Aar: the old term for Ger. Adler (adel ar) and means ‘eagle’: Frid dictus [called] Ar, near Konstanz 1258. See Ahr. Aaron

K

Kaa(c)k (freq. in Hbg.): LGer. form variant for Kock (Koch) ‘cook’; Tyle kake (kok), Barth 1461, Jacob kakemester, Barth 1490. Cf. Haack for Hoke and Knaack for Knoke. Likewise Kaakschlief for koke-slef ‘cooking spoon’!

Kaakschhef (Hbg.): MLG koke-slef ‘cooking spoon’, surname for a cook, see Kaack.

Kaacksteen, Ka(c)kstein (Hbg., Ro.): MLG kâk-stên ‘stone pillory, punishing post’ (in the Middle Ages). Surname formed after the dwelling place: Heyse bymekake ‘by the pillory’ (and his wife: de Kakeheysesche), Haldsl. 1348. Cf. 1561 in Flensburg: updemKakegestupet [punished at the pillory].

Kaap(ke): LGer. = Kopeke, see- Köpke.

Kabel (freq. in Hbg.): MLG = ‘ship’s rope, anchor rope’, surname for a ropemaker, Kabelmacher, Kawelmacher (vital trade in the North Sea port cities). Joh. Kavel (Kabel), Lüb. 1327. Also Langkabel, Langkawel. A pl.n. Kabel near Hagen.

Kabelitz: Slav. pl.n.

Kaben see Kaven.

Käbernick, Kipernick: Slav. pl.n., see Kopernik.

Kabig see Kappus.

Kab(i)sch: E Ger-Slav., probably like Kob(i)sch = Jakob; cf. Kabitzke: Kobitzke, Kabusch (Lith. Kabuschat) like Kohusch.

Kabold: in LGer. area recorded as surname, Joh. Kaboldus, Ro. around 1250 (cf. pl.n. Kavelstorf in Meckl., which was Kabeldestorp 1284), Lod. Kabold, Stralsund 1288, Barth 1475, Anklam 1512; also in Westph.. Heinrich Kavolt 1319.

Kaboth, Kabuth, Kabath (Slav.): cf. Kabisch. For suffixes -at, -ot, -ut cf. Borat, Borut (Botislaw) and others. Also note Czech Kabat ‘jacket’ (kabatnik ‘tailor’). A pl.n. Kabott near Bromberg.

Kächler, Kachler (MHG kacheler): Alem.-Swab. = ‘potter’ (term still in use in Alsace, Switz., Tyrol). Theodericus Kachelere, Alsace 1290. Hence Kachel, Kächele (from MHG kachel ‘earthenware, clay pot’): Jerg Kächeli, Markdorf in Baden 1452.

Käckenhoff (LGer.) = Küchenhoff, see there.

Käck(en)meister (LGer.) = Küchenmeister = ‘chef, kitchen manager’. Cf. Käck (LGer.) ‘kitchen’. Henning Kokemester, Haldsl. around 1400, J. Kakemester, Barth 1490.

Kä(e)ker (Hbg., Ro., Wismar): = MLG Köker ‘quiver, container’. Cf. Schittkäker (Schüddeköker). Henning Koker, Ro. 1320, Henneke Koker, Hbg. 1359, Eler Koker, Kösl:in 1327. Hence lichtkaker ‘container for candles’. See also Hermann Bothe’s collection of Low German idioms DeKöker, around 1520.

Kaczinarek, Kaczmarczyk, Pol. Kretschmar [village tavern owner], from Pol. karczmar ‘village pub’, Kretscham (Sil.-Bohemian),

Kadel (UGer.): MHG kadel ‘soot, dirt’ (from Slavic); Wenczlaw Kadel, Moravia 1408. Also K(h)odl.

Käding (freq. in Hbg.) see Keding.

Kadner: from Kaaden on the Eger River (Sudeten area), Nic. Kadaner, Deutsch-Brod 1382, Nitsche vom Cadan, Liegnitz 1372. Likewise Kaden, Kadisch (like Leipisch from Leipa, Glogisch from Glogau) and Kade (also pl.n. near Genthin). Also cf. pl.n. Kaden in Westerwald area.

Kadolt (UGer.): old pers.n. (according to F.Stark probably not of German but Celtic origin), cf. Cadoldus, Austria 12th c., Brünn 1354, Jekl Cadolt, Prague 1363, Conred Kadoldus, Speyer 1271.

Kadow: pl.n. in Meckl., Pom.

Kaf(e)nimm (Bav.-Aust.) = Kaufmann ‘merchant’.

Käfer, Käferle: MHG kefer ‘beetle’. cf. Kefermündt, Iglau 1366. Rueßkäfer see Rußwurm.

Kafka (Bohemia): Slav. = ‘jackdaw’, (bird). Also Jewish (e.g. the writer Franz Kafka). Kaf(f)sack (Wuppertal): MLG kaf ‘chaff’, nickname for peasants, cf. Strohsack [straw sack], Habersack [oats sack], Hopfensack [hop sack], Bohnsack [bean sack].

Kaftan: long sleeved garment, caftan (Turkish word).

Kage, Kag (UGer.): ‘cabbage trunk’. Albrecht der Kage, Alsace 1284. Alem. also Kägi (Switz.), Käglin (Würt.).

Käg(e)bein, Kege(n)bein: ‘person with limp’ (from MHG kogen ‘to drag’).

Kagel, Kageler, Kagelmacher, Kagelmann: LGer. for older Kogel, Kogeler, UGer. Kugler (MHG gugler), for the manufacturer of hoods (on coats or monks’ robes), from Lat. cuculla. Wolder Kogeler 1388, Nic. Kageler, Greifswald 1380. Cf. Linnekogel, Riefkogel, Rodekogel.

Kager, Kagerer (UGer., freq. in Bav.): from the loc.n. Kag, Kagen, Kager (freq. in Bav. and Aust.). Also Kagerbauer, Kagerhuber.

Kagerah (Hbg.): place name.

Kah, Kahe, Kalunann (UGer., Baden): probably name of a location.

Kä(h)ding see Keding.

Kahl, Kahle (freq.): bald, baldhead, cf. R. Calekop, Lüb. 1325, Kalefend (likewise Grotefend), Kalheymich, Liegnitz 1372. In Silesia and Lausitz also with “strong” ending: Kahler, mostly Kahlert (with secondary -t): Nickel Kaler, Glatz 1384, Frenczel Kaler, Görlitz 1434. Cf. Kleiner(t), Rother(t), etc. (Bahlow SN, p. 27). Hence Vornkahl [bald in front]. Kahl(e)mann: Kuncze Caleman, Zittau 1381.

Kahlandt: member of a Kaland Fraternity: see A. Götze, p. 11.

Kahlau: pl.n. in E.Prussia, also in Guhrau district in Sil., Calau in Lausitz. Mertin Kalaw, Görlitz 1417. In some cases Kahler may derive from pl.n., cf. Grunert from Grunau.

Kahlbetzer like Kalbitz(er): from Calbitz in Sax.; cf. Kahlweit: Kalweit.

Kahlbohm, Kahlbaum (Hbg.): named after the dwelling place [kahl = ‘bald’]. (Cf. Kahlbrock, Kahlfeld), unless = Kohlbaum which means the pole of the charcoal burner (to stoke the fire); cf. related LGer. Kahlbrandt (Hbg.) besides Kohlbrandt (Kolebrant, Kalebrant around 1300 in Ro., Stralsund, etc.) and Kahlfeuer (Hbg.) all mean ‘coal fire’.

Kahlen see Kalen.

Kahler(t) see Kahl.

Kähler (LGer., Meckl.) = Köhler [charcoal burner]. CL Käkeruneister, Gädeke, Däbeler, and others.

Kahlisch see Kalisch.

Kahlke (freq. in Hbg.): LGer. = Kahle [the bald one].

Kahlstorff (Hbg.): pl.n. near Ülzen.

Kahlweit see Kallweit.

Kahn (freq. in Hbg.): surname of a bargeman, cf. Joh. Soltkane, Hbg. 1307 (‘salt barge’) and Bertram Canere, Hbg. 1255. Tid Kaneman, Ro. 1302, Kanenvörer [barge driver], Stettin 1345, Kanemaker [boat maker]; “Kahn” is a LGer. word meaning ‘boat, barge’. Also Kahnke, Kahns, Kahnes (Hbg.), where however the Fris pers.n. may be involved: cf. Hidde Kaneken, Friesland 1442 (see Stark, p. 170). See also Jewish Kahn Cohn. Nic. Langhecane, Meckl. 1374.

Kahnenbley, Kahnebley (Hbg.): cf. Kanenblok ‘timber for barges’.

Kahrs (Hbg.) = Macarius, likewise Lahrs Hilarius.

Kaib (UGer.), Keib, Kaibel, Keibel: (from MHG keibe ‘mean person, carrion, corpse’). Formerly used as a scolding word. Otto Kaib, Würt. 1286. Cf. Kaibengraben [Graben = ‘ditch’], Kaibenloch [Loch = ‘hole’], Kaibenacker [Acker = ‘field’].

Kaifel, Kaifler (UGer.) see Käufel, Käufler.

Kain (Tyrol): dialect form for Kuenz = Konrad, cf. Kainzwalder (Tyrol) from Kuenzwald; likewise Kaindl = Kuenel, sh.f of Kainradl = Konrad.

Kaisen (Bremen): Fris. patr. of Kay (freq. in Hbg.).

Kaisenberg: UGer. pl.n.

Kaiser, Kayser (UGer.), Keyser, Keiser, Rhineld. Keysers: non-regional freq. surname, also for peasants (likewise König, Herzog, and others), in some cases adopted through house names: domus dicta [the house called] zumeKeiser, Worm 1320, there also Jacob Keyser 1279; for more information see A. Götze, p. 68. Menczel Keyser, Striegau 14th c., Elbel Keyser, Eger 1395.

Käker see Kicker.

Kakerbeck (Hbg.): pl.n. (Stade and Wittingen) = ‘dirty creek’.

Kakosch, Kakuschke: Slav. probably Kokoschka, Kokoschke ‘little rooster’.

Kaland, Kalander see Kahland. Diderek Kalander, Han. 1346.

Kalb, LGer. Kalf, also Kälble (Swab.): [calf] peasant name like Rind [ox, cow] Ochs, Öchsle [litle ox]. albfleisch [calf meat, veal] refers to a butcher (also Rindfleisch), likewise Kalbfell [calf skin] (Jerg Kalbfell, butcher in Reutlingen). Hence Kalbskopf [calf’s head], Kalbsfuß [calf’s foot). A butcher celled Keibertot [calves dead] in Worms 1304. A tanner Kalbleder [calf leather] in Reutlingen 1345. But Calvesoge, Stralsund 1310 (‘dumb eye’). A knight Erland Kalf and his son Jacob Kalf in Holstein 1372. Barthold Sumerkalf Lippe 1358.

Kalbe, Kalben (von): pl.n. Calbe on the Saale River (in old documents Claiver, a prehistoric river name. see Bahlow ON, p. 247.

Kalberlah: pl.n. near Githorn (-lah, -loh ‘woods’), see Bahlow ON, p. 247.

Kalbitz(er) see Kahlbetzer.

Kalbreyer, Kallbreier (UGer.): Breyer = Bräuer; Kall- probably a field name, cf. Merbreyer, Wienbreyer.

Kalch- (UGer.) see Kalk-.

Kaldaun [tripe]: surname of the tripe maker and dealer (Bere Caldune, Haldsl. 1400).

Kalde(n): from Kalden (Calden) NE of Kassel; prehistoric creek name, cf. the Kalde creeks in Spessart and Schmalkalde in Thur. etc. (Bahlow ON, p. 248).

Kalder: pl.n. Kaldern near Marburg (Godebold Kaldere, Aschaffenburg 1213).

Kaldewey, Kaldewei see Koldewey.

Kalefendt (Hbg.) see Fendt.

Kalen, Kahlen: Slav. pl.n. in Meckl., Pom. Likewise Kalo(w), kal ‘swamp’, cf. Kaliwoda ‘swamp water’.

Kalf(f) see Kalb.

Kaliebe: Albert Kalibe, Stralsund 1307. Otte vanCalliben, Haldsl. 1400. Name derived from Slav. pl.n. (cf. koliba ‘shack’).

Kalinke (Kalina): Slav. ‘viburnum, snowball’ (shrub), hence in Silesia: Kalinkenbeere [K. berry].

Kalisch, Kalischer: Slav. pl.n. (Poland).

Kalkbrenner (LGer. -berner), Kalkofen: names for men working at a lime kiln (Wilhelm zemKalkoven, Basel 1298), UGer. also Kalker, Kalcher [Kalk = ‘chalk, lime’] (cf. Kalchgruber in Tyrol; im Kalch or im Lett, im Lehm [clay]). Hence Kalklösch; Kalkoff [Kalk brennen or löschen = ‘to burn or slake lime’].

Kalkreuth (von): pl.n. in Sil. and Sax., is one of the Franconian names ending in -reut ‘a clearing’: Kalchreuth near Nbg. (W. Katckreuter, Nbg. 1520).

Kallbreier see Kalbreyer.

Kallenbach: pl.n. in Thur. and Westph.; also Kalmbach on the Enz River, was called Calenbach in 1110. Cf. Kallenberg, Kallenborn, Kallenhardt, Kallenbrock.

Kal(l)hardt: MHG. kal-hart ‘babbler, blabbermouth’ (kallen ‘to talk loudly’); “vil kalhart und klapperleut zerstören manche guote freud” [many blabs and babblers often spoil the fun] (from Sebastian Frank, Sprichwörter 2, 192b). Eberhard Kalhart, Eger 1387. Also cf. Kaller(t): Blasius Kallert 1570; but see Kahler(t).

Kallies: pl.n. in Pomerania.

Kallmann (also Jewish: besides Callomon, Calmanowitz): as early as 1376 in Baden a Kalman Jew. Cf. Uman: Salomon. But name of origin: Hermen Kalleman, Bremen 1476 and Joh. de Calle, Bremen 1313; see Kallmeyer.

Kallmeyer (Westph.): Kalle is a water word and pl.n. (Calne ‘dirty water’; see Bahlow ON, p. 248).

Kallmorgen, Kollmorgen (Hbg.): Kaldemorgen (Essen). also field name. Cf. Albrecht Kaldenacht [cold night], Frkf. 1397.

**Kallweit (E Prus.-Lith.); but for Callwey see Kaldewey, Koldewey.

Kalm (von): pl.n. Kalme near Wolfenbüttel.

Kalo(w) see Kalen.

Kalteis (UGer.): ‘cold iron’ (name of a blacksmith), cf. Gareis. Albert Kaltysen, Vaihingen 1265, U. Chalteisen, Eger 1323.

Kalthoff, Kaldenhoff. Westph. farmstead name. Kaltenböck (Bav.) = Kaltenbacher. Cf. Kaldcherberger, Brsl. 1387, Calderwirt, Kolin 1382, Kalderleytgebe (tavern owner who sells cider or fruit wine), Olmütz 1409.

Kaltschnädt: coppersmith, in some cases Kalkschmidt is involved, cf. Hensel Kaltsmid (Kalichsmit!), Deutsch-Brod 1385.

Kalweit see Kallweit.

Kambs (Ro.) see Kamps.

Kameke (von): E Ger.-Slav., also Kamke.

Kamin: E Ger.-Slav. pl.n., hence Kaminski.

Kamlade (Hbg.): loc.n. like Kandab (see Kalberlah); kam- ‘swamp, dirty water’ (see Bahlow ON, p. 249).

Kammanm (Westph., freq. in Hbg.), Kammeyer in Hbg.: contrected from Kampamm, Kamp-e-yer (Kampfmeyer), named after the dwelling place by the field (Kamp = ‘field’), freq. in the farm region of Westphalia. See also Kamp, Kampf, Kimpffler.

Kämmel, Kemmel, Keinmle (UGer.) MHG kembel, kemmel, kammel ‘camel’. Also house name zum Kämbel (still today in Zurich). Burkart Kameli (Kemlin), Konstanz 1346-49.

Kammer (UGer.) = Kammerer ‘treasurer’, unless = Karnber ‘comb maker’. Weigel Kammer, Iglau 1367, Jehel Cammer(er), Budweis 1396.

Kämmer, Kemmer (UGer.-Sil.): Wollkämmer ‘wool comber, fuller’ (MHG kemmer) unless = Kämmerer ‘treasurer’. Rütsch kemmer, Liegnitz 1372.

Kämmerer, UGer. Kammer(er), Humanist form: [Kammer = ‘chamber’] Camerarius: administrator of the revenues in the treasury (at courts, in communities and monasteries). Hence Kammermeister, Kammerschreiber [clerk], Kammerknecht [servant], Kammerwächter [guard] at the above mentioned institutions. Kämmeding (MHG kemerlinc ‘chamberlain’).

Kammin: Slav. pl.n. in Pom. and Meckl.

Kam(m)ler, Kim(rn)ler (Brsl., Dresden): see Kamsetzer. But according to DeutschesWörterbuch 5, 133 = ‘wool comber, fuller’.

Kamp, standard German Kampf: in NW Germany, especially in Westph. a freq. field name, Kamp = ‘field’. Hence Kampatann, Kammann, cf. Distelkamm [thistle field], Rohkamm (Rodekamp), Kamchulte, Kamphenkel, Kampfhenkel (Henkel = Heinrich, Henrich), Kampfmeyer and others. Also compounds like Surkamp, Kulenkampf, Kreuzkamm. Likewise Westph. derivations ending in -er (cf. Büscher, Hölter): Kamper, Kämper, Kempor, Kimpfer along with Bohnenkämper, Strotkomper, Holzenkämpfer. L.Rhine-Westph. also Ingenkamp (“in dem Kamp”), Uppenkamp [on the field], Kempgen. Also cf. pl.ns. Kampe in Oldenburg, Kampen in Schleswig-Holstein, Campen, and others.

Kamp(f)rath: = UGer. (MHG) kampradt ‘cogwheel of a mill’ (cf. Hans Müller der Junge [the young, junior], des Kamprats Sohn, Würt. 1438).

Kämpf (UGer.), Kempf, Kömpf (Bav.); Kämpfl, Kempfle: ‘dueller’ (by profession: in legal affairs or at fairs); see Fechter, Schirmer. Friczsche Kempf, Eger 1392, Jacob Kempf, Strasb. 1259.

Kamps, Kamptz (von): Slav. pl.n. (Tessemar von Campiz, Meckl. 1286), Kambs (twice in Meckl.).

Kampstra, Camstra: Fris. see Deikstra. Take Camstra 1420.

Kamrad, Cammerath (E Ger.) see Gamradt. Cf. Pesolt Kamerat, Budweis 1368.

Kanksetzer (UGer.): ‘fireplace builder, stove and furnace fitter’ (from MHG kämin, kémin ‘chimney, cooking stove’). Kamensetzer, Augsburg 1349, Um 1455, Cammelseczer, Prague and Zwickau 1417, Kemelseczer, Iglau 1393, Fulda 1569.

Kändler, Kendler (UGer.): [person who makes pitchers] MHG kandel ‘pitcher’, KandIgießer, Nbg. 1450. Cf. Kandlbinder. Thomas Kandler, Außig 1328. In Moravia Kondler 1400. But Kandelbächle (near the Kandel Mtn.: mons Kanden) see Bahlow ON, p. 249. Hence Kandelhardt.

Kander: refers to pl.n. Kandern near Lörrach (Uli Kander 1312).

Kaneel (LGer.): ‘cinnamon’ (sticks or rolled), surname of a spice grocer, likewise Muskat, Kardamom and others. (Hinrich Kanel, Stralaund 1341).

Kanetscheider, Kantschieder (Tyrol): name of a farmstead, probably from Latin canneceturn ‘reed’ (Lat. canna).

Kaninck (Hbg.): Fris. patr., cf. Hidde Kaneken 1442 (see Stark, p, 170).

Kanitz: Slav. pl.n., cf. Canitz in Sax. (J. Ganitz, Görlitz 1409).

Kankel: pl.n. in Meckl. (Ro. 1279); cf. Lith. Kankeleit. Kankelfitz: Slav. pl.n. near Stettin.

Kann(e)gießer, LGer. Cannegieter, Cannegeter [Kanne = ‘pitcher’]: belonging to the trade of the tinsmiths or pewterers (cf. UGer. Kündler, Swab. Kantengießer, Augsburg 1389, Bav. Kandelgießer, Nbg. 1450). There is a Kannengießer Street in Brunswick. Kannengetere, Breinen 1339, Greifswald 1372, Stralsund 1300; Gebhard der kannengißer, Liegnitz 1372, see Bahlow, LiegnitzerFamiliennamen, p. 139. Cune mitderkannen, Brsl. 1356, a tavern owner Henkele zuderkannen, Frankfurt 1332; Gerung kanne, Augsburg 1325. Related are Kann (Hbg.) besides Halfkann (Halbekann), Lösekann (also Lösekros, with a spout).

Kannenberg: freq. pl.n. in N Germany.

Kannewurf: pl.n. Kannawurf on the Unstrut River. Albert von K. 1245.

Kanter, Kanther, Kanters (LGer.-UGer.-Rhineld.): Lat. cantor ‘cantor’ (Arnold cantor, Ro. 1298). Cf. Singer. Andreas Kanther, Stuttgart 1498.

Kant(h): freq. in Brsl. (Hensel vonKant around 1320 etc.), from pl.n. Kanth in Sil.

Kantha(c)k: ‘cant hook’, iron hook for lifting boxes; surname of a loader, packer. Also cf. Dreikant, Vierkant, Kantwerk.

Kantler (UGer.) besides Kantel see Kändler.

Kantner see Kentner.

Kantsteen: = Kantstein [curb], probably surname for masons.

Kantzow: pl.n. in Meckl. name is known through the Pomeranian chronicle writer Thomas K., a contemporary of Martin Luther.

Kanz (UGer.): probably means scruff of the neck. Eberhard Kanz, Tauber area 1288.

Kanzler, Kenzler: head of a (medieval) chancellery (from Lat. cancellarius).

Kapaun, Kappuhn, Kaphahn (Greek kapon): ‘castrated rooster’ (MHG kappün, also = ‘castrated man, eunuch’), the latter form, Kaphahn, was thought to be related to “Hahn”; Hear. Capün, Ro. 1280 (also Hbg., Greifswald). See Kaphengst [Hengst = ‘stallion’], Kaphammel [Hammel = ‘ram’].

Käpernick = Köpernick, see Kopernicus.

Kapf, Kapfer (Kapferer): UGer. (Würt., Baden, Bav.), means dwelling place near the top of a mountain or hill [Kapf = ‘peak’], cf. pl.n. Biedeakapf (today Biedenkopf in Hesse). Hans abdemKapf 1381.

Kapfinger: pl.n. Kapfing in Bav., Tyrol.

Kaphengst, Kaphingst (LGer.): ‘castrated stallion, gelding’, occupational surname of a castrator. Cf. Kapaun. Kophamel.

Kaplan: actually means chapel priest, Hinrich Cappelan, Lüb.

Kapp (UGer.), Kappe, Käppel(e): Kappenmacher, Kappenschneider, Kapplmacher, originally meant tailor or manufacturer of coats with a hood (from MHG kappe = kogel ‘coat or robe with a heod, also travel coat, peasant smock; cap, fool’s cap’). Hence Weißkapp, Hautkappe. Heintz Kapp, near Wiesloch 135 1. Heinrich Käppli, Konstanz 1358, Bertold Kappenüpfel, Stuttgart 1304, Joh. Kappentanz, Speyer 1496. But also cf. MHG kappe ‘capon’: kappengülte ‘capon tax’ [when taxes were paid in natural goods].

Kappelmann: from pl.n. Kappel, Cappel, Kappeln (especially in NW Germany).

Kappler (UGer.): Lat. capellarius, also Kappelheff: priest of a chapel, or living near a chapel (R. bi derChappel, Regensburg 1272).

Kappus, Kappes: surname of a cabbage farmer, from MHG kabeß ‘cabbage head’, (which in turn comes from Lat. caput ‘head’). Thid. Cabuz, Ro. 1277, Heyleman Cappuß, Mainz 1320, Kappshempt, Glatz 1476.

Karbe: MHG karwo ‘field caraway’.

Karch(er), Kärcher, Kercher (Würt., Baden, Alsace): ‘carter, transporter’, cf. Weinkercher; also Kaffer, Kärrler, (Swab. Ochsenkärrler): Ulrich Karreler 1281. Cunrad Kanicher, Speyer 1248. MHG karrech = Lat. carruca ‘cart’.

Kardemom: surname of a spice grocer or dealer. Joh. Cardemoume, Lilb. 1334, Hermann Kanel (see there), Lüb.

Kardinal: cf. Bischof, Papst and others. In Col. as early as 1135: Hartman K.

Karge, Kärgel (UGer.-Sil.); also Karger, Kerger (Sil.): MHG karc ‘cunning, sly’ (Berhtunc was listic unde karc), later also ‘stingy, ungenerous’ (karger vilz [niggard], abusive word in the Shrove Tide plays). Hs. Chr. Kärgel, Sil. writer. Heinczel Kergel, Prague 1321, Nio. Karger, Olmütz 1361; Wigand Karge, Hesse 1265.

Karius, Karies, Karges: saint’s name (Macarius the Great, Greek ‘the blessed’). Originated as a Ln. in the 15th-16th centuries: Charius Balduf, Ravensburg 1504, Kanies, Karges Quedlinburg 1598. Cf. Joh. Keris (Kaiisii), Worms 1304 (Charisius was also a saint’s name). But E Ger. Charisiuß (Danzig) occurs 1556 in old documents as Karisse and comes from the pl.n. Karisch in Sil. Cf. Krokisius (in West Prussia and Sil.) for Krokisch: from Krakau.

Kar(c)k: (LGer.) = Kerk, named after the dwelling place; Biderkarken [by the church]; Bachterkarche [behind the church], Lüneburg 1303; cf. Karkhoff. Kerkhoff. Karkmeyer (Westph.): administrator of church property.

