Aar: the old term for Ger. Adler (adel ar) and means ‘eagle’: Frid dictus [called] Ar, near Konstanz 1258. See Ahr. Aaron

E Ger.-Slav., similarly Duske, Dudedau (pl.ns.). For Dusch(l), Duscher (Bav.) see Dosch.

Dusen(d)schön (LGer.): “thousand [times] beautiful,” probably an ostentatious person. Related to Dausend (CentrGer. Tausig from MHG tûsinc, tusend, cf. Johann Dusing,Frkf. 1387). Tausendfreund [thousand’s friend] (opposite: Niemandsfründ [no one’s friend]), Tausendlist [thousand tricks], Tausendpfund [thousand pounds], Tasendteufel (Dusendtüfel [thousand devils]).

Düser (LGer.): a sleepy walker, stroller, also a feeble-minded person. Dusere,Ro. 1280-90, Lüb. 1326.

Düsing: MLG ‘costly ornamental belt’ (with little bells); “cingulum argenteum dictum Duzing” [Lat., a silver belt known as a Dusing], Lüb. 1390; “1 gulden dusynk und 1 gördel” [1 golden dusynk and 1 belt]. In Hbg. 1383 the prohibition: “ok schal neen vrûwe op ereme dusynghe ofte gordele ghold, sülver edder parlen dregen* [no woman shall wear on her dusing or belt gold, silver, or pearls]. Cf. also Provost Dreyer’s “Von der Düsing-Tracht” [On the Düsing Costume] (Hannoverisches Magazin 1788). Duke Albrecht of Meckl. introduced this fashion to Sweden in 1363. Also Hinrik Dusinch, Lüb. 1321, Peter Duzing, Hbg. 1376.

Dust: LGer. = ‘dust, bran, vapor’. Clawes Dust,Kiel 1448. Cf. Wineke Makedust,Lüb. 1349.

Düsterdieck, Düsterberg, Düsterhus, Düsterloh, Düsterhop, Düsterwald: LGer. pl.ns. (LGer. düster = ‘dark’).

Dutsch(ke): E Ger.-Wendish, means a German. For Dutz(ke) cf. pl.n. Dutzow in Meckl. and Dotzek.

Duttke, Duttge, Dutki: E Ger.-Polish. Cf. Franz Dotke (Duthgi, Duthki) from Glogau 1541.

Düttle, Tüttle (Swab.): MHG tutelin, tutte ‘nipple’. Aberlin Dütlin, Tuttelin 1381. Burkhard der Tuttel 1375.

Düttler (Würt.): ‘flatterer’ (MHG tüteler). Konrad der Tütler,Eßlingen 1343.

Du(u)s (freq. in Hbg.; Han.), Daus: MLG dûs (Fr. deux): the two on a die or the ace in a deck of cards; hence name of an avid dice or card player. A knight Bernd Dûs, Ilsenburg 1256; a page (young nobleman) Arnd Dûs, Herford 1368.

Duve, Duwe (LGer., freq.) = ‘dove’, a dealer in or breeder of doves. Cf. Schönduve, Schöndube [beautiful dove]. Davenkrul,Hbg. 1298, Duvenkropp [dove’s crop], Düveke ‘little dove’. Also a house n.: K. zer Tuben,Speyer 13th c., C. von der Duven,Cologne 1399; C. Dubenduscher,Frkf. 1387: see Daube.

Duvenbeck, Duwensee (by the great bog), Duvenstedt, Dubenscheid, Duvenrecht: duv = ‘boggy’, cf. Duveland and the Duva (Belgium, Britain).

Düwel, Düvel (LGer.) = ‘devil’. Common in Meckl. Also Düvelskop [devil’s head], Lüb. 14th c., Mandüvel [man devil]; also sentence names: Jagedüvel, Bitdendüvel, Schietendüvel, Schreckendüvel [chase, bite, shoot, scare the devil]; Kleyendüvel: Scodüvel, Bokendüvel, Herendüvel [fight the devil]. Schlagenteufel [beat the devil], Fressenteufel [eat the devil]. Düvelesrok [devil’s stink], Ro. 1287.

