein): loc.n. like Bracbant = ‘wet terrain’.

Leckler (UGer.): ‘freeloader’ (Knight Dietrich der leckeler 1240).

Ledderhaas (LGer.): = ‘leather pants’.

Ledebur (Westph.): peasant on the Lede (Lehde) Westph. loc.n.. Hinrik Ledebur (squire), Hamelin 1452. HenceLedemann, Ledemeier, van der Leden.

Leder = Lederer (UGer.) ‘tanner’, also Ledermann ‘leather dealer’; cf. Sifrid der Ledergärwe [from gerben ‘to tan’], Schorndorf 1302. Hence Lederle, Lederbiß (Hess. 1302), Lederbalg (Hbg. 1252), etc. Heynke lederer,Liegnitz 1372. There was a Lederer Street in Mnch.

Leeb (Vienna, Mnch.): from MHG lebe = Lewe ‘lion’, cf. Nikel Lebe (Lewe),Liegnitz 1453. See also Löbe.

Leenderts see Lennarts.

Leesch (Hbg., Ro.): MLG lêsch ‘cattail, reed grass’.

Leese(mann): pl.n. in Han., Westph. (see Bahlow ON, p. 292); von Leesen.

Lefarth (LGer.): equals UGer. Liebhard. Cf. Lefhardus,Greifswald 1358, Bremen 1303 (Lefert 1360, Leffert 1444). Patr. (Westph.) Lefering, Lefers; see also Lefholz.

Lefeber, French Lefevre: blacksmith.

Leffel, Leffler (Sil.) see Löffler. Heincke Leffel,Görlitz 1414, Nic. leffeler,Liegnitz 1354.

Leffern (von): pl.n. Levern in Westph. (see Bahlow ON, p. 299).

Lefholz, Leifholz, Liefholz: LGer. patr. of Levold (cf. Levold von Northof, chronicler). Also Lefholdt, Liefhold (Livold in Lüb.). LGer. lev, Old Saxon liof ‘dear’. Sh.f. is Leveke,hence FN Lefken, Leefkens, Leifke.

Lefknecht (LGer.): = Liebknecht [lieb = ‘dear’; Knecht formerly = ‘man’, now = ‘servant’]. Cf. Lefhovet, Levekolle (head) Ro. 1268, 1294. Leffmann (LGer.): Liebmann.

Leg(e)ler, Lägeler, Bav. Lögler: ‘cooper, tubmaker who made small wooden vessels’ (MHG laegel, legel), special small barrels for wine; also Legel, Lägel. Joh. der Legeler,Freiburg 1291; Lägelentrager [barrel carrier], Rottweil 1448.

Leggewig, Legewie: N Ger. loc.n. like Leeswig, cf. Leggelo in Drente area and Legemeer, both in the Netherlands (leg ‘swamp’: see Bahlow ON, p, 292). Hence Lege in Hbg.

Lehe (von): pl.n. in Oldenburg, Emsland, Dithmarschen.

Lehm- see Leim-.

Lehmann (freq. in Sax., Sil., Lausitz, see Bahlow SN, p. 111, Brech., p. 165): from MHG lêhen, lên ‘fief, feudal property’, lêheman, lenman ‘tenant holding a feudal tenure on farming property’ (which was granted by the overlord for life, in some cases as a hereditary fief).

Lehment see Klement.

Lehne(mann): name of N Ger. origin.

Lehnen (Rhineld.): metr. meaning ‘Helen’s son’ (likewise Feyen: Sophie’s son). Cf. Henne Lenen sun,Mainz 1356.

Lehner (UGer.) see Lechner.

Lehnert (Sil., Sax.) = Leonhard, UGer. Lienhard. Lenhard,Brsl. 1396, Lenhart Fochs, Liegnitz 1508.

Lehnhoff: Westph. farmstead name.

Lehr(er): freq. in Mnch., likewise Lehrhuber, Lehrbach, from the field name “im Lehr” (also Leermoos, Leerstetten, Leerfeld, indicating swampy terrain).

Lehrenkrauß: ‘empty the jug’. Name of a drinker. Cf.Füllekrus [fill the jug], Lehrenbecher [empty the mug].

Lehrmann: pl.n. Lehre.

Lehsten: Slav. pl.n. (Meckl., Thur.).

Leibbrand (see Leipprand), Leibfahrt, Leibfried see Leipfert.

Leibengut (Switz., Alsace) = Leib und Gut [life and limb, goods and chattel] (Ulrich Lipundguot,Basel 1293), name for a serf, bondsman (MHG lîp ‘life’).

Leibholz see Leipolz.

Leibküchler see Lebküchler.

Leible, Leiblin (Würt., Baden) see Laible. Hans Laybel,Nikolsburg 1414. Cf. Leubel.

Leibni(t)z: Slav. pl.n. Leubnitz in Sax. (several times), old: Lubenice; also Leipnitz. Name is famous through the philosopher Leibniz from Leipzig.

Leiboldt, Leibelt see Leipoldt.

Leicher, Leichner (UGer.): from MHG leicher ‘minstrel, street player’ (from leich ‘melody’), but also ‘fraud, swindler’ (cf. leichenîe ‘cheating, trickery’). But Bav. Laichner, Laicher = Lach(n)er, from laich = lach, loh ‘woods’: Lengleicher, Lenglaichner in Tyrol. For Leichert, Leichardt also see Leickart.

Leichsenring (freq. in Sax.) see Leuchsenring. Cf. Leixner.

Leicht (Pal., Baden, Franconia), Leichtl(e) (Würt., Bav.): ‘a lighthearted, careless, unsteady person’ (from MHG lîht); in old docum.: Aberlin Lichtlin,Würt. 1381. Cf. LGer. Lichtfoth ‘brother Lightfoot’.

Leichter (UGer.) = Gelzenleichter etc.: from MHG lihten ‘to castrate’. Variant: Leichtner (Nic. Leichtner,Budweis 1411).

Leichtweiß = Leuchtweiß ‘bright white’ (for a light blond person, cf. Schneeweiß).

Leickard see Leikert.

Leidecker(s) see Leiendecker.

Leidenfrost [suffer frost], Olmütz 1351, besides Leidenhunger,Olmütz 1453; cf. Leidenschaden [suffer harm or damage], Lydenkumber [suffer sorrow], Brsw. 1378, Leidemit [suffer along with], Iglau 1403, likewise Harremit [sit and wait with].

Leider: E CentrGer. for Leder [leather], see there. Paul Leyder,Dux 1413; Heyne leyderman (leather dealer), Liegnitz 1372; P. Leyder,Barth 1584. But MLG leider ‘leader’.

Leidgast see Liebgast.

Leidholdt see Leuthold.

Leiding(er): name of UGer.-Bav. origin, also Leidiger. For a survey of the names ending in ­ingen see Bahlow DN (1932), pp. 90-91.

Leidl (Bav.): sh.f. of Leidolf, Leidolt, see Leuthold. Cf. Leidloff.

Leidner (Bav.-Aust.) = Leitner. See there.

Leiendecker see Leyen-.

Leifheit (Westph.-Hess.) like Liefheit, Liebheit: a fem. f.n. (‘dear creature’). Cf. Adelheit [noble c.]. In Wetzlar the metr. Verlipheit (ver = ‘woman’) was recorded.

Leifholz, Lefholz (LGer.) see Lefholz. Levold, Livold was quite common around 1250-1350 as a f.n. from Westph. to Pom. Cf. Leifert, Leffert, Lefarth (= Liebhart): Leffardus filius Lefardi [Leffard, son of Lefard], Lüb. around 1320. Leffert is still a Fris. f.n. Sh.f. is Leifke, Lefke.

Leikauf, Leykauf (UGer.): dialect for Leitkauf (from MHG lîtkouf ‘drink to close a business deal’), likewise Leikeb (for Leitgeb in Eger, Iglau) from MHG litgebe ‘tavern owner’, Lith. ‘cider’. Hensl Leybkeb,Bohemia 1350, Martin Leychauf,Prague 1349.

Leikert, Leickart (Bav., Aust.); unrounded form of Leukart (older: Liutgart), see Lauckhard. A (woman) Leukart,Eger 1330, Krems (Aust.) 1306; Andreas Leikart,Pilsen 1418.

Leimbrock, Lehmbrock, Lehmbruck, Lehmbruch (Westph.-L.Sax.): Old Ger. leim, CentrGer. lêm ‘clay’ [loam]. Cf. Westph. Leimkühler (Leimkühle ‘clay pit’, Leimkohl! [Kohl = ‘cabbage’]: corrupted form of -kuhle); UGer. Leimgrübler. Thid. Leimencloth 1242 (= Lehmkloß ‘lump of clay’); Joh. Lemvörer,Hbg. 1276 (clay carter).

Leinemann: from the Leine River, likewise Huntemann, Wesermann, Wippermann.

Leiner(t): from pl.n. Leina on the Leina River near Gotha; there are several rivers: Leine (tributary of the Mulde) and Lein in Eichsfeld area (see Bahlow ON, p. 293); in Bav. the Ammergau Lein.

Leinha(a)s: = Leinenhose [linen pants], cf. Korthase [short p.], Kniehase, Weithase, Mehlhase [flour(y) p.], Lederhaas [leather p.]. Trillhaas (-hase is LGer.-Rhineld. form). Cf. LGer. Linnenhose, Hbg. 1300.

Leins (Würt., Baden): Alem.-Swab. nasalized variant (i.e. with additional n)for Leis, surname of a pussyfooter (cf. Leisegang, Leisentritt of the same meaning); still today in Pforzheim dial. leins = ‘soft’ (from MHG linse, lîse). Hainrich der Linse,Reutlingen 1296, Linsgang,Augsburg 1437.

Leinung: pl.n. Leinungen on the Leina River in Thur., likewise Fladung(en), Kauffung(en), Wechsung(en), etc. (see Bahlow, Niederdeutsches Korrespondenzblatt 1961).

Leinwater (UGer.): from MHG lînwater ‘linen weaver’, ‘linen dealer’; Leupold leinwater,Brünn 1348. MHG wât ‘clothes, material’.

Leip.- Slav. lipa = ‘linden tree’. Also see Leipner.

Leipner (Sil., Sax.): in old documents: Lipener, von der Lipe (Nickel von der Leipe,Liegnitz 1438, Andreas Leippener,Görlitz 1437 besides Leipisch,likewise Glogisch), from the pl.n. Leipe, Leipa, several times in Sil. and Bohemia (Slav. lipa ‘linden tree’, cf. Leipzig: Lipzk).

Leipold(t), Leipelt (UGer.-Sil.-Sax.) see Leupold.

Leipprand, Leibbrand (freq. in Würt.) derived from Liutbrand [liut ‘people, folk’, brand ‘flaming sword’], famous through Liutbrand, king of the Lombards (712-744) and the chronicler, bishop L. of Cremona. Cf. Lütbrand,Villingen 1439, later Lüprand, Leuprand, Leiprand

Leiprecht (UGer.): like Leuprecht derived from Liuberht(‘shining among his peeple’). cf. Hans Lüprecht,Leutkirch 1345.

Leirer, Leyrer, Leyerle (UGer.): name for a minstrel or street player (from MHG lîre ‘lyre’). Heilman Lirer,Worms 1299, cf. Hans mit der lyren.

Leischner see Leuschner.

Leischnig (Sax.), Leisching: pl.n. Leisnig in Sax. (older: Lisnik).

Leisegang (LGer. Liesegang), Leisentritt: ‘pussyfooter’; see also Leins (Linsgang).

Leisering see Leuchsenring.

Leiß (UGer.) = Leise, Leisegang. Hans Leis,Moravia 1414. Leiser, Leiseder see Laiser. Leis(s)ler (Hesse, Frkf.): surname of a waggoner, Bav.-Swab. Leuchsner, Leixner from Leuchse (Leuxel, Leißel) = ‘stake, stanchion of a rack wagon’, MHG liuchse. Also Leusler (Alsfeld 1570). Cf. Leißenring.