Karl: the name of Charlemagne (original meaning ‘free man’) at the time of the Carolingians was popular with royal and noble families but never with the common people in the Middle Ages, thus it is rare today as a FN (Rhineld. and UGer.). As Ln. it became popular again through the chivalric literature and the Romantics (see Bahlow, VN, p. 59). Karlmann is still a Catholic f.n.

Karmann, Karer, Kahr (UGer.): the term Kar in Tyrol refers to a basin in a valley used as pasture; thus the region Karer Wald and others in Tyrol. But cf. MHG MLG kar ‘container, bowl, basket’: Albert Car, Ro. 1299, Nadelkar, Wetzlar 1339. Karmecher, Brsl. 14th c.

Karnap: MLG ‘bay (window), oriel’. A street in Harburg (Hbg.) and a woods near Lauenburg; pl.n. near Essen bear the name. Markward Karnap, Kiel 1340.

Karnatz (freq. in Ro.): Wendish pl.n. like Kolbatz and others; of Karnin, Karnitz.

Karnführ: (Magdeburg, Goslar) ‘carter, wagon driver’. Cord Karenvörer, Wernigerode 1348. Cf. Kameschaver [cart pusher], Lüb. 1346, Karnendriver, Bremen 1363.

Karnöffel, Korneffel: a medieval card game (Cf. Hans Kailenspiel 1448). Heinz Karnüffel, Stuttgart 1450. Similar names Fifundetwe, Quaterdri.

Karow, Carow (freq. in Stettin): Wendish pl.n. in Meckl., Pom., Brandenburg.

Karpenkiel: (Wismar) ‘carp pond’. Karpenpoel, Dortmund 1391. Also Karpenmül [carp mouth], Jena 1537, Karpensnavel [carp beak], Westph. 1294.

Karpf (UGer.), Karpe (LGer.): ‘carp’, surname of a fishmonger (Karpe, Ro. 1257), likewise Bars, Stör, Stint, Schlei, Schlie, Schnäpel, Gründel and others, all German names of fish. Hence Karpenkiel, Karpenvol, Karpenmaul; (cf. the knight Emocho Karpe, near Mainz 1270).

Kar(ra)batsch: ‘lashing whip’ (Czech-Pol., likewise Ger. Peitsche, Knute, Kantschu for whip are all Slavic words).

Karrer (UGer.): ‘carter’, Conrad Karrer (Karrenknecht), Würt. 1430-40. See also Karcher, Kirner, Kerner. Cf. Stürzekarn [tip the cart] (Störtekare, Greifswald 1300); Karrebuc, Ro. 1273 (and Lüb.).

Karsch (LGor.): ‘lively, vivacious’ (cf. karschelewe). Joh. Karsche, near Ro. 1416. Barth. Marie Luise Karsch(in) was an 18th c. writer.

Karseboom (LGer., Wismar), also Kersebom = Kirschbaum ‘cherry tree’. Cf. Cassebom 1300, Kersebom, near Ro.

Karstedt: pl.n. Karstädt in Prignitz area and Meckl. But UGer. Karstadt.

Karsten, Karstens, Kasten, Kastens, also Carsten(s), Frie. also Cassen(s): show the LGer. sound change er to ar (around 1300), i.e. was originally Kersten, i.e. Kirsten from Christian, see there. Shortened also Karst: Grotkarst, Kerst, UGer. Kirst besides Kirsten. Patronymics Carstensen, Kastensen (Hbg., Holstein), Kasting (Westph.). Kasten Borgwaldt, Ro. 1780.

Karsthans (UGer.): derisive nickname for peasants (see DeutschesWörterbuch 5, 232), also Karschhans, from karst ‘two-pronged hoe’. Cuntz Karst, Mainz 1364, R. Karstman, Brixen 1240.

Karter (Würt.): from MHG karter ‘wool carder’ (MHG karde, karte is the name of the instrument used). A. Karter, Stuttgart 1478.

Karffluser: related to the pl.n. Karthaus (several times); referring to monasteries of the Carthusian order.

Käsbohrer (Würt.), Kösporer (Bav.): Nic. Porinkeys, Brünn 1365. Käsborer, Kompten in Allgäu area 1383.

Kasch (LGer.) see Karsch: For the loss of the r cf. LGer. Kasten = Karsten, bost = berst ‘breast’ (Brust), Hostmann = Horstmann. But Kaschke (Sil.) derives from Slav. Lukaschek (Lukas), likewise Maschke from Tomaschek (Thomas).

Kaschub: Kaschube (Kassube), a Slav. tribe in Pomerania.

Käse, Keese (UGer. Käs, Bav. Kaas, Käslein; Rhineld. Kisgen): surname of a cheese dealer (Käsmann, Kmmann, Caasmann) or Käser (Keser), ‘cheese maker, dairy farmer’; also Kesemacher. Hence Kismaier, Käabeitzer, Käsbohrer (see there); Käsewasser [whey]; Schabenkese, Rivekese [grating cheese], Schimmelkäst [blue cheese], Hartkäse, Viernekäse, Lotterkäse, Schönekäs, Siebenkäs, Pfingstkes, Halbkes, Brünn 1343; see also Käsebier. Käsranft, Kasrenftli (nickname, = ‘end piece of the cheese wheel’), Zurich 1486.

Käsebier: means cheese and beer (surname perhaps for tavern and inn owners who served only cold food), in old documents: Keseundbrot, Brünn 1345. Cf. Henr. Kesebir, Horsmar on the Unstrut River 1318. Similar Milchundprot, Wasserundprot [milk-and-bread, water-and-bread], Iglau.

Käsebieter: (LGer.) ‘cheese biter’.

Käser, Käsmann and others see Käse (Ulrich keser, caseator, Brünn 1345).

Kaspar: (the black man of the Three Kings) like Melchior and Baltbasar became a f.n. only in the late Middle Ages (cf. the medieval Epiphany Plays); name was popular in 18th c. (Caspar David Friedrich, the painter), then lost some of its standing through the Kasperle figure (hand puppet), the clown in the Punch and Judy show. FNs also Casper, Caspersen (Holstein), Caspers, Kesper(s) (Rhineld.); Fris. Jasper(s), Jaspersen, Jesper(sen). Caspary (Jewish). Kasparek (Slav.), Kaspereit (Lith.).

Kassebohm see Karseboom.

Kassner: pl.n. Kassen in Moravia.

Kasten (Fris.) see Karsten.

Kastenholz (freq. in Col.): loc. name in Rhineland.

Kästner, Kestner, Franc-Bav. Köstner, UGer. also Kastner (in Glatz, with dialect -a- for -e-): original meaning: ‘administrator in charge of the granary’, and since the grain taxes developed into money taxes, the name finally came to mean ‘administrator of all revenues’ at princely courts, monasteries, etc., also Rentmeister [rent collector and administrator]. UGer. Kastenhuber, Kastenmeier, Kastenbrauer. Heinrich salzkastener, Würzburg 1289. Kassube see Kaschube. (Hans Kassube, Haldsl. 1411).

Katharina (Greek, Lat. ‘the, pure one’): martyr, along with Margareta and Elisabeth one of the chief female saints of the Middle Ages, sh.f. Käthe (like Grete and Else), UGer. Kathi, Katherl, Katrin, Katrein (also Trine); Swed. Karin (St. Karin Church in Wisby); Russ. Katja. The UGer. FN Kathrein(er) more likely from the pl.n. St. Kathrein. But cf. the metr.: Henneke Katerinen son [H. Katherine’s son], Ingelhoim 1336; also Keterlin, Bral. 1366 and Katusch, Brsl. 1365. Also UGer. Ketterl(er).

Kathmann, Kathmeier (Westph.-L.Rhine) besides Kothmoyer: ‘owner, tenant of a cottage’ (Ger. Kate, also Kote, Kotte), ‘day laborer’ (who owns no farmland, only a garden), Kossäte (from Kotsaete: Kotsasse, likewise Holt-saete: Holste). Cf. Halfkath. Katenbrink, Katenkamp. In the Netherlands: ten Cate, ten Doornkaat. See also Köther, Kötter. A pl.n. Kathen (1408 Koten) in Holstein. Cf. Herm. Katheann = Herm. indenKoten, Lemgo 1430.

Katte (LGer.): = Katze, ‘cat’. Hence Kattfuß [cat foot], Kattenstert [LGer. = ‘cat’s tail’]. Name is known through Lieutenant von Katte, friend of the young Prussian prince (1704-30) who became King Frederick II.

Katthagen, Kattrepel: (LGer.) name for remote areas or streets; kat means ‘dirt’ as in Katwisch.

Katz: Jewish name, contracted from Kahen-zedek ‘priest of justice’. In some cases surname (for cat-like creatures or cat lovers, cat haters). Cf. Katzenhaupt [cat’s head], Katzenwadel [cat’s tail], Katzenjeger [cat chaser], Prague 1413, Katzenschinder [cat torturer], Brsl. 1332, Hensel Kacze, Prague 1346, Nic. Keczl, Mies 1362, Jekl Sibenkeczel, Olmütz 1354. Hence Kätzler, Ketzler (Sil., Bohemia): Ulrich Keczter, Prague 1363, Hanco Ceczler, Liegnitz 1349.

Kaub (Rhineld., Saar area): pl.n. Kaub on the Rhine (Henne vonCube, Frkf. 1391).

Kauba, Kaube (Sax., Sil.) See Kuba, Kube (Slav.) = Jakob.

Kauder(er) See Kuderer.

Kauer(t): cf. pl.n. Kauern near Gera in Thur. (Slavic).

Käufel, Kaifel, Käufler, Kaifler (UGer.-Aust.) = (MHG) ‘second-hand dealer, ragman’. Hence Käufer ‘salesman’: Eierkäufer; also simply Kauf: Luzze der Kauffe, Alsace 1281. Cf. Theuerkauf, Leykauf, Weinkauf, Irtenkauf. Mathias keufel (keufler), Brünn 1343.

Kauf(f)mann, LGer. Koopmann, Kop(p)mann, L.Rhine Koopmanns: in the Middle Ages = ‘wholesale merchant’, trader, as opposed to the Käuller, Höker, Pfragener, Menger, the retail merchants. Heinrich kauffman, Liegnitz 1387. Peter koujhous lived near the city Kaufhaus = ‘warehouse or guild house’, Prague 1343.

Kauffung: pl.n. Kaufungen near Kassel. Kauffung near Liegnitz (Bahlow ON, p. 254).

Kaul, Kaulen (LGer.-Westph.) See Kuhle.

Kaulbach: UGer. pl.n.

K(a)idbars(ch): surname of a fishmonger, likewise Bars, Seebars [bass, seabass]. Reyneke Culebars, Greifswald 1356.

Kaulfers(ch): ‘clubfoot’ (cf. Kaulfug, Kaulhaupt); Hs. Kulvers, Bohemia 1381. G. Kaulverß, Friedeberg on the Queis River near Liegnitz.

Kaulfuß (Sax., Sil.): ‘clubfoot’ (Centr.Ger. küle = kugele ‘ball, lump’). Nic. Kaulphus, Prague 1424. Cf. Kaulhaupt (1413 Olmütz), Kaulfers, Kaulbars, Kaulquappe [tadpole].

Kaumann, Kaumeister see Kohmann.

Kaupper: from Kauppa in Sax., Kauppen near Fulda.

Kauruff, Kauerauf: as early as ca. 1380 Kaudrauf near Liegnitz.

Kausch, Kausche, Kauschke, Kauschka, Kauschen: E Ger.-Slav. like Kusch(ke), cf. pl.n. Kauscha, Kauschen.

Kaut, Kaute: from MHG (Centr.Ger.) küte = ‘bunch of flax’; in UGer. ‘cock pigeon’: Ruef Kut, Würt. 14th c.

Kautzsch: Slav. pl.n. near Dresden.

Kau(t)z: from MHG küz ‘screech owl’.

Kauwertz: MHG ka(u)werein, of Romance origin ‘money changer, usurer’ (Old French chaorsin: from Cahors in S France, which was notorious for usury). Engelbert Kauverzin, Frkf. 1314.

Kaven, Kaben (Hbg., Ro.): = MLG koven, kaven ‘sty, pen (for animals), shack’. (Cf. Stoven: Stavon: Staben). Kerstian de Coven, Stettin 1313, Joh. de Coven, Ro. 1385, Albert Kawen, Hbg. 1338. Cf. Joh. Schapekove, Dortmund 1382, Swinekove, near Ülzen 1450.

Kay (freq. in Hbg.): Fris. pers.n. Cf. Kai Uwe von Hassel. Kai (and Gerda) in Andersen’s fairy tale of the snow queen.

Kayser see Kaiser.

Kechler, Kichler see Kachler.

Keck, Bav. Köck, Alem. Kech: ‘lively, bold’. (Ich Walther der Keche 1327).

Keckeis(en): UGer. for blacksmiths; Bav. Köckeis.

Keding, Käding (freq. in Hbg.): from Kehdingen in the marsh region around the estuary of the Elbe. Peter Keding, Hbg. 1266, Joh. Keding, Stralsund 1310, deCadingia, Ro.

Keek (Magdeburg): MLG keke ‘throat’, also ‘blabbermouth’; “mit der rughen keke” [with the hoarse throat]. Tileke Keke, Hildesheim 1392, Herman Keke, Riga 1300.

Kees(e), Koeser see Käse.

Keffel (Hbg.): MLG kevel ‘beetle’, caterpillar (name for a gardener). Heyne Kevele, Ro. 1400.

Kegebein, Kägebein [see there]: LGer. ‘dragging foot’. Thus Hartwich Kegebeen, Ro. 1385.

Kegel = Kegler: ‘skittle, pin; pinpusher, bowler’ (cf. Schubkegel, Kegelwerper), Bav. Kögel, Kögler. Also Kegelmann. In some cases ‘illegitimate child’ (cf. the saying “mit Kind und Kegel”): Frükegel, 14th c. in Brsl. Alvericus Keghel, Hbg. 1293, Eler derKegheler, Bremen 1405, Kegelwerper, Stettin 1324.

Kehden (Hbg.): cf. Kedenhoff, Kedenburg. Kedeman, Bremen 1495.

Kehding see Keding.

Kehl: pl.n. on the Rhine. But LGer. (freq. in Hbg.) probably loc.n., cf. Auf dem Kehl.

Kehnscherper, Kienscherf see Kien-

Kehr, Kehren, Kehrer (UGer.): field name; Arnold andemKere (peasant), U.Rhine area 1300.

Kehrein: (make) a stop at the pub.

Kehrhahn: probably a Centr.Ger. pl.n. ending in ­hahn = hain (-hagen).

Kehrpfennig [turn the penny]: ‘spendthrift, miser’, cf. Drückenpfenning, Wehrenpfennig [of the same meaning].

Kehrsten see Kersten.

Kehrwieder: [return, come back] also loc.n.

Keib (UGer.) see Kaib.

Keicher (UGer.): ‘asthmatic’ (from MHG kichen ‘to pant, wheeze’). Martin Keicher, Pforzheim 1485.

Keidel (UGer.): from MHG kidel wedge, hand axe’, for a crude person. Cf. G. Kidel, Col. 1135.

Keie (LGer.): MLG =‘javelin’. Arnold Keye, Ro. 1291.

Keifel see Käufel.

Keifer: ‘quarreller’, Thid. Kyveler, Greifswald 1306; Keyferer, Füssen 1571. Kivenicht near Han.

Keil: ‘wedge, peg’, boor, lout. Cf. Hartenkeil, Keilhack, Keilholz, Keilhau (MHG kil-houwe), all are tools of the woodworker (Keilhau also pl.n. in Thur.). Hence Keilpflug [wedge-shaped plough], Keilwagen. Keilich (Sax.) see Keulich.

Keim (Würt., freq. in Bav.): MHG kime ‘sprout, shoot’. Used sometimes as f.n.: Joh. Kyme (sons: Kyme and Johans), Berkach in Würt. 1329 (see also Brech.). Also Keimel, Keimle.

Keiper (UGer.): MHG ‘fish master’.

Keiser see Kaiser.

Keitel see Keidel.

Keith (UGer.): MHG kit ‘sprout, off-shoot’.

Kekelrehm, Kegelriern (Col.): MLG kekel-reme ‘a tongue-tie’, person with a speech impediment. Albero Kechelrime, Col. 1187.

Kelber: from pl.n. Kelbra on the Unstrut River.

Kelbling (Würt.): derived from Kalb [calf] as Helbling from halb [half]. Also loc.n. Kelble see Kalb. (In old documents Kelbelin, Kalbelin). Also Kelberer, Kälberer.

Kelch: ‘chalice’; in MHG also means ‘double chin’.

Kelker (UGer.): probably = Kälker, Kalker [whitewasher].

Kell, Kelle (freq. in Hbg.): NW Ger. field name (kel = ‘swamp’ as in Kellendonk, see Bahlow ON, p. 256). Cf. Hans up derKellen, Lippe area 1597, pl.ns. Kellen near Kleve, Kell in Rhineld. Hence Kellmann. A pl.n. Kella near Erfurt. Also cf. Cello (Kjellu).

Kelle (freq. in Hbg.): ‘ladle or (mason’s) trowel’. Cf. Kellensnider [trowel cutter], Quedlinburg 14th c. Hence Füllkell, Schaumkell [Schaumkelle = strainer].

Keller: MHG kollaere, keller ‘cellarer, administrator and manager of the revenues, the naturalia (at courts, monasteries, etc.), like Kellner. Cf. “Bruder Pöczel unsers Clusters kelter” [brother P., the manager of the cellar of our monastery], Trebnitz 1520. E Ger.-Sil. also Kellert, dialect Kaller(t): see Bahlow SN, p. 108.

Kellermann: working in a cellar (see Keller) or living near a “cellar”, Cf. Everd Kellermann, Bremen 1457, Herm. up denkellere, Bremen 1370; Hinrik Kellerknecht, Oldenburg 1502; Nickel imkeler, Liegnitz 1382. Hence Kellerhals (UGer.), also loc.n.: Nic. Kellerhals, Saar in Moravia 1388: Kellemayer (UGer.) = Maier [manager] of an estate with a “cellar”, i.e..taking in revenues.

Kelling (freq. in Hbg.). LGer.-Westph. variant of Kellmann, see Kell. Also cf. MLG kelling ‘pain’. Diderich Keling, Wismar 1290, Jüries Kelingh, Ro. 1385.

Kellinghusen: N Ger-Westph. pl.n. (several times), old: Kelenhusen (see Bahlow ON, p. 256).

Kellmann: N Ger., see Kell.

Kellner: MHG kelner = ‘cellarer’ (see above under Keller). Cunczchyn kelner (celterarius ducis: ducal cellarer), Liegnitz 1380, Joh. Wilhelmi kelner [cellarer] of the monastery at Leubus 1409; Herman der Kelner (Keller), near Rottweil 1314-1333. A WeynkeIner [wine cellarer] in Görlitz 1568.

Kell(n)höfer (UGer.): from MHG kel(n)hof ‘an estate which is managed by a cellarer (administrator of the cellar; Kelner)’, the so-called Kellmayer, who also held the kel court.

Kelm (Hbg.): pl.n. Cf. Kelmer.

Kelter(mann), Kelterer: working at the winepress. Arnold inderkelter, Würt. 1343. Hence Keltermeister [Meister = ‘master’].

Kelting (freq. in Hbg.): probably a loc.n. or pl.n.

Kemme (freq. in Hbg.), Komm, Kemming: cf. pl.n. Komme near Hildesheim.

Kemmer see Kimmer (‘wool comber’), in some cases also ‘comb maker’: Henselin kemmer (kemmenmacher), Franconia 1360. Cf. Kemmler.

Kemmerling see Kämmerling.

Kemmler see Kämmler and Kemmer.

Kemna(de), von; mostly UGer. Kemenater, Kemmater, Kemmeter: from the pl.n. loc.n.) Kemnat(h) and others, see Keinath. Cf. Nic. Kempnater, Eger 1396. Cf. Bernd tor Kemenaden, Maastricht 1395. Kemenate: ‘chamber with a fireplace’.

Kemnitz, Kemnitzer: from Slav. pl.n. (in Bohemia, Sax., Prignitz area), Kamnitz, Chemnitz, Kemnitz; Kempniczer, Iglau, Prague 1383, 1366.

Kempa (freq. in Beuthen): pl.n. in U.Sax.; also Kempe (freq. in Neustadt, Brsl.). Cf. pl.n. Kempen near Posen.

Kempe: (freq. in Hbg.) LGer. ‘dueller’, see Kämpf Herward kempe, Ro. 1257.

Kempenich: pl.n. in Eifel region (see Bahlow ON, p. 258).

Kemper (freq. in Hbg.), Kempermann (Westph., Hbg.) = Kämper, see Kamp.

Kempf, Kempfle (UGer.) see Kämpf.

Kempfer, Kempfert see Kamp, Kempf.

Kempin: Slav. pl.n., hence also Kempinski.

Kempke (freq. in Hbg.), Kempgens (Rhineld.) see Kempe.

Kempt(er): UGer., from Kempten in Allgäu region, thus freq. in Bav., Würt. (see Bahlow ON, p. 257), also Kemptner. Conrad Kempter, Ravensburg 1337. But Kempner (freq. in Berlin) from pl.n. Kempen near Posen, cf. pl.n. Kempa in U.Sax. Friederike Kempner in Posen.

Kemstädt: from Kehrnstedt on the Wipper River (corresponds to Sollstedt, Küllstedt, etc. in the same area, keinis a water word).

Kennemann (Hbg.): see Kenning.

Kenngott (Würt.) see Könngott, Köngeter (from Kunigund).

Kenning (Hbg.): cf. the Frie. pers.n. Keno, patr. Kenesna (1372 etc.), Reno Kenonius 1377.

Kentner, Kantner (Sil.): surname of a cellarer, vintner (from Pol. kentnar, Czech kantnar ‘rack or trestle in the cellar for beer and wine barrels’), historical surname for duke Konrad of Öls (“herczog” Cunradt called Kentener, Kantener around 1412). Cf. the note: *zweene tische volle gäste fielen in den keller, schlug vom kentner 2/4 bier, eines lief aus” [two tables of full guests fell into the cellar, hit two vats of beer off the rack, one ran out] (Bahlow SN, p. 128).

Ken(t)zler see Kanzler. Cf. kenczelschreiber [scribe of a chancellery] in Sil.

Keppler, Kepler (UGer.): ‘manufacturer of caps and small hats’ (from MHG keppel), therefore different from Kappier. Thus cf. Henr. Keppler pellifex [furrier], Prague 1365 besides Hensel Kepel (furrier), Prague 1382. Name is known through the astronomer Johann Kepier in Würt. A variant is Keppner in Freiburg.

Kerber (Sil.): unrounded dialect form from Körber ‘basket maker’.

Kercher (Würt.) see Karcher.

Kerfak (Meckl.): Wendish, cf. Klafak.

Kerff (Hbg.): LGer.-UGer. ‘notch, nick’, Dutch kerven ‘to cut into s.th., make a notch’, probably surname of a carver.

Kerger see Karge.

Kerk, Kerkhoff (LGer., also Kark-): named after the dwelling place (cf. bi der kerken ‘by the church’. Biederkarken, Andekerke, Bovenkerk ‘above the church’ or meaning: at the churchyard). Wolder bidemkerchove [W. at the churchyard], Hbg. 1356. Cf. Joh. Kerkenbreker, Lüb. 1343.

Kerl, Kehrl, Keert (cf. Karl): ‘man, fellow’ (name was popular in knights’ circles), but already in MHG times it had a slightly derogatory meaning, cf. Hassenkerl [hate the fellow], Gripenkerl [grab the guy].

Kerler (freq. in Würt.) = Kürler, see Karcher.

Kerling: patr. of Kerl, see above (MHG also Karlinger ‘Frenchman’), Kerlingen France.

Kern (freq., widespread). surname for farmers (likewise Korn), meaning ‘kernel, grain’. In E Centr.Ger. (U.Lausitz, Sil.) Slav. krn may be involved, cf. pl.n. Kern near Grünberg, where it is a freq. FN; pl.n. Kernitz near Liegnitz; hence FN Kernicke, Kernke. Hensel Kern, Liegnitz 1375.

Kerner (UGer.): = ‘carter’, see Karcher. Name is known through the Romantic writer Justinus Kerner from Würt. But the Sax-Sil. form is Körner!

Kerp, Kerb see Kerff: Cf. Hans Korbelmaister, Allgau area 1536.

Kerpen: pl.n. (twice in Rhineld.), prehistor. Carpina (creek name, as in the Carpino River in Italy).

Kerschke, Kerschek: E Ger-Slav., Cf. pl.n. Kerschkow (1353 Kersekow) in Pom.

Kerschner, Kirschstein see Christian. But Kerschensteiner (UGer.) is a name of origin like Eggensteiner.

Kersebom (LGer.), Kersekorf see Kirsch-.

Kersten (freq. in Hbg.) see Karsten (=Kirsten, Christian): The same origin for Kesten, cf. patr. Kersting, Kesting (LGer.-Westph.): J. Kersting, Lippe area 1590, Franz Kesting 1617. L.Rhine Kerstgens. Also short Kerst, Kest. See also Karst, Kast; Kirst, Kist.

Kerzendocht, Kerzendacht (MHG täht): ‘candle wick’, Kerzenstummei ‘candle stub’, Worms 1374, are surnames for a candlemaker, UGer. also Kerzler, Kerzner. A house “Zur großen Kerze” in old Freiburg. For LGer. examples cf. Kersengeter (Lüb., Ro.).

Kesel, Keseling (LGer.) see Kiesel(ing).

Kesper see Kasper.

Kesselhut, LGer. Ketelhot: surname for an armorer (helmet smith) or the helmeted man (from MHG huot = ‘helmet’, cf Eisenhut ‘iron helmet’). See Ketelhot.

Kessemeier (Westph., Lippe area): like the pl.n. Kessebüren is based on the Kesse Creek (Kasse) in the Lippe region (cf OHG kes ‘swamp’, also kers).

Kessler, LGer. Kettler, Bav.-Franc. Kössler: ‘kettle maker, coppersmith’; Nic. kesselmacher = Nic. kuppersmid, Prague 1408; Hans Kesseler kleinsmid [“little smith”, probably for household utensils], Brsl. 1384, Erbo Kesseler, Strasb. 1261. Hence the surnames Kenel (unless it refers to a field name: valley basin (Talkessel). Cf. Konrad vamKessel, Col. 1280), also Kesselboden, Iglau 1381; Keuelhake [‘kettle hook’], Kesselring (above the stove); Kessetring, Mainz 1249, Strasb. 1397, U. Austria 1247; in Speyer it is also a house name.