Dux: from Dux in Bohemia. Probably sometimes also a Humanist name for duke (cf. Christoph Dux,bastard of Duke Wilhelm of Bav., 16th c.), Brech., p. 368.

Dwars (MLG): ‘crossways’.

Dwelk (LGer.): = Zwillich ‘canvas, twill’ [fabric] (cf. “ene jope van dwelleke” = ‘a jacket made of twill’).

Dwenger, Dwinger (LGer.): freq. in Hbg., ‘brutal person, a tormentor’ (cf. Zwingherr).

Dwerg (LGer.) = ‘dwarf’. Hermann Dwerg,Herford 1430.

Dwilling (LGer.) = ‘twin’.

Dworak, Dvorack, Dvoreck, Dworschak (Slav.) = Dvoran ‘farm man’, belonging to the farm or estate. Common in Vienna.

Dyck, Dykhoff etc. see Dieck-.

Dykena see Diekena.

Dyrenfurth: pl.n. Dyhernfurt in Sil.

Dyroff see Thyrolf, Dierolf. (Claus Dyrolf, Tolde Tyrolf Fulda 1445-63.)

Dyrssen see Dierssen.

E

Ebbe, Ebbeke, Ebke, Ebkema (Fris.), also Ebben, Ebbesen, Ebsen, Ebbinga (Fris. patr.) are LGer.-Fris. forms derived from Ebbert, Ebbers, Ebbrecht = Eggebrecht (Egbert), likewise Ribbe(ke) from Rikbert; doc.: Ebbeco (Ebbeke = Ecbertus)de Rode, Hbg. around 1290. Still in the 16th c. Ebbe Kallesen, Flensburg, Ebbeke Ryckels. Around 830 King Egbert of Wessex founded the Anglo-Saxon centralized state. (Eg-, originally Agi- means ‘point of a weapon’, berht ‘shining’). For Fris. Ebbena see Ukena, Poppena.

Ebbingbaus: pl.n. in Westph. (Ebbenhusen,Ebbenhorst see Bahlow ON, p. 94.)

Ebbrecht LGer. see Ebbe.

Ebe, Ebi, Eby, Eble, Eblein (UGer.) Eberhard. Cf. Ebo (two brothers), Bav. 1209; Dietr. Ebo,Würt. 1273; Ebelin = Eberhard of Frundsberg, Strasb. 1314-15.

Ebel: used to be a popular sh.f. in the LGer.-Fris. area (masc. and fem.) of Elbert (Eilbert) or Elburg (Eilburg), patr. is Ebeling. Concerning the loss of the “l” compare Abel for Albert or Alburg. Ebele de Lese, Stettin 1350, Ebele de Duvendike, Stralsund 1341, but (Bartold) vorn Ebelen (siner moder), Haldsl. 1330 like (Joh.) vorn Abelen,Hbg. 14th c. See also Ebeling and Abeling.

Ebeling: patr. of Ebel (see there), likewise Abeling of Abel. These forms were very popular in the LGer. area around 1300-1400. Ebeling Dideken, Haldsl. 1349, Ebbeling Gudgemak, Magdeburg 1350, Meyne Ebelinghes,Lüneburg 1375; still 1551 in Brsw.: Ebeling Lucke (city councillor).

Ebeloe (Hbg.): similar to Dudelo, Odelo, Rokelo = ‘wet lowlands’ (cf. “auf der Ebe”: Bahlow ON, p. 94).

Ebenhöh, Ebenhoch (Allgäu, Tyrol): ‘on an elevated plateau’ [Höhe = ‘height’]. Cf. Ebenböck (Bav.) like Adenböck, Weißenböck: Bav. -böck = bach [creek].