Leißner (freq. in Sil., Sax.): from Leißen near Außig (Liegnitz 1491, Würzburg 1483). Also cf. pl.n. Leisenau in Sax. (Jocoff Leysner,Görlitz 1518, Lysener in Brsl.).

Leist: surname of a shoemaker (cf. Leistenmacher, Leistenschneider ‘last maker or cutter’), Herman Leiste,Col.1165; also Schuhenleist.Note several other names of the trade: Pfriem [awl], Knieriem [knee belt], Ahlenstiel [awl handle]. In UGer. Laistner, Leist(n)er; laister, laistmacher,Eßlingen 1380, Laistniczer,Brünn 1345. A pl.n. Leist near Stralsund.

Leitgast (UGer.): ‘unwanted guest’ (from MHG leit ‘unpleasant, disgusting’), opposite: Liebgast,near Biberach 1390; Cunrad Leitgast,Franconia 1222, Heinrich Leytgast,Kaub (Rhine) 1324, Dithmar Leythgast,Lauterberg (Harz) 1258. Arnold Loidgast,Zurich 1293 (cf. Herzeloide).

Leitgeb, Leitgeber, Leutgeb(er), Leutgäb, Leitgebel; Alem. Ligibel, UGer. = MHG litgebe ‘tavern owner’, see Leikeb.

Leithäuser (UGer.): cf. pl.n. Leitenhausen in Bav., likewise Tannhäuser, etc.

Leitlauf see Leutloff.

Leitner, Laitner, Leuthner, Leiter (Bav., Aust.): from MHG lîte ‘mountain side or slope’ (Leite), cf. Nickel an der leyten,Böhmisch-Kamnitz 1451; freq. pl.ns.: Leiten, Leithen, hence FNs Achleit(n)er, Achleuthner, Hausleit(n)er, etc.

Leitsch (UGer.): unrounded form of Leutsch, see there.

Leitwein see Leutwein.

Leitz, Leitzmann (UGer.): unrounded form of Leutz(mann), older: (Albert) Liuzman,document register in Enns (Aust.) 1250, where also Leuzmanspurch isrecorded 1257.

Leitzke: from Leitzkau near Magdeburg, cf. Koischke from Koischkau in Sil.

Leixner, Leixenring see Leuchsner.

Lejeune (French = ‘the young one’): Huguenot name. Cf. Hellenbrecht de Junghe,Göttingen 1383.

Lell, Läll (Swab.): ‘crooked mouth’. Herman Lelle,Frkf. 1387.

Lemb(c)ke (freq. in Hbg. and Meckl.): LGer. sh.f. of Lambert, see there. Lemmeke Münter = Lambertus Monetarius [minter], Stralsund 1335, Lambrecht Lemmekens,Barth 1461, Lemmeke Lemmekens,Barth 1480. Cf. Gerke Lammeken 1428. Pl.n. Lemke in Han. derives from Lembeke ‘clay creek’.

Lemberg (Lausitz, Sil.): dialect form for Löwenberg [Löwe = ‘lion’] on the Bober River, likewise Lemprust for Lewenprust (Löwenbrust) [lion’s chest]: Bartsch Lemberg = Bartusch Lewenberg,Görlitz 1495.

Lemm, Lemme, patr. Lemmen: LGer.-Fris. sh.f. of Lambert, cf. Lem(me)ke.

Lem(m)erich: = Lammerich.

Lemmers like Lammers see Lambert.

Lemmle see Lämmle.

Lempel(ius): UGer. sh.f. of Lamprecht, also Lämpel, Lampl (Bav.).

Lempertz (Limpertz), Rhineld.: means son of Lempert = Lampert, Lambert.

Lempfert, Lempfried (UGer.) = Landfried, see there. Heinrich fil. [son of] Lempfridi, near Worms 1271, Hans Lentfrid,Kempten 1415.

Lempke see Lembcke.

Lempp (Würt.): Bertoldus dictus [called] Lempe,Eßlingen 1279, Heinrich Lemppi,Freiburg 1400. Cf. Lempel.

Lendener (LGer.): ‘trouser belt’. Petrus Lendener,Ro. 1385.

Lender, Lenders (like Landers): Rhineld.-Westph. from Lendrich (patr. Lenderking from Lenderke, cf. Frederking from Frederik); cf. pl.n. Lendringsen, Landringhausen.

Lendle, Lendel (Würt., Baden): sh.f. of Landolt, Landolf, Lendlin,Urach 1383.

Lendner (UGer.) = Lentner. See there.

Lenfer, Lenfers, Lenferding (Westph. patr.) = Lentfer, Lentfrid (Landfrid ‘public peace’in the Middle Ages). Cf. Gert Lentfrid,Osnabrück 1368. See also Lempfried, Lempfert, Lentfer.

Lengefeld (Lengenfelder): pl.n. of freq. occurrence. Cf. Charlotte von L., Schiller’s wife. Lengemann (N Ger.): from the pl.n. Lengen (Cf. Lengener Moor [bog] in Oldenburg). Lengenlaichner (Tyrol) like Lengendobler, Lengenfeld(n)er, Lengenlacher, which also explain Laichner (Leichner). Also Lengle(r), Lengner, Lenger refer to UGer. field and pl.ns. Hans Buotz called Lengeler,near Meßkirch 1543, Heinrich Lengelin,Worms 1285. But also consider the pl.n. Lengtern near Göttingen and Lenglere in Westph.

Lenk, Lenck, Lenke (UGer.): MHG lenke ‘supple’, H. Lenke,Eger 1379. Lenker: vom Lenkhofe [from the Lenk farmstead] in Tyrol.

Lenkeit, Lenkas (Lith.) = Pole.

Lennartz (Rhineld.) like Linnartz = Leonhards. Also Lennerts, Lehnertz, cf. Fris. Leenderts.

Lennemann: from the Lenne River in Sauerland area (also pl.n.). See Bahlow ON, p. 296.

Lennepe, Lenneper (cf. Enneper): from Lennep near Remscheid (Len-apa ‘dirty water’, cf. Lenne); also Lennefer from Lennefe.

Lensch (freq. in Hbg.), Lentsch: derives from Lenzeke,LGer. sh.f. of Laurentius (Lawrence), likewise Fensch from Fenzeke = Vincenz; cf. Fölsch : Volzeke. See also Lenz. In old documents: Lenceke (Laurentius)pistor [baker], Stettin 1351, Laurencius Lenseke,Haldsl. 14th c.

Lenschow: pl.n. in Meckl.

Lensing, Lenzing: likewise Lenseke = Laurentius [Lawrence], see Lensch.

Lentfer (freq. in Hbg.): like Lenfer (see there) proves to be the Westph.-Rhineld. pers.n. (Landfried) as can be determined from the patr. Lenferding.

Lentföhr (Hbg.): pl.n. Lentförden NE of Hbg., likewise Latföhr, Lemföhr, all are places with fords (see Bahlow ON, p. 305).

Lenthe: pl.n. near Han. (old: Lenete, likewise Benthe in Deister region: (older) Benete; len, ben = ‘swamp, bog’. Olrik von L. 1226.

Lentner (Tyrol) like Lendner: name of origin; there is also a farmstead named Lenthof.

Lentsch see Lensch.

Lenz, Lentz: formerly common sh.f. of Lorenz (Laurentius), it rarely means spring (season). Cf. Lenz Horlacher, Cröffelbach in Würt. 1553, Lenz (Lorenz) Fladerer, Freiburg 15th c., Lenze (Laurentz) Albrecht, Angermünde 1586.

Leo: Latinized form of Löwe [lion], dial. Lebe, Niclas Leb (Leonis),Iglau 1413.

Leonhard(t): a Roman-Germanic combination form: Lat. leo ‘lion’ + Germanic hard ‘bold’; Saint L. is the patron saint of country people (peasants) and horses. There is still a Leonhardi riding procession in Bavaria. See also Lennartz, Lehnhard, Alem. Lienhard.

Leopold(t): scholarly form for Germanic Liutbald (Liutpold, Lüpold: FN Leupold, Leupelt), meaning ‘bold among the people’; L. is the patron saint of Austria, thus name is popular, especially sh.f. Poldi; in Bav. Luitpold.

Lepach, Lepack (Sil.; freq. in Brsl.) of Pol. origin. Cf. Liepach.

Lepel (LGer.) see Leppler. A knight Werner Lepel,Greifswald 1314 (old Pomeranian nobility: von Lepel).

Leppelt see Lippelt.

Lepper (Rhineld.), Leppers: MLG lepper ‘cobbler’, who applies patches (Lappen); Hartmann Lepper sutor [cobbler], Wetzlar 1344; Cf. Schulepper (Mönchen-Gladbach). Hence UGer. Lepple, Läpple.

Lep(p)ler: MLG lepeler, ‘carver of wooden spoons’ [Löffel = ‘spoon’]; cf. Hinrik Leppeler (Leppelsnyder),Brsw. 1404. Hence surname Lepel(l), Läpel, Kortlepel; Kohlleppel (probably for a cook).

Lerch, Lerchel, Lerchenzagel (Lerchengsang) [Lerche = ‘lark’], all are names for bird sellers, name becomes clear from Pesco Lerch =Pesco miterlerch [with the lark], Olmütz 14th century. See also LGer. Lewark. A pl.n. Lerche (Lerike) in Westph. (ler ‘swamp’, as in Lerbeck, Lerbach). Hence FN Lerich, Lerke. But for Lerch(n)er (Tyrol) see Larch.

Lerner (UGer.), Lörner (Bav.): from the Bav. pl.n. Lern near Freising. Also cf. MHG lerner ‘pupil’. Lernesbas,Liegnitz 1368.

Lerse: MLG lerse, Dutch leers [leer = ‘leather’] was a long leather stocking made by a Lersner. Ludwig Lersemacher,Marburg 1499, his son: Jacob Lersner 1527; Joh. Lerse,Kassel 1526. Also cf. Lersch.

Lerz (UGer.), Lorz (Rhineld.) = MHG lerz (lorz, lurz) ‘left’ (clumsy). Wernher Lerz,near Worms 1280. Joh. Lorz, Amorbach 1471. Lerzer: from MHG lerzen ‘to stutter’.

Lesch (UGer.), later Lösch, Löschle (Würt.): perhaps from Swab. lösch ‘soft, mild’. Knight Cunrat Lesch,Würt. 1299, Rüdiger der Lesche,near Gerabronn 1345, Gerlach Lesche (ministerial), near Wetzlar 1266. (See Nied, Fränkische FN, p. 96.)

Leschke, Löschke: E Ger.-Slav., likewise Löschnik (Wend. leschnik ‘one who lives in the forest’, from les ‘forest’). Cf. Lessing.

Les(s)er, Löser (sometimes Jewish) = Lesar = Lazarus, Hebr. Eleazer, Elieser.

Lessmann (freq. in Hbg.): pl.n. Lesse in Han., field (name) “uppen Lessen” in Lippe area, a Leise River, tributary of the Maas (les = swamp).

Lessing: the poet and his name originated in the U.Saxon-Wendish area, Germanized from Lesnik (FN Leßnick) ‘forester’, cf. Leschnik ‘one who lives in the woods’, from Slav. les ‘forest’ (Slav. ­nik corresponds to Ger. -ing as suffix of belonging, thus Leisching corresponds to Leischnig); but cf. pl.n. Leisnig in Sax. (Lisnig). In the 16th c. Lessing’s ancestors were Michel Lessigk,Jahnsdorf 1518 and his son Clemens Lessig,etc.

Letsch, Lätsch (Würt.): Swab. ‘sluggish, slouchy’. A peasant Berschi der Lätsch,Engen 1333. Also Letschmann. Gerlach Letsch,Frkf. 1389.

Lette: [clay or loam] pl.n. (near Coesfeld, Wiedenbrück). Cf. Lettmecke ‘loamy creek’, in Westph., Lett-Berg near Iserlohn, etc.