Kesten see Kersten. A town Kosten near Wittlich on the Moselle.

Kesting see Kersting.

Kestner see Kästner. Also Kesder (cf. Kestelin, Strasb. 1371, Kesichen, Brsl. ca. 1350). Kestenholz: [chestnut wood] pl.n. in Alsace, Joh. gestenholz in Kestenholz 1417; cf. Kastenholz (freq. in Col.), from MHG kestene (from Lat. castania) ‘chestnut’.

Ketel- (and compounds) see Kettel- (and compounds).

Ketels, Ketelsen (freq. in Hbg.): N Fris.-Dan-Icel. pers.n. Ketil (‘kettle’, referring to the shape of a helmet).

Ket(t)el (LGer.): = ‘kettle’, surname for a tinker: Ketfler (Keßler) or Ket(t)elböter (= Kettelbüßer = Kettelbesserer [“betterer”], tinker, cf. Oltböter: Altbüßer [repairer of old things]). There used to be a Kettelböter Lane in Magdeburg; Ketelböter around 1300 in Hbg., Lob., Ro., Greifswald, Stralsund. Ketelhake ‘kettle hook’. Ketelrand [kettle rim] in Lüb.

Ket(t)elhohn (LGer.): = Kesselhuhn ‘kettle hen, chicken’. Cf. Kluckhohn.

Ket(t)elhot (LGer.) see Kesselhut. A knight Gerhard Ketelhot (from the shape of his helmet), Meckl. 1254.

Ketterer (Würt., Baden): in old documents: Kätherer, which is the metr. of Käther = Katharina; cf. Keterlin. UGer. also Ketterl(er).

Kettler (LGer.) see Kettel. Joh. der Ketteler, Westph. 1271.

Kettner (UGer.): ‘chain maker’ [Kette = ‘chain’]. Conrad der Ketner, Eger 1340, C. ketner (kethener), Liegnitz 1351. A kedenbißer (‘chain biter’ cf. Eisenbeißer ‘iron biter’), Frkf. 1340.

Ketzler, Ketzel see Katz.

Keuerleber (Swab.): meaning ‘one who 1ives pleasantly’ (geheuer), cf. Schönleber, Wohlleber.

Keuk (van): Dutch-L.Rhine, loc.n. Koke ‘bog, dirt’, cf. Kokelake, Kokelare (Keukelaer) like Covelare (Ceuvelaer). See Bahlow ON, p. 270.

Keule: hitting instrument (also weapon) like a stick, club or butt. Also cf. pl.n. Keula in Thur., formerly: Cule, likewise Keulbeck from older Culbiki in Westph. = ‘dirt creek’.

Keulich (Sax., U.Lausitz): diphthongized from Kulich, see Kulicke.

Keune(ke), Keunemann, Keuntje (LGer.-Rhineld.) = Köncke, Könemann (LGer.): sh.f. of Konrad.

Key (freq. in Hbg.) see Kay. Also cf. Keie.

Keyl see Keil.

Keyser see Kaiser. Hence (Westph.) Keyserlingk; but also cf. Kiessling.

Keyserling (LGer.): corrupted from keseling = Kieselstein ‘pebble’. Wesseke Keseling, Magdeburg 1294. Joh. Keserling (Keyserling), mayor, Herford 1440. Name was a surname for persons hard as rock (“wy synt gelyket den keserlinck steynen in unsen stryden” = ‘we are like the pebble stones in our streets’).

Khodl (Aust.): dialect form for Kadel, see there.

Kiderlen see Küderle.

Kiebler, Kiebel (UGer.) see Kübler.

Kiechle (UGer.) see Küchle.

Kieckebusch: pl.n. in Brandenburg (also loc.n.).

Kieckenap (LGer.) ‘look into the dish’.

Kiecker (LGer.): kieken = gucken ‘to look, see’. Kieck is also a pl.n.

Kieckheben, Kieckhäven (LGer.): ‘look at the sky’ (probably surname of a star gazer), cf. Sternkiker, Sternseher. Kiekut ‘look out’ (from a loc.n.). Kiekhöfel, Kiekhefel (LGer.) = hövel ‘hill’. Kieken is the LGer. word for ‘look, see’.

Kiedaisch (Swab.): = ‘cow dung’, peasant name; MHG teisch ‘dung’. Cf. Daisch, Deischle.

Kiefer (UGer.-Sil.) see Kilfer: In Würt. Kieferle probably comes from MHG kifen ‘to gnaw, chew’, as e.g. in Schwigger Kifer (Kiferlin) 1381, H. Kiverli 1293, Albert Kiver (with a short -i-) 1265. Hence cf. Kief(h)aber (UGer.), sentence name: ‘chew oats’, surname of a poorly living person or an oats farming peasant (“Wiltu kiffen Haberstro?” [do you want to chew oats straw?] is a line firom the song book of Klara Hätzler, Augsburg 1471; “Du kiffest wohl noch Haberstro?” [you are probably still chewing oat straws]: ZimmerscheChronik, 1550). Hainrich Kyühaber, Augsburg 1397.

Kiefler, Kiefer, Kief (LGer.): ‘bickerer, quarreller’. Herman Kyveler, Ro. 1298, Jacob Kyvere, Lüb. 1318, Joh. Kivenicht, Wunstorf 1633. Thideke Kyvenibbe ‘bicker beak’, Hbg. 14th c.

Kiehl (Hbg.) see Kiel.

Kie(h)m (Würt.) see Keim. Likewise Kiemle.

Kiehn(e): UGer.-Sax. = Kühn(e). See there.

Kiekheben, Kiekebusch, Kiekenap, Kiekut see Kiecke-.

Kiel (freq. in Hbg.), Kiehl, Kielmann: from Kiel in Holstein (mit dem “Großen und Kleinen Kiel”: kil means ‘a body of stagnant water’, cf. the Dutch-Fris. Polder Kieldrecht; see Bahlow ON, p. 262). vonKile, Kileman, Lüb. around 1300 and many others in that area. Otherwise cf. MLG kil ‘wedge’ (as in FN Kielblock in Hbg.). The Kil-mester or Kel-mester (Ro. 1291) was the skipper, captain (from kiel ‘larger boat’, kielgesinde ‘ships crew’).

Kielwein, Kieltrunk see Kühl-.

Kiem, Kiemle (Würt.): Alem. variant of Keim, Keimle. See there.

Kien, Kienappel [pine cone], Kienbaum: mean the resinous wood of pine and fir trees, when used as fuel. Likewise Kienast ‘branch of a pine or fir tree’ (Heinrich Chienast, Würt. 1286), but in Silesia the name occurs freq. (especially in Liegnitz) besides Kühnast, Kynast, where the Slav. name of Kynast (name of a castle hill in Riesengebirge, also a field name) is involved. Also cf. Kienscherf, Kienruß (Ruß = ‘soot’).

Kiencke see Künicke, Kühnke.

Kiendl (Aust.) = Kühndl (Kunrad).

Kiene, Kienemann, Kienemund see Küne-, Kühne-.

Kienert see Künert.

Kienle (Swab.) see Kühnle.

Kienöhl, Kühnöl = Kühnel. See there.

Kienscherf, Kehnscherper (LGer.): = ‘pine wood spill, pine shaving(s)’, cf. Herm kênrôk ‘pine smoke’, Lüb. 1328; Bartel kynhewer, Liegnitz 1491. L. an dem Kienmarkt, Wen 1297. See also Kien.

Kientopf, Kentopf, Kühntopf, Köntopf: cf. pl.n. Köntopf neu Köslin, Konitop in W Prussia.

Kienzle (Swab.) see Künzel.

Kiep, Kiepe (LGer.): ‘pannier, basket carried on a person’s back’, surname of a basket maker: Kiepenheuer (cf. Bardenheuer etc.). Hence Kieper: Hinrich Kiper, Stettin 1310.

Ki(e)rmaier (UGer.) = Kirchmaier. See there (under Kirchhof).

Kierschner see Kürschner.

Kiesel : = pobble (Kieselstein), also in loc.ns. (Kieselbach, Kieselherst). Hence Kiesler (UGer.).

Kieser (UGer.): official foodstuffs inspector (from MHG kiesen ‘to examine, inspect’), hence Weinkieser [wine inspector] and Kiesewein [the same]; Wölfel Kiser, Eger 1330. Cf. Kiesewetter. See there.

Kiesewalter (Sil.): from Kiesewald near Schreiberhau, cf. Langenwalter (from Langenwaldau), Buchwalter (from Buchwald), Lewalter (from Lewald). Niclas Kyszewalter, Liegnitz 1421, L. Wysner vonKyswald, Görlitz 1570.

Kiesewetter (freq. in Sil., Sax.): ‘check the weather!’, name for a weather forecaster (cf. Zeigswetter ‘show the weather!’). “Fruote bi dem lufte kiesen do began” ‘started testing the weather by the air stream’ (MHG epic Gudrunlied, v. 903), Kyseweter, Görlitz 1310, Dresden 1370, Liegnitz 1437; Henslein Herdegen derKysewetter, Bamberg 1422. Also Kisswetter, Küssewetter (Vienna).

Kiesinger (Würt.): name of origin.

Kies(s)ler (UGer.): name of origin like Kiesslegg (both in Würt.).

Kies(s)ling (freq.): from MHG kiselinc ‘pebble’, in Saalfeld the name was used interchangeably with Kiesel; freq. in Sil., U.Lausitz area with the variant Kies(s)lich (see Bahlow SN, p. 129). Also a pl.n. in Bav., Thur., hence the pl.n. Kieslingswalde (near Görlitz, Glatz). LGer.: Wesseke Keseling, Magdeburg 1294; corrupted Keserling, Kieserling, see Keyserling.

Kietz (E Ger-Slav., especially in Brandenburg province): ‘hut, fishing hut’, also a pl.n.; Kietzmann.

Ki(e)witt (LGer.): ‘lapwing, green plover’ [bird].

Kiffmeyer (Westph.): kiff ‘decrepit cottage’.

Kilcher (Alem.): = Kircher; Kilchmaier = Kirchmaier. See there. Hans hinderm Kilchhof [H. behind the churchyard], Lahr 1356.

Kilian: patron saint of Würzburg, Franconian saint (Kilian and Colomban were Irish missionaries in Franconia in the 7th c.). The Humanist writer Johann Fischart said: ‘Franconians are called Kilian.” Hence Küius, Kilgus, Kill and others.

Kimm(e), Kimmen (Hbg.): pl.n. Kirchkimmen near Bremen.

Kimmel (UGer.-Sax.): = Kümmel [caraway seed]; surname for a spice dealer or grocer or a caraway grocer. Cf. Kaneel, Zimt [cinnamon], Lorbeer [laurel, bay leaf], etc. Alem.-Swab. Kimmich (Kamich 1370); cf. Kimigschlaher, Nürnbg. 1511.

Kimmer: tubmaker, cooper (Kimme = ‘edge or rim of a tub’); cf. Kimme-slegel, Liegnitz 1386. Eggert Kymer (bodeker! i.e cooper by trade) 14th c., Hans K., Ro. 1382; M. Kymeker, Bremen 1443.

Kimpfler see Kämpfler.

Kinadeter (Bav.) = Kinateder: from the pl.n. Kinat-öd [Öd = ‘hamlet or small settlement in a wilderness area’].

Kind, Kindt [child]; Kindet, Rhineld. Kindgen: sometimes means minor (cf. King Ludwig “das Kind”, the last German Carolingian ruler, 893-911); but may also mean ‘childlike, naive, ignorant’. Also cf. Peter mit dem kinde, Brsl. 1385. Hence Gutkind, Herrnkind, Liebeskind, Stilleskind; Süßkind (also Jewish). Kinder is a genitive plural as in Hans der kinder, Eisleben 1433.

Kinderman: educator (of children), schoolmaster. Cf. Bethe Kindermennin = Bethe the schoolmistress, widow of the schoolmaster, K. Spechtshart, Reutlingen 1395. Heinrich Kinderman, Greifswald 1384. Cf. Kindelman, Kindelwirt in Brsl.

Kindervater: may mean male midwife, assistant at births (thus in Deutsches Wörterbuch). Johann Kindervater, Greifswald 1325, Witzenhausen 1452, Stralsund 1341. Kindsvater (Iglau 1410) probably refer to the godfather. Cf. MHG kindermuoter ‘wet nurse’. Kindermacher in Ratibor 1385, Kindermaker in Holstein 1357, Kintmacher in Budweis 1396. Not clear is UGer.-Sil. Kindler (in Würt. around 1300, Liegnitz 1429, Görlitz 1502), cf. MHG kindeln ‘to father a child’ and Kindelman, Liegnitz 1397, also Kindelwirt (probably owner or director of an orphanage). A knight Kindelman, Pal. 1344.

Kindler see Kindervater.

Kindschuh: surname of a shoemaker, likewise Knabenschuh [boys’ shoe], Frauenschuh [women’s shoe]. Kindsgrab [child’s grave]: loc.n., Herman ufm Kindsgrab, Lippe area 1650.

Kingeter (Würt.) see Köngeter.

Kinkel, Kinkele(in) see Künkele.

Kinne (Sil.) see Künne.

Kin(t)scher (Silesia), also Küntscher: derive from Kanischer (metr.) = son (or husband) of Kanne (with Slav. suffix Kanisch, Kanusch), which is a sh.f. of Kunigunde, very popular in the Middle Ages (as a name for princesses and female saints). (For more information see Bahlow SN, p. 43). Also Künne, Kinne still exist as FNs. For the form cf. Alscher, Hielscher. In old documents: Cunne (Kanegunde) von der Tincze, Brsl. 1347, Cunne (Konusch), Liegnitz 1384, Kunusch, Iglau 1376, Konuscher, Brsl. 1350. Cf. Köngeter in Würt.

Kin(t)zel (UGer.-Sil.): = Küntzel (from Konrad).

Kiock (Sil.) like Kiaske: Slav. Kirstan (see Mucke, p. 50).

Kipp (freq. in Hbg.) LGer.: = ‘corner, point’ (of a piece of cloth or a cap), cf. Kipphaut (Kiphot) ‘pointed cap’. In Westph. name occurs also as field name (“aufm Kippe”). Hence Kipping.

Kirch (UGer.): living at the church (also loc.n.). Also Kirchl, von der Kirch. Cf. LGer. Kerk, Kirk.

Kircheis(en): UGer., probably a blacksmith in the service of a church like Pfarreisen.

Kirchenbeter, Kirchenbiter: administrator of church revenues, from MHG bete ‘tax’. In Liegnitz 1340-91 kirchenbiter, kirchenbether (see Bahlow, Studien, p. 136, 156); also in Bohemia 1418 kirchenpeter (see Schwarz, p. 162).

Kirchenknopf: [church knob]. cf. Kirchenthurm [church steeple] and Turmknauf [steeple knob]. Jekel Kirchenknauff (Kirchenknop), Brünn 1365.

Kircher (UGer.): MHG = Kirchner; in some cases = Kirchherr (minister, priest, or patron). Also cf. pl.n. Kirch (Unterkircher, Feldkircher, and others formed from pl.ns. like Unterkirch, Foldkirch etc.).

Kirchhof(f): name formed from a dwelling place [at the churchyard], see Kerkhoff. Similar: Kirchhübel (Hübel = ‘hill’). Kirchmann (LGer. Kerkmann): in the service of a church, also Kirchmeier (administrator of church estates).

Kirchner: MHG = ‘sexton, assistant at a church’ (in Thuringia the word is still used today).

Kirchschlager: from the loc.n. Kirchschlag in U.Austria (several times).

Kirchwehm (Westph.): LGer. wedem (widem) = church property, i.e. land and buildings. Cf. pl.n. Wehm on the Ems River.

Kirdel: pl.n. in the area of Bergisches Land (old: Kirle, likewise Berdel from Berle); for the water word kir see Bahlow ON, p.263.

Kirieleis: from church liturgy (Greek Kyrie eleyson ‘Lord, have mercy’).

Kirmer (UGer.): contracted from Kirmeier (Kirchmeier), likewise Strorner from Stromeier according to old documents. Martin Kirmer (Kirmeiger), Basel 1484. Cf. Kirgasser = Kirchgasser [one living on the street leading to the church].

Kirm(e), Kirms, Kerm(e)s: MHG kirmosse, Ger. Kirchweihmesse ‘fair, carnival’ in commemoration of the dedication of the church. Surname for vendors on fairgrounds. Nic. kirmesse, Zittau 1411.

Kirn: pl.n. on the Nahe River.

Kirner: Hans Kimer, Eger 1373, probably Kerner ‘grain dealer’ in “Dinkel” or “Kern”, an inferior type of wheat (grown on poorer soils).

Kirsch, Kirsche: surname of a cherry dealer, also Kirschkorb [cherry basket] (Koblenz 1383), LGer. kersekorf, and the nicknames Kirschenbeißer, Kirschenesser, Kirschenftesser, Kirschenfraß [all meaning cherry eater or cherry gobbler, vulg.]. Also cf. Kirschke in Sil. (may show the Slavic suffix -ke) besides freq. Kitsch. Cf. Krischke, Krischek = Krischan. Kirschenfaut = Kirschenvogt [steward, supervisor of cherry orchards] in Franconia; Kirschgaumer in Bozen = supervisor. A Kirsemânt ‘cherry month’ (June), Pal. 1313.

Kirschbaum, LGer. Kirsebom, Kersebom: name from the dwelling place at a cherry tree (Henr. Kersebom, Greifswald 1360; 1297 in Basel a house called zem kirsebomme, 1333 in Mainz a house imkirsgarten).

Kirschner (Sax., Sil.): = Kürschner [furrier].

Kirschstein (freq.): besides Kirstein (freq.) means Kirsten: Christian (pers.n.).

Kirsten, Kirstan (Centr.Ger.) like LGer. Kersten, Karsten = Christian (pers.n.), in Sil. also Kri(e)sten (Glatz). Kirstan (Kristan) von Kanth, Brsl. 1328, Kirstan (Cristan) kuppersmid [coppersmith], Liegnitz 1383. The change in the position of the -r- occurred very early as the short OHG text, Lorscher Bienensegen, 950 A.D. shows; Kirst, Kirst (Kierst) is UGer., likewise Christ, L.Rhine Kirstgen, Kerstgens, Kürstgens, Christgen. With the loss of the -r-: Kisten, Kist, part. Kisting (in Westph.), Kesting, also LGer. Kast, Kasten, Kasting.

Kist see Kirst.

Kister (UGer.) see Kistner or Küster.

Kistner (Kistler): UGer. (MHG) = LGer. Kistenmacher (Kistemaker) ‘carpenter, jointer, cabinet maker’. There was a Kistenmacher Street in Ro.. Hence Kistman, Col. 1175; Kistenstoßer, Alzcy 1379; Kistenbuk (for a person with a big belly, like a cabinet!), Hbg. 1262. See also Arcularius (in Hesse = Kistner). But Kistenfeger (in Stuttgart) = ‘looter, plunderer’.

Kitschold, Kitschelt (Sil., Sax.): enlarged form of Kitze, Kitto, the Wendish form of Kittan: Kristan: Christian; analogous to Hitschold, Nitschold, Fritschold, Potschold (Potschelt), Heintschold, and others. Kiczold, Kitschuld were used as f.ns. around 1300-1400 in Glatz, Liegnitz, Brsl., Görlitz. Kycze Stoer, Bohemia 1367. Hence Kitschke, Kitsch(mann).

Kittel [frock]: surname of a frock or smock cutter or tailor (cf. Else Kitelsneiderin, Iglau 1374). Likewise Siebenkittel (Siebenrock: Simrock [seven coats], Siebenschuh; Siebenbeutel [seven bags]; Siebenwurst, all occupational surnames); Weißkittel [white frock], Lohkittel [tanning frock]. Kitder probably = Kittelträger [frock wearer]; also Kittelmann (Sil.): Hans Borisch alias [also known as] Kittelman, Görlitz 1460. Joh. Kytil, Schweidnitz 1330, P. Kittel, Liegnitz 1433, Hans Kittel, Franconia 1436. Vecencz Kitteler, Liegnitz 1435. But cf. the pl.ns. Kittlau in Sil., Kittlitz in Sax.

Kittner (Sil.) = Küttner, Kuttenträger: ‘wearer of a habit or robe’, name for a monk (as nickname in the epic Renner by Hugo of Trimberg around 1300). Nicze Küttener, Brsl. 1359. Cf. Büttner: Bittner.

Kitzi(n)g: from Kitzingen in Franconia.

Kitzler (U.Sax., Bohemia) besides Kitschler (both in Neustadt) probably belongs to the f.n. Kitze (see Kitschold), as Petzler belongs to Petz, Petzold. Nic. Kyczler, Brüx 1383. Or in some cases like Math. Kyczel, Moravia 1405 = ‘goat farmer’. Cf. Albrecht Kitzvel, Würt. 1367 = Kitzfell ‘goat skin’.

Kiwitt, Kiewitt (LGer.) = Kiebitz ‘lapwing, green plover’ [bird].

Klaar see Klar.

Klass see Klas.

Klabes see Klawes.

Klafehn see Klawehn.

Klaffer: MHG ‘babbler, blabbermouth’.

Klages (LGer.) = Klawes = Nikolaus; also Klage, Grotklage, Klagemann, Klagge(s). For the (fricative) w or the g, which sometimes are inserted in a lengthened syllable, compare LGer. Pawel or Pagel for Paul; also Plagemann for Plaumann.

Klähn, Klöhn (Hbg., Meckl.) like Klä(h)nhammer, Klönhammer: in the same areas are probably names for blacksmiths or metal workers (LGer. klönen).

Klahn, Kla(h)nfuß (Hbg.): probably ‘clubfoot’.

Klaholt: loc.n. in Westph. (Stina tonClaholt, Maastricht 1592).

Klähr(s) see Klares (Hilarius).

Klahr see Klar.

Klaiber (UGer.) see Kleiber.

Klais, patr. Klaiser (UGer.-Rhineld.): sh.f. or patr. of Klaus (Nikolaus). Also Kleis, Kleiser.

Klaj: = Nikolai, son of Nikolaus.

Klamann (N Ger.) = Klagemann (Klaus), cf. Klaholt besides Klageholt.

Klambt, Klämbt (Sil.) = Klemmt, see Klemens.

Klamer (N Ger., infreq.): based on the f.n. Clamer (Clamor) which was popular in patrician families in the 16th and 17th centuries; cf. Clamer (Clamor) Winkamp, Münder at the Deister (Forest) 1572; quite well-known is the writer Klamer-Schmidt, Halberstadt 1746-1824, formerly Clamor Eberhard Schmidt.

Klamfoth (LGer.), Klamfuß: ‘claw-footed’.

Klamm (UGer.): Aufderklamm. From MHG klamm ‘mountain crevice, gorge’. Ortolf von der Klamm, Bav. 1140.

Klam(m)t, Klam(m)et, Klampt (U.Lausitz, Sil.): derives from Clament, dialect form of Clement, Sil.-Slav. = Clemens. Also cf. Kliement: Kliemt and Klement: Klemmt. With a k-suffix: Klampke like Klemke, Klimke. For more information see Bahlow SN, p. 63.

Klampfer(er): UGer.-Bav. = Klempner ‘plumber’; also Klampfl, Klämpfl [klampf = ‘clip, brace, hook’; klampfen ‘to hook together, staple’], cf. Chlamphest, Moravia 1414. Jurzik klampher, Olmütz 1413. Also cf. Klemperer.

Klamroth, Klammrott: Thur.-E Ger. pl.n. also with -rode [a clearing], likewise Klapproth and others.

Klamt (Sil.) see Klammt

Klänharnmer (LGer.) see Klähn-.

Klapfer (Tyrol): living at a “Klapf” = rock; hence Niederklapfer.

Klapp (Hbg.): probably = MHG klapf, klaff: ‘prattle, gossip’ (of a slanderer). Hence Klappauf ‘prattle on!’ for a blabbermouth.

Klapper, Klappert: MHG klapperer ‘babbler’ (of bad gossip, slanderer); in the EGer.-Sil. areas (freq. in Glatz, Neiße) only the dialect form for Klepper may come into question. MHG klepper = ‘feudal horse’ (the horse of the medieval knight who fought in the army of his ruler or feudal lord); a document from Glatz, 1325, reported: feudal service “with 40 horses” (kleppern); Nic. Klepper, Kamenz 1427. Hence Jos. Klapper, author of SchlesischeVolkskunde (Silesian Folklore).

Klapperschink, Klapperzahn see Schenkel, Zahn.

Klapproth, Klapprodt: the abandoned settlement Klapperode near Pöhlde in the Harz Mountains. Cf. Klamroth, Billroth and others.

Klapthor, Klapdor: probably like Klapheck = village fence (enclosure with a gate).

Klar: Sil., freq. in Lausitz area, = son or husband of Clara (saint), cf. the St. Klaren Convent in Brsl. Nicze mitderClaren, Görlitz 1387, Peczco derClaren 1369; Jorge Clare (schoolmaster) = Jorge, Nitsche Clarenson, Liegnitz 1384.

Klar(e)s, Klähr(s); Cleres: Rhineld. Hilarius (see Klörs), sant Clerl.

Klarmann (UGer.): probably surname of an ‘honest, noble, lordly’ man (from MHG klär, which was an attribute of honor). Paul Clarenwn, near Meißen 1435, Peter Clannan, Worms 1446. Also Klar, Klahr unless name is metr. of Klara. Also cf. Nic. Clarbuch (Clarbauch) [Bauch = ‘belly, stomach’], Prague 1330. Ludwig Clare, Greifswald 1307.

Klasen, Klasing: LGer.-L.Rhine patr. of Klas = Klaus. Also Cla(a)sen, Classen besides Nicolassen, Niklassen. Hence Jungklas, Poggenklas, Klasohm and others. UGer. Kläs, Kläsel see Kleß.