Ebenreiter like Ebenreuter: pl.n. ending in ­reuth (‘clearing’), cf. Bärnreiter [Bär = ‘bear’]; also Ebenritter like Bernritter and Bernrieder: UGer. pl.n. ending in -ried [swamp, reed].

Ebenroth: reminiscent of the Dietrich legend. In the MHG Ecke epic, Ecke, Fasold and Ebenrot are three giants wooing three maidens. Jacob Ebenrot,near Worms 1331.

Ebentheuer (UGer.): means the traveling (adventurous) merchant, especially the jewelry merchant (e.g. in old Frkf.: ebentiurer,see Volckmann, p. 141), originally also the knight looking for adventure [ebenteuer = Abenteuer ‘quest, adventure’] (Knight Waltherus, called Ebentüre,around 1200). In Liegnitz around 1390 Ditherich und Jocob mit der ebentewer.

Eber (UGer.): the FN was also promoted through house names, e.g. Henne zum Eber,Frkf. 1387 (also Strasb.). As a symbol of strength [Eber = ‘boar’] the name is contained in Germanic pers.ns.: Eberhard, Eberwin, Ebernand, Eberold. For the creek name Eber (Ebra) see Bahlow ON, p. 94.

Eberding see Everding. Cf. pl.n. Eberdingen in Würt.

Eberenz: Slavic pl.n. like Dobrenz. Cf. Ebritsch: Dobritsch.

Eberhar(d)t (UGer.): ‘brave, strong like a boar’ (cf Eberwin, Ebernand, Eberolt); the Germanic god Freyr, whose symbol was the boar, wore a golden helmet. Some FNs were contracted to Ebert, Ebers, LGer. Evert, Evers, etc. As the leading name of the rulers of Würt., Eberhard has a special ring typical of Würt.; cf. Uhland’s ballad “Eberhard der Rauschebart” [E. the Longbearded] and Kerner’s ballad “Der reichste Fürst” (meant here is Count E. im Bart, 1445). See also Eberle.

Eberlein, Eberle (Swab.), Eberl (Bav.): used to be a popular sh.f. of Eberhard (see there). Eberlin = Eberhard Schienli, Würt. 1229. Eberli = Eberhart von Reischach around 1400. Also in old Silesia: Eberlin,also dial. Aberlin (Bahlow SN, p. 35; Reichert, p. 12), and with Slavic suffix: Ebrusch,near Prague 1368. Eberl also in the (former) Bav. part of Bohemia (Schwarz, p. 80).

Ebermann: corresponds to Eberle as Endermann corresponds to Enderle. Frenczil Eberman,Görlitz 1439.

Ebermayer (Bav.): like Geißmayer [Geiß = ‘goat’], Gansmayer [Gans = ‘goose’], Schafmayer [Schaf = ‘sheep’], Lämmermayer [Lamm = ‘lamb’], Hengstmayer [Hengst = ‘stallion’].

Ebernand (UGer.): Germanic pers.n. (nand ‘brave, bold’), likewise Wignand (also Nantwig), Signand, Gernand, Otnand, Volknand. There was a MHG poet Ebernand of Erfurt around 1220.

Eberold (UGer.): rare pers.n., cf. Ebirold, Ebiroldes son, Frkf. 1350.

Ebers, LGer. for Evers: means Evert’s (Eberhard’s) son. The writer Georg Ebers was originally G. Ephraim (cf. Effraim jude [Jew], Brsl. 14th c.).

Ebersol, Ebersolh (UGer.): loc.n. in Switz. (means ‘wallowing place for wild boars’).

Eberstein: pl.n. in several areas.

Ebert (freq. in UGer. and CentrGer.): contracted form of Eberhart; in Rhineland the genitive form Eber(t)z is found. Ebert = Eberhart Debolt, Pal. 1566.

Eberwein (UGer.: Bav., Würt.): Germanic pers.n. Eberwin (win ‘friend’).

Ebhard(t): Thur. variant of Eberhard. Bleßigk Ebhart = Blasius Eberhard, Jena 1540. Also freq. in Vienna.