Letter(mann): pl.n. Letter near Han., Luder van Lettere,Han. 1308. Also UGer. field name, see Lettner.

Lettner, Letterer, Lettenbauer, Lettenbichler, Lettenmayer (Bav., Aust.): from the field name and freq. pl.n. Letten, im Letten (from MHG lette ‘clay, loam, clayey soil’); ein acker ... in dem Letten 1296 etc.

Lettow: Slav. pl.n. in Pom., cf. pl.n. Lettau in E Prussia.

Letz (UGer.): MHG letze ‘upside down, opposite, wrong’, cf. Letzouge [bad eye], Alsace 1296. Letzkopf (fool at the ducal court of v. Zimmern around 1500: “a curiously strange person, absolutely different from others”; Brech., p. 178).

Le(t)zius, Letzgus (freq. in Würt.): Humanist name for Letz, see there. Georg Letzius (Letzguß),near Rottenburg (Neckar) 1584-1606.

Leu, Leue, Lau, Laue: the lion, also as house name, (see Löwe).

Leube, Leubner (Sax.): from pl.n. Leuba, Leuben (several times in Sax.).

Leubel (Bav. Loibl): sh.f. of Leupold (Leupolt der Leubel,Prague 1301; Lewbel Pleczel, Brünn 1352, Liubl velkeufel, Brünn 1345).

Leuchsenring (UGer.), Lei(ch)senring (Sax.), contracted: Leisering (Thur.): ‘iron ring on the stanchion of a rack wagon’. See also Leuchsner.

Leuchsner, Leuxner, Leixner (UGer.-Bav.): ‘waggoner, carter, wheelwright who manufactured stanchions, i.e. the wooden ladder supports on a rack wagon’. See also Leuchsenring.

Leucht (UGer.), Leuchtle see Leicht(le).

Leuchter (UGer.) see Leichter.

Leuffer see Läufer. Henchyn leuffer,Frkf. 1387.

Leuffgen (Rhineld.) = Leufried, Luitfried see Leibfried, Leibfahrt, Leipfert, Lüpfert. Cf. Lüffrid,burgrave in the Ahr Valley around 1400, knight Peter Lüffrid,Heppenheim 1299, Henne Leufrit 1368.

Leukert, Leuckart see Leickert. Lauckhard. (A peasant girl Liukart in Neithard’s songs around 1250.)

Leunenschloß see Lünenschloß.

Leupold(t), Leipoldt, Leibhold, Leipelt: UGer.-Aust.-Sil., Lüpold (Liut-bald) was diphthongized (vowel change from -ü- to -eu-, Engl. -oi-), then unrounded (to -ei- as in Leipoldt); scholarly form is Leopold, see there. Liutpold (margrave of Austria, died 1136) was the patron saint of Austria. Cf. Lüpold der becker [baker], Brsl. 1371, Lewpold Sontag, Glatz 1325, Leupold Meczner, Brünn 1343, Hensel Lewpuld,Liegnitz 1369, Caspar Leupolt (Leupel),Penig in Sax. 1515, Joh. Leypolt,Bayreuth 1472.

Leuprecht (UGer.) see Leiprecht. Also a saint’s name. Ruff Luiprecht,near Kempten 1451, Lupertus Mersche, Brsl. 1387. Cf. Rhineld. Luppertz.

Leuschner, Leischner (Sax., Lausitz, Sil. freq.): based on documented older Lüschener (like Tscheuschner on Czüschener), metr. of the fem. f.n. Lusche (or Czusche) which is recorded several times; in Brsl. around 1350: Lusche = Gerusch (Gertrud) Loseckinne (see Reichert, p. 33); a (woman) Luscha,Kamenz 14th c. As FN: Nic. Lusche,Ratibor 1361, Nic. Luschener,Sorau 1381, Henschel Lüschener,Freiberg 1378, Cunczel Leuschner,Leitomischl 1356. (See also Bahlow SN, p. 66).

Leußenring, Leißenring (Thur.) see Leuchsenring. Cf. Leisering.

Leußler (Frkf.) see Leisler.

Leutbecher: pl.n. Leutenbach near Nbg. Cf. Merschbecher, Rohrbecher [means one from a place ending in –bach]. Leuthäuser, Leithäuser: pl.n. Leithausen in Upper Bav.

Leuthard, Leutert, Leitert (UGer.): Germanic pers.n. Liut-hard ‘bold among the people’. Ulrich Lüthard,Cannstatt 1414. Also Luithardt (Swab.), Luthard.

Leuther, Leither (UGer.): Germanic pers.n. Liut-her (‘people’ + ‘army’), name favored by the nobility in the Middle Ages, cf. Luther (Leuther),Liegnitz 1350, Lewther Lemberg, Sil. 1408.

Leuthold, Leidhold, Leitelt, Leidl (Aust. Loidelt): derives from Germanic pers.n. Liut-old (cf. Leuther, Leuthard), Alem.-Bav.-Aust. form was very popular with the nobility in the Middle Ages (Swiss Lüthold, sh.f. Lüthi). Patr. Leutholz. A minnesinger (court poet) around 1200: Liutold of Säben in S Tyrol. Cf. Lüthold,Brsl. 14th c., Nikel Leutolt (Leutel),Moravia 1414. Ruprecht Leutl,Tyrol 1509.

Leutloff, Leidloff, Leitlauf (UGer.) are variants of Leudolph, Leidolph, Alem. Lütolf- from Germanic pers.n. Liut-(w)olf. As early as 1300 in Sil.: governor (with hereditary office) Lütolf (Lütke, Leutke),Schweidnitz 1371; Lütelof, Brsl. around 1350, Hans Löutulf,Friedland 1381.

Leutram, Leutrum (Würt.): rare Germanic pers.n. Liut-ram (ram from hraban = Odin’s ‘raven’). Lütram,bailiff, Biberach 1292, Markward Lütram,Eßlingen 1366, Wernz Leutrum 1358.

Leutsch (UGer.): sh.f. Lütschi from Lütold, cf. Lütschi Resch (farmer), Endingen 1341, Henny Lütschi,Endingen 1407. Cf. Leuth = Lüthy. But Leutzsch in Sax. is pl.n. near Leipzig.

Leutwein, Leitwein, Leidwin (UGer.): from Germanic pers.n. Liut-win (win = ‘friend’). Also in the Sil. pl.n. Leutmannsdorf (likewise Göswinsdorf becomes Gießmannsdorf). Lütwin,Linz in Aust. 1249. Leutwin Gamaret, Mnch. 1296, Hans Lütwin,Heilbronn 1359.

Leutz see Leitz.

Levedag (LGer.) like Liebetag (‘pleasant day’), cf. Liebezeit [pleasant time]; also Schöntag. Cf. pl.n. Levedagsen near Elzen. (Fem. f.n. Liebetaga around 1200 in U.Rhine area.)

Leveke, Leweke (LGer.): sh.f. of Levold, see Lefholz.

Leven see Lewen.

Leverenz, Lewerenz (Hbg., Meckl.) like Laverenz = Lautentius [Lawrence], see Lafrenz. Cf. sh.f. Frenz, Lenz. Patr. Frenssen in Holstein.

Leve(r)knecht = Liebknecht. See there.

Leverkühn, Leverköhn: from Konrad. See there.

Levermann (LGer.) = Liebermann. See there.

Levern (von) see Leffern.

Levers (LGer.) see Lefhard. Cf. Liebers. Patr. Levering, Lefering (Westph.).

Levetzow: pl.n. in Meckl. (also Lewetzow in Pom.). Cf. Ulrike von. L. (who played a role in Goethe’s life).

Levy, Hebrew tribal name, ‘devotion, faithfulness’. Also Levinsohn etc. See also Löwe. (Levi was a son of Jacob and Leah, Genesis 29:34.)

Lewalter (UGer.): from Lewald, likewise Kiesewalter, Buchwalter.

Lewark (LGer.) means bird catcher: MLG lewerk ‘lark’ (OS laeverce, Dutch leeuwerik).

Lewen(s), Leven(s): Saint Lefwin, Flemish-L.Rhine St. Lieven (patron saint of Ghent), OS monk and missionary; lev = ‘dear’ (lieb), win = ‘friend’.

Lewerenz see Leverenz.

Lex, Lexl, patr. Lexer (Bav.-Aust.): Alexius, legendary saint who lived unnoticed as a beggar in his father’s house.

Ley, Leyh (UGer.-Rhineld.) = Eley, like Loy = Eloy: Saint Eligius (bishop of Noyon around 650 A.D.), patron saint of goldsmiths and horses (see Nied, p. 68).

Leyen, von der (Rhineld.): ley means ‘slate’ (rock) as in Ley(en)decker (Rhineld.).

Leykauf see Leikauf.

Leykeb seeLeikeb: Leitgeb!

Leyrer see Leirer.

Leyser, Leiser: name of origin (cf. pl.n. Leisa on the Eder River, at the Leisebach, a creek); in some cases = Leser, Löser, see there.

Lezius see Letzius.

Libbertz (Rhineld.): patr. of Libbert, Libbrecht,Ro., Lüb. 1278: son of Libert (as early as 1165 a Libertus in Col.), see also Liebert, Liebers. Likewise Libbers. Cf. Livert, Lievertz.

Liborius see Börries.

Lich: pl.n. east of Gießen (see Bahlow ON, p. 300).

Licht: hard to interpret; in some cases may be understood as field name (forest clearing), in others as house name: Egelolf zem Liehte,Basel 1275. In Thur. note the pl.n. Lichte and Lichta (from the river Lichte). Sometimes Licht means a tallow chandler = candle maker (Ölsnitz in Sax. 1463) [Licht = ‘light, candle’]. LGer. Lichlwerk (now: Lichtwark). In the LGer. area Lîcht (long ­i-) may equal UGer. Leicht: Joh. lîchte,Ro. 1295, cf. Lîchtefinger,Stralsund 1283. lichtfoth (Hbg. 1270), Leichtfuß ‘lightfoot’. Lichtsinn ‘lightmindedness, carelessness’.

Lichter(s): Rhineld. = Leichter [castrator of cattle], see there.

Lichthard, Lichtherz (Hbg.): ‘light heart’.

Lichtner: from pl.n. Lichten or Lichtenau (UGer.); also Lichtenauer. Nik. Lichtener,Bohemia 1381.

Lichtwark (Hbg., Ro.): from MLG lichtwerk ‘candle maker’ (cf. sarwerk: Sallwürk: ‘armorer’). Also Lichtwerk, Lichtwert, Lichtwart. Gerhard Lichtwerk,Lüb. 1328. Cf. Kersengeter [= Kerzengießer, ‘candle maker’] in old Ro., Lüb. Also Lichtwaldt = Lichtwardt,Ro. 1780.

Lickefett (Ro. 1385, Hildesheim 1368): mocking name for a cook, from LGer. licken ‘to lick’; cf. Lickepenning: miser (like Küssenpfennig ‘kiss the penny’), Lickteig: [lick the dough] a baker, Lickleder (Lückleder, likewise Lückefett): a shoemaker. Licker (Liecker, likewise Lieckefett): gourmet, sweet tooth. Also Lickedick: ‘lick often’.

Lieback, Leibach, Liebock (Lausitz) see Liebisch.

Liebaug: cf. Hensel mit den liben Augen [H. with the friendly eyes], Liegnitz 1368; Libesauge,Brsl. 14th c. Further information under Auge.

Lieb(e): a dear, pleasant person (to live with: Bernhard Lieb,Würt. 1290); opposite: Knight Ulrich of Büttikon called der Lieblose [the unfriendly, loveless], near Zurich 1308. Compounds: Liebehenschel, Liebehenne [dear Henry]. Liebe is rare as fem. f.n.: e.g. in Mainz: Eberhard filius [son of] Lybe 1320. E Ger.-Lausitz Liebe (freq. in Görlitz) see Liebisch.