Klatt, Klatte (freq. in Hbg.): LGer. ‘tousled hair’, cf. “Klattenkopp” [kopp = kopf ‘head’], Clattevole ‘rough fole’. However in Sil. it is a dialect form of Klette (see Bahlow SN, p. 63).

Klauber, Kleuber (Chlaubsalz, Moravia 1414): from kluben = ‘to pick, gather’.

Klau(c)k(e): freq. in Hbg., likewise Klo(c)ke ‘the bright, intelligent one’.

Klaudius (Klodius): saint’s name in Rhine area (see Bahlow, VN, p. 19). But Matthias Claudius Holstein = Claussen (Claudius Liedel, Basel 1520). Kloudgens. However Klauder = from MHG klüder (a wool weight measure): Heinrich Kluder (mit 34 kluder wollen! ‘with 34 “kluders” of wool’), Grünberg in Hesse 1387, Nickel Kläuder, Altenburg in Thur. 1465.

Klaus (freq. UGer.): = Niklaus, Nicolaus. See there.

Klausing: Westph. patr. of Klaus, likewise Klasing. Klauser (Switz.) patr.

Klausner (UGer., CentrGer.) like LGer. Klüsener = hermit. Wolfram Clusener (mayor), Goddelau 1340. Clausner Budweis 1323.

Klaus(s)en, mostly Claus(s)en (Schleswig-Holstein, Dithmarschen): freq. = Claus’ son, patr. like Rhineld. Clas(s)en; cf. the Holstein names Petersen, Johannsen, Nielsen, Jensen, Paulsen, Frenssen, Andersen, Thomsen, etc.

Klawehn, Klaf(f)ehn, Klawitter: E Pruss.-Lith-Latv. (probably from klava ‘maple tree’). Also Klawohn, Klawunder and others.

Kläwi (Alem.): = Klaus. Clämdn Blötzlin, Breisgau area 1396; Cläwi (Cläs, Claus) Marschall von Zimmern, 15th c.

Klaws, Klaffs (LGer.): = Klawes = Klages: Klaus.

Kleb, Kleeb (UGer.): field name (‘wet place’), cf. “im Kleb” near Künzelsau. But LGer. Klebe = Klewe, pl.n. (loc.n.) Kleve on the L.Rhine. Klebes (UGer.) = Klewes = Kläwi = Nikolaus.

Klebsattel, LGer. Klevesadel, Klevesahl, Kleesattel: surname for a horseback rider, cf. Raumensattel, Deckensattel, Frettensattel [Sattel = ‘saddle’]. Egenolf Klebsattel, Mosbach 1438, Hannos Clebesatel, Liegnitz 1383, Joh. Klevesadel (Klevesal), Greifswald 1487-1502.

Klee: ‘clover field’, surname of a clover farmer. Cf. Kleemeyer, Kleeschulte; Kleebauer, Kleemann; Springenklee [jump into the clover] like Springinsfeld; Wadenklee [wade through the clover], Findeklee; Kleehaas (‘clover rabbit’, like Koldbau ‘cabbage rabbit’); Kleeblatt [clover leaf]; Kleefeld, Kleebrink, Kleekamp [clover field].

Kleemann: in old documents also Klemen(s): Cleman Kuhefuß, Altenburg in Thur. 1482.

Kleen, Klehn (LGer.): = Klein, cf. Lütt, Lüttke [LGer. words for “klein” ‘small’]. Hence Klensmed, Klenedenst, Klenenbarg Note the Slavic pl.n. Klein near Ro. in Meckl., which was changed from Klene (‘maple tree’): vanKlene, Ro. 1270.

Kleesattel see Kleveaadel (LGer.): Klebsattel.

Kleffel (Hbg.) see Kleve.

Klei (LGer.-Westph.): ‘loam, clay soil’. Hermann imKleie, Lippe area 1580. Zumkley. Kleibömer, Kleikamp, Kleibelt Ooc.n.), Kleibrink, Kleisiek; Kleibrak, Kleipohl; Kleimann.

Kle(i)ber, Klaiber (UGer.), Kloiber (Aust.): workman who makes clay walls; Hannus Cleyber, Liegnitz 1372 (and 1389: “eine wand di gebeuwet und gecleybit was”: a wall built and made of clay); as late as 1569 in Liegnitz: demkleber [the clay worker, cf. plasterer today].

Klei(e)nstäuber, Kleiensteuber, Kleienstüber (freq. in Thur.): surname of a miller; in the LGer. Redentine Passion Play (15th c.) the devil mocks the miller (“the chaff was spouting from his nose like dust”). [Kleie = ‘chaff’, stäuben = ‘to make a lot of dust’] A Hans Klye, Strasb. 1397. Also see LGer. Kliefoth.

Kleim: probably a loc.n. referring to clay soil, cf. OHG kleimen ‘to smear’. Pl.n. Kleimenhagen.

Klein, in Sil. also Kleint and Kleiner, Kleinert (strong adjective ending in -er plus secondary -t, likewise Kahler(t), Brauner(t), Großer(t), etc.): see Bahlow SN, pp. 27, 129. Not only means ‘of small stature’ but also ‘young’ (junior) compared to an older brother or the father. Hence compounds like Kleinhempel, Kleinhensel, Kleinmichel, Kleinpaul, Kleinpeter, Kleinschmidt, Kleineidam [Eidam = ‘son-in-law’], Kleinwächter, Kleinknecht, etc.

Kleindienst [small service]: in the Middle Ages this was a term for a tax duty, as e.g. 1325 in Bav.: Heinrich der Vorster hat gegeben einen “chlainendienst ... und sint ze ostern 100 aier, 8 chaes, 6 häner, 4 gens” [H., the forester, paid a small tax and delivered at Easter 100 eggs, 8 cheeses, 6 chickens, 4 geese] (Mon. Boica 12, 165). Ulrich Claindienst, Bav. 1266, Andreas Kleyndinst, Liegnitz 1429, Joh. Clenedenst (bishop), Lüb. 1369.

Kleingedank [small thanks]: MHG gedank ‘thanks, gratitude’, thus name for an ungrateful person.

Kleinkauf [small sale]: the retail merchant. Cf. Käufel, Käufler.

Kleinod (in some eases Jewish): ‘piece of jewelry’. Wigand Kleynod, Wetzlar 1325.

Kleinschinidt (E Ger. and N Ger.): manufacturer of smaller (metal) items for daily use like nails, drills, needles, small locks, bells, etc. (see Bahlow, p. 138, where these are mentioned for Schweidnitz 1369). Elbel der cleynsmyd, Liegnitz 1372. Hence Kleinhammer.

Kleinsteuber see Kleienstäuber.

Kleinwort, Kleinworth (freq. in Hbg.) besides Kleenworth (LGer.): likewise Klindworth, Langeworth and others = Wurtenbauer [w. farmer] in the marsh area (from MLG wort, wurt ‘raised terrain with a farmstead’). Cf. Wort(h)mann, Wurtmann.

Kleiser (UGer.): patr. of Meis, Kleisel, Kleisle, also Klais, Maiser (Würt.), LGer. Claussen ‘Klaus’ son’.

Kleist (freq. in Hbg., Ro.): family of Prussian nobility (cf. Heinrich von K., the writer). Probably derives from a pl.n. (cf. Kliest, Kliestow).

Kleinent: E Ger.-Slav. variant of Klemen(t)z (Rhineld., U.Sil.) from Saint Clemens (Lat. .’gentle’), patron saint of skippers and sailors; also name of several popes. Cf. “St.Clemen brings us the winter” (Nov. 23rd is his saint’s day). Contracted forms: Klemz, Klems, Klemps; E Ger.-Sil. Klemt (Klemmt, Klämbt), in Glatz Klam(m)t (Clament around 1400), see there. Likewise Klemke, Klampke, Kliemke, see Kliemt. Clement der snyder [tailor], Liegnitz 1397, Clemet Schubart, Liegnitz 1532; patr. Nic. Clementer, Bohemia 1332).

Klemm, Klemme (UGer.): MHG klem ‘narrow, tight’ (cf. FN Klemmschuh). Sighard Clem, Regensburg 1160, Sibot Clemme, Seefeld in Bav. 1197. MHG klemelich ‘apprehensive, uneasy’.

Klemmer (UGer.) see Klemm. Peter Klemer, Budweis 1388, Ditl Clem, Brüm 1348, der Chlemme, Eger 1359, Sifrid der Klemmer, Würt. 1350 (besides H. Klemmerlin).

Klemp, Klempe, Klempel, probably surname of a plumber (= Klempner), see also Klampferer.

Klemperer: old Sil. word for Klemp(t)ner ‘plumber’ (L. Fochs der klemper(er), Liegnitz 1532, besides klempner). Hence Klempert. Cf. Klamp, Klampe (LGer. and Dutch ‘clamp’). But Klempau (freq. in Hbg.) is a Slav. pl.n., likewise Klempin and Klempenow in Pomerania.

Klem(m)t, Klemz see Klement.

Klengel: from MHG ‘dangling object, bell, clapper’. (Also pl.n. near Jena.) Nickel Clengel, Görlitz 1460.

Klenk, Klenker, Klenkler (UGer.): from MHG klenken ‘to sound, make sound’. Cuntz Klenk, Würt. 1491, 1426, der Clenker, Lake Constance area 1324, Ulrich Klenkler, Baden 1456. But the E Ger. name von Klencke (Klenicke) is of Slav. origin.

Klenner (UGer.) = Kleiber, see there. (From MHG klenen ‘to stick, spread, smear’, klenwant ‘clay wall’). Michael Klener, Budweis 1411 (but Heinlin Klener, Brünn 1345, is interpreted as Kleiner ‘the short one’ (Parvus) by the scribe). In Sax. there is also a pl.n. Klennen.

Klentze (Hbg.): from Klenze near Lüneburg. Also Klenzmann.

Kleppel see Klöppel.

Klepper (Sil.) see Klapper.

Kleres see Klärs.

Klepzig: Slav. pl.n. near Halle.

Kles, Kles(e)l (UGer.), also Kleß (Clasius), Kleßl: sh.f. of Nikolaus (Klaus, Klas): Cleßlin Schoupp, Stuttgart 1432, Martin Cles (Claus), Würt. 1512. For Klesse, Klessmann (Hbg.) also cf. pl.n. Klessen in the Havel River area.

Klesper: cf. pl.n. Klespen near Wiedenbrück. But cf. Klisper.

Klett (UGer.): ‘burr’, surname of an obtrusive person. Albertus Klette, Baden 1361, Hans der Klett, Würt 1345. In Mainz 1337 H. Klettichen. In Sil. Hensel Clette, Liegnitz 1349, dialect variant also Klatte. (But note a pl.n. Klattau in Bohemia.)

Klettke (E Ger.-Sil.): cf. Slav. Kletka ‘hut, shack’. Also Klättke.

Kleuters (Rhineld.) = Klüter: Arnt im Klüte 1644. Kleudgen see Klaudius.

Klever, Klewer: from Kleve in L.Rhine region. See Bahlow ON, p. 266 (kleve as in Clevemere, Cleveland).

Klevesaat: Kleesaat ‘clover seed’.

Klevesahl (LGer.) see Klebsattel (Klevesadel).

Klewi, Kläwi (Alem.-Swab.): sh.f. of Nikolaus (Klaus). See Kläwi.

Kley (Westph.) see Klei.

Kleyle(in) (Würt.): from MHG kliuwelin ‘lump, tangle’ (1330 Kleulin), cf. Bleyle (= bliuwel).

Kleyser see Kleiser,

Klich(e), Klicher (Sil.): Slav. sh.f. of Kliment = Clemens, cf. Pech (Pich) from Peter, Mach from Matthias, Stach from Stanislaw, Jach from Johann. (Klich and Bernhart of Thawraw 1456).

Klick (Klicker): LGer. ‘loamy (clayey) soil’.

Klie (freq. in Hbg.): LGer. = ‘bran’. Harmen Klye in Flensburg, cf. Kliefoth, nickname for a miller. See also Kleienstäuber.

Kliebenschädel: ‘split the skull’ (meaning tough old soldier, mercenary).

Kliefoth (Hbg., Meckl.): LGer., ‘bran foot’, see Klie.

Kliegel (UGer.) see Klügel.

Kliem, Kliemt, Kli(e)mke (Klimek in Upper Sil.): Sil.-Slav. sh.f. of Kliment = Clemens, also Klima, Klimsch, Klimczak (like Tomczak). Cf. Kliche. Hence Kliemchen, Kliemann (Kliemen). Clymke Kobeliczky 1457; Albert Climke, Liegnitz 1352.

Kli(e)sch (Sil.) see Kliem, Klich.

Kliewe, Kliewer likewise Klewe, Klewer derive from the N Ger. loc.n. (or pl.n.) Klieve, Kleve (see Bahlow ON, p. 266). Also cf. MLG klive ‘burr’.

Kligge (Westph.): = ‘bran chaff’, Marten Klige (Kligge), Herford 1446.

Klimke, Klimek, Klimmek (Sil.) see Kliemke. Likewise Klima, Klimsch, Klimczak (Pol.) like Tomczak (Thomas), and Klimkeit (E Pruss.-Lith.).

Klimpel see Klempel.

Klinck, Klinckmann (freq. in Hbg., Ro.): from the pl.n. Klink, Klinken in Meckl. (also a pl.n. Klinke near Stendal and Klinkow). Henneke Klynkeman,farmer in Spörnitz in Meckl. in the 14th c. Dutch klinke, klenke ‘marshy pool, slough’ (Cf. Clincus lacus [Lat. for Klink Lake] in Anhalt). Related is the pl.n. Klinkum (Klinkheim) near Mönchengladbach, Klinksiek in Westph. and others. Joh. Klinkeinan,Greifswald 1324.

Klindt (freq. in Hbg.): LGer. ‘steep bank, bluff’. Also pl.n. Klint in Holstein. Hence Klindwort(h), freq. in Hbg., see Kleinwort.

Klingauf [play up]: name for a minstrel or singer.

Klingbeil, LGer. Klingebiel: surname of a carpenter. [Beil = ‘hatchet’, klingen = ‘to sound’] Klinkebiel,in Oldenburg 1418.

KIinge: freq. UGer. loc.n. (‘mountain gorge with a stream’). Heinez in der Clingen,Würzburg 1409; hence also UGer. Klinger: Hugo der Clingere,Breisgau area 1200. Cf. the writer Friedrich Klinger and the painter Max Klinger. Klinge, Klingen derive from pl.ns. (also pl.n. Klinge in Holstein): Klingemann (Hbg.). See also Klingner. Heydeke bi dem Clinghe,Quedlinburg 1300.

Klingelfuß, Klingelhut: ‘bell(s) on the foot, bell(s) on the hat’; names for a dandy or fop (Aargau 1424, Breisgau 1318).

Klingenberg (freq. in Hbg.): pl.n. in Holstein, Sax., Franconia, Würt.

Kiingenschmied: (Prague 1405) refers to a cutler.

Klinghammer: surname of a smith. Joh. Clinkhamer,Lüb. 1341. Cf. Schellhammer. Hence Klingseis(en).

Klinghardt, Klinckhart: used around 1300 for ‘a man of fortune’ (for instance in the epic Renner by Hugo of Trimberg, line 1600), Cf. the Burgundian gold coin called Klinkert. A knight Cunrad Clinchart,Wertheim 1292, Joh. Clinchart,Brsl. 1315. For the form compare Kratz-hart ‘miser, niggard’, Kalhart ‘prattler, gabber’.

Klingler (UGer.): from the loc.n. Klingle, like Klinger from Klinge, see there. Clingeler,Würt. 1283, Tyrol 1282, etc.

Klingner (UGer.): Cf. the pl.n. Klingnau in Aargau (Switz.), Klingen in Bav., and others, also in der Klingen.

Klingseis: name of a smith(y) (‘let the iron sound’).

Klingsohr (Klingsöhr): ‘sound into the ear’, name known through the legend of the Wartburg Castle as name of the magician K. Actually a minstrel or musician surname (Wilhelm Clingesor,Lüb. 1342, H. Chlingsor,Brünn 1345), also Klingauf (freq. in Liegnitz), Klinkauff.

Klingspor(n), Klinkenspor(n): name of a rider [Sporn = ‘spur’] (Hensel Clingensporn,Liegnitz 1368).

Klingwort (Hbg.) see Klincksiek and Klindwort.

Klink- see Klinck-.

Klinkerfuß (Han., Hbg.): = Klunkerfuß ‘dangling foot’ (Swab. Klunkelfuß), Cf. Klunkerteig.

Klinkradt: pl.n. Klinkrade (Klinkrode) near Mölln in Holstein.

Klinner, Klinnert (Sil.) see Klenner. Cf. Sil. Rinner besider, Renner (in Görlitz).

Klintworth see Klindworth.

Klipfel (UGer.), Klippel (Centr.Ger.) see Klüpfel.

Klipp(e), Klippgen = Klippekenmaker (1506 in Bremen); from MLG klippe(ke) ‘low shoe, oxford shoe’.

Klipping (MLG): ‘pile of hides, furs’, also ‘flecce’, ‘wool shorn with clipping shears’ (“wulle, de ys geheten klippink” = ‘wool called clipping). Surname for merchants. Later also name of a square coin in hard times. Heriman Klippinc, Col. 1200, Thid. Clippinc, Ro. 1290, Conrad Clippinc, councillor, Dortmund 1316.

Klisch, Klischat: E Slav. or Lith., probably related to Klich = Kliment = Klemens.

Klisper (LGer.): Ludeke Clispere,Hbg. 1262; person with a lisp; Cf. Stamere = Stammler [stammerer].

Klitzing (von): pl.n.

Klix: pl.n. near Bautzen.

Klob, Klöble (UGer.) ‘clumsy person’.

Klöber see Klüver.

Klockmann (freq. in Hbg.): like Klo(c)ke (LGer.) = Kluge [klug = ‘bright, intelligent’], Westph. Klauke. Also means the adept, skillful one, Cf. Godeke Clocvinger, Ro. 1292. Hence patr. Klöckling (Meckl.). Klöckling ‘wise guy’ (Meckl.). But Klöckner is a bell ringer, sexton, Rhine-Westph.-LGer., also Klöcker(s), Klocker (the latter also SW German). Cf. LGer. Klockentöger (‘bell puller’), Klockreme (‘bell strap’), Klockring, Klockgeter (‘bell caster’). Hinzo clockenvot, Lüb. ca. 1320.

Klockow: pl.n. in Pom., Meckl., Uckermark.

Klöden (von Klöden, Kläden): pl.n. Kläden near Stendal and others.

Klodius see Klaudius.

Klodt (LGer.) see Kloth.

Klöfkorn see Klövekorn.

Klöhn (freq. in Hbg.), Klähn see Klähn.

Kloock (freq. in Hbg.) see Klockmann.

Klooß see Kloß.

Klöpfer (UGer.), Klöpper (Centr.Ger., LGer.): ‘craftsman who works with a clapper, tongue, bobbin or hammer’ (the German word for those is Klöpfel or Klöppel). Also Cf. Cloppesac, Clopperoggen, Cloppeschild, Cloppekiste (Westph. 1378), Kloppfleisch, Kloppstein (Klopfsteyn, Liegnitz 1372) [hit or hammer the sack, rye, sign or shield, box, meat, stone], Klopstock. Also short: Klopp.

Klopsch likewise Klopke, Klobke: E Ger.-Slav. (‘little farmer’?).

Klopstock [various meanings possible like hitting stick, trap bat, trunk]: Goethe remarked on the name of his famous contemporary poet: “At the beginning one wondered why such a prominent person should have such a curious name, but one soon got used to it and did not think of the meaning of the syllables anymore.” Although it is a down-to-earth name, its meaning as an occupational surname is not clear since stock has various meanings (in MHG it can also mean ‘base part of an anvil’). As sentence name it belongs in the same group as Kloppstein, Kloppekiste and others (see Klöpfer). A Hans Kloppestock, an ancestor of the poet, was recorded in Ratzeburg around 1550; but already around 1350 in Han.: Arnold Clopstuke, Thid. Clopstuke.

Klör(s) (freq. in Ro.), Klöres, Klärs, Klährs, Klähr, Klehr: offshoots of the saint name Hilarius, see Glaris and Glorius. For the change i: j: g (Ilarius: Glarius) see Behaghel, Deutsche Grammatik, p. 231. Cf. Hinrich Kloers (Klaries), Ro. 1780, Hinrich Clorius, Ro. 1295. For the form Klohr Cf. Clor Schedin, Würzburg 1409.

Klose: the most frequent sh.f. of Nikolaus in Sil. and the Lausitz area in the Middle Ages. See also Nitsche, Nickel. Nicolaus alias Klose, near Neiße 1444, Close Reychloff, near Liegnitz 1406, Niclas Kloseman, Liegnitz 1423, Klösel Epfeler, Glatz 1373, Nickel Klösel, Glatz 1344. In U.Sax. also Klosa, Kloska, Klossek. (See Bahlow SN, p. 64).

Klosner see Klausner.

Kloß (Kloßmann): a popular sh.f. of Nikolaus (Klaus) in the Middle Ages in the UGer. area.; with umlaut: Klöß (Würt., Rhineld.), Klösel (Niklösel); patr. Kloser, Klöser, Klößer; Rhineld. Klösges and other similar forms. See also Klose.

Klostermann: UGer. and LGer. = ‘serf (tenant farmer) of a monastery or nunnery’, sometimes = ‘monk’. Albert Closterman, Greifswald 1331 (Lüb. 1322). Cf. Klosterhalfen, Klosterköter, Klostermeyer.

Klöter(s): L.Rhine, see Klüter.

Kloth, Kloot(h): LGer. = ‘clod, lump’, also Kluth; Cf. Schneekloth, Schneekluth, Lemklot [clay lump], Botterklot [butter lump]. In a figurative sense: clumsy person.

Klotz, UGer. also Klötzel: ‘clumsy, crude person’. Cf. Kloth.

Klotzsch(e): pl.n. in Sax. (Paul Klotzsche, Meißen around 1450).

Klöwenhammr: ‘heavy hammer’. Jan Clofharner, Danzig 1377, Klöwenbrot, Lüb. 1333, Klöweworst, Klofvoth (clubfoot).

Klöver, Klöwer, Klöber (LGer): = ‘wood splitter’ (cleaver); Herm Klöver, Greifswald 1354, Cf. Klövekorn, Klöfkorn ‘split the grain’; Klövenagel [Nagel = ‘nail’], Klövesand.

Klüber (CentrGer., UGer.), also Klieber: = ‘wood splitter, person who cuts logs’; Cf. Klubescheit, Klubeschedel [Schädel = ‘skull’], Kluibenschedel, Kliebenschedel, Bretterklieber [Brett = ‘plank’]. LGer. Klüver, Klöver, see there.

Kluckhohn, Kluckhuhn, Kluckhahn (Westph.): ‘sitting or brooding hen’, surname of a chicken farmer. Cf. Wolter Kluke,Stralsund 1327.

Klüdemam: pl.n. Klüden near Haldsl. (1386 von Klude = Kludeman in Haldsl.).

Klug(e), Kluger, UGer. also Klügel (Kliegel), LGer. Klo(c)k(mann), Klauck: ‘the bright, skillful one’. Mertin Kluge (Kluger),Habelschwerdt 1397; Klugesheupt [= kluges Haupt ‘smart head’], Klugstirn [‘smart (fore)head’], Glatz 14th c., Nik. Clügelin,Homberg 1353, Conrad Clügel (Kluger),Prague 1320, Nic. Kligl,Moravia 1395. Frühklug.

Klugkist: Kist occurs as sh.f. of the pers.n. Christian. Also Cf. Lith. Kisteit.

Klühn (Hbg.): loc.n., Cf. Dutch kluin = veen ‘bog’; das Kluhn (wooded hill near Schlüchtern in Hesse). See Bahlow ON, p. 267.

Klump, Klumpe (LGer., CentrGer.), Klumpf (UGer.): ‘lump’, ‘clumsy, crude person’. Cf. Klumparndt, Klumpjan. Klumpfuß [clubfoot], Basel 1256, likewise Kaulfuß. Also Clumping,Lüb. 1319 (= ‘a round person’, like a ball!). But Klumpenmaker, Klumpenheuer (L.Rhine area) = clog (wooden shoe) maker.

Klünder, Klünner (LGer., Hbg., Bremen, Ro.) = noise maker (MLG klunderen ‘to make noise’); “Claus Klunder” isrecorded as abusive name in the Bremen area. Around 1300 Clundere is widespread.

Klunker:klunkern = ‘to dangle’; an idiot, dope. Klunkerfuß ‘dangling foot’, Cf. Klunkerteig [Teig = ‘lumpy dough’) for a baker. August Klunker,Zittau 1404.

Klupp (Centr.Ger.-Hess.) see Klopp.

Klüppel see Klöppel (Klappelschit, Col.1200). UGer. Klüpfel ‘mallet, wooden stick’ (Speyer 1248).

Klupsch see Klopsch.

Klüß (Hbg., Meckl.), Klüßmann: pl.n. Klüß several times in Meckl. Cf. Klüssow in Pom.

Klüß(en)dorf (Wismar, freq. in Hbg.): pl.n. in Meckl.

Klußmamm (freq. in Hbg.): related to loc.n. Kluß (Norwegian klussa ‘to soil’), Cf. the Klusbeke Creek in Westph. Henrich Klusseman,Han. 1327.

Klut(h), freq. in LGer. area, Klutmann, Klüt(mann): LGer. Klut ‘lump of soil’, field name Klüt. Klutentreter ‘clod stamper, clod hopper’, derisive nickname for a peasant. Also Cf. Kloth: Schneeckloth, Schneekluth. Hence patr. Klüting (also Klump-ing).

Klutterer (UGer.): MHG = ‘juggler’ (Herman Clutterer,Pal. 1300).

Klütz: Wendish pl.n. near Wismar. Cf. pl.n. Klützow in Pom.

Klüver, Klüwer (freq. in LGer. area): see Klüber and Klöver. Especially the bailiff who put the prisoners into the stocks (= Kluven ‘a split wooden block’). Nicolaus Cluvere,Barth 1351. Henneke Cluvere,Lüb. 1339. Hence Kluwe (wooden block), MHG klobe, a split piece of wood; Cf. Kluvetasch (likewise Taschenbreker) both mean pickpocket.