Ebing(er): from Ebingen in Würt. or Ebing in Bav. (freq.).

Ebke, Ebkema see Ebbe.

Eble, Eblein see Ebe. Freq. in Würt. Cf. Eblin = Eberlin Breckner, Stuttg. 1391, Eblin = Eberhard of Rammingen, 1294. Also Äbli = Albrecht may come into consideration, as doc. in Rottweil around 1360: Ebelin = Ebli = Äbli = Albrecht Gierai (see Nied, p. 6). Patr. is Ebler.

Ebner (UGer., freq. in Bav., Aust., Würt.): named after the dwelling in a level location, e.g. Cunr. aus der Eben [from the plain] in Tyrol; Eben is also a pl.n. From that derive the FNs Breitebner, Buchebner [Buche = ‘beech tree’], Gaßebner [Gasse = ‘small street’], Kirchebner [Kirche = ‘church’], Langebner, Lindebner [Linde = ‘linden tree’], Pirkebner [Pirke = Birke ‘birch’]. For further information see Ebenhöh. The name rarely derives from MHG ebenaere ‘arbitrator’.

Ebnetter (UGer.): from the freq. loc.n. Ebnat, Ebnet (OHG ebanôti ‘plain’).

Ebrech(t), Ehebrecht (SW Ger.): = Egebrecht, likewise Ehelolf for Egelolf. Cf. LGer. Ebbrecht.

Ebsen see Ebbesen ‘son of Ebbe’ (Fris.).

Ebser from Ebs (Ebbs) in Tyrol. Ott Ebser from Ebs, 1372.

Ebstein: pl.n. Eppstein in Taunus or Pal.

Echsle see Öchsle.

Echte: pl.n. near Northeim.

Echtermeyer (L.Rhine-Westph.): like Echtermann, Echterling, Echterhölter, Echterbroch indicating the dwelling ‘in the rear’ [LGer. achter, echter = ‘after, behind’]. But Echternach is a prehistoric pl.n. in Luxembourg, Efternach from Celtic Epternacum is of similar age (Bahlow ON, p. 95).

Eck: ‘living on the corner’. Janusch an der Ecke, Sil. 1280. UGer. also Egg: Heinr. in der egge,hermit, Würt. 1248 (Brech., p. 375). Likewise Eckmann: Henne Eckeman,Frkf. 1387, Joh. Eggman,near Konstanz 1442. Luther’s adversary, Dr. Eck (originally Maier) hailed from Egg on the Günz River.

Eckar(d)t see Eckhardt.

Eckbert, Eckbrett see Eckebrecht.

Ecke (L.Ger.) also Egge; the patr. Eck(e)s, Egges is a short form of Eckehard, Eggehart (Eckert, Eggert): compare in Hbg. around 1300 Ecco, Ecgho,also Ecgehardus; Ecko, Eckehardus in Ro. 1257.

Eckebrecht, patr. Eckenbrecher (UGer.) = LGer. Eggebrecht (Egbert), see Ebbe. Edelknecht [squire] Heinchin Eckebrecht,Speyer 1358. A distorted form is Eckbrett, see Odebrett.

Eck(e)l (UGer.), also Eckelmann: a popular sh.f. of Eckehard. Eckelin = Eckehart of Rosenberg, Würt. 1280, Eckel Schefer, Glatz 1359, Eckel = Eckart Krämer, Wetzlar 1275. With an added, secondary -t: Eckelt (Bartel Eckelt,Görlitz 1555). Joh. Eckelman,Meißen 1355. There is a pl.n. Eckel (Eklo) near Lüneburg.

Ecker, Egger (freq. in Mnch.): after the dwelling place on the corner (uff der Egg), see Eck. The name is also doc. in Würt. for Eckhard: Tobias Egger = Ecker = Eckkardt,1590 (Brech., p. 381), Jakob Eckher = Eckhard, 1542. Cf. Contz Eckerlin, Magstadt