Liebelt, Liebel (Lausitz, Sil.) = Liebolt (also misunderstood as Liebhold ‘dear and gracious’); as early as 1208 as f.n.: Liboltus,son of Sbyzlawa; P. Liboldi,Ratibor 1346; Hans Libolt,Görlitz 1453; Jacob Liebl,near Budweis 1391. See also Liewald. A pl.n. Liebel in U.Lausitz.

Liebeneiner: probably for Liebenhainer (pl.n. Liebenhain in Sax., likewise Geysenheyner from Geisenhain in Sax.).

Lieb(en)werth (Sax.): from Liebenwerda.

Lieberenz see Leverenz.

Lieberkühn see Leverkühn.

Lieber (UGer.): ‘flatterer’ (Rud. called Lieber,13th c.).

Liebermann (sometimes Jewish) like LGer. Levermann: dear, pleasant person; cf. Liebersohn, Liebergesell [dear companion], Liebergast, Lieberherr; Liebernickel, Lieberkühn (Leverköhn: from Kunrad).

Liebert: cf. Liebhard, likwise Ebert: Eberhard, Eckert: Eckehard. Liebers: patr. like Levers.

Liebetanz:[love the dance] see Lobedanz.

Liebetruth (LGer.-CentrGer.) like Liebetraut: fem. f.n., likewise Liebheid, Liebmut, Liebgart. Corrupted forms are Liebentraut, Liebetrau.

Liebhar(d)t: UGer. f.n. (Dippel Liphard,Kassel 1362, Henczel Libehart,near Eger 1392); Liphard, Lippert.

Liebheit see Leifheit.

Liebhold(t): changed from Liebold, see Liebelt. Patr. Liebholz.

Liebig: prominent FN in Silesia and Lausitz (freq. in Görlitz, Liegn., Hirschberg), based on a Czech-Wendish pers.n. Libnik (see Bahlow SN, p. 66), cf. Libniko (Libincko),judge of Stephansdorf in Moravia 1275-80, Petrus Libnik,Sil.1337. Then the Ger. form Libing became customary, like Lessing for Lesnik (Jaching for Jachnik), Melling for Melnik: Libing Landeskroner, Glatz 1353; as FN: Nicclos Libing,Liegnitz 1392 (Neiße 1372, Schweidnitz 1416, Glatz 1375, Freystadt 1403, Görlitz 1440, Prague 1417), Libigk around 1500. Libing may also be of German origin since a Liebing was recorded as early as 1288 in Gmund (Swabia) and a governor Liebing in Guhrau 1289.

Lieb(i)sch, Liebscher, Liebschner (Upper Lausitz, Sil.): sh.f. of the Slav.-Wendish name with Lib- (Old Slav. Ljub-: Lub-) ‘dear’, e.g. Liboslav, Libomir: cf. Priebisch from Pribislav; thus Sil. Liebe (Görlitz) like Priebe! Libuscha was the name of a (legendary) Czech duchess in the 9th c. Recorded: Libusch cromerinne, Brsl. 1357, Peter Libusch,Neiße 1367, Lorencz Libuscher,Nikolsburg 1414, P. Libischer,near Prague 1406.

Liebknecht like LGer. Leveknecht (Johann Leveknecht,Lüb. 1328).

Lieble, Lieblein are sh.fs. of Liebhard recorded in UGer. documents. Jacob Liebl,near Budweis 1391.

Liebner (Sax., Sil.): from Liebenau (freq. as pl.ns. in Sil., Sax., Bohemia). Cf. Libenawer,near Eger 1392, Jost Libenaw,Liegnitz 1387, like Langner from Langenau.

Liebock = Lieback.

Liebrecht, Liebrich: old German pers.n.

Liebsch(er) see Liebisch.

Liebwerth see Liebenwerth.

Liebzeit: like Guttzeit [good time]. Hensel Libeczit,Chrudim 1399.

Lie(c)k, Lieke (Han., Westph.): becomes clear through Liekfeld, Liekwegen (pl.n. near Bückeburg) where liek means ‘wet, wetness’.

Liedemit (LGer.) like Leidemit [suffer along with] means a sympathetic person. Lydemete in Brsl.

Lieding: pl.n Liedingen near Brunswick, also there pl.n. Gleidingen (both mean ‘damp’ places).

Liedloff. dialect variant of Leidloff, see Leutloff. Cf. Liepold = Leupold, Bav. 1352. Sh.f. Liedel (UGer.).

Liedt (von der), also Lieth (von der): northwest field name = ‘damp terrain’. (See Bahlow ON, p. 306).

Liedtke (freq. in E and W Prussia, from there name moved to the Ruhr district with indust. workers): the unrounded form of Lüdke (Lüdeke Ludolf), which occurs freq. in Pom.

Lieff, (MLG) lif = Leib [body, life]. Hence the compounds: Sötelif [sweet body, person], Ro. 1269, Rumelif (voluminous body), Starkelif [strong body], Langelif, Sachtelif [soft, gentle body, person], Durelif (dear person), Sidenlif [silky body].

Lieffering: Westph. patr. of Lieffert (Lieferts, Lievertz, Rhineld.) = UGer. Liebhard, LGer. Lefert, Levert, see Lefarth. Cf. Liethold, Liefholz (patr.) like Leifhold, Leifholz = Levold, Lievold; see Leifholz.

Liefheit: see Leifheit.

Lieftucht: (LGer.) ‘life annuity’. Heyne Lijftuchter, Werden 1403.

Liegnitz: pl.n. in Lower Sil.; cf. Striegnitz (in old documents: Stregnicz, likewise Legnicz; both mean ‘swampy’ spot: Liegn. near the Schwarzwasser bog area).

Liehr see Lier.

Liek see Lieck.

Lieme: pl.n. in Lippe area, lim ‘mire’.

Lienau (freq. in Hbg.): pl.n. NE of Hbg., cf. Lienow (Linow), from Slav. lin ‘grime, dirt’.

Lienemann: from Lienen in Westph. (also near Elsfleth NE of Bremen): near the swamp Linebroch;from Indo-European lin ‘slush, mire’, cf. Lat. linere ‘to soil’; a hill called Lien-Berg near Ilfeld, Harz Mountains. Hence Lienhop, Lienenbröker.

Lienhard: UGer. Alem. form of Leonhard, see there. The writer Friedrich Lienhard was Alemannic (from Alsace). Cf. Pestalozzi’s work Lienhard und Gertrud.Sh.f. Lienle, Liendl. Patr. Lienharter. Lienhart Lory, Konstanz 1556. Lienhart (Liendel) Hamer, Moravia 1414, Liendel Wildmoser, Upper Bav. 1424.

Liepe: Slav. pl.n. (freq. in Brandenburg, Pom.), from lipa ‘linden tree’.

Liepelt (Sax.) like Leipelt = Liepold, Leipold (Leopold): Liepold = Leupold,Bav. 1352. See Leupold.

Liepert, Liphard, Lippert see Liebhard. Liphart,Prague 1383.

Lier (van): from pl.n. and loc.n. Lier; lir is an old swamp word (see Bahlow ON, p. 301). Cf. the “Liergau” area between the Fuse and Oker rivers, Liere near Lengerich 1150; old water word Lir-apa becomes Lierop in Brabant; Lierschied in Taunus, Lierloch in Hesse.

Liermann (freq. in Hbg.): LGer. for the organ grinder, street player, see UGer. Leirer. Joh. Lireman,Ro.1288.

Liersch: E Ger.-Slav. (with suffix -isch), cf. Lierack, Lierke, Lierka.

Liesche: see Leesch (OHG lisca, MHG liesche ‘reed grass’). Cf. pl.n. Liesch near Trier. Joh. der Liesche,Würt. 1343. But Li(e)schke is E Ger.-Slav. like Liesching (documented as Lieschink), cf. pl.n. Lieschow on Rügen Island; likewise Lieske (pl.n. in Lausitz several times, also Lieskau in Brandenburg).

Liese (Hbg.): LGer., corresponds to UGer. Leise, likewise Liesegang:Leisegang. See Leisegang. Otherwise Liese (from lis ‘swamp, reed’, cf. Liesch) it is freq. creek or field name: cf. Liese, tributary of the Eder with pl.n. Liesen; also Liesebach, Lieseberg, Liesenfeld, Liesbüttel, Liesborn, Liesgraben, also pl.n. Ließem in Rhineld. (Lisheim, like Üdem, Bachem). Liesemeyer in Westph.

Lieth (Hbg., Bremen) see Liedt. Hence Liethen (Düsseldorf), Lithmann.

Lietzmann: like Lietz from Slav. pl.ns. Lietzen in Brandenburg, Lietzau, Lietzow, Lietzkow and others. Also Lietzke.

Lieven, Lievenbruck: from river name Lieve near Ghent or Lieven in the Netherlands.

Liewald (freq. in Görlitz): = Liebold (like Gottwald for Gotbold.

Ligger see Licker. Wubbeke Liggers, Oldenburg 1444.

Lilje, Lilge, Lilie: [lily] in the Middle Ages also used as house name: Freiburg 1393 “zem gelwen Giligen”, in Konstanz 1522 “zur Gilgen”. Cf. Gilgenschein, Gilgenfein, Lilgenfein, Lilgenweiß, Lilienzweig (like Rosenzweig); Lilientritt (like Blumentritt, Rosentritt): Lylgentrit,Iglau 1369, there also 1372 Lilgenstamp,cf. Lylgenfeynt, Lylgenfeyn,Iglau and Prague 1377. Ülein mit der Lyligen,Nbg. 1381.

Lill, Lille, Lillmeyer (Hbg., Westph.): lil (Dutch = ‘gelatin, jelly’) an old word for soft, slimy dirt (cf. Hess. die Lille ‘saliva’).

Limberg(er), Limbach(er): UGer. name of origin (in old documents: Lintberg, Lintbach,which indicate soft, swampy terrain).

Limmel (UGer.): MHG limbel, limmel means ‘shoe patch, rag’, thus surname of a cobbler or a listless, lifeless person; NHG Lümmel [ill-mannered fellow] was not used until 17th c. Cf. Friedr. Limbel,Würt. 1275, Wernher der Limmel,Würt. 1311. Hence Faullimmel [lazybones] in Metz.

Limmer (Hbg., Han.): pl.n. near Han. (Limmer,Brsw. 1369). But in Bav. (freq. in Mnch.) contracted from Lindemer, Lindmaier,like Bav. Wimmer from Widemaier, Hummer from Hubmaier, Sellmer from Sellmaier, Stromer from Strohmaier, etc.

Limmroth: pl.n. ending in -rode [indicating a forest clearing], Thur.-Hess., like Billroth, Klapproth etc.

Limpertz: Rhineld. like Lempertz (Lampertz), patr. of Lampert (Lempert, Limpert); cf. Limprecht, Limprich(t).

Lind, Lindt (UGer.): ‘gentle-minded, kind’ (Hainrich called der Linde,Konstanz 1254). Cf. Lindemuth in Sax.

Linde: E CentrGer., related to pl.ns. Linda (in Thur., Sax., Sil.).

Linde(c)ke, Lindecken (Magdeburg, Han., Berlin): loc.n., cf. Lindchen in Lausitz.

Lindekugel see Linnekogel.

Lindemann (N Ger.-E Ger.): from pl.n. Linde (freq.), also Linden near Han. (cf. Hermann Lindeman,Han. 1335); sometimes from loc.n. (see Lindner; van der Linden, Terlinden, Beiderlinden meaning ‘from, at, near a linden tree’). Cf. Lindeboom (house name, loc.n.).

Lindemer (UGer.) = Lindheimer, likewise Mannemer (= Mannheimer), Bockemer, etc.

Linden (van der): freq. on L.Rhine (Col., Düsseldorf), named after the dwelling near a linden stand, under the linden trees; or from pl.n. Linden. Also Terlinden, Zurlinden are L.Rhine area names.

Lindenschmidt: like Lindenbauer, Lindenmayer (all UGer.) [a blacksmith, farmer, estate manager] named after the dwelling near or under linden trees.