Knaa(c)k, Kna(c)k (freq. in Hbg.): LGer. for Knoke ‘bone’, likewise Kaack for Kok ‘cook’ and Haack for Hoke ‘huckster’. Surname of a butcher (= Knochenhauer), LGer. Knokenhower, Knakenhower [bone chopper]. Cf. Knoke,Ro., Lüb. 1288, Rindesknoke [Rind = ‘cow’], Hbg. 1297, Halsknoke, Schulderknoke [Hals = ‘neck’, Schulter = ‘shoulder’], Stralsund 1301. But Knakerügge (Hbg. 13th c.), Knakestert (Han. 1477) means a bony, haggard person, likewise Hardeknoke (Hartknoch). LGer. Knagge corresponds to Knacke as Knigge to Knick. Kna(a)ckebein, Knackfuß. Knackmuß = Knochenmus [Mus = ‘mush’]. Knakendöffel (Hbg.): from older knakedovel 1438, means a turner (woodworker) who makes dice out of bones, Cf. Döbeler.

Knabbe (LGer.) = Knabe: ‘young lad, youth’ (in some cases = ‘page’); for the phonological form Cf. Rabe [raven]: Rappe [black horse]. L.Rhine Knabben, UGer. Knäble, Knabl.

Knabenschuh [boys’ shoe]: surname of a shoemaker, likewise Frauenschuh, Kindschuh.

Knapp(e); Knäpple: UGer. (MHG), variant of Knabe ‘boy’ (like Rappe: Rabe), which originally meant a youth who was to become a knight, cf Schildknappe; it also means simply ‘journeyman, artisan's assistant’: Tuchknappe [Tuch = ‘cloth’], Bergknappe [young miner], Mühlknappe [Mühle = ‘mill’]. Seidl Knapp,Brünn 1365.

Knap(p)sack (Dutch-Engl.): ‘food bag, knapsack’ (from knappen ‘to help oneself freely to food’). Cf. LGer. Knapworst, Knapwurst.

Knauer (UGer.-Sil.): MHG knüreknûre, gnarl’, fig. ‘crude chap’(thus in some Shrovetide plays: “grober Knaur” rhyming with paur [= Bauer ‘peasant’]). Knuwer,Striegau 14th c., Knur Bav. 1138, Knawer,Glatz 1375. Hence Knauerhase (Sil.), Cf. Knourmuk,Prague 1332. Knauber is a form of the Saar-Pal. area, Knauert (EGer.) like Blauert, Blüchert.

Knauf, Knäufel (UGer.) like LGer. Knoop = Knopf [knob] (Cf. Schwertknauf ‘sword pommel’, Turmknauf ‘steeple ball’); fig. ‘short, chubby fellow’. J. Knauf,Prague 1353, H. Kneufel,Dux 1400, unrounded form: Kneifel (freq. in Sudeten area); Knaufacht 1387.

Knaup (UGer.): MHG knûpe ‘gnarl’, crude fellow. Knup 1409, Knaup,Würt. 1525. But Westph. Knaup = Knoop. See there.

Knaus, Knäusle, Kneußel, Kneißl (UGer.): knûs ‘fresh, overbearing, arrogant’ (e.g. “gegen den Armen ist er knuß” = he is arrogant toward the poor); Duke Stephan of Bavaria was generally called “herzog Kneißel,1380 (see E.Schwarz, p. 168). But in UGer.-Würt. the Swab. word Knaus ‘gnarl’, Swiss knûs (also meaning end piece of a loaf of bread) may be involved, judging from the frequency of the name (72 times in Stuttgart) a ‘gnarly, crude person’. Henslin Knüßlin,near Stuttgart 1381, Kneusel (Knaisel), Deutsch-Brod 1380. Cf. Knußbart,Hegau 1571.

Knaust see Knust.

Knaut(h): Sax.-Sil.-Sudeten variant of Knoten ‘knot’; short, gnarled person. Cf. Henr. Knaut,Prague 1315 besides M. Cnot,Prague 1405; Sydel Knote,Liegnitz 1372. In Sax. Knauthain, Knaut-Kleeberg, Knaut-Naundorf are pl.ns.

Knebel (UGer.-Sil.), Knevel, Knef(f)el (LGer.): ‘crude fellow, boor’, peasant name like Knauer, Knolle, Knote, Knorr. Hence Knebelbart, Knebelspieß.

Knecht, Knechtel, Knechtli, Knechtges = ‘journeyman (of a trade), helper’, likewise Knabe and Knappe; Cf. Schmiedeknecht [smith’s helper, journeyman in a smithy], Tuchknecht or Tuchknappe [j. or helper of a cloth manufacturer]; also Ackerknecht [farmhand], Wagenknecht [carter’s helper], Kleinknecht [stable hand], Barfknecht, Gutknecht, Liebknecht, etc.

Kneese: pl.n. in Meckl.

Knef (LGer.), Kneif, Knief. MLG knîf ‘shoemaker’s knife’, surname of a shoemaker, likewise Knieriem [knee strap] and others. Detmar Knif,Ro. 1293 (Stralsund, Greifswald). Cf. Kniep, Knieper, Kneipp.

Knef(f)el (LGer.) see Knebel. Gerhard Knevel,Ro. 1294.

Kneifel (UGer.) see Knäufel.

Kneile (UGer.): = ‘ball, knot’.

Kneip(p), Kneib (UGer.): from MHG knip ‘knife’, Knef! The natural healer (hydrotherapist!) and Reverend Sebastian Kneipp was a Bavarian.

Kneißel, Kneisel see Knäußel.

Knell, Knelle, Kneller (UGer.): ‘noise maker’ (MHG knellen ‘to let things bang, explode’). Der lange und der rote Knelle,Meßkirch 1294; Cf. Knel-isen [banging iron] 1544.

Knenlein (UGer.) = Knan, see Gnann.

Knepel, Knepler (Bav-Moravian) = Knöpfel, Knöpfler, Knöpfelmacher ‘buttonmaker’(?). Cf. Kneppl = Knephl,Iglau 1359.

Knerlich, Knerich see Gnerlich.

Kneschke see Knese.

Knese, Knesch(e), Kneschke, Knösche, Kniesche (E Ger.-Slav.): ‘prince, ruler, lord’, knesik ‘young nobleman (country) squire’, Cf. knesepole ‘land of a prince, royal land’. A Slav Dubbermer Kneseke,Stralsund 1301.

Knesebeck (von dem): pl.n. NE of Gifhorn. Wasmod K., marshal, Brsw. 1248

Knetemann, Kneten (Hbg.): pl.n. Kneten in Oldenburg.

Knetsch(ke) see Kneschke.

Kneußl (UGer.) see Knaus.

Knevel (LGer.) see Knebel.

Knibbe (Hbg.) see Knubbe.

Knick, Knickmann, Knickmeier: lives at a “Knick” = ‘hedge, underbrush’ (typical of the pasture and field landscape of Holstein, Mecklenburg, Lower Saxony). But Knickrehm (freq. in Hbg.), likewise Sturzrehm, Kneipriem, are related to LGer. reme ‘strap, belt’. Cf. Cl. Knickenzwey,Danzig 1433.

Knicke(l)bein: Cf. Klunkerbein and others.

Knie: in some cases a field name. But may also have been used for a person with a conspicuous (abnormal) knee, Cf. names like Arm, Bein [leg], Hals [neck], Bauch [belly], etc. Hence compounds like Knyschibe [knee plate], Würzburg 1409, Kniepändl [knee ribbon or strap] in Bohemia, Kniehase (= Hose ‘pants’): Knyhösel,Moravia 1425. But Knieriem, Knyrim means shoemaker. Kiebe(i)ß (UGer.) is the fairly freq. loc.n. Kniebis.

Knief, Kniep see Knef.

Knieper (Hbg.), Kniep(e): craftsman who works with pincers (“Knipe”) like a shoemaker, belt maker, strap maker, etc. Herman knipere,Lüb. 1329. Cf. Knippscheer.

Kniesche, Knieschke, Kniese, see Kneschke.

Kniffke see Gniffke.

Knigge see Knick. For LGer. gg Cf. Prigge: Pricke; Schnicke: Schnigge. Baron Adolf von Knigge, author of Umgang mit Menschen,1788, the “Emily Post” of Germany, was from Bredenbeck in Han.; hence Hinrik Knigge,Hamelin 1427, Peter Knigge (dominus), Stettin 1535.

Knipping (Hbg.): as early as 1305 in Hbg. (Hinr. Knypping); patr. form of Knipper (LGer.), Knippe, Knipp, name for person who works with punching shears or similar tools (Cf. Knieper, Kniepe), compare the form Spising (Hbg.) = Spieser ‘food maker, chef’. Knippeczu in Brsl., Knipphals, Knippschild in Kiel.

Knispel: pl.n. in U.Sax. = Kniespol (Knezopole) ‘princely land(s)’ near Olmütz; see Knese.

Knittel (UGer.) = Knüttel ‘cudgel, club’, fig. ‘ruffian’.

Knobbe, Knubbe (LGer.): ‘gnarl, knob, lump’ (Knobbe,Quedlinburg 1322, Han. 1369; Knobbeken,Quedlinburg 1434, Knubbe,Kiel around 1300). Cf. Knorr, Knoll, Knote, Knust, and others: ‘cantankerous person’.

Knobel (UGer.), Knobl: round elevation (Cf. MHG knübel, LGer. knöwel ‘ankle’), also in field names (“uf dem Knobel” = ‘on the knoll’, 1291). Heyne Knovelman,Haldsl. 1350.

Knobloch, Knoblich (especially Sax., Sil.): surname of a gardener or garlic grower (dealer). Knoblauch = ‘garlic’. (From MHG klobe-louch ‘split leek’). Cunrad Clobeloch,Frkf. 1223, Knobelouch,Meißen 1292, Knobloch,Liegnitz 1352, Stuttgart 1304, Knofloch,Knoflach (Tyrol). In LGer. Knuflok,Barth 1442. Jacob Kluflokere,Bremen 1288.

Knoch(e), Knöchel (UGer.-CentrGer.): surname of a bony, skinny person, Cf. Hartknoch. Hans von Schaumberg der Knoch [the bone], Nbg. 15th c. LGer. Knocke, Knaack, see there.

Knochendöppel: (Wismar) see Knackendöffel (Knaack).

Knode, Knödel (UGer.): from MHG knode ‘knot’, knotty, crude person. Peter called Knode,Bacharach 13th c., L.Rhine Knödgen, Cf. Knothe. Joh. Knodl,Brünn 1400. Likewise Knödler.

Knöfel, Knöffel (Sax.-Bav.) like MHG knöufel = Knöpfchen ‘small button’, see Knopf. Hence Knöfler like Knöpfler: Kneufel, Knoufeler in Brsl. Jacob Knöfler (Kneufler),Leipzig 1549.

Knoll(e): ‘knob, lump of soil’, crude, clumsy person; old peasant name. Farmer Konrad Knoll,13th c.; Hannus Knolle,Liegnitz 1426. Cf. Knote, Knorr, Knauer, Knebel, and others.

Knönagel (LGer.) see Knövenagel.

Kno(o)p (LGer.) see Knopf. (MLG knop also stands for ‘knot’: Joh. Knop = Joh. nodus [Lat. for knot], Hbg. 1368). Reder Knop, Lüb. 1317. Also Cf. pl.n. Knoop near Kiel. For Centr.Ger. Knopp Cf. Oswalt Knopf (Knopp), Jena 1494. LGer. Knöpken.

Knopf, Knöpfel, Knöpfle, Knöpfli (UGer.) [button]; LGer. Knoop: in some cases = ‘short chubby fellow’, Cf. knight Joh. Knop, Thur. 1368; often however occ. surname = Knöpfler, button maker, Cf. Michel Knöpfle (Knäpfler), Ravensburg 1476. Hence Knöpfelman, Speyer 1334; Knöpfelschuch [button shoe], Reutlingen 15th c., Knöpfelmacher (freq. in Vienna). Knöpfelstricker, Bistritz 1731. But Knopfloch [button hole] in Vienna has probably been misinterpreted from Bav. Knoffloch [Knoblauch = ‘garlic’], Allgäu 1443, from the FN “Knobloch”. See there.

Knör, Knöhr, Knörig (UGer.): likewise Knorz and Knorr = ‘gnarl, knot’, crude person; Cf. Knörnschild. Bentz Knör, near Stuttgart 1350; Knöring, in the Black Forest 1305.

Knör(e)nschild (Bav., Sax.): ‘punch the shield’, surname of a professional dueller, mercenary, or similar occupation, likewise Hauenschild [hit the shield], Knippeschild [nick the shield].

Knöringer: from Knöringen (Swabia, Pal., Alsace).

Knorr, Knorn (UGer.-Sax.-Sil., also LGer.), Bav. Knörndl: ‘gnarl’, short, fat, gnarled person, likewise Knote, Knoll, Knorz, Knauer, Knebel, Knotz. Andres Knorre, Liegnitz 1451, Heyno Knorre, Arnstadt 1325, J. Knorren, Ro. 1298. Also Knorrbein. Herman Knorre, Col. 1188.

Knorz, Knörzel (UGer.): = Knorren, see there. Cf. MHG knorzen ‘to scuffle’. Heintz Knörczlin, Alsace 1393. Jodokus Knortz 1497.

Knospe, Knöspel (freq. in Sax., Sil.): from MHG knospe ‘gnarl’, knospecht ‘heavy, clumsy’; likewise the names Knorr, Knoll, Knote, etc. = ‘clumsy person’; Cunczel Knospe, Glatz 1358, Hans Knöspel, Liegnitz 1491.

Knot(h)e, Knötel (UGer. = Sil.): likewise Knode and Knauth = ‘gnarled, crude, clumsy person’. See also Knospe. Sydel Knote, Liegnitz 1372. Knötig derives from Czech knotek ‘little fellow’.

Knotz, Knötzei (UGer.): from MHG knotze ‘gnarl’ like the FNs Knote, Knorz, Knospe. See there. Fr. Knotze, U.Austria 1294. Nicolaus Knoczauf, Brünn 1365 = ‘disentangle the knot’?

Knö(ve)nagel (LGer.): ‘nail with a thick head’, Cf. Knovelman (Knobel). Christoph Knövenagel, Ro. 1625. But Heyne Clövenaghel, Haldsl. ca. 1400 is related to Klövekorn, Klövesand. See there.

Knubbe (LGer.) see Knobbe.

Knudsen (Schleswig): patr. of the Danish royal name Knud (Knut); see Bahlow VN, p. 62.

Knüll, Knüller (UGer.): MHG knüllen ‘to punch, push’, thus ‘ruffian’. Hans Knüll, near Stuttgart 1381. Cf. baker Knüllemel ‘knead or crumple [the] flour’.

Knüppel (freq. in Hbg.): LGer. word, UGer. Knüttel ‘cudgel, club, stick’. Fig. = ‘crude person’.

Knüpper, Knüpfer (Netzknüpfer [net maker] and others); from: knüpfen ‘to tie, knot’. [Cf. Knuppeczu in Brsl. Cf. LGer. Knütter [to knit, knitter].

Knür (UGer.), Knürle (Swab.) see Knauer. Künzlin Knürlin, Eßlingen 1366.

Knust (LGer., freq. in Hbg.): like Knubbe, Knorr, Knote, etc. Surnames of tough, crude people; Knust (also ‘end piece of a loaf of bread’) corresponds to UGer. Ranft, Ränftel. Around 1600 the standardized form Knaust.

Knuth (freq. in Hbg.), Knutsen, Knutzen, see Knudsen.

Knüt(t)el (UGer.), Knittel, Knettel: = ‘cudgel’ (Knüppel); fig. ‘crude person’. Jesco Knütel, Mies 1378.

Knütter (Hbg.): LGer. = ‘net maker, knitter’; from LGer. knütten ‘to tie, knot, knit’.

Kob, Kobe, Köbi, Köbes are sh.fs. of Jakob like UGer. Köbele, Köbli. See Jacob. (Kobelin, Jew, Würzburg 1281). E Ger.-Slav. form is Kobus (Brsl. 14th c.). Köbke see Köpke.

Kobarg (LGer.): = (Kuhberg), ‘cow hill’. Cf. Kobrink, Kobrock. Pl.n. Koberg near Mölln.

Kobbe: Westph. field name, Cf. Kobboloh, Kobbenrode, Kobbenacken in Westph.

Kobel, Kobelt (Liegnitz): Slav. pl.n. (e.g. in Sil.: Kobel, Koblau, in old documents: Kobola, Kobelow, Slav. kobyla, MHG kobel ‘mare’). Cf. Koblitz, Koblow. UGer. Kobel see Kobler.

Kober: UGer.-MHG ‘pack basket’ (basket to be carried on one’s back). In E Ger. Slav. kovar ‘blacksmith’ might be involved. Georg Cober,Liegnitz 1372, Hensel Cobermm,Liegn. 1372 (FN Kovermann is the modern form), Herman Koberl,Deutsch-Brod 1343, H. Käberlin,Franconia 1370. Enlarged: Koberer, Köberer: Gerlach Coberer,Worms 1321.

Koberger: = Koburger. Anton Koberger (Koburger), bible printer from Nuremberg around 1490. For the pl.n. Koburg see Bahlow ON, p. 268.

Köbisch see Jakob.

Köbke see Köpke.

Koblank see Kublank.

Kobler, Köbler (UGer.): = ‘day laborer who lives in a Kobel (cottage)’. Hence Reichkobler, Kobelmüller, Kobelmann. Christian Kobler,Iglau 1359.

Köbner: (Sil.) from Köben on the Oder River.

Kobold: a goblin, imp, or sprite, ghost in a house. Heinrich Covolt,Col.1135, Joh. Kovolt (patrician), Lüneburg 1296, Nic. Kobolt,Iglau 1369.

Kobs, Kobes, Köbes (Rhineld.) = Jakob.

Kobus see Kob.

Koch, Köchle, (UGer.), Köchly (Swiss), Kock, Koock (LGer.), Kocks (Kochs), Kox (L.Rhine), Coccejus (Lat.-Humanist form), Magirus (Greek-Lat.): like the art of cooking also the name (Lat. coquus) is of Roman origin. The frequency of the name reflects the importance of the profession in the Middle Ages. Various surnames attest to that: Kochhaf(en) = ‘cooking pot’ (translated and embellished by the Humanists to Chyträus,name became famous through David and Nathan Ch. Ro., from Baden); also Kochlöffel [cooking spoon], Schaumlöffel [skimmer, = kitchen utensil], Leckentwirl [lick the whisk], Eierimschmalz [eggs in lard], Pfankuch [pan cake] and others. See also LGer. Kaack. Kakschlief = ‘cooking spoon’.

Kochan, Kochanke (Wendish-Czech) = ‘darling, lover’.

Kocher (freq. in Heidelberg, Strasb., Switz.): probably enlarged form of Koch, unless = Köcher (from MHG kocher ‘container, quiver’, also container to carry fish); Cf. Joh. Cocer (Coquus),Biberach 1296; Cuncze Kocher,Sax. 1395. Clearly related to Köcher ‘quiver’ is Mickelasch Kochermacher,Dux 1470, also Heinczel chochrer,Brünn 1348. There is a Kocher River in Würt. (besides pl.n. Kochen, hence the FN Kochner in Würt.); pl.ns. Kocherbach near Heidelberg, Kochern on the Saar River. (Bahlow ON, p. 269).

Köchler, Köchl (Tyrol, Bav.): related to farmstead name Köchel (several times); in Bav. = ‘knoll in swampy terrain’.

Kock (LGer.) see Kaack and Koch.

Köck (freq. in Bav.) see Keck.

Köckritz: Slav. pl.n.

Kodl (Bav.) see Kadel.

Kofahl, Kufahl, Kowahl, Kophal and others (Meckl.): Wend. Kowal ‘blacksmith’. Bosse Kuval, Haldsl. 1400.

Köfer see Köver.

Koefed (Hbg.): LGer. = ‘cow foot’ (UGer. Kühfuß).

Koffmane (Sil.): probably = Kaufmann ‘merchant’. Jorge Koffman,Liegnitz 1562.

Kofler, Köfler (Bav., Aust.): living near a Kofel ‘gorge’. Ulreich in dem Kovel,Hainrich abe dem Kovele,Tyrol around 1300-1320. Also Eben-Kofler, Hoch-Kofler, Nieder-Kofler, Ober-Kofler; Koflegger.

Kogel (freq. in Hbg.), LGer. = Kagel, see there. Also contracted to -kohl, Cf. Rodekogel [‘red hood’]: Rokohl; Riefkogel: Riefkohl; Linnekogel: Linnekohl. Also Blakogel (‘blue hood’); Feinkohl. But UGer. Kogel means ‘mountain peak’. Cf. the Hochkogel Mountain (Hochkogler).

Kögel, Kögler (UGer.) see Kegel, Kegler.

Kogge (LGer.) means koggemester (1262 in Ro., 1294 in Hbg.), the skipper or captain of the cogs (trading and military ships of the Hanseatic League). Eggert Kogge and koggenmester,Lüb. 1324 (Greifswald 1321).

Kohardt (LGer.): = ‘cow herd’ (H. Koherde,Haldsl. 1423, besides Swynherde, Herde).

Kohfeldt (LGer., Hbg., Meckl.): ‘cow field’, loc.n.

Kohl, Alem. Köhl: from MHG kôl, köl ‘cabbage, cabbage head’, surname of a cabbage farmer. Thimme mittemkole,Ro. 1291. Also Magerkohl [lean c.], Feißkohl [fat c.], LGer. Vettekol, Surkol, Slabbekol (Schlapkohl). Hence Kolblat [cabbage leaf], Kolbuk [cabbage belly], Kolstuve, Kohlstrunk [cabbage trunk], Kohllöffel [cabbage spoon], Kohlmus [cabbage mush], Kolsack.

Kohlbrandt, Köhlbrandt (Hbg.) see Kahlbrandt.

Kohlbrenner (UGer.-Swiss): charcoal burner.

Kohleisen: surname of a blacksmith (meaning the coal tongues?), Kolisern,Parchim 1293; Kolysen,Markdorf 1489.

Köhler, Alem. Kohler (charcoal burner), LGer. Kähler (Kahler): producer of soft coal (by slowly burning forest wood in the charcoal pile); the Middle Ages did not know hard coal yet. Now the trade has (nearly) died out. Mocking name: Rußwurm [soot worm]. Hence Löschenbrand [extinguish the fire], Löschenkohl [extinguish the coal], Kohlschreiber. See there.

Kohlhammer: pl.n. Kohlham in Bav. Kolhase,Güstrow 1248, Lüb. 1321.

Kohlhase Kohlhaas (freq. all over): ‘cabbage rabbit’, apparently a mocking name for the cabbage grower, see Kohl. Cf. Kleist’s novella Michael Kohlhaas. Similar Krauthaas, Kornhaas.

Kohlhepp, Kohlepp (UGer.): can hardly be related to Kohlhopf (1175 in Lake Constance area) but rather means cabbage grower (heppe means ‘garden knife’).

Kohlhoff (LGer.) see Kollhoff. MLG kolhof ‘vegetable garden’.

Kolhund (UGer.): must be interpreted like Mel-hunt, Kel-hunt, Grin-hunt, Betz-hunt [Hunt, Hund = ‘dog’]. Kolhunt was recorded 1398 in the Allgäu area.

Kohlleppel see Kohl.

Kohmetz (Hbg.) see Kollmetz.

Kohlmorgen (Hbg.) see Kollmorgen.

Kohlrausch, Kohlrusch (Hbg.): probably Kolderusch (from rûsch ‘reed’). Cf. Kohlwey: Koldewey.

Kohlschreiber: in Olmütz 1420 Kolschreyber,i.e. bookkeeper in a coal business; Cf. Mühlschreiber [Mühle = ‘mill’], Kornschreiber [Korn = ‘grain’], Salzschreiber [Salz = ‘salt’], Weinschreiber, Grützschreiber [Grütze = ‘grits, cereal’], Küchenschreiber [Küche = ‘kitchen’]. Also Cf. Kohlschütter [person who “pours” or delivers coal].

Kohlstädt: freq. pl.n.

Kohlwey (Hbg.): from Koldewey, see there.

Kohmann (LGer.) = Kuhmann. Cf. Kohardt (Koherde) = ‘cow herd’. Kaumann in Westph.

Köhn, Köhne, Köhnen, Köhnke; also Kohn(e), Kohnen, Kohnke: formerly popular LGer. sh.f. of Konrad, the old royal name; Cf. UGer.-CentrGer. Kühn, Kühne, Kühnel, Kühnemann, Künzel, Kunz from Kunrat (older: Kuonrat). Ko(h)nert (LGer.-Westph.) = Kônrat, Rhineld. Konertz, Coners; patr. Conerding, Conring in Westph.

Kohrs, Kohrsen, Kohrding, Köhring (LGer.-Westph.): patr. of Kohrt (Konrad), see Kordes.

Koischke: (Sil.) from Koischkau.

Koischwitz = Koschwitz: pl.n. near Liegnitz.

Koitz: from Koitz in Silesia.

Kokosch(ka), Kokott, (Czech-Wend.) ‘little rooster’.

Koke, Kauke (LGer.-Westph.): der Kokenbecker (Ro. 1272) ‘cake baker’ (Kuchenbäcker), Cf. Pankok (thecook). But koke ‘bog’ see Keuck.

Kolb(e), Kölbel, Kölble: ‘club used in battle, cudgel’, Cf. Kolbenschlag, Kolbendensel.A house with the name “zum Kolben” in Strasb. 1356. E Ger.-Sil. it also means ‘scalp hair’, see Bahlow SN, p. 131. Kolbenheyer (Aust. writer) means Kolbenhauer, person who makes wooden clubs. A knight Litzelkolbe,Wetzlar 1244; Schiwingenkolb,Augsburg 1483.

Koldewey (Kohlwey): pl.n. in Oldenburg.

Kolkmann, Kolkmeyer: living at a “Kolk” = swampy waterhole; also Vomkolk, Aufmkolk; Kolkhorst. Cf. Kolkrabe.

Koll (freq. in Hbg.): LGer. = ‘head’, also Norw. kol,Swed. kulte. Ekehard Colle,Ro. 1267. Herman Kolle,Lüb. 1320, Gerhard Kolleke,Greifswald 1321.