Linder: UGer. (for Lindner: Hans Linder =Hans der Lindner,Ulm 1377, or N Ger. (from pl.n. Lindern in Oldenburg area and L.Rhine: Joh. van Lynder,in Oldenbg. 1528, hence Lindemann).

Lindert (Han.): from Linderte south of Han.

Lindig (Sax., Thur.): pl.n. in this area.

Lindle, Lindlein: loc.n. in Würt.

Lindloff (Han., Magdeburg, Hbg.): obviously from LGer. loc.n. Lindelôf = UGer. Lindelaub [linden leaves] (Joh. Lindelaub,Dillingen 1460). Also Lindelof, Lindenlauf.

Lindner (Sil., Sax., Thur., Bav., Austria): partially from the freq. pl.ns.: Lindenau (like Weidner from Weidenau, Reichner from Reichenau), Linden, Linda; or from the dwelling name “unter Linden” [under linden trees], cf. Henczel under der lynden,Freiberg (Sax.) 1383, Hannus von der Linde,Görlitz 1440, Cunad Lindener,Liegnitz 1372, Rüpel ze den Linden,Tyrol 1369, Jacob Lindner,Tyrol 1348 (nowadays also Lintner, Lindtner).

Lindpaintner (Bav.-Aust.) see Baintner.

Lindwurm: [dragon] house name (Clesel zuodem Lintworme,Worms 1368, Nickel Lintworm,Freiberg 1429).

Linge(mann), Lingebrink, Lingel, Lingwedel contain the old water word ling (Old Dutch lingene ‘mire, mud, swamp’), cf. Lingebrok, Lingewood in Engld., a Linge River (Maas area), Lingen on the Ems River.

Lingg (UGer.) = Link.

Lingner = Lindner, like Lingenau (Vorarlberg) = Lindenau (thus recorded 996 A.D.). Hannus Lingener,Prague 1406.

Linicke (E Ger.-Slav.) see Lienau.

Linke, UGer. Link, Lingg: left-handed person, also generally for a clumsy person. Francze Lynke (Lynkehand),Liegnitz 1397: FN Linkhand; LGer. see Luchterhand. Hermann Lynkfuß,Sorau 1381.

Linkenheil (Ludwigsburg), Lingenhöhl (Lindau): pl.n. Lingenhöl (Allgäu area); höulin = ‘hau’ ‘forest clearing’, cf. Hans Höwli, Würt. 1484.

Linkmann: loc.n. Linken in Westph. In den Linken near Iburg [link =‘wet field’]. See Bahlow ON, p. 303.

Linnartz (Rhineld.): like Lennartz Leonhards (son of Leonhard).

Linnekohl (LGer.) corrupted form of Linnekogel ‘linen hood, coat’, (see Kogel). Also Linnekugel, Leinekugel, Lindenkohl. CF. Linnehose, Hbg. 1300.

Linne(mann): LGer. = Lindemann, see there; also from Linne near Bohmte. But Linneweber = Leineweber [linen weaver], likewise Linnehose = Leinenhose [linen trousers, pants], Linnekogel = Leinekogel [linen hood]. Linneweh (with loss of dental consonants in LGer.) means Lindewede [wide, wede = ‘woods’], likewise Brickweh = Brickwede. Cf. Lindwedel [wedel = ‘swampy ford’]. Linnepe see Lennepe. Linn(e): cf. von der Linn.(Linden near Bochum and Linde near Dortmund have been changed from old Linniun, Linni, 890 A.D.). Pl.n. Linn near Krefeld from the swamp word lin as in Linnepe. Linnich: pl.n. near Jülich (based on Celt. Liniacum, likewise Lonnich near Koblenz from Loniacum, cf. Ligny: Loigny).

Linner (Bav.) see Linder.

Lins(e) is surname of a lentil grower; similar surnames. Erbse [pea], Bohne [bean]. Likewise Linser, Brünn 1345 (UGer.) and Bohner [bean grower], Erbisser [pea grower]. Also Linsenbarth (Thur.; Bart = ‘beard’), Linsenbauch [lentil belly]; Lins(en)mayer, Lins(en)mann. Pl.n. Linse on the Weser (old: Linisi) is a prehistoric water name (see Bahlow ON, p. 304); Linshöft (Hbg.) means origin (spring) of a Lins Creek (lin-s = lin as in Linnepe!) likewise Visselhöft on Vissel Creek. Heyne Linseman,Bremen 1481: from pl.n. Linse.

Lintfer(s) see Lentfers.

Linthe (Hbg.): pl.n. in Brandenburg.

Lintner (Aust.) = Lindner.

Lintzel: pl.n. west of Ülzen, Lines-lo ‘swampy lowland’, like Munzel (Munes-lo), Menzel (Menes-lo) which are all synonymous.

Lipke, Lipka, Lipkat, Lippke, Lippek, Lipsky: E Ger.- Slav., cf. pl.n. Lipke near Frankfurt (Oder), pl.n. Lipnice, Lipin (= FN Lipinski), Lipova, Lipschitz (= Lippschütz), lipa =‘linden tree’ (Leipzig from Lipzk). Also pl.n. Lippen in Lausitz.

Lipp, Lip(p)s, Lipsius, UGer. also Lippl, Rhineld. Lipgen(s): sh.f. of Philipp. Also Lippmann (sometimes Jewish as Lipmannsohn). “My lewe Lips” = ‘my dear Philipp’, means Landgrave Phillip of Hesse. Lipp Guldein, Moravia 1414.

Lippe (freq. in Hbg.): from river name Lippe (see Bahlow ON, p. 305). Also pl.n. in Westph. Cf. Arnold Lipper or von der Lippe 1222. Hence Lipperheide.

Lippelt see Lippold.

Lippens see Lipp.

Lippert (UGer.), also Lipprecht, = Lüprecht (Liut-berht), see Leuprecht. Cf. pl.n. Lippertsweiler (1296 Lüprehtwiler),Lippertshofen and others.

Lippke see Lipke.

Lippmann see Lipp. Also: von der Lippe, cf. Lippmeier. In Bremen records Lipman = von der Lippe (Carstens, p. 65).

Lippner: pl.n. Lippen in Lausitz and Bohemia.

Lippold: a rather popular f.n. in the Middle Ages from Rhineld. to Pom.; equivalent to UGer. Leupold (Leipelt), older: Lüpold (Liutbald),obviously with Rhineld. -i-for -u-. Cf. Lippold von der Helle, near Bonn 1437, Lippoldus (Lupoldus)Bere, Greifswald 1298, Lippold (Lupold)von Bredow 1394, Lippoldus around 1300 also in Stralsund and Hbg.

Lips see Lipp. Likewise Lipsius (in Kiel, Düsseldorf), cf. Joest Lips (Brabant), his Humanistic (writer’s) name: Justus Lipsius.

Lipstreu, Lipstreich: E Ger.-Slav. like Millstreich, Milstroy; Dohmstreich, Dohmstrich (Domstroy). See also Lipke.

Lisch, Lischke, Lischak: E Ger.-Slav. like Liss, Lissek, Lissak, Liske, cf. Lischewsky like Lissewski. Also Lisko(w): pl.n. in Meckl., Pom. Cf. the satirical writer Christian Liscow,Meckl. 1701-1760.

Lissel (Liegnitz) = Lissek.

Lissner: from pl.n. Lissa (Sax., Lausitz, Sil.). Cf. Leipner from town of Leipa.

List, UGer. Listl, also Listmann: origin and meaning of name become evident through Cunad mit der lyst,Chrudim 1399; also Siebenlist, Tausendlist; Nünlist (Switz.). Meant here is the conjurer or magician (MHG list ‘intelligence, cleverness, magic’). [The formerly positive meaning of List has “worsened” to ‘cunning, slyness’ nowadays.] Heinrich List,Budweis 1250, Benz Listli,Würt. 1418. Listmann also from pl.n. Liste near Han.: Hans Listeman,Haldsl. 14th c.

Litfaß: ‘barrel for fruit wine or cider’ (from MHG lît ‘cider’), also surname of a lîtgeb:see Leitgeb. Name is known through the inventor of the outdoor advertising pillar or kiosk (= Litfaßsäule).

Littkopf (Stettin): MLG Lit-kop, see Leikauf. Reynold Litkôp, Strals. 1289, Henrik Lit-kop, Wismar 1272.

Litmann (Sil.): Slav. like Littig (Littek), Litten, Littner, Littau (pl.n. in Moravia), probably from pers.n. Litomir, Litoslav, Litobor (cf. pl.n. Leitmeritz: Litomerice, Old Slav. ljutu ‘grim, wild’. Hannus Litman,Liegnitz 1427; Litman Jew, Glatz 1472. Also Litt: Mathis Litte,Liegnitz 1491.

Littwin: Pol. = Littauer [Lithuanian].

Litzel see Lützel.

Litzmann (cf. Lietzmann): E Ger.-Slav. like Litz (cf. Lietz), Litzcke, Litzow.

Löb (UGer.) besides Löbe: in old documents Leb, Lebe, Lewe (MHG form) = ‘lion’ (Ger. Löwe), ‘person with a lion-like nature’; cf. P. Lebenprust [lion chest], Prague 1411, Lewenbrust,Würt. 1320. Nikel Lewe (Lebe),Liegnitz 1453, Hensel Lew,Budweis 1397, Stephan Leb,Olmütz 1413. Also Löbel: Lewve (Lebel)kürsener, Brsl. 1345. Hensel Löbel, Lebel (Leo),Budweis 1387. Appeared quite early as Jewish name for Levy: Lewe, Glatz 1494. See also Leu and Lau. Rotlew, Rolleb [red lion], Prague 1338 is a house name (and heraldic symbol).

Löbbe, Löbbert = Lübbe, Lübbert. Löbbecke (von) = Lübbecke.

Lobedanz (Sax.): [praise the dance] ‘leader of a round dance, dance master’. Hennel Lobetantz,Freiberg 1362. Cf. Preisendanz [preisen = ‘to praise’] and similar names; Schüwentanz ‘avoid the dance’, Freiberg 1391. Similar: Lobenwein, Lobenherbst, Lobensommer [praise the wine, fall, summer].

Löbert: from Löbau in Sax.

Lobmüller, Lobmiller (UGer.): ‘owner or worker of a bark mill that ground up bark for the tanners’. Hence UGer. Lober, Löber (from MHG 1ôwer ‘tanner’, lôwen ‘to tan’). Hans Lober,Kempten 1447.

Lobner, Löbner (Sax., Sil.): pl.n. Löben (in Torgau and Neiße areas), Löbau in Sea., etc.

Lobwasser besides Lohwasser is UGer. loc.n. like Stobwasser, Stowasser. The psalm writer Ambrosius Lobwasser (1515-1585) was from Sax. Cf. Lobmiller, Lohmiller.

Loch(mann): named after the dwelling in a dell or hole, cf. LGer. Kuhlmann. Pecze im loche =Peter loch,Brsl. 1352 (also a farm called in dem loche);Henne Lochmann,Astheim in Hesse 1357 and Herman in dem loche in Hesse. For Sil. and Lausitz cf. Lachmann; Benedikt Lachman (Lochman),Liegnitz 1565. UGer. Löchl, Löchler: Pesco Lochl,Kolin 1375, Frid. Löcheler,Mengen 1280, Burchard Locher,near Basel 1270.

Lochner (Bav., Aust.): name of origin, from freq. pl.ns. Lochen (Bav., Aust.) or Lohen (from Loh ‘woods’): cf. Kammerlochner besides Kammerloher, Pernlochner besides Bärlocher. (The medieval painter Stefan Lochner was from Meersburg.) Likewise Löcher, cf. Haslöcher, Rosenlöcher from pl.ns.

Lochte (Hbg.): cf. van de Locht, also name of origin; hence pl.n. Lochtum near Goslar. Cf. Luchtemaker, Lochtemaker [candle maker] around 1400 in Maastricht.