Kollack, Kollas, Kollatsch, Kollaschek, Kollath: Slav. sh.f. of Nicolaus. But the Kolaczers were Czech bakers.

Koller (freq. in Aust., Bav., Switz.): MHG, NHG ‘neck garment’ (on a leather jerkin), also horse collar.

Kollhoff (LGer.-Westph. pl.n.): in old documents: Kildehove (1331 Greifswald and others); Cf. Dutch Coudenhove.

Kölling (Lippe area): like Köllisch ‘person from Köln [Cologne]’, (van Cöllen 1530). Also Kölsch, Köll(mann), Köllner, Köllen of the same meaning.

Kollmann (freq. in Hbg.): like Kollmeyer (1430 Koldemeyer). But UGer. Kollmann, Kohlmann (Aust.) means Saint Coloman!

Kol(l)metz: Slav. cholmec ‘small hill, knoll’. Cf. Kolm, Kolmitz, Kolmsee.

Kol(l)morgen (freq. in Hbg.), Kohlmorgen see Kallmorgen.

Kolrep: pl.n. in Prignitz area.

Kolros (UGer.): ‘peony’? (See A. Götze, p. 23). Cunrad Kolrose,Kempten 1333.

Kolshorn (Hbg.): pl.n. in Hanover area.

Kolster (freq. in Hbg.): pl.n. like Wilster, Falster.

Koltermann, Kolterjahn: kolter = ‘colter’ [plowshare] from Lat. culter; MHG ‘blanket, comforter’.

Kolzer, Kolz: MLG ‘chatting, balderdash’, also Kols, Kohls. Henneke Kols (farmer) 14th c. in Meckl., Gercke Velerols (talk a lot), Ro. 1279. But MLG kolse ‘pant(s)’: Herman Kolse, Hbg. 1369; a farmer Kolsebüdel, 14th c. in Meckl.

Kölzow (freq. in Ro.): pl.n. in Meckl. (Cf. Kolzow in Pom.).

Kommelter, LGer. Kommdür: “Komtur” (Lat.-Roman commendatore), commander in a knightly religious order.

Komnick: Czech ‘chimney sweep’.

Kompst: = Kompost, see Gumpost. Cunrad Compost,near Mosbach 1306.

Köne(mam) see Köhne. Cf. Kühne(mann). Likewise Kön(e)ke: Köneke Redwisch, Meckl. 14th c., Coneke (Conrad)von Perun, Stralsund 1306, Cone Conen sone [C. son of Cone], Haldsl. 1349. Cf. Priest Könemann and his LGer. poem Kaland around 1250.

Konerding, Konring see Kohnert (Fris. Coners).

Köngeter (freq. in Würt.), Kingeter besides Könngott, Kenngott: metr. of Kunigunde. Cf. Küngot,wife of a certain Benz Türst, Würt. 1412; Haintz Kangutman (farmer), Würt. 1350. Hans Küngunt (farmer), Würt. 1345. Note in Reutlingen 1547 Hans Könngott,son: Hans C. Kunigund,grandson: Hans Kenngott! (See Brech., p. 89). In Sil. Cf. Künscher, Kinscher (Künne).

König: ‘king’, as a FN to be interpreted like Kaiser [emperor], Herzog [duke], Graf [count], Fürst [prince, ruler] (may have been name of a farmer on a royal demesne or a “king” of the riflemen, a craftsmen’s guild or the minstrels; for more information see Bahlow SN, p. 131). Also Cf. Mohrenkönig [king of the Moors], Judenkönig [king of the Jews] as FNs.

Konkel see Kunkel.

Könnicke (LGer.) see Köneke, Köhnke = Konrad.

Konrad: is the Latin documentary form of the old German royal name Kunrad = ‘bold in his advice’ (from MHG Kuonrat,the popular form in the Middle Ages); its great popularity (besides the emperor name Heinrich!)is reflected in the common idiom “Hinz und Kunz” [= absolutely everybody]. As a f.n. today mostly used by Catholics (saint’s name!). See also Bahlow VN, p.61. Today only the sh.fs. Kuno (through the Romantic knights’ tales around 1800) and Kurt (LGer. Cord) are in use. In the Middle Ages UGer. Kuon, Kune were common besides Künel and Kunz,hence the FN Kuhn, Kühn(e), Kühnemann, unrounded Kiehne, also Kühnel (Kühndel), Kienle and Kunze, Künzel, Kienzle, patr. Küntzler, Kienzler. Where MHG had –uo- LGer. had -, hence the LGer. o-forms: Ko(h)nert, Konertz (Cf. Sil. Kuhnert), patr. Konerding, contracted Cord, Cordes (Cohrs), Cordsen, Corssen; Also Kö(h)ne, Kö(h)nke, Könneke. Main Franconian is Kuhlmann, Kullmann; Hess. is Kunkel (like Heinkel, Henkel for Heinrich); Sil. is Kuhnt (Wend. Kunat).

Köntop(f): pl.n. in Pom.; also Kühntopf, Kentopf, Kientopf.

Konvenz, Covenz: MHG konvent, kovent ‘monastery’, also beer brewed by a monastery. (Radolf Convent,Ro. 1298).

Konzel(mann) like Künzelmann (UGer.) Konrad.

Koop, Kopps (freq. in Hbg.): Fris. sh.f. of Jakob, Cf. LGer. (older) Kopeke: Köpke. But Dürekoop = Teuerkauf ‘expensive sale(sman), dealer’.

Koopmam see Kopmann.

Koos: pl.n. Koos in Pom. (Henning Kos,Barth 1430).

Köper (LGer.) = Vorköper = Verkäufer ‘salesman, dealer’: Cristanus Koper,Greifswald 1350; Cf. Hütköper (= Häuteaufkäufer ‘person who buys up skins’, Perdeköper [horse dealer], Holtköper [wood and lumber dealer], Isernköper [hardware dealer], Wullenköper [Wulle = Wolle ‘wool’].

Köpernick: pl.n. Köppernig in Upper Saxony. Hence the FN (Latinized) of the astronomer Nikolaus Copernicus, son of Niklas Koppernigk.

Kopf, Köpfel, Köpfle, Sil. Köppel, LGer. Kopp = ‘head’ (but see Köppen): usually means that part of the body (named after a striking physical characteristic), like Hals [neck], Bein [leg or in UGer. area: bone], Fuß [foot or in UGer. area: leg], Bauch [stomach, belly], Nase [nose], Mund [mouth], etc. Cf. Breitkopf [breit = ‘wide’], Großkopf, Hartkopf, Schönkopf [schön = ‘pretty’], Krauskopf [kraus = ‘curly’], Schwarzkopf [schwarz = ‘black’], Weißköppel, etc., LGer. Wittkopp, Rasekop, Hardekop. The older German word for head was Haupt (see there), Kopf originally meant ‘mug, cup’!, that meaning still retained in Glaskopf, Guldenkopf [golden cup], Maserkopf, Holzkopp [wooden mug], Cf. standard German “Tassenkopf” [= cup without the saucer]. A house “zem Kophe” in Basel 1292. Definitely names of turners (woodworkers) are Kopdreger (Hbg.), Köpfdrayer (Kempten), Kopfmacher (Zurich). The word “Schröpfkopf” [cupping instrument of the barber to bleed people] shows the original meaning as do Köpfer, Köpper [occupational name of the barber].

Kopfermann (Rhineld.), Koppermann (LGer.) = ‘copper dealer’, see Kupfer.

Kophamel see Kapphamel, Kaphengst. Cf. Fleischhammel, Feisthammel [Hammel = ‘ram, mutton’].

Kopisch (Kopsch): E Ger.-Sil. = Jakob, name is known through August Kopisch, author of the ballad Die Heinzelmännchen,from Brsl.

Köpke, Köbke: formerly popular sh.f. of Jakob; Kopeke Leydestern, Stralsund 1327, Copeke, Copeking,Greifswald, Stade, Hbg. around 1315.

Kopmann (LGer.) see Kaufmann.

Köpp(e), Köppen, Koppen(s): LGer. sh.f. or patr. of Jakob, Cf. Köpke. In Eastphalia Cf. Koppe Schulten, Haldsl. 1412. Koppe then became a popular FN.

Koppel(mann): in Hbg. freq. Koppelmeier, Koppelkamp: name formed after the dwelling near a communal pasture (“Koppel”). But for Köppel (Sil.) see Kopf.

Kopper(mann): like Rhineld. Kopfermann means copper dealer (Cf. Kopperschmidt, Koppersleger, Koppernagel); also short Kopper, Koppers; but Köpper (LGer.), Köpfer (UGer.) refers to the barber who applies bleeding cups. Joh. Copper,Hbg. 1307, Copper barbitonsor [barber and hair cutter], Bremen 1298. A certain Kopperbart (copper-colored beard) around 1350 in Brsl.

Koppmann (LGer.) = Kopmann = Kaufmann ‘merchant’, see there.

Körber, Kerber (Sil., Bohemia, Aust.): the basket weaver [Korb = ‘basket’], in Aust. also Körbler, Kerbler, L.Rhine Korbmacher, Körver, Körfer. Hence as occ. surname Korb, Körbel, LGer. Korff, Rhineld. Körfgen besides Kersekorf (= Kirschenkorb ‘cherry basket’), Rümekorf [empty the basket]; Brotkorb [bread b.], Käsekorb [cheese b.] (Cascorbi) and others.

Kordes, Kording (mostly Cordes, Cohrs, etc.): LGer. patr. of Konrad, see there.

Kordewan: MHG kurdewan ‘kidskin, kid leather from Cordova in Spain’, also shoes made from it; kudewener ‘shoemaker using kidskin’. Cf. Kurdewener,Würzburg 1289, Kordewaner,14th c. Lüb. A Kurdewaner Street in Strasb. and Col. around 1250.

Kordvahr (Westph.) = Kord Vader (Kurt the father). Also Kordt, Kordtmann. Johann Nabercord [=neighbor Kurt], Warburg 1459. As early as 1191 in Oldenburg: Count Cord of Brockhusen. See also Körte and Kurt.

Korff (LGer.): = Korb ‘basket’, surname of the basket weaver or basket dealer; LGer. Körver (Corvere, Han. 1352), L.Rhine Körfer(s) = Körber. In Ro. around 1285 korfmaker, kofwinder.A certain Heinrich Kersekorf [cherry basket] or simply Korf,Westph. 1240. Hence Schüttelkorf (= Schüsselkorb ‘basket for a dish or bowl’), Laskorf (= Lachskorb ‘salmon basket’), and the sentence names Störtekorf (LGer. störten = stürzen ‘to tip out’, thus ‘tip the basket’), Schüddekorf (schütten ‘to pour’), Rühmekorf (see Korb). Korfmann = ‘basket vendor’.

Körner (UGer.-Sax.-Sil.): the MHG word for grain dealer; a pl.n. Körner (prehistor. Cornari) in N Thur. (see Bahlow ON, p. 274); Hugo of Korner 1256. Also Cf. Kornführer (Neustadt in U.Sax.), likewise weizenfürer,Liegnitz 1397: a wagoner, transporter (dealer) who ships grain to a city (see Bahlow, Liegnitzer Namenbuch,p,110). Hence Kor(ne)mann (like Hirsemann, Hirse ‘millet’), Kornkaufer [grain dealer], Kor(n)manger, Kornmeister, Kornpropst, Kornmesser, Kornmutter (‘grain measurer’). Also simply Korn, Körnle, Körndl, also a peasant name like Kornsack, Kornesse, besides Feistkorn [fat grain], Fürnkorn [hard grain], Feskorn, Weizkorn, Winterkorn, etc.

Kornmutter: = ‘grain measurer’ (offically sworn in), Cf. Salzmutter, from MHG mutte (Lat. modius) ‘bushel’. Nitsche Kornmuter,Liegnitz 1383, Henne Kornmutter,Friedberg (Hesse) 1368. Likewise Kornstreicher: who levels off when measuring.

Kornprobst (Bav.): administrator (Lat. praepositus), supervisor of the grain stock, Cf. Weinprobst, Holzprobst, Kastenprobst. Kornwechter,Brsl. 1381.

Kornrumpf (Thur.): surname of a grain measurer (Kornmutter), from rumpf ‘wooden vessel, bushel’; Cf. Kornschütte ‘grain loft, granary’.

Korsch = Centr.Ger. korse, from MHG kursen ‘fur’, Cf. Körschner = Kürschner ‘furrier’, MLG korsener.

Korst, Korsten, Corstgen(s): L.Rhine = Kersten, Kerstgens = Christian(s). Cf. Dutch Korstiaan. Also Körschges, Körschkes and others. But pl.n. Korschenbroich near Düsseldorf contains Celt. cors ‘swamp, reed’, likewise Korsendonk on the L.Rhine.

Körte, patr. Körting (Westph.) = Kort = Konrad. But Korte (LGer.): the short one (der Kurze in standard German), Corteclawes,Kiel 1457.

Korthase (LGer.): conspicuous through short pants (Joh. Kortehose,Hbg. 1393, [Hose = pant(s)]. Korth (freq. in Hbg.): in some cases = kurz ‘short’, in others = f.n. Kord.

Kortlang (freq. in Hbg.): = kurz-lang ‘short-long’. Knappe Volkwin Kortelanghe, Bremen 1371. Cf. Joh. Kurzlang, Haubersbronn 1474.

Kortüm (LGer.): = kurzum, name for a quickly decided person, see Bremer Wörterbuch. Name is known through the writer Karl Kortum, author of Jobsiade.

Körver see Korff.

Corvinus: Humanist name for “Rabe” [raven], Cf. Jakob Corvinus, pseudonym for Wilhelm Raabe (19th c. novelist) and Matthias C., king of Hungary.

Kosboth: Slav. pl.n. Cospoth in Thur. (Kossebode,Jena 1406, Cf. Kotzebue).

Kosch, Koschke, Koschek, likewise Kusch, Kuschke: probably Slav. sh.fs. of Mikusch (Nikusch = Nikolaus) or Jakusch (Jakob).

Koschnik (Slav.) see Kosch(ek), formed like Jachnik (Jach = Jan).

Koschmieder, Kusmider: pl.n. in U.Sax.

Koschwitz: from Ko(i)schwitz, Liegnitz district.

Kosegarten (Meckl.-Pom.): loc.n., Cf. Fr. Rückert “Ich kost’ im Kosegarten” [‘I caressed in lovers’ lane’]. Well-known family of writers and scholars. Also Cf. Kosemund, Koser (UGer., likewise Köseler): Cunrad der Koser [kosen = ‘to make love, caress’], Eger 1382.

Kosmale, Kosmehl and others: related to Czech kosmac ‘tousle-headed person’.

Kossebau, Kossbü like Kotzebue: Slav. pl.n. Kossebau (old: Kossebu) in Altmark area.

Kossel (freq. in Meckl.) Wendish like Koss, Kossow (Meckl.).

Kößler (Bav., Aust.) see Keßler.

Kostenzer: from the town of Konstanz.

Köster, Kösterke see Küster.

Kostka (Czech): = ‘die’ (kost = ‘bone’).

Köstlin, Köstle (freq. in Würt.) besides Kost (Würt.): means boarder (MHG kost ‘provisions, board, livelihood’, köstelin ‘poor subsistence’). A servant Köstelin,Würt. 1279. Boye Kost,Lüb. 1321. Cf. Anekost (‘without support’). Prague 1363, Duderstadt 1446.

Kotelmann (Meckl.): name of origin (pl.n. Kötel), likewise Metelmann, Schwießelmann, Viechelmann (all in Meckl.) from the pl.ns. Meteln, Schwiessel, Viecheln.

Köter, Köther, Kother, Kötter (Westph.); Kather, Käther (LGer.): = ‘day laborer who lives in a cottage (Kate), owns no farmland’; Cf. Sil. Häusler. With many compounds like Buschköter, Schliepköter, Strotkötter, Thiekötter. Also Cf. kot-sâte = Kossäte ‘cottager, cotter’: FN Kotzte.

Koth, Kothe (freq. in Hbg.) see Köther. Joh. kotere,Lüb. 1320.

Köth: from Köthen in Anhalt.

Kotta, Cotta: pl.n., e.g. Cotta in Sax. (several times).

Köttelwesch (UGer.-Rhineld.) see Kuttel-.

Kötter, Kotter (Westph.) see Köter.

Kotterba: Cf. Slav. kotrba ‘head’.

Kötz (LGer.) = Kothe: “der Kötze Michel Biberlingk dienet hertzog Ulrichen” [the cottager M. B. serves Duke Ulrich], Rowa in Meckl. 1573.

Kotze: UGer., from MHG kotze ‘coarse woolen cloth or garment’, kotzecht ‘shaggy, coarse’. Rudolf Kolze,Strasb. 1295 (in the house “zu den Kotzen”).

Kotzebue see Kossebau.

Köver (LGer.); see Küver.

Kowal, Kowahl, Kofahl; Kowalke and others: Wendish kowal ‘blacksmith’. See also Kufahl.

Kox (Rhineld.) see Kochs.

Kra(a)ck (Wismar, Ro., Hbg.): pl.n. Kraak (Meckl.), Cf. Krakow.

Kraatz: pl.n. in Brandenburg.

Krabat (Vienna), Krawath, Crobath = Croat.

Krabbe: surname of a shrimp fisher or dealer (likewise Krebs [crab], Stör [sturgeon], Stint [smelt] and others). Cf. Krabbenstriker,Stralsund 1342, Krabbe,Stralsund 1290, Hbg. 1268, Lüb. 1342.

Kracht (LGer.): (= Kraft) ‘strength’, surname of a strong person (Kracht,Ro. 1268, Lüb. 1328, Greifswald 1311, Haldsl. 1453). Cf. Schacht for Schaft.

Krack(e) (freq. in Hbg., Han.): several meanings cf. MLG krack ‘crow’, krack ‘underbrush’, krake ‘large trade ship’, kraken ‘to make noise’.

Kraffzig see Krawczyk.

Kraft (UGer.): Cf. LGer. Kracht. But mostly the old f.n. (popular with knights and nobles): Count Kraft of Toggenburg, minstrel (Thurgau), Knight Craft Schabe, Wetzlar 1325, Kraft Lentsidel and Hans Kraft,Würzburg 1409. But Kleinkraft means ‘little strength or means’.

Kräft (LGer.) see Kreft.

Krage: MHG ‘neck, collar’, also ‘simpleton, fool’ (Cf. Ger. Geizkragen or Geizhals [miser]; FNs Dürrkragen, Reckenkragen). Ludolf Krage,Ro.1302. Cf. Kraghere,Bremen 1388: manufactured collars for the armor of a soldier or knight (see K. Carstens, p. 139). But in Rhineld. it also stands for crow (besides Krahe): Heilmann Kragehals,Worms 1324.

Krägelin (stress on the final syllable): Wend. pl.n. in Pom.

Krahe (L.Rhine-Westph.) = Krähe ‘crow’. Cf. UGer. Kra (Kravogl), LGer. Krey.

Krahl (Sax., Sil.): Slav. kral (krol) ‘king’ (from Ger. Karl, due to Charlemagne). See also Kralik.

Krahn (LGer.) = ‘crane’ (MLG, Centr.Ger. krane, Dutch kraan, which also gave rise to “Kran”, E. ‘crane’ (lifting crane), Cf. Kranenmeister,Neuß 1593. Willeke Krane (Kraneke),Hbg. 1252. FN Kranke.

Krahnstöver (LGer.), Kroonstuiver (Dutch): a small coin (stuiver) with the picture of a crane.

Krail (Würt., Bav.) see Kräuel.

Kraiß, Kreiß (freq. in Stuttgart): noisemaker, from MHG kreiß, kreisch ‘cry, noise’. Also Kreißer. Konrad Kraiß,Rottweil 1387, Arnold Kreiß,Mosbach 1337.

Krakau, Krakow (Meckl., Pom.): Slav. pl.n., several times; in Sil. name may come from Krakau in Galicia (N of the Carpathians), see Krocker (Kraker).

Kral(ik) (Slav.) see Krahl: Freq. in Vienna. Also Kralitscheck. Wenzel Kralik (bishop of Olmütz) 1380.

Krambeer (Hbg.): (= Kranichbeere or Kronsbeere) ‘cranberry, lingonberry’.

Krämer, Kramer (UGer.-Rhineld., like MHG krâmer), Kramers (L.Rhine), Kremer, Cremer: vendor (in der Krambude ‘booth’: in dem krame) = ‘small retailer, street trader’. A famous geographer from Flanders, originally Kremer, went under the Humanist name Mercator. Hence Eisenkrämer [iron ware dealer], Rohkrämer (Thur. 1460, also Ruchkrämer), Sil.-UGer. also Kromer, Cf. Jörge Kromschryber,councillor in Liegnitz 1406 (i.e. bookkeeper of the “Reichkrämer”; see Bahlow SN, p. 110).

Kramp(e): freq. in Hbg., probably surname of a (lock)smith, Cf. dornagel and others; Joh. Krampe,Ro. 1260 (also Lüb., Greifswald, etc.). Also Cf. pl.n. Krampe in Pom., Crampe in Brandenburg.

Kranach: older variant of the pl.n. Kronach in Franconia. Cf. Lukas Cranach (the painter) besides Hinrich Kronach,Leipzig 1502.

Kranefoet (LGer.): ‘crane foot or crane leg’, Cf. Joh. Kranfuß,Bav. 1428. See Krahn.

Kraneis see Kroneis.

Kranepohl, Kranepuhl, Kranepfuhl: LGer. pl.n. (‘crane puddle’).

Kranewitter, Kronebitter and others (freq. in Aust., Tyrol): pl.n. and loc.n. (from OHG kranawitu ‘crane woods, juniper’, thus Krammetsvogel [Europ. bird: fieldfare]: Kronabetsvoge), Hertlein of Chranewit,Tyrol 1288.

Krangel (UGer.): MHG = ‘need, want’ (Bentz Krangel,Würt. 1383).

Krangemann (Hbg.): from Krangen near Neuruppin.

Kranich, Kranch, LGer. Krahn (see there), Kranke: referring to slenderness or proudness of character (the poet Freidank said around 1220: “Hoffart die hat Kraniches Schritt” [courtly bearing has the strut of a crane]). Also Cf. Krohn and Krannhals.

Kranke: in some cases from LGer. Kraneke ‘crane’, see Krahn. Otherwise = MHG kranc ‘physically weak’ (Krankswager,Quedlinburg 1467, Nik. Kranke,Leipzig 1420).

Kran(n)hals see Krahn and Kranich. Likewise Krannich.

Kranzler (Bav.-Aust.) besides Kränzler means Kranzlbinder ‘wreath maker’ (krenzelmacherin,Prague 1403), likewise Kränz(e)l, Kränzle, Krenzle (Joh. Crenzelin,Worms 1288), Kranz, Krantz (also pl.n.). Kranzemecher in Wesel 1583. Hence the compounds Blumenkranz, Rosenkranz (also pl.n.), Rautenkranz (also house name), Meienkranz, Goldenkranz, Seidenkranz. [flower-, rose-. Rue-, May-, golden silk wreath] Also Cf. tavern name “Krug zum grünen Kranze”. Kranzbühler (UGer.) from the loc.n. -bühel ‘hill, knoll’. The FN Kranzmayer (Bav., Aust.) has several meanings.

Krapf, Krapfl (UGer.), Krappel (Sil.): doughnut baker (Krappenbacher,Prague 1403; baker Kraple,Budweis 1385. Baker Krappenhenger,Iglau 1425. Cf. Krapfenfeind [doughnut hater!], Tyrol 1329). But MHG krapfe, Centr.Ger. krape also = ‘hook, clamp, hinge’ (also Krampf), Cf. Hellekrapf (=devil). In Worms 1384 a house by the name “zum Krapfen”.

Krapohl: L.Rhine loc.n., ‘crow puddle’, Cf. Krakamp, Krahforst.

Krasemann (Meckl.): from Kraase in Meckl. like Schwaßmann from Schwaß, Metelmann from Meteln, Plagemann from Plau, Gnoiemann from Gnoien, etc.

Krathwohl (UGer.) see Grathwohl.

Kratochwil (freq. in Vienna): Czech ‘pastime’.

Klatschmer see Kretschmar.

Krattenmacher (UGer.), also Krettenmacher: ‘basket weaver’ (from MHG kratte, krettelin); likewise Kratt, Krättle, Krättler.

Kratz, Kratzel, Krätzel (UGer.), Krätzig (Sil.), also Kratzius: = Kratzmann, Kratzke, Pankratz (saint’s name), see there. Cf. Creczing von Czedelicz, Liegnitz 1429, Pancratius Kreczing (Kreczig),Liegnitz 1453.

Kratzer(t): UGer.-Sil., occupational surname (for a wool carder and similar occupations, Cf. Kratzeisen ‘carding iron’); in some cases also patr. of Pankraz = Pankratzer (Prague). Also Cf. pl.n. Kratzau near Zittau (“zur Kratze” 1381). MHG kratz-hart means ‘miser, niggard’.

Krau(e)l (LGer.), freq. in Hbg.: MLG = ‘(three-pronged) dung fork’; UGer. with umlaut Kreuel, Krail (from MHG kröuwel). Bert Krouwel,Hildesheim 1357 (his heraldic sign: 2 three-pronged forks). Hinceke Krouwel,Lüb. 1331 (also in Ro. and Greifswald).

Krausch see Krusch.

Krause (Centr.Ger.), Kraus (UGer.), Kruse (LGer.) = Kraushaar, [curly hair] Krauskopf [curly head]. Rare is Krauspe (MHG krûsp), Cf. Krisp: Michael Crausphans,Zwickau 1427.

Kraut(h) [Kraut means ‘cabbage’ or ‘greens’], Krautblatt [cabbage leaf], Krautkopf [cabbage head], Krautstengel [cabbage stalk], Krautstrunk [cabbage trunk], Krautwurm [cabbage worm] are surnames for gardeners (of herbs and/or cabbage), Kräutergärtner [herb gardener], Krautgärtner, UGer. also Kräutle, Grünskräutl. For Krutsack 1236 Cf. Kohlsack, for Kruthas 1340 Cf. Kohlhaas [cabbage rabbit].

Krauthahn: Centr.Ger. pl.ns. Krauthagen, Krauthain, Krauthahn.

Krautwald (freq. in Neiße): from Krautenwalde near Landeck on the Neiße River; also the reformer Valentin Krautwald of Liegnitz hailed from Neiße, where 1475 Joh. Krautenwalt was recorded (see Bahlow SN, p. 88).

Krautwurst (Pal., Sil.): surname of a sausage maker, butcher; can be identified as UGer. from the word “Kraut”. Cf. Crut und Vleisch [cabbage and meat] (Brsl., Brünn 1348). Peter Crautwurst,Kolin 1375.

Krawath see Krabat.

Krawietz, Krawczyk, Kraffzig (U.Saxony): Pol.-Wendish ‘tailor’.

Krawinkel, Krähwinkel: occurs several times as loc.n. (pl.n.).

Kray = (Krähe) ‘crow’, Cf.pl.n. Krayenberg; hence Kraifänger, Kraibühler. Also pl.n. Kray near Essen.

Krayl (Würt.): dialect for Kräuel, see there.

Kreber (Würt. 1350): = ‘basket weaver’ (Körber), from MHG krebe ‘basket’.

Krebs: like Krabbe probably surname of a crab fisher, also Krebser (unless name is based on a comparison). Cf. Joh. Spanincrebis,Schweidnitz 1397. LGer. Kreft, Kräft, Kräwt (Meckl.), MLG krevet: Krevet around 1300 in Ro., Lüb., Stralsund, etc. Also house name: to dem Crevete [at the sign of the crab] 1461, Erhard zuo dem Krebis,Strasb. 1371. Krebsscher = ‘crab claw’ (Krebs-scheere).

Krechting (LGer.-Westph.) besides Krefting: patr. form of Kraft, Kracht; see there.

Kreckel (Hbg.): Cf. Kreckelput, Kreckelbeek in Flanders for muddy, putrid water (see Bahlow ON, p. 277). Hence Kreckeler.

Krecker, Kreeker (typically in Hbg.): probably from the loc.n. Krek, see Kreeck. Cf. Gerd Kreker, Meckl. 14th c., Reinert Kreker, Brsw. 1560: probably ‘croaker, crier’ (kreke ‘shouting, yelling’).

Kreeck (Hbg.): LGer. Kreke (Kreike) = ‘plum’, Hinrik Crek,Lüneburg 1295. But Cf. MDutch krek = geul ‘stagnating water’ (Kreekgors in Brabant, a Krekesbeke Creek near Herford, Krekenbeck near Bielefeld).

Kreeter, Kreter, Kreiter, Krieter (Hbg.): MLG kreter ‘quarreler, cantankerous person’ (Hinr. Kretere,Lüb. around 1320), Ludeke Cretere (Krytere),Haldsl. 1350.

Kreft, Krefft (LGer.) see Krebs.

Kregel (LGer.): ‘lively, vivacious’. Wernher Creghel,near Kassel 1321.

Kregelin (Hbg., Meckl.): Slav. pl.n. in Pom.

Kreher, Kreger, Kreiger (LGer.): ‘a crower’ (MLG kregen, kreigen ‘to crow’), Sifrid Cregere,Hbg. 1262. Cf. Krehan (Hbg.): ‘crow(ing) rooster’ (Nicol. Kregehane, Kreilhane, Ro.1250).

Krehl (freq. in Stuttgart) see Krail, Kräuel. Joh. Creel (Craewel),Münsingen 1507-28. But Joh. Crele (Creyle),Ro. 1301, is related to pl.n. Crele (Kriel near Col.) or a swamp Creil in the Netherlands.

Krei, Krey (LGer.): ‘crow’ as in Kreienbrink or Kreyenbrink, Kreienkamp or Kreyenkamp, Kreienberg or Kreyenberg; Kregenloh (from MLG krege, Cf. Kregenkop,Hbg. 1258, Kregenbrink,Barth 1499). Hence Kreinacke (Hbg.) ‘crow’s neck’ (Krähen-Nacken). See also Krey.

Kreibe: from Kreibau, Cf. Kreibig from pl.n. in Sil.

Kreibig: pl.n. in Silesia.

Kreidler, Kreidel: in Sil. from the pl.n. Kreidel near Wohlau (in old documents Slav. Kridel, Kridlo), Cf. Kreidelwitz; Crydeler,Brsl. 14th c.

Kreidolf: name is known through the painter Ernst K. (Switz.), from the pl.n. Kradolf in Thurgau area (A. of Kraidof 1370).

Kreidweiß [chalk-white]: Thomas K., Budweis 1382. Cf. the tailor Nic. mit der kreid [with the chalk], Prague 1341.

Kreie see Krei.

Kreiger, Kreger (LGer.) see Kreher.

Kreike, Kreke (LGer.): see Kreeck. Kreikenbom (LGer.) = UGer. Kriechbaum ‘wild plum tree’, named after the dwelling place (at a plum tree). Hence Kreikmeyer (in Westph.).

Kreil see Krail.

Kreimann, Kreimeyer see Krei. Also Cf. pl.n. Kreien near Parchim.

Kreins (Rhineld.) like Kriens = Quirinus (saint’s name). Also Cf. Krings (like Frings).

Kreischer, Kreisch: pl.n. Kreische, Kreischa,

Kreischau in Sax.

Kreis(e)l: UGer., MHG kriusel ‘top’ (toy), name for a short, lively person. Heyne Kreusel,Kamnitz 1382. MHG kriusel also means ‘curly’.

Kreiser (Sil.): Cf. pl.n. Kreisau.

Kreiß (UGer.) see Kraiß.

Kreißig, Kreyßig (freq. in Sax.): probably Slav. pl.n. (like Dreyßig).

Kreiter (LGer.) see Kreeter.

Kreith (Bav.): pl.n. and loc.n. = Kreuth, i.e. clearing (MHG geriute ‘land cleared for farming’). Hence Kreither, Kreitmayer (Cf. Zacharias Kreyter (Kreutt),Kempten 1594).

Kreitsch, Kreitschik, Krejcik: Czech krejci ‘tailor’.

Kreitz; pl.n. near Neuß on the Rhine.

Krekel, Kreker see Kreck-.

Krekler: plateau near Höxter (see Bahlow ON, p. 278).

Kreling: pl.n. Krelingen in Han. area.

Krell (UGer.): a snappish, brusk person (from MHG krellen ‘to claw’). Peter Krelle,Rottweil 1295.

Kremer (NW Ger.), Kremers (Rhineld.) see Krämer.

Kremp, Krempe (Hbg.): pl.n. (Alten-) Krempe (twice in Holstein), Krempel near Hadeln.

Krempi(e)n: pl.n. in Meckl.

Krempler, Kremp(e)l (UGer.) = Grempler ‘peddler’; hence Krempelhuber, Krempelsetzer, Grempelsetzer.

Krems(er) (UGer.): from pl.n. Krems in U.Aust. (see Bahlow ON, p. 278). Also cf Krems in Bohemia (thus Kremser freq. in U.Sax.). Also pl.n. Kremsier in Moravia: Andreas of Cremsir, Glatz 1347.

Krem(t)z (Hbg.): pl.n. Krembz near Gadebusch (van Kremese,Ro. 1257).

Kren, Krendl (Aust.-Bav.): also Krenbauer, vegetable dealer (MHG krên ‘horseradish’, kren is a Slav. loan-word from Czech). Nic. Chren,Brünn 1351, Methel Chrendel,Pausraum 1414, Nic. Krenel,Braunau 1415.

Krengel (UGer.): MHG variant of Kringel, see there.

Krenkel, Kränkel (UGer.): probably ‘small crane’ (from MHG kranch, krench), Cf. Nicol. Crench,Worms 1365, Cunzel Crenchilin,Worms 1327, Clawes Krencheli,Breisgau area 1361.

Kren(t)z (freq. in Hbg.): E Ger.-Slav., also a pl.n. Krenzi(e)n in Meckl., likewise Krenzlin (pl.n. Kränzlin). Cf. pl.n Krentsch in Sil., formerly: Krencz.

Krenzer see Krenz.

Kreplin, Kräpfin (Meckl.): pl.n. Kröpelin in Meckl.

Krepp(meier), Bav. (like Greppmeier): person living near a hollow (“in der Greppen”). Also Kreppner.

Kress, Kressel, Kröss (UGer.): surname of a fisher, from Kresse ‘gudgeon’ (fish). Cf. Creßelin das vischerlin [C. the small fisherman], Waiblingen 1350, Erhard zuodem Kreße,Strasb. 1371, Iring Kresse,Würzburg 1290. Also Kresse, Kressmann.

Kreter (Hbg.) see Kreeter.

Kreth (freq. in Hbg.): probably loc.n., cf. Krede, Kreit in Westph.

Kretschmer, Kretschmar, Kretschmeyer, Kretschmann, Kretschmar in Sax., dial. Kratschmer: in Sil., Bohemia, Lausitz, Sax. the common term for the owner of a village tavern (Kretscham, also Gerichtskretscham; Slav. loan-word). Hannus Frederich cretschemer czuArnoldisdorff, Liegnitz 1384. Henczel Kreczmar (Hanczl Kraczmar),Jitschin 1363-74; Bertelt bey dem kreczim,Friedland 1381. For more information see Bahlow SN, p. 110.

Kretzer (UGer.): MHG kretzer ‘collector of legal fines’. Cuncz Kreczer,admin. supervisor of the monastery at Amorbach 1445. But Cf. Pankreczer,Prague 1377 (= patr. of Pankraz) and MHG kretze ’basket’; hence Kretzmann.

Kreuchauff, sentence name meaning ‘creep up!’(imperative form); Krichoff,Görlitz 1469.

Kreuder, Kreuer (Col.) see Krü(d)er. (Means ‘herbs, greens’, thus a vegetable grower).

Kreu(e)l see Kräuel.

Kreusel see Kreisel.

Kreusler, Kreißler (UGer.): Cf. MHG kruiseler ‘veil’ or Kräußle ‘curly’.

Kreuter see Kräuter, Kreuder, and Kraut.

Kreu(t)z: freq. a loc.n. (or field name), also pl.n. Cf. Amkreutz [at the cross]. Eckehart bime cruce,Alten-Buseek in Hesse 1327. Also Kreu(t)zer (Cf. in Tyrol: Hof am Kreuz [farm at the cross], unless the name of the coin, Kreuzer, is meant; MHG kriuzer also = ‘crusader, pilgrim’.

Kreutzkamm (Westph.) = Kreuzkamp (Kreuz = ‘cross’, kamp = ‘field’), Cf. Rohkamm: Rodekamp [land cleared for a field].

Kreuziger (UGer.-Sil.) means crusader (from MHG kriuziger), Cf. Joh. of Frankenstein’s work Der Kreuziger [The Crusader] around 1300; later also name of a member of a cross-bearing (monastic) order (see Bahlow SN, p. 110). Note: Peter Kober der crewcziger = P.K. der prister [P.K. the crusader = P. K. the priest], Liegnitz 1386.

Krey, Kreye see Krei. Werner Kreye,Greifswald 1371.

Kreykenbohm (LGer.) corresponds to UGer. Kriechbaum ‘blackthorn’, wild plum (prunus spinosa).

Kreymann, Kreimann (LGer.) see Krey, Krei. Also Cf. pl.n. Kreien in Meckl.

Kribbe (Hbg.): pl.n. northeast of Perleberg.

Krick(e): Öls, Brsl., related to the pl.n. Krickau, Namslau district (Petsche Crik, Crikow,Brsl. 1431-37).

Krickhahn, Krickhuhn: Cf. die Krickente, a small wild duck.

Krick(e)l (UGer.) = Krückel.

Kriebel (Sil., Lausitz, Sax.): in old documents Crebel (Centr.Ger. -e-probably was formerly short -i- which was later lengthened), name is uninterpreted as yet, of Slav. origin like Triebel (Treb-), cf pl.n. Kriebelwitz (older: Crebilwicz),Brsl. district, also Kreblitz near Luckau, likewise Triebelwitz. Jokoff Kribel (Crebil),Böhmisch-Kamnitz 1395; Nic. Crebil,Liegnitz 1378 (see Bahlow SN, p. 64). Hence Kriebisch (Krebisch,Görlitz 1392, with Slav. suffix -isch) like Triebisch and Kriebler (patr.) like Triebler.

Kriech, Kriechl (UGer.) = LGer. Kreke ‘blackthorn’, wild plum (prunus spinosa); hence Kriechbaum, LGer. Krekenbom, Kreikenbom, name after the dwelling place near a wild plum tree. W. Krich,Maulbronn 1153, Peter der Kriechbaum,near Bozen 1307. Cf. Ulrich Krichenvoit,Franconia 1422.

Kriegbaum see Kriechbaum.

Kriegk, Krieger = ‘quarreler’ (from MHG kriege ‘obstinate, cantankerous’). Cf. Hebenkrieg (like Hebenstreit) ‘start a fight’ and Stillenkrieg ‘quell a fight’. Joh. Criec (Chrieger)1260. Hence Kriegel (MHG kriegel = ‘obstinate, cantankerous’). But Cf. Krügel.

Kriegler, Kriegel: see Krügler, Krügel.

Kriemann (Meckl.) see Krien.

Kriemhild (grîm ‘mask’, hild ‘battle, fight’) see Bahlow VN.As a FN: Hannus Crymhilt,Glatz 1360.

Krien, Krienke: pl.n. in W Pom.

Kries(baum): Alem. form of Kirschbaum [cherry tree], named after the dwelling place at a cherry tree (likewise Bierbaum, Birnbaum, Nußbaum, Kriechbaum); Cf. Bürkeli zem Kpieseboume,Freiburg 1350. LGer. Kersebohm, Karsebohm, Kassebohm. Wernher Kriesenblust [cherry blossom], Breisgau area 1441.

Kriesten: variant of the pers.n. Kristen (Kirsten: Christian) in Glatz.

Krieter, Kriete (LGer.) see Kreeter, Kreiter. Borchard Krite,Lüb. 1320.

Krill(e) (freq. in Dresden): judging from its frequency most likely a Wendish name.

Krimpe (Hbg.): loc.n. like Krempe (see there). Cf. pl.n. Krimpen in the Netherlands; Krimphoff (Westph.). See Bahlow ON, p. 278. But Centr.Ger. krimp = ‘crooked, shrunk, shriveled’.

Kringel (Krengel), Kringler: probably surname of a baker (unless loc.n.).

Krin(g)s (Rhineld.): Saint Quirinus (in Neuß), likewise Frin(g)s = Severinus.

Krinke (E Gor.) see Krienke. Also Cf. Slav. krinka ‘pot’.

Krinne, Krinner (UGer.): MHG ‘curled, frizzy’; Jorge Crynnewebel,Braunau 1429, Hensel Krynner,Budweis 1396.

Krip(f)gans = Kropfgans [arch., pelican], also Krüpfgantz.

Krisch(e), Krischke like Krischan: Slav. variants of Christian (pers.n.).

Krisp: from MHG krisp, krispel ‘curly head’ (Lat. crispus), Cf. Hinr. Cruse (Crispus), Hbg. 1258. But Krispien, Krischpin (W Ger.) means Saint Crispinus (patron saint of the shoemakers).

Krist, Christ, Christmann (UGer. Pal.): = Christian (see Bahlow VN,p.18). Also see Kirsten, Kersten, Karsten; Kirstein; Christiansen,Christensen is the LGer. patr. (Schleswig-Holstein). Christlieb is a name of baptized (christened) Jews (Cf. Bleibtreu and others). For a survey of the derivations of Christian see Bahlow Deutsches Namenbuch,p. 61.

Kristeller, Christaller (UGer., Allgäu): = Christler (patr. of Christian). Cf. the writer Helene Christaller.

Kröbel (freq. in Dresden, Leipzig): pl.n. Kröbeln in Sax.

Kröber: pl.n. Kröbern near Altenburg in Sax. and near Leipzig.

Kröcher (von): Slav. pl.n. in Wolmirstedt district (Rabodo de Crochere 1184).

Krock, Krocke, Krocker (besides Kracker, Kraker): dialect in Sil. for Krakau (formerly most important trade center of eastern German area), also pl.n. in Sax. (Barschdorf near Liegnitz was originally called Cracow). Documentary examples: Bahlow SN, p. 88 Krokawer besides Kroker,Liegnitz 1451 etc.).

Kröger: LGer. term for the owner or tenant of a village tavern (in Brandenburg-L.Lausitz Krüger). Hence Krog(mann), Krochmann (also named after the dwelling place).

Kroh, Krohe: Centr.Ger.-UGer. for Krah(e) = crow (MHG krâ), likewise Groh for MHG grâ ‘gray’. Cf. Krohwinkel = Krahwinkel, Krähwinkel. Dietrich Kro, Prague 1411.

Krohm, Krö(h)mer see Krämer.

Krohn (freq. in Hbg.): MLG krân, krôn ‘crane’. Cf. LGer. Krohnsnest (Cronsnest,Han. 1354), Kronfoth [crane foot], Kronsbein (Kronesben)and others. J. Cron,Hbg. 1297. Also UGer. -o- for -a-: Kronsnabel [crane’s beak], Bav. 1280, Kronfuß,Bav. 1337.

Kröhnert see Kröner.

Krois (Bav.) = crab (MHG kreuß is a variant of krebeß ‘crab’): Thoman Chrewß,Moravia 1414.

Kroitzsch: pl.n. Groitzsch near Leipzig.

Krok(er) see Krocker.

Kroll: MHG krolle ‘curl of hair’, krol ‘curly, frizzy’. (Cf. LGer. Krull). But in some cases in E Ger. names Slav-Pol. krol ‘king’ (from Ger. Karl!) is involved (therefore name is freq. in Berlin).

Kröll see Krell.

Kromer: CentrGer. and UGer. = Kramer ‘small retailer’ (Peter Cramer,Liegnitz 1381, Albrecht Cromer,Eger 1350, Hainrich Kromer,Swabia 1424). Hence Krome, Krömke (LGer.): Crome, Cromeke around 1320 in Lüb. Krömer (LGer.-Westph.). Kromschröder (LGer.): named after dwelling place near a small shop or booth, Cf. Pohlschröder.

Kronast (Mnch.): pl.n. in Bavaria.

Kronberg(er): Bav., Aust., from pl.n. Kronberg (mostly means ‘crane hill’), Cf. Sigfrid de Craneberch,Bav. 1150. in Rhineld. pl.n. Kronenberg or Kronenburg (Joh. de Cronenberg,Mainz 1277).

Kronbiegel (UGer.): ‘crane hill’ (also pl.n. in Bav.).

Krone, Kron: unless dial. form for Kranich ‘crane’ is involved (older: Krane, Kron, see Krohn), name means crown (Lat. corona ‘wreath’), especially as house name, e.g. in Worms, Speyer, Basel, Strasb. (zuder kronen, de corona).Also Cf. Dancekron ‘dance crown’ around 1320 in Lüb.

Kroneis(en): UGer. name of a blacksmith.

Kröner (UGer.): name of origin like Kroner, Cf. Kronauer. A farmstead Krönern in Tyrol. A pl.n. Krönau near Olmütz. Also Kröner (LGer.): freq. in Hbg.: ‘blabbermouth, quarreler’ (from MLG kronen). Nic. Kroner, Hbg. 1394.

Kronewitter, Kronewetter (Bav., Aust.) see Kranewitter.

Kronfoth, Kronfuß see Krohn.

Kröning (freq. in Hbg.), Krönke, Kröhnke (LGer.) see Krohn.

Kronreif, Kronraff (UGer., Bav., Aust.): older Kranreif, hence related to ‘crane’; reif = ‘hoop, ring’, Cf. Becherreif [hoop of a mug or jug].

Kronschlager: pl.n. Kronschlag, older Kranschlag in U.Aust.

Kronschnabel (Bav.) = ‘crane beak’.

Kronsnest: ‘crane’s nest’, pl.n. in Han. and Holstein. Everd Cronsnest,Han. 1354.

Kronymus see Hieronymus.

Krooß (LGer.) see Kroß.

Kröpel, Kröpels (Hbg.): LGer. for ‘cripple’; MHG krüpel, CentrGer. and LGer. kropel. Lubbert der Kröpel,Bremen 1412.

Kröp(e)lin (Hbg., Meckl.): pl.n. in Meckl.

Kropf, Kröpfl(i), LGer. Kropp, Kröpke: means a person with a conspicuous crop due to goiter; also field name (e.g. Kreienkropp near Essen) and pl.n. (e.g. in Schleswig). Hence Kröpfgans, Krüpfgans, Kripgans [crop goose, arch.; pelican]; Taubenkropp [pidgeon crop]; Völlkropf (‘fill the crop’).

Krösche (Hbg.): LGer. krôseke = krôs ‘pitcher, ruff’ (Kröske 1721). Cf. Gösche = Goseke.

Krösche (UGer.) = Gröschel, Groschen [coin = 10 pennies].

Krosigk: noble family von Schwerin-Krosigk; Slav. pl.n. near Halle.

Kroß, Krooß, Krohs (LGer.): ‘pitcher, ceramic drinking vessel’, nowadays Krause (from MLG krûs, kros, MHG krûse), Cf. Schwen(k)kros, [wave the jug], Warnkros, likewise Schwenkenbecher [wave the mug, glass], Schwenkkraus (Sweyfkrüsel: Swyefkrug from sweifen = ‘to swing, wave’, in Hesse), also Füllekrus [fill the jug], Leerenkraus [empty the jug], Steinkraus [stone jug]. Krosemaker,Bremen 1354.

Krott, Kröttli: from MHG krot(te) ‘toad’, besides krotolf (derisive word). (Cf. Krotenöugl [toad eye], Krotenfüßel [toad foot] 1414).

Kruck (LGer.): = ‘stone jug’ (Kruke), surname of a jugmaker, potter. Mechthilt Cruke,Haldsl. 14th c., Eler Crucdregher,Greifswald 1388, Krukenmeker,Bremen 1453.

Krück, Krücke [crutch], Krückmann, Krückemeyer (LGer.-Westph.): Krücke is also a field name.

Krüdener (LGer.): pharmacist who deals in medicinal herbs (LGer. krude) (1280 in Stralsund: magister Bertoldus Phisicus crudener, apotecarius [master Bertold physician-herbalist, pharmacist]; also in Ro. 1288, Hbg. 1266, etc.). Hence the surnames Krude (Hbg.), Krüdewagen (Westph.).

Krüder, Krüer, Krüerke (LGer.): = UGer. Kräuterhändler, Krauthändler ‘herb or vegetable or spice dealer’. Hennekrüder, Frkf. 1387, Cf. Rhineld. Kreuder.

Kruft, Kruff, Krufter: from Kruft near Andernach (also Cf. Bahlow ON, p. 280).

Krug, Krugmann: LGer. = Krog, Krogmann; [krug = ‘pitcher’, here means ‘tavern’]; Cf. Fahrenkrug, Fahrenkrog loc.n.); but in UGer. area refers to the vessel (pitcher): Krügel, Krügle (= ‘pottery, jug and stone ware dealer or peddler’); Cf. Füllskrügel [fill the jug] for a tavern owner.

Krüger: in LGer. area (incl. Brandenburg and Lausitz) = Kröger: ‘tavern owner or innkeeper’ (especially in the country); Heidkrüger (tavern owner in the “Heide” area). In UGer. area Krügler, Krug and Krügel mean ‘jug dealer’.

Kruke see Kruck.

Kru(c)kenberg: pl.n. in Bav.

Krull, Krül1 (LGer.): like Kroll = ‘curly head’ (from MLG krulle ‘ringlet, curl, shock of hair’). Cf. Schlichtkrull was reinterpreted as Schlichtegroll [Groll = ‘grudge, resentment’], its actual meaning is ‘straight hair’; UGer. Schlichthärle. Hinr. Krul,Barth 1325, Joh. mit dem Crulle,Han. 1353, Sidenekrul [silken hair], Stralsund 1338 (also Guldenekrol,Strals. 1323 and Smerekrol [greasy hair], Strals. 1340); in Hbg. Duvenkrul, Duvenkrol.

Krumbhaar (espec. in Thur.): person with curled hair. But krumm ‘crooked’ is the basis for Krummbein, Krummfuß, Krummauge, Krummfinger, Krummhals [crooked leg, foot, eye, finger, neck] referring to deformities of the body (mit dem krumen halse,Bav. 1386; mit den krummen Füßen,Frkf. 1396; Crumpfuß,Liegnitz 1388).

Krumbholz (Sax., Bav., Aust.): old surname of a cartwright, carriage maker (likewise Nabholz); see Brech., p. 121, A. Götze, p. 71). Erpo Crumholt,Hbg. 1270, Nikl. Crumpholcz,Kuttenberg 1392.

Krumbhorn (espec. UGer.): probably from MHG horn, the wind instrument, surname of a horn player (hunter, night watchman, musician). A musician and composer in the 16th c. Caspar Krumbhorn;Hannus Krumphorn,Prague 1417.

Krumbiegel (UGer.: Aust., Bav., freq. in Sax.): loc.n., related to bühel ‘hill, knoll’, cf. Hirschbiegel [stag hill] or Hirschbühel, Nußbiegel, and others.

Krunmacher (freq. in Westph.): like Krumbholz means wheelwright, cart and carriage maker; LGer. Krummhauer, Krummheuer. But Crumbenagel (Col.1159) and Crumyseren (Osnabrück 1387) are names of blacksmiths.

Krümmel (freq. in Hbg., Barmen, Magdeburg, Mayen): pl.n. several times in Meckl., Schleswig-Holstein, Nassau), also field n. like Krümmling (cf. “an dem Crümmelinge”,near Frkf. 1321). But Krümel, Krümling refer to “Krume” (from MHG krume, krumme) = ‘crumb’; Cf. Kromeneter [crumb eater], Haldsl. 14th c., knight Crumelin,Würzburg 1299.

Krümmer (UGer.): probably from MHG krümme ‘bend in the road’, field name.

Krumpf see Krump. (Joh. Krumpf,Frkf. 1487).

Krump(p): UGer. = ‘crooked’, physical deformity (Heinz Krump,squire, Baden 1428, Joh. der Crumbe,knight, Strasb. 1226).