Lock, Locke, Swab. Löckle: ‘curly head’ (also of a wig). Cf. LGer. Krull, Kroll. Hence Gralock, Grolock [gray curls]; Mahrlock, Morlock.

Lockemann (N Ger.): name of origin, meaning from Lockhausen, Lockstedt, Lockfeld, Lockhoff, or Lockwisch; lok means ‘swamp’; Cf. Loxten in Westph. (Lok-seten, likewise Laxten: Lakseten and Bexten: Bekseten): see Bahlow ON, p. 306.

Lockenvitz: pl.n. on Rügen Island (like Thesenvitz). In old documents also short form Looks: Hans Lockevitz and his son Hans Looks in Zicker (Rügen) around 1730.

Locker: ‘tempter, seducer’. Lorencz Locker (mayor), Glatz 1400.

Lodde (LGer.): cf. Lodden Creek near Warendorf in Westph., from lodde (Dutch lode) ‘dirt, mire’. Hence Lodenkämper [dirt farmer] (Westph.), from kamp ‘field’, Lodholz, Loderstedt like Loderbach.

Lodder (LGer.), Lodders (L.Rhine) = ‘good-for-nothing, rake’.

Lode, Lödel (UGer.): ‘weaver of boiled wool material’ (NHG lode, lödel ‘rough wool material, boiled wool’). Lode,Eger 1378, Lödel,Pausram 1414. Also named after the dress: der lödechte husnwn,Friedland 1381. Hence Loder(er), Lodner: a Lodergasse [L. lane] in Nbg. Cf. Hans der Ladenweber [L. weaver], Riedlingen 1346, Heinrich Lödenler,Stuttgart 1482.

Lödeke (Wer.): cf. Lodisch Wulfhagen, Han. 1447 (sh.f. of Lodeweg).

Lödige (Hbg.): MLG lodig meaning ‘of good solid quality’ cf. Nic. Lodegenmark,Ro. 1303.

Löding (freq. in Hbg.): cf. pl.n. Lödinghausen. Patr. of Lodewig, like Göding of Godefrid.

Loferer (Tyrol): pl.n. (and creek) Lofer.

Löffers (Löffert), Löfken, Rhineld. Leuff(gen): like Luffgen = Lüffrid, Lütfrid.

Lof(f)ling see Lohfink.

Löffler, Leffler (UGer.-Sil.), Löpeler (LGer.): MHG leffler, ‘manufacturer of wooden spoons’; pewter spoons were the exception. Löffelmann = ‘peddler of spoons’. Hence a surname Löffel [spoon], Leffel, LGer. Lepel; also Löffelholz; Kochlöffel [cooking sp.], Schaumlöffel [skimmer], Löffelstiel [spoon handle], all names for a cook. Hans Löffelin (Löffler),Stuttgart 1447-62.

Logau: Slav. pl.n., cf. the Sil. writer and poet Friedrich von Logau. Hence Logisch (like Glogau: Glogisch).

Loge(mann): Hbg., Bremen, named after the dwelling or origin (log means ‘swampy terrain’, cf. pl.n. Loga, Logum near Leer E Frisia; freq. field name in Oldenburg: hence Joh. Logheman,Oldenbg. 1428).

Loges, Lages (Han., Brsw.): = Lodiges, Lodwiges. Curt Loges (Lages), Han. 1585.

Lohde, Löhde: = Lode, sh.f. of LGer. Lodewig, likewise Gode, Göde from LGer. Godefrid. Patr. Löding.

Loheit: like Grünheit from ‘Heide’ [heath], cf. Loholz.

Löher (UGer.): like Löhermeister = ‘tanner’ (using bark); L.Rhine Löhrer (in Col. a Loregasse [tanners’ lane]; Reinhold Lore,Col. 1142, Henneke Lore,Strals. 1285, from LGer. lorer ‘tanner’, cf. in Stralsund lorer = riemer [belt maker], NHG lör =‘belt’). Hence Löhr (freq. in Hbg.). Cf. Lohkittel [smock, overall of a tanner].

Lohfink, Loffing: wood finch; cf. Buchfink [Buche = ‘beech tree’].

Lohkittel: mocking name for a tanner. See Löher.

Löhlein, Löhle (UGer.-Swab.): named after the dwelling near a woods (“Loh”); Gebehart Löhelin,Bozen 1253. Cf. Hamlöhlin, Hamlöchlin,Eßlingen 1490.

Lohmann, Lohmeyer: ‘person who lives in the woods’, likewise Johannimloh. For Löhmann also cf. pl.n. Löhe.

Löhmer pl.n. Löhma near Schleiz. Cf. Wencz. Lömer,Iglau 1390 (pl.n. Loma in Bohemia).

Lohner (UGer.) = MHG lôner ‘day laborer’. Peter Loner,Brünn 1345; in Tyrol also from pl.n. Lon, Lona. Löner in Brsl. Cf. also pl.n. like Lohn in Westph.

Löhner, Löhnert (UGer.-Bav.) = Lehner [tenant farmer], see there. For Löhnert, Löhnhart cf. Lehnert, Lehnhart = Leonhard.

Löhneysen (UGer.): name of a blacksmith’s shop. See Findeisen.

Lö(h)ning (Hbg.): pl.n. Löningen on the Weser. But Löhninger (UGer.) from pl.n. Löhningen in Baden.

Lohr, Lohrer (UGer.): from pl.n. Lohr: im Lohr, Anderlohr (Lohr, Lahr tributaries of the Main: see Bahlow ON, p. 307). Löhrl (UGer.) her [sir] Niclas Lörl,Littau 1421, Hs. Lorlinus,Prague 1348; means ‘fool’ (E. Schwarz, p. 196; DWB vol. 6, col. 1151).

Lohse see Loose.

Lohstöter (LGer.): ‘retailer of tanning bark’, likewise Splettstöter: ‘dealer of (split) wood and wood shingles’; cf. UGer. Krautstößer, Ölstößer, Salzstößer. Lohstampfer is the owner of a tanning mill, which grinds oak bark for tanning; a Stampfmüller Street in Ro.; Nic. Lostemper (weaver), Brsl. 1385, Pauel Lostamp 1396. Similarly: Gerstenstampf and Preinstampf = Grützmüller [grits miller].

Loibl (Bav.) see Leubel.

Loidl (Bav.-Aust.) see Leidl.

Loitz: pl.n. (Pom., Meckl.).

Lölhöffel: LGer. hövel ‘hill, knoll’; lol is a water word as in Löhlbach, Löllbach, Lüllbach, Lollschied.

Löll (UGer.). naive person, Hainrich der Lölle,near St. Gallen 1336. See also Lülle.

Löloff see Ludloff, Ludolf.

Lombert, Lompert, Lumpert, Lumbert see Lamparter. Petrug Longobardus,Col.1198, Heinrich Lumbardus, Lambardus,Mainz 1295, Joh. der Lumbarder 1376 [= from Lombardy in Italy].

Lommatzsch: Slav. pl.n. near Meißen. Cf. Lommetsch: Slav. lomec ‘rock crusher’.

Lommel (Bav., Sil.) = Lammel, see Lamm. Hans Lomel,Eger 1305, Joh. Lamel,Olmütz 1413.

Lönnecker, Lönicker: pl.n. Lonnecker near Enschede; Lonekere,Ro. 1268, Lübeck 1331, Henne Loniker,Pal. 1391. Cf. pl.n. Franeker in Holland; Vesekere, Lüb. 1320.

Lönnies (Rhineld.-Westph.) like Plönnies = Apollonius, saint’s name. Lonyes Wolter, documented in city register of Werden 1410. Plonyes Stal (squire) around 1320 in Lüb., Sir Appollonius,Stettin 1324. The name of the writer Hermann Löns is of the same origin.

Loo (van de): Dutch-L.Rhine form is Loe, Lo, Loh ‘woods, wet underbrush’, also cf. lo, ‘swampy lowlands’.

Loo(c)k (LGer.) = Lauch [leck], surname of an herb dealer, likewise Knoblauch [garlic]. Schnittlauch [chives]. Looks see Lockenvitz.

Loof (Hbg.), Lohff (Meckl.): LGer. = ‘leaves’ (underbrush), also loc.n.; cf. Lindeloff (linden leaves). Dietrich Lof, Earl of cleve 1265; Joh. and Liborius Lof (brothers), Lüb. 1300. Looft (freq. in Hbg.). = Loof unless the pl.n. Looft near Itzehoe is involved.

Loohse see Loose.

Looks (Rügen) see Lockenvitz. Look see Loock.

Loop (freq. in Hbg.): pl.n. in Holstein; cf. pl.n. Loope on Sieg River. But botterlop ‘butter churn’.

Loos(e): freq. in Hbg., besides Loosmann probably name of origin, cf. pl.n. Loose in Schleswig, pl.n. Loosen in Meckl. But Lose(ke), Losemann are documented sh.fs. of Lodewig: Lozeke (Lodewig)of Loysin (squire), Pom. 1313, Loseman son of Lodewici,Lüneburg 1277, Losek Schütte, Lüneb. 1330, Hilmer Loseke,Han. 1423, Lose von Osthem, Werden (Ruhr) 1416. UGer. Lose is also sh.f. of Nikolaus (cf. Klose): Lose Rychenawer, Freiberg/Sax. 1385, Löselin (Nicolaus),Strasb. 1275.

Löpel (LGer.) see Lepel, Lepler.

Löper (LGer.): ‘runner, messenger’.

Lorbe(e)r: ‘spice dealer’. Godeke Lorbere,Ro. 1295, Herm. Lorbere,Han. 1312, Otto Lorberer,Brünn 1345.

Loren(t)z, patr. Lorentzen (Holstein): Germanized form of Laurentius (saint, Rome’s most famous martyr). Also Laurent, Laurenz, Laverenz, Lafrenz, Lewerenz, Lohrenson, Lornsen. Sh.f. Loricke, Lorek (E Ger.), Löhrke, Lorck; Lith. Lorat, Loreit; see also Lenz, Frenz, Frenssen. Cf. Wabersinke: Czech. Wavrzinek.

Lorinser; Lorünser: from Lorüns in Vorarlberg region.

Lornsen (Fris. patr.) = Lorenzen; Frödde Lorensen,Sylt 1666, Son: Lorens Frödden.

Lortzing, Lörtzing: patr. of Lortz, Lörtz = Lorenz. But see Lerz.

Losch (freq. in Hbg.) probably refers to a leather manufacturer, from MLG losche = ‘precious leather’ (dyed red but white on the reverse side); Loschemaker, Losmaker in Ro. 1290, Lübeck around 1300, Loschmecher in Frkf. 1377, Lossverber,Prague 1399.

Lösch (UGer.) see Lesch.

Löschke (E Ger.) see Leschke.

Löschenbrand, 1358 Leschenprant [put the fire out] like Löschenkol may be a professional surname; MHG brant ‘large fire, blaze’; cf. names for arsonists meaning the opposite: Hebenbrand, Schürenbrand, Rakebrand. Löschenkohl means a charcoal burner (or a smith).

Lose, Loseke, Losemann see Loose.

Losehand (Hbg., Ro.): MHG lose ‘friendly, flattering’, but also ‘sly, cunning’. See also Gradhand, Gringhand, Linkhand [straight hand, small h., left h.].

Lösekann means pouring vessel with a spout, see Kannegießer. Cf. Losenaph,Heidelberg 1228.

Löser see Leser.

Loss(e): freq. in Hbg., also Lossmann: from the swamp word los like Lossebrok:Loßbruch on the Lippe River, also cf. E Ger.-Slav. pl.n. Losse in Altmark, Lossa on the Unstrut River, a Losse River in Kaufungerwald (see Bahlow ON, p. 309). But LGer. loss = Luchs [lynx] (like Voss: Fuchs [fox]).

Loth (freq. in Hbg.): according to old documents from pl.n. Lothe or Lathe in Westph., cf. van Lot(h)en several times in Stralsund around 1300, also in Ro. Otherwise cf. the weight unit Lot [half an ounce]: Joh. Sevenlod,Stralsund 1348. Lotheisen is a name for a blacksmith.