Krumrey (reinterpreted as Krumreich), Krumreihn: N Ger. field name, cf. Ossenrey. A Crumerey,Stade 1313. Cf. Krumrain in Würt., from MHG rein ‘ridge, bank or border of a field’, [krum(m) = ‘crooked’] likewise Hochrain, Moosrain.

Krünitz, Krienitz (Sax.): Slav. ‘crossbill’ (bird).

Krüper (Hbg.): ‘creeper’ (from MLG krupen, cf. Krup-under and Kruput:‘creep out’, name of a farmhand in Meckl.; Krupopp ‘creep up’.

Krupp (in Essen since 16th c.): Heyno Crup (Crupe),Hbg. 1265. Cf. Krüper.

Krup(p)ke, Krupka, Krup(p)a: Slav. (Czech krupy) ‘crude, unmannered’. Also cf. Slav. krupa ‘pearl barley’.

Krupopp: (LGer.) ‘creep up’. Cf. Krupunder.

Krusch, Krusche, Kruschke, Kruschka, Kruschel: Sil.-Lausitz., cf. Wend. kruscha ‘pear tree’ and pl.n. Kruschka in W Pruss. besides pl.n. Krusch(o)witz; also pl.n. Krauscha near Görlitz was formerly Crusche:Peter von der Crusche,Görlitz 1427.

Kruse (freq. in Hbg.): LGer. variant of Krause, besides Kruskopf ‘curly head’.

Kruspe see Krauspe. But for Krause (‘pitcher, jug’) see Kroß (Kruse).

Krüsmann, Krützmann (LGer.): from loc.n. and pl.n Kreuz (Krütz) ‘cross’, cf. Krützfeldt.

Krüß (Hbg.): cf. Dutch kruis ‘cross’.

Kube, Kuba, Kubisch, Kubesch, Kubatsch, Kuball, Kubek, Kubik, Kuban, Kubon, etc. also Kauba, Kaubisch are E Ger.-Slav. forms for Jakob (Jokub), freq. in U.Sax. For Kubach besides Kubatsch cf. Hubach besides Hubatsch and Lubach besides Lubatsch. Kuba Gomolka. Kuba Jersickhe (1596) etc. (see Bahlow SN, p. 65). Jan Kuba (Jacuba),Bohemia 1599. G. Cubach (Cubaeus),near Bautzen 1608.

Kublank: pl..n. in W Pom. and Kublank in Prignitz area.

Kübler, Kiebler (UGer.) also Kübel (Pfisterkübel), Kiebele: ‘a tubmaker (cooper) who makes and/or assembles small wooden vats’. Kübel = ‘tub’. Cf. sentence name Bintenkübel [tie the vat].

Kuchar(z): Czech = ‘cook’. Hence E Slav. Kucharski, Kucharczyk.

Küchenhoff (Westph.) besides Käckenhoff (LGer.) loc.n. in Westph. farmstead area.

Küch(en)meister, LGer. Käckenmeister (see there): chief cook, a court official, hence also name of nobles. Also cf. Bacmeister [chief baker]. At the Liegnitz court 1385 a reference to Reynold, the priest(!), kitchen manager and chief cook of the duke (Köchenmeister).Kuchenbuch etc. = ‘cake belly’ for a baker.

Küchler (UGer.): ‘baker who makes small cakes or cookies’ (= Küchle from Kuchen ‘cake’). Hence Lebküchler [gingerbread baker], Leibküchler, Lebküchner (likewise Lebzeltner). Occ. surnames are: Küchel, Küchle, Kiechle; Lebkuche; or sentence names: Pustkuchen, Stopfkuchen, Eßkuche(n). But Eierkuchen, Pfannkuch(e), LGer. Pankoke, Pankauke are names for a cook. Spänkuch, Spenkuch (Bav.): see Schmeller, Bayr. Wörterbuch.Opferkuch = ‘consecrated wafer’ (rel.).

Kuck (freq. in Hbg.): an old swamp word, cf. pl.n. Kucklar, Kucksiepen, Kuckmere, Kuckenbeke (see Bahlow ON, p. 269). For Kück (freq. in Hbg.) cf. Kückhoven, but also Kücken [Küken = ‘chick(en)’]. Joh. kücken,Ro. 1303; Kükenvogt. Kückelmann, cf. Kückelmoor, Han.

Kuckuck: surname, but also pl.n. Nic. Kukuk,Brünn 1365. The UGer. word is Gauch.

Kudenholdt (LGer.): dirty woods, cf. Kudensee, Kudenbeke, Kudenkopf (see Bahlow ON, p. 281).

Kuder(er), Küderle, Kiderlen (Würt.): ‘person who works with tow’ (coarse broken flax or hemp); Kudermann: ‘tow dealer’. Also Kauderer. Hence Kudersack,Breisgau area 1271. Küderlin,Engen 1550; Kuderer,Strasb. 1277.

Kudernatsch, Gudernatsch: Czech kudrna ‘curl’, thus curly head.

Kufahl (Meckl., Brandenburg) see Kofahl.

Küfer: from MHG küefer = ‘manufacturer of large wooden vats, espec. for wine’ (= Kufen, from Lat. cupa), word originated in SW German wine area (L.Rhine Küpers, Küpper); also Küf(f)ner (MHG kuofener), Küfler (Bav.). Unrounded form Kief(n)er, cf. Beiküfner, Beikiefer.

Kugler, Kügler (UGer.-Sil.), Kögler, Kogler, Kagler (LGer.) see Kagel, Kogel. Hence the surnames Kügelgen, Kugel, Leinekugel, Rotkugel, Wittkugel, LGer. Blakogel, Rodekogel, Linnekogel, and others. A Kugelmaker in Danzig 1457.

Kuhardt, Kuhert (LGer.) see Kohardt. Kuharsch, Kuhbein, Kuhfuß, Kuhbauch, Kuhzagel, Kuhhaupt, Kuhhorn, etc., all compounds with Kuh- ‘cow’ [ass, leg, foot, belly, tail, head, horn], mock names for cattle farmers or cowherds. Cf. LGer. Kohbeen, Kofoth, etc. In UGer. the following umlauted forms: Kühfuß, Kühkopf [cow head], Kühtreiber [cow driver], Kühdaisch, Kiedaisch [cow dung] in Würt. Küfahl, Kuhfahl see Kufahl. Kiekopf in Würt. But Kuhbier is a pl.n. in Prignitz area.

Kühl, Kühle, Kühlen: like Kühlmann and analogous to Kuhl, Kuhlmann indicating a dwelling place at a pit or depression of terrain (Kuhle); kul isalso an old water word and topographic term, Cf. Culbiki:Keulbeck in Westph., Cule:Keulen in Eichsfeld area, Cule-mere, Cule-fenn in Engld., Kulehusen: Kühlsen in Westph., Kühlhorn [horn = ‘corner, nook’]. For Kühler (Westph.) cf. Buschkühle(r), Lehmkühle(r), Sandkühle(r), Steinkühle(r).

Kuhlbars(ch): LGer., see Kaulbarsch.

Kühlewind, Kühlwetter: name for people who travel in all weathers (professionally or as tramps: cf. Schneidewind, Sausewind, etc.).

Kühlke, Kühlich, Kuhligk, Kulicke: (E Ger.-Slav.). kula, kulika ‘ball (sphere), small ball’ or sh.f. for Nikolaus.

Kuhlmann (LGer.-Westph.), also Kuhlmeyer, Kuhl, Torkuhl, Zerkuhl, Zerkaulen: all mean dwelling near a hole (Kuhle) or pit (in the terrain). Cf. Lehmkuhl, Lehmkühl, Lehmkühler; Mergelkuhl; Steinkuhl, Steenkuhl. Also Kuhlenkampf, Kulenkamp (Westph.): kamp ‘field’; Kuhlenhenke: Heinrich an der Kuhle [Henry at the pit]. Joh. Kulengraver [pit digger], Bremen 1495. But see Kullmann, Kulemann.

Kühlsen (Hbg.): pl.n. near Driburg (formerly Kulehusen), cf. Bahlsen (from Balehusen).

Kühme (LGer., UGer.): from MHG kûme ‘weak, frail’. Hinr. Cume, Stralsund 1322, Reinhart Kume, near Bühl 1266. Likewise Kuhm.

Kühn, Kühne, Kuhn (UGer.), Kühnel, Kühnemann: sh.f. of Kunrat (Konrad, see there); cf. LGer. Köhne, Köhnke, Köhnemann. Unrounded forms: UGer. Kienlein, Kienle (Swab.), Kiehnelt (Sil.), Kiehne. With an inserted dental-sound: Kühndel (Iglau 1391), Kiendl (Aust.), Küne Gleczer, Sagan 1356, Kanel Czegenwürgel, Glatz 1363, Cuneman (Cunrad) von Mogelyn, Liegnitz 1386, Cuneman Bettenbecher, Rüdesheim 1314.

Kühnapfel, Kühnast see Kien-.

Kühnemund (LGer. Könemund): rare old f.n. in noble families (e.g. in Thur., document register of Erfurt); -mund ‘guardian’; around 1813 the poet Achim v. Arnim named his sons: Kühnemund, Friedemund, Siegmund, Freimund.

Kuhnert, Kunert (Sil., Laus.), corrupted also Kuhnhardt: based on the once popular (emperors’) name Kunrat, Ger.-Wend. Kunat (cf. Kuhnt); in some cases the pl.n. Kuhnau, Kuhna, Kunern (Sil.) may be involved.

Kuhnke (Sax.): sh.f. of Kunst = Kunrad; Dietrich Kuneke (Kuncke), Freiberg 1313 (as early as 1241 in Freibg. Cuneko).

Kühnöl (Sax.): corrupted form of Kühnel.

Kuhnt (freq. in Laus., Sil.), also Kundt, Kunth: based on Kunat, Ger-Wend. for Kunrat, also cf. Kunath. Cunad (Cunrad) Hezler, Liegnitz 1339, Cunot (Cancze Cunrat) Vüchsel, Brsl. 1361, Hans Kunat, Görlitz 1417, P. Kunet, Liegnitz 1491, J. Kunt, Dresden 1479.

Kuhr (freq. in Hbg.): MLG kure ‘spy, guard, watchman on a tower’ (cf. FN Thurnbläser). Bertolt Kure, Stralsund 1335 (also Ro., Lüb., Hbg.), Tile Kure, Flensburg 1561.

Kührmann (Hbg., Meckl.): pl.n. Kühren near Preetz.

Kuhröber (Rathenow): LGer. röver ‘robber’.

Kuhrt (freq. in Hbg.): in some cases = ‘short’, in others standardized from LGer. Kord, Kurd = Konrad. As early as 1297 Joh. called Curt, Hbg. See also Korth. But Wilhelm Kurtenase [short nose], Col. 1205.

Kuhs(e) see Kuse.

Kuhtz: pl.n. Kuhz in Uckermark area.

Kuick (von): pl.n. Kuyk in Westph. (Kudewik ‘dirty place’, see Kudenholt).

Kuiper(s) see Küper.

Kuklik: cf. Czech-Wend. kukol ‘weeds’.

Kukuk see Kuckuck.

Kulas, Kulack, Kulicke, etc. see, Kühlke and Kollas.

Kulb(e), Külbel: Hess. dialect variant of Kolbe, Kölbel. See there. Ludwig Kulbe, Kassel 1463.

Kulemann (LGer.) see Kuhlmann. (Not to be confused with Kullman.) Cf. Kuleman, Barth 1415 besides Nik. Kule, Greifswald 1311 (i.e. ‘at the pit’).

Kulick(e), E Ger.-Slav., see Kulas and Kühlke. Likewise Kullick.

Kullmann, Kull (Rhine-Main area, freq. in Frkf.): around 1300-1400 was a popular sh.f. there for Kunrad, as Heilmann was for Heinrich in the same area. Cuoleman (Cuoneman, Cuonrat) cf. Offenbach, Frkf. 1300, Culman (Cunrat) vor der Brück [by the bridge], Frkf., Culo Meyge, Mainz 1344. Also Kuhlmann must be considered here unless it is N German meaning Kuhle ‘pit, hole (in the terrain)’.

Külpe (UGer.): ‘a kind of carp’ (?). Joh. Külpe,Schlettstadt, Alsace 1450. But Kulp(e) (Hbg.) is a loc.n., cf. pl.n. Kulpin near Ratzeburg, also Kölpin; cf. “von Cülpen” around 1340 in Stralsund. Gerlach von Culpe 1312, Luthco von Kulpe (Culpen), Brsl. 1336.

Külsen see Kühlsen.

Külz: pl.n. in Pom., also cf. Külzow.

Kumbst see Kompst (Kompost), Gumpost.

Kumm (UGer.): named after the dwelling in low-lying terrain (cf. “ab dem Kumben”).

Kümmel (from MHG kümin, Lat. cuminum): surname for spice grocers (likewise Zimt, Kanehl, Lorbeer, Kardamom, etc.). Also see Kimmel, Kimmich.

Kummer (UGer.), Kümmerle, Kimmerle (Swab.): from MHG kumber ‘trouble, misery’. Ulrich Chumber,Augsburg 1288, Berschi Kümerli,Würt. 1329, Kümmerlyn,Glatz 1344. Kummer is also pl.n. (Sax., Meckl.). Künuner(ling) = Kummer.

Kummerfeld(t) (freq. in Hbg.): pl.n. near Pinneberg.

Kümper (LGer.): a tubmaker who manufactures wooden containers (kumpen). Giselbert Cumper,Lüneburg 1296, Albert Cumper,Bremen 1392. Cf. UGer. Kumpfer, Kümpfer, Kimpfler. Hence Kumpfmüller (a miller whose mill works with bucket wheels; Kumpen = ‘bucket’). Also Kümp-fel, Kümpel. In Westph. a pl.n. Kump.

Kumst, Kumbst see Kompost, Gumpost.

Kumsteller: person who has made a pilgrimage to Santiago di Compostella in Spain (grave of Apostle Jacobus) for repentance; as early as 1250 in Ro. a Cumpstelle besides Henrik Jacopesvar sutor [cobbler], Ro. 1278, and Bernardus de Cröpelin “ad sanctum proficiscens Jacobum” [traveling to S. James], Ro. 1260. An inn for those pilgrims in Frkf. was called Kompostell.

Kunath, Kunadt (freq. in Leipzig, Dresden) see Kundt.

Kunde (freq. in Hbg.): from MHG kunde ‘known person, native’.

Kundert (Alem.) = Kunrad.

Kündel (UGer.) see Kühndel. Fridusch Kun(d)el 1386.

Kunder (UGer.): MHG = ‘monster’ (as a scolding word); der helle kunder = ‘the devil’.

Kunert see Kuhnert. Likewise Kunhardt.

Kunick, Kunisch see Kuhnke.

Kunigunde (Germanic kuni ‘tribe, clan’, cf. kuning ‘king’ and gund ‘battle, fight’: became a popular f.n. everywhere in the Middle Ages through Saint K. (wife of Emperor Henry II), in Bohemia (and parts of Sil.) through the Bohemian queen (wife of King Wenceslaus). Sh.f. Künne. See also Küntscher, Küngott (Köngeter!). Cf. Heincze Kunegunt,Frkf. 1387. H. der Küngunder,near Bregenz 1430.

Kunisch (E Ger., with Slav. suffix): like Kuhnke, Kunath = Kunrad (Cf. pl.n. Kunischdorf. Kunsdorf in Sil.).

Kunitz: several Slav. pl.ns. in Sil., Thur., Brandenburg.

Kunke see Kuhnke.

Kunkel (UGer.), Künkel, Kinkel, Künkler = ‘spindle maker’ (from MHG kunkel, medieval Lat. conucula ‘spindle’). Kunkerl 1379, pilgrim. Dithart Kunkele (Konkel),Gießen 1356. Joh. Kunkelman,Merseburg 1488.

Künne (Görlitz), Kinne (Neiße): a popular sh.f. of Kunigunde in Sil. etc. around 1300-1400 (see Bahlow SN, p. 43); Peter mit der Künne,Görlitz 1393. Hence Künusch, metr. Künischer: Küntscher, Kintscher, see there. Also in Moravia: Kunusch Steynprecherin, Iglau 1376. Clearly a metr. is also Cone (vorn) Kunnen,Haldsl. 1350.

Kuno, Cuno: as FN derived from pl.n. Kunow (Pom., Brandenburg); as f.n. became popular with the Romantic movement around 1800 as archaic sh.f. of Kunrat, Kunibert, etc. (see Bahlow VN, p. 63).

Kunoth see Kuhnt.

Künsemüller: refers to a mill on the Künsebeck (pl.n. near Bielefeld).

Kunst, Künstle, Künstlin: means a knowledgeable, skilled person (as in MHG Künster, Künstner); cf. Hans mit der kunst, Würt. 1494. Also (mit der) Gute(n)kunst (freq. in Würt.). Heine Kunstenrike, Han. 1363. Tiderik Kunst, Barth 1378. Hence Kunstmann. Kunsthaff (Überlingen 1628) means potter artist, cf. Kochhaf.

Kün(t)scher see Kintscher.

Kunz(e), Künzel etc. see Konrad. Cf. Cuntz (Cunrat) der Küntzel, Kempten 1382, Cuncze (Cunrad) of Cracow, Liegnitz 1388, Kinczel Koch, Eger 1357.

Küper, Küpers, Küppers, (L.Rhine Kyuper(s), see Küfer. E Fris. Küpker. In Düren also Küppenbender (like Büddenbender).

Kupfer, Küpferle, LGer. Kopper: Centr.Ger. Kupper. Surname of a coppersmith (LGer. Kopperschmidt), also Kupferschläger [copper hammerer]. (LGer. Kopperslager: Hbg. 1309); or of a copper dealer: Kupfermann, Kopfermann, Koppermann. Likewise Kupfernagel (Koppernagel). Godefrid Cupferhelbeling (coin), Würzburg 1201.

Kupke, Kupka (Sil.): Slav-Pol. sh.f. of Jakob. Cf. Kuba, Kupsch.

Kup(p)rion: reminiscent of old German heroic sagas in which a giant Kuperan, guardian of a rock or cave (Drachenstein) with the abducted Kriemhild, is slain by young Seyfried. Winand Copprian, Lüb. 1333, Conrad Meier, called Kupprion (farmer), near Tübingen 1404. See also Asprian.

Kürbs, Kürbis: [pumpkin] peasant name.

Kurdewan see Kordewahn.

Kurfeß, Kurfiß (UGer.): ‘facial scurf or stomatitis’.

Kurfürst: [prince elector] (UGer.) also house name.

Kürner (UGer.): from MHG kürn ‘mill’ or ‘granary’. Also cf. Kürn in Bav.

Kurnoth (Sil.) see Kunoth.

Kurrer (UGer.): from MHG kurren ‘to grunt’ (Martin Kurrer, Würt. 1449). Cf. Henrich Kurremurre, Col. 1187.

Kürschner, Kürssner, Ki(e)rschner [furrier] (UGer.-CentrGer.-Sil.): from MHG kürsen ‘fur coat’; LGer. form is Pelzer. Cf. Ortlip harm (ermine!) der kürsener, Brsl. 1360; Heyseke Korsenmeker and Hans Korsenwerchte, Haldsl. 14th c.

Kürsten (Centr.Ger.) = Kirsten = Christian (pers.n.); Rhineld. Kürstgens.

Kürten (freq. in Col., Düsseldorf). therefore probably not only from the pl.n. Kürten near Col. but also patr. of the pers.n. Kurt.

Kurt(h): contracted from Kunrat (Kuorat) = Konrad, in LGer. standardized from Korth (Kord, Cord): also ‘short’ (LGer. kort, kurt) is involved. As early as 1297 in Hbg. Joh. called Curt. See also Kuhrt. Compounds: Großkurth, Kleinkurth, Magerkurth, etc.

Kur(t)z, Kur(t)ze, (Lat. Curtius); LGer. Korte: of small stature, short; Cf. Kurzbein [short leg], Kurzhals [short neck], Kurzmaul [small mouth]. Also Kurzrock [short jacket], Kurzmantel [short coat] besides Langmantel; Kurzweil [pastime, for a jokester] esides Langweil [boredom]; Kurzweck [short roll]; Kurzfleisch [short meat] are (derisive) nicknames for a baker or butcher. Kurzleb(en) probably changed from Kutzleb (from pl.n. Kutzleben in Thur.), already 1295 Ch. Churzlebon in Aust., J. Korteleben, Brsw. 1600.

Kusch, Kusche, Kuscha, Kuschel, Kuschke, Kuschnik (E Ger.-Slav.) are probably shortened from Jakusch, Mikusch (Nikusch), likewise Nusche, Nuschke from Janusch(ke).

Kuse (Hbg., Dortmund) from MLG kuse ‘club, cudgel’. But Kusen, Kusenack indicate E Ger.-Slav. loc.n., Cf. pl.n. Kusey in Altmark. For pl.n. Kusenhorst in Westph. Cf. Musenhorst (kus and mus mean dirt, Rhineld. kusel). In Hesse there was also a fem. f.n. Kuse (= Kunne, Kunigunde?), Cf. Kusa Walbrun, Wetzlar 1337. Peter Kusen son, Mainz 1344, Kuse Durikam, Ulm 1433.

Küsel, Küseler, also Kusel, Kuseler (freq. in Hbg.): from MLG kusel ‘spinning top’ (toy), probably also surname for small, agile persons. Mas Kusel, Strals, 1333 (Hbg. 1290, Lüb. 1319). But the pl.n. Kusel on the Kusel River (Nahe area) is the source for Dilman Kusel, Rüsselsheim 1348 and Cunrad Kuselman, Algesheim 1341; there is a town Küsel near Magdeburg.

Küseler (LGer.) in old documents also = ‘idler, loafer’.

Küssenpfennig [kiss the penny], Küstenpfennig, Kistenpfennig (UGer.) means miser; Cf. Schimmelpfennig [moldy penny] etc.

Küssewetter see Kiesewetter.

Kußmaul: name is known through the physician Adolf K.; the literal meaning ‘kissing mouth’ is unlikely to be the origin of the FN but rather Czech kosmaly,which was then reinterpreted like pl.n. Dürrmaul [skinny mouth] near Eger from Czech Drmaly; also Cf. pl.n. Kosmova [big mouth] in Bohemia. Hence FNs Kosmale, Kosmahl, Kosmiel, Kosmehl, Kosmöhl, Kußmähly! All from kosma ‘strand of shaggy hair’, kosmac ‘shaggy head of hair’. Anton Kußmaul,Außig 1478.

Küster (Küsters), LGer. Köster (Kösters), Fris.-Dutch Coster: ‘sexton’ (Centr.Ger.-Thur.: Kirchner, UGer.-Alem.: Meßner and Sigrist; Hess.-Rhineld.: Opfermann, Oppermann), from Lat. custos ‘guardian’ of the sanctuary. Hence Küstermann, Kustermann, Köstermann; Westph. also patr. Köstering. But Küstner also = Kistner, like Küstenmacher for Kistenmacher [joiner, cabinet maker].

Küter, Küther: LGer. = ‘butcher or sausage maker who used the entrails, tripe’ (LGer. kut). In Hbg. there is a street: am Küterwall. Henneke küter,Barth 1334. A Kütertor [gate] in Stralsund, Kilterhof (the oldest slaughterhouse) in Berlin. Hence FN Kuthe: Kuteke,Haldsl. 14th c. UGer.-CentrGer.-Sil. form is Kuttler, Küttler (from MHG kutel): Cf. Steffan der köteler (im kötelhove),Liegnitz 1372. In Rhineld. also Küttelwesch, Köttelwesch [entrail washer or cleaner].

Kutsche, Kutschke, Kutschka, Kutschker, Kutscher, Kutscha, Kutschale, Kutschmann (all UGer.-Sil.): clearly of Slav. origin with Ger. -u- coming from Slav. -o- (as in the loanword “Kutsche” ‘coach’ from Hungar. Kocsi, town near Raab). Also Cf. dialect Gutsche, Gutschke for Gotsche (Bahlow SN, p. 39).

Kutscher(a): Cf. Czech kucera ‘curl’.

Küttner, Kuttner (UGer.): from MHG kuttener ‘robe wearer, monk’ [Cf. E. coat]. Cunrad Kuttner,Eger 1356. Pl.n. Kutten in Sax.

Kuttruf, Kuttrof, Guttruf, Guthruf, Guttropf (UGer.): from MHG kuterof (guttrel) was a glass drinking vessel (with narrow neck), Swab. kutter, gutter ‘Gütterle’ (Lat. guttarium, from gutta ‘drop’). Joh. Kuttrolff,Erfurt Matrikel [register] 1418.

Kutz (Stettin, Berlin): Slav. pl.n., e.g. Kuhz near Prenzlau.

Kutzleb: pl.n. Kutzleben in Thur.

Kutzner (Sudeten-Sil.): probably is not a manufacturer of blankets (MHG kotze, kutze ‘coarse woolen cloth’), rather name indicates Slav. origin. Klose Kuczner,Braunau 1408, A. Koczner,Landskron 1393. Cf. pl.n. Kotzenau, Kotzau, Kotzen.

Küver, Köver (Hbg.): LGer. variant of UGer. Küfer, L.Rhine Küper = ‘cooper, tubmaker’. Cf. kuvenbinder,Lüneburg 1386, kuvenmaker,Flensburg 1583, Kuyper(s): L.Rhine for Küper(s), see there.

Kyber: (Thur.) = Küwer, Küer, UGer. Kuger, Kughirte ‘cowherd’. Enderlyn Küer,Liegn. 1383.

Kynast (E Ger.-Sil.) see Kienast.

  1. Anonymous (leach w. E. ?)

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    -Anonymous, 1917. " Results of the South Australian Museum expedition to Strzelecki and Cooper Creeks. September and October 1916". p 490. Trans.
  2. Recherche bei Umlauten ggf. über ae, oe, ue suchen! Dasselbe gilt: Wenn mit „ß“ kein Ergebnis vorliegt, ggf mit „ss“ suchen! Bei den

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    Recherche bei Umlauten ggf. über ae, oe, ue suchen! Dasselbe gilt: Wenn mit „ß“ kein Ergebnis vorliegt, ggf. mit „ss“ suchen! Bei den Signaturnummern gibt das letzte Kürzel (z.

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