Lothar, Lother: Germanic Hlod-hari (‘fame’, ‘army’), was a popular name for kings and dukes (Cf. Lothringen [Lorraine]: the empire of Lothar II); Lot- is an archaic form according to doc., cf. Hlod-wig (Ludwig). See also Luther.

Lotichius: Humanist (Latin) name for Lotke, see Lödeke, likewise Ratichius for Ratke.

Lotsch (UGer.): = MHG lotz ‘naive, sloppy’ (Benz Lotsch 1454, C. der Lotz 1352).

Lotte see Charlotte.

Lotter, Lötterle (UGer.) = ‘bum, good-for-nothing’, also ‘juggler’. Likewise Lotervuoß,Stockach 1272, Lotterhos.Lottermoser (Aust.) is name of origin like Heigermoser (Aust.) etc. (moos = ‘swamp’). Lotthammer (Bav.) = Lottheimer (cf. Mooshammer, Riedhammer), lott = ‘mire’(cf. Lottstetten).

Lottmann (Hbg.): pl.n. Lotte near Osnabrück, pl.n. Lotten near Meppen; cf. creek name Lottbek (‘dirty creek’) flowing into the Alster River.

Lotze: Hess. sh.f. of Lodewig. Lotze (Ludeitdch) Habichnase, Fritzlar 1379, Lotze Smeling, Kassel 1377, Locze Loczen son [L. son of L.], Frkf. 1360, Lotz Muntbur, Fulda 1390.

Löwe see Löbe. Cf. LGer. Lau, UGer. Leu. A lion killer Gerardus in Col. 1187; Hinr. Lowenkop,Han. 1413, Paul Löwensprung,Solothurn 1480, Lewenbrust,Würt. 1320 [lion head, 1. jump, 1. chest], Karschelowe, Wildelowe.

Loy (UGer.-Rhineld.): popular form of saint’s name Eligius (combined with Eulogius), Fr. St. Eloy, patron of goldsmiths and horses; an Eulogius chapel in Bingen. Cf. Balthasar Loy (Eligius),Salzburg 1541, Loye Seng, Rottweil 1441; Eulogius Kiburger (Swiss chronicler 1506). Also see Ley, Gloy, Gley.

Lubach, Lubatsch see Lubisch.

Lübars: pl.n. in Brandenburg (3 times).

Lübbe, Lübben, Lübbing LGer.-Fris., freq. related to Lübbert, Lübbers; from Germanic pers.n. Liut-bert (‘shining’ = ‘famous among his people’), in some cases still f.n. (Lübbertus Backer, Osnabrück). Cf. Rhineld. Lüppertz, UGer. Leuprecht, Leiprecht (Lüprecht).Hence Lüb(c)ke (Lübbeke),(rarely from pl.n.: Nicol de Lubbeke,Bremen 1318). Lubbeke (Lubbert)platensleger, Stettin 1311; Lubbe Lüders, 16th c.; Lubbert Leyst, Ro. 1294. Lubbert Widow, Flensburg 1297. Lübkemann, Lübkemeier (Westph.), Lübking, Lübker (Westph. patr., cf. Ötker, Gödeker, Beinker, Siefker), besides Lübkert. For Lübberding (contracted Lübbering) cf. Eggerding, Humperdinck etc., Westph. -ing = ‘belonging to a clan’. Lübren (Fris.) comes from Germanic pers.n. Liutbrand, Liutbern,cf.Dibbern, Sibbern. See UGer. Leipprand.

Lübéß: Wend. pl.n. in Meckl., cf.Lübárs.

Lubetsch (UGer.): MHG = ‘naive, simple person’ (Joh. Lubetsch,Aargau 1378),

Lubisch, Lubitsch, Lubig, Lubka (Lausitz, Sil.): sh.f. of Slav. pers.n. Lubomir, Luboslav, like Liebisch, Liebig from Libomir; cf. Lubomirsky. Lubigk freq. in the city register of Lübben. For further information see Laubisch.

Lübner: from Lüben in Silesia.

Lubrich (CentrGer.) = Lubrecht, Lubricht, Lubert; see Lübbert and Leuprecht. Lubrecht,Berlin 1565. In Würzburg Sir Lubrich 1385, Heinrich Lübrich 1322, H. fil [son] Luverici 1212.

Lübs: pl.n. in Pom., Brandenburg.

Lucas, patr. Lucassen see Lukas. Also Lux and Laux.

Luchs: [lynx] person with keen eyesight. In Basel name was also house name: Hugo zem Luchse 1300. See also Lux.

Lucht (freq. in Hbg.) besides Luchtmann: related to the NW Ger. loc.n. Lucht, cf. Burchardt vonder Lucht,Wesel (Rhine) 1595. Hence Lücht unless LGer. lüchte ‘light, lantern’ is meant, cf. Thid. Luchte in Lübeck, Nic. Luchte,Greifswald 1290 besides Luchtemaker, Luchtenmeker,Greifswald, Stralsund, Ro., Lüb., Hbg. (they made wooden and iron lamps); ‘eine kamere mit schorsteenen und luchten’ [a room with chimneys and window openings] was the required master piece of the masons in 14th c. Holstein.

Luchterhand (LGer.): = UGer. Linkerhand [left hand].

Luchting: = Lucht. Lucht may also refer, like Luchterhand, to a left-handed person, cf. Diderik dey Luchte, Dortmund 1377, Knight Gobel Luchte, near Stettin 1331, farmer Joh. L., Rogehn in Meckl. 1400.

Lucius see Lutz.

Lucke (Sax., Sil.): from pl.n. Lucka in Sax., Sudeten, Luckau in Lausitz. Likewise Lucker.

Lück(e): freq. in Hbg. contracted from Lüdeke (= Ludolf), see there. Patr. is Westph. Lücking (from Lüdeking), cf. Göcking (from Gödeking). Lücker like Göcker. Likewise LGer. Lücken, Lückens, like Göcken(s).

Lückel see Lauckhard.

Luckenbach: means ‘swampy creck’; several creeks of that name in Westerwald and in Würt., Lücke Creek south of Gießen. Cf. Lückerath (Luckenrode) in Rhineland; Lückstedt, Altmark area (like Hückstedt); Lucklum (from Luckenhem) near Braunschweig (like Ahlum: Adenhem). Also Luckfeldt, Luckwaldt: pl.n. Luckenwalde on the Nuthe River, Brandenburg.

Lückfett see Lickefett.

Luckhardt see Lauckhardt.

Lücking see Lücke.

Luck(mann): freq. in Hbg., Lukeman,Bremen 1341 (like Kuleman!): from LGer. luke ‘hole’.

Luckner (Sax.): from Luckenau near Zeitz; also cf. pl.n. Luken, Lukau (Iglau). Lukner,Brünn 1343, Prague 1397, Nikolsberg 1414. In Tyrol however Lucke (= Lücke, Loch, meaning: ‘gap, hole’) is loc.n.: Gänsluckner; Wolfsluckner (farmstead “in der Wolfslucken” [in the wolf’ s hole], 1371); cf. Bruckner for Brückner.

Ludat (Lith.), Luda, Ludek (Slav.): from Slav. stem Lud- (ljud, ljut-) ‘dear’, like Ludmilla.

Lüdde, Lüddeke, Lüddeman see Lüde(ke), Lüdemann.

Lude (CentrGer., UGer.): sh.f. of Ludewig; Cunrat Lude,Mühlh. in Thur. 1298, squire Lude (Ludwig)v.Krotzingen, Breisgau 1460. UGer.-Bav. Ludl: Frenczl Ludl,Iglau 1415.

Lüde(c)ke, Lüdemann (freq. in Hbg.): in the Middle Ages popular sh.f. of Ludolf, see there. Also Lüd(t)ke, Lüddeke, Lüddemann; often contracted Lühmann. Cf. Ludeke (Ludoff)Röver, Lüneburg 1351, Lüdeke (Ludoff) Hörnken, Friesland 1504. Lüdeman = Ludolf in Stralsund around 1300.

Lüder, Lüders (freq. in Hbg.); also Lüdders, contracted Lühr, Lührs, patr. Lührsen, also Lüer(s), Lü(e)rssen; Lühring, Lührig: in the Middle Ages popular LGer. pers.n., equivalent UGer. Liut-her: Leuther,CentrGer.-Thur. Luther (Martin Luther’s father spelled his name Luder). Also cf. Lothar (Hlod-hari); the original Germanic components hlod (lud) ‘fame’ and liud (liut) ‘people, nation, tribe’ are hard to distinguish anymore. The sh.f. (same as for Ludolf!) was Lüdeke: Luderus (Ludeke) Northman, Stade 1300, Luderus (Ludeke) Rufus, Lüb. 1289, Luderus (Ludolfia!),Stralsund 1280.

Luderer (UGer.): MHG luoderer ‘gourmet, milksop, softy’, Bechtold Luderer,Frkf. 1387.

Lüdert (Westph.) =Liutward (Germanic pers.n.), cf. pl.n. Lüerdissen: 1142 Lutwardessem.

Ludger see Lüttgert.

Ludl see Lude, Ludwig.

Ludolf, Ludolph: patr. Ludolfs, with metathesis (the l switched position) Ludloff (like Radloff), Ludeleff, Luleff: Lülf, Lülfing, Lühlfsmann (cf. Fris. Fülfs = Folkolfs): in the LGer. area Ludolf used to be a highly popular pers.n., cf. ducal dynasty of the Ludolfingers (Emperor Henry I, Otto the Great, etc.). Sh.f. Lüdecke, Lüdemam see Lüdeke. UGer. equivalent is Liutolf: Leutolf, Leutloff, Leidolph, etc.

Lüdt see Lüth.

Lüdtke (freq. in Stettin) see Lüdecke.

Ludwig, Ludewig: name has become famous through kings, princes and nobles (Fr. Louis): Germanic Hlôd-wig, ‘fame’ and ‘battle’ loving; the West Frankish Chlodovech was the founder of the Frankish kingdom 486. See Bahlow VN, p.67. See also LGer. Ladewig for Lodewig (Fris. Lodewykes) as well as sh.f. Lutz, Hess. Lotze, Bav. Ludl. Because of its Frankish origin name is widespread in Thur., Sax. and Sil. as FN.

Lueger (UGer.-Bav.-Aust.): from pl.n. and farmstead name Lueg in Tyrol, MHG luoc ‘cave, hideout in the mountains as a vantage point for hunters to spot deer’ [lu(e)gen = ‘to see, look’]. Also cf. Luginsland [look into the country, over the land], Prague 1406, likewise Hensel Lugindstat [look into town] for the watchman, Moravia 1382. Dietel im Lueg,Moravia 1414. Lugenwolf [spy the wolf] Ziechzumlueg.

Lüer (freq. in Hbg.), Lürssen see Lüder.

Luft, Lüftl, Liftl (UGer.): several meanings possible, most likely from pl.n. (cf. Hoheluft ‘high air’, Zeißluft ‘pleasant air’) also Luff (CentrGer.) Joh. Luffler,Moravia 1403, Hans Lufftel,Moravia 1414, Hans Lufft, famous printer in Wittenberg. In Basel L. also house name: zem Luft 1451.

Luger(t): in Bav. = Lueger, like Huber: Hueber; otherwise from pl.n. Lugau (Sax., Brandenburg).

Luhde (Hbg.): pl.n. Luhden on the Weser River unless = Lude.

Lühder(s) see Lüders.

Lühe (von der): river near Stade (lu ‘dirt, mire’), cf. the Luhe River near Winsen.

Lühle, Lüling, Lülmann (LGer.): in old documents: Ludolf, Lule = Lulof, Riga 1286.

Luhm: pl.n. Luhme NE of Rheinsberg.

Luhmann: from the Luhe River near Winsen; see also Lühe.

Lühmann (freq. in Hbg.): LGer. form contracted from Lüdemann, see there. Cf. Thiemann for Thiedemann (LGer. dental consonant freq. lost between vowels). In some cases the Lühe River may be involved, see Luhmann.

Luhn (Hbg.): Luhn rivers in E Frisia and Luhnau River (with Luhnstedt) near Schleswig (lun, lu ‘dirt, mire’, see Bahlow ON, p. 311).

Lühnen: pl.n. Lünen on the Lippe River. Cf. Lünemann. Lühning see Lüning.

Luhr: (Hbg.) see Lauer.

Lühr, Lührs (freq. in Hbg.): in LGer. contracted from Lüder(s), see there. Hence patr. Lührsen, Lühring, Lührig. Also see Lauer.

Lührmann see Lürmann.

Lühwink (Hbg.): also Luhdefink, Löhdefink: probably = Lühlfing = Ludolfing [from Germanic pers.n. Ludolf]. Cf. Lubbert Loedelvynck, Maastricht 1438.

Luise: fem. derivation from Fr. Louis (Ludwig), therefore former spelling: Louise. Name has become popular since the Rococo era, especially through the Prussian queen Luise. See also Bahlow VN,p.67.

Luitpold (Bav.): in this form only as dynastic f.n., see Leupold.

Lukas: started as f.n. not until around 1400, promoted through the patron saint of painters (Lukas Cranach!). As a biblical name (of the evangelist) it was very popular during the time of the Reformation; contracted form Lucks, Lux (Laux), likewise Marx from Markus; patr. Lukasen, Luxen. E Ger.-Slav. Luk(e)sch, Lukaschek. Cf. Markus and Lukas,Brsl. 1369.

Lüke (freq. in Hbg.) see Lücke (Lüdeke). Likewise Lüker.

Lukner see Luckner.

Luley: LGer. ‘lazybones’ (see Brech. p. 215).

Lülf, Lülfing see Ludolf.

Lulle, Lülle: cf. lullen ‘to lull a child to sleep’; UGer.-Swab. Lulle means ‘sleepy, naive person’. Hans Lülli,Saulgau 1349. For LGer. Lülle cf. LGer. Lüllepop = Lullpfaffe [simpleton of a priest] (contemptous name for a priest), MHG lollebruder, lullebruder; lol-hart ‘Lollharde, Begharde’ = ‘friar, lay brother’. Lüldeke Lulle,Hbg. 1252, Stralsund 1324.

Lüllemann (Hbg.): from pl.n. Lüllau or Lulle. (See Bahlow ON, p. 311). Simon Lulleman,Bremen 1514, Hartlib Lulleman,near Mainz 1264.

Lumbeck: Westph.-Dutch creek name, from lum ‘damp dirt, mire’ (cf. Rumbeck in Westph.).

Lumme, Lumbe: MHG lumbe ‘loin, flank’ (Lat. lumbus), hence lumbel, lummel ‘loin meat’. Peter Lumme,Ingelheim 1348.

Lummer, Lummert: probably loc.n., cf. pl.n. Lummerschied (Saar area). But cf. Lummerding (patr.) and Lummertz, Lommertz in Rhineland, which are obviously local variants of Lammertz, Lammerding (= Lambert), analogous to Lumbard = Lombard, Lambard.

Lumpe: MHG = ‘rag, scrap’; name for a ragman, scrap dealer. Peter Lumpe,Frkf. 1336; Lumpenhans,Ohrdruf 1511. Cf. Lumphose.

Lund(t), Lundmann: from Lunden in Dithmarschen. Laur. Lundt,Flensburg 1603. Also from loc.n. Lund (cf. Krawelund near Flensburg 1603), Dan.-Swed. = ‘woods’. P. Lundeman,Ro. 1257.

Lünemann: from Lünen on the Lippe River; cf. Bünemann. See also Lühnen, Luhn.

Lünenschloß: like Scheurnschloß, surnames of a locksmith, also Leunenschloß [Schloß = ‘lock’].

Lunge, Lungmuß: probably surname for cooks; cf. Pfannmus, Morgenmus [Mus = ‘food, mush’]. 1266 in Col. a house called “zur Lunge” [Lunge = ‘lung’] and a Lungengasse [Gasse = ‘lane’].

Lüni(n)g: (LGer.) ‘sparrow’. Hermann Luning,Meppen 1290 (Stralsund 1277). Cf. Plückedelüning (bird seller).

Lunkenbein: ‘sparrow leg’.

Lünsmann see Lünzmann.

Lünstedt (Hbg.) like Lünstroth contains the creek name Lüne (lun ‘dirt, mire’, hence ‘swampy underbrush’). See also Luhn, Lüneburg.

Lünzmann (Lünsmann): freq. in Hbg., from Lünzen near Soltau.

Lunz(er): from loc.n. in Tyrol.

Lüpertz (Rhineland), also Lupertz, see Leuprecht, Leiprecht. Cf. Hupertz.

Lüpfert (Alem.) =Liutfrid,see Leipfert. Cf. Claus Lüpfrid, Aargau 1385.

Lüpke see Lübcke.

Lupp: sh.f. of L.Rhine Luppertz (Lüpertz), cf. Luppker, Lüppen etc.; analogous to Hupp = Huppertz. But MHG luppe ‘ointment, medication’: Mertein Lupp 1462, A. Lupper,Bav. 1392.

Lüri(n)g, Lürich (Hbg.) see Lühring.

Lürmann (Westph.): from the field and pl.n. Lür (von Leur:Westph. Urkundenbuch [document register] 3), cf. Lür near Brilon, Lürwald [L. forest] between the Lenne and Ruhr rivers, Lür-beke:Lürbke, a creek near Iserlohn; in der Lüre,district of Höxter, Lürfeld (field name) near Soest, all from lur ‘swampy water’. Alff Lürmann,Iserlohn 1426.

Lürssen see Lührsen.

Lürfzing see Lörtzing.

Lurz, Lorz: ‘the clumsy one’, MHG lurz, L.Rhine lorz. Cf. Bernger Lurz,Karlstadt 1293, Hainrich Lurze,Überlingen 1280. Lürzer: ‘cheat, fraud, swindler’ (from MHG verb lurzen).

Lüsch, Lüschen (LGer.): named after the dwelling or origin of the person, from lüsch ‘reed grass’ (MHG liesche, Dutch lisch), Swiss Lüscher. Also cf. pl.n. Lüsche (near Celle, Vechta). Also see Liesch.

Luschka, Luschke, Luschmann (E Ger.-Slav.): from Wend. luscha ‘puddle’ (Sil. Lusche), Czech. luschi ‘swampy meadow’.

Lüs(s)enhop (Hbg.): indicates a dwelling ‘on a swampy reed or grass knoll’ (see Lüsch). Cf. Lüssenhoff, Lüs(s)mann, Lüsse, Lüssen, Lüsing, Lüsebrink, Lüßbrink, Lüßberg. pl.n. Unter-Lüß.

Lust, Lüstl, UGer.: from MHG luste ‘graceful, lovely’, lust ‘pleasure, delight, desire’. Auberli Lust,Würt. 1451, Henczman Lustel,Iglau 1369.

Lustgart: ‘pleasure garden’, loc.n.

Lütge, Lütgen(s), Lüttgens, Lüthge, Lüthgens, Lütje, Lüthjen(s), Lüth, Lüthke, Lütke(ns), frequent LGer. or L.Rhine offshoots (with k-suffix) of the older Ger. pers.ns., with Liut (Lüt-)‘people, nation, tribe’ or Lud- ‘fame’ as especially in Liudolf, sh.f. Lüdeke,see there. Also cf. Luthard, Luther, Lutmar, Liutbert (Lübbert), Liutfrid, Liudger.

Lüth (freq. in Hbg.), Lüthe, Lüthens, etc. see Lütge. Likewise Lüthje, Lüthjen(s), in the Middle Ages: Lüdeke, Lüdeken:in LGer.-Fris. tj stands for dk as in Gäthje(ns) for Gödekens.

Luthardt, Swab. Luithardt, UGer. Leuthard, see there. Cf. Lutard,Col. 1170, Ro., Lüb. 1262, Alerd son of Luterd,Oldenburg 1273. Clas Luthard,Würt. 1421.

Luther see Lüder and Leuther.

Lüthi (Alem.-Swiss): sh.f. of Lüthold, see Leuthold. Liutinus (Lütoldus)Höwaer, Konstanz 1307, Cuoni Lüti =Cuoni Lütold,Würt. 1381.

Luthmer see Lüttmer.

Lütke, Lütkens (LGer.) see Lüdeke.

Lutsch, Lütschi (UGer. or Alem.) see Leutsch and Lutz. Lütschi Resch, Würt. 1341.

Lütt, Lütten (freq. in Hbg.): based on Lüdde, Lüdden, see there.

Lutter, Luttermann: from pl.n. Lutter (also a river name), sev. times in the area of Brsw.-Han.-Eichsfeld, besides Luttern near Celle, Lutterbeck in the Solling (Forest) area (lut ‘dirt’; see Bahlow ON, p. 313). Bernhard v. Luttere,Han. 1323.

Lutteroth: pl.n. ending in -rode (Thur.) like Germeroth, Klapperoth.

Lüttge, Lüttgens, Lüthge see Lütge.

Lüttichau (von): pl.n. in Saxony.

Lüttjohann (LGer.): ‘little, young John’ besides Grotjohann (the father). Cf. Lüttschwager (Lüttkeschwager, Köslin 1587). Lüttich, Lüttig, Lüttick is Pomeranian for Lütteke, originally Lüdeke (from Ludolf), see there. Cf. Peter Lüttich (Lüttike, Lütke),Stolp 1581. Lüttmann (LGer.) see Lütt(en). Also LGer. lütt ‘small, little’ may be involved, cf. Lütkeman,Barth 1441, Gottfrid Lütke (Lüttike),Dülmen 1457, Lütteke Make, Lüneburg 1357.

Lüt(t)gert, Lüt(t)ger, patr. Lüdgering (Westph.) = Ludger (Liudger),Westph. saint’s name (bishop of Münster, 8th c.), therefore still a popular f.n. there. Liutger,a Saxon ruler, appears in the Nibelungen epic. A long form is: Sir Ludingherus van dem Sande, Lüneburg 1273 (cf. Redingher = Rüdeger).

Lüttmer(s), Luthmer: Germanic pers.n. Liutmar, Hlodmar. Lutmer (Lutmarus),Bremen 1244, Hbg. 1255, Greifswald 1309, Stralsund.

Luttner (Bav.) like Suttner: lutte, sutte = ‘dirt’, cf. Luttengraben [dirty ditch], Luttenbach [dirty creek].

Lüttwitz: pl.n. [probably from Lüttewitz near Dresden]

Lutz: UGer. sh.f. of Ludwig, still today used as f.n. Hence Lutzmann, Lutsch.

Lützeler (UGer.): in some cases pl.n. Lützel and Lützeln (district of Siegen, thus freq. in Düsseldorf), but in Würt. from lützel ‘small, little, little bit’: Heinz Winmar der Lützler,Echterdingen 1360, cf. Hans Lützelman, Bottwar 1350. A town Lützel also in Alsace. Lützelkolb, Litzelkolb (pointing to their battle club) is a surname for knights, Wetzlar 1244, Kassel 1336.

Lützelschwab: ‘little Swabian’, from MHG lützel ‘small, little’.

Lützow: Wend. pl.n. in Meckl.

Lux, Laux (UGer.) see Lukas (Lucks) and Laux. Lux Lütholt, Geisingen 1542.

  1. Anonymous (leach w. E. ?)

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    -Anonymous, 1917. " Results of the South Australian Museum expedition to Strzelecki and Cooper Creeks. September and October 1916". p 490. Trans.
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    Recherche bei Umlauten ggf. über ae, oe, ue suchen! Dasselbe gilt: Wenn mit „ß“ kein Ergebnis vorliegt, ggf. mit „ss“ suchen! Bei den Signaturnummern gibt das letzte Kürzel (z.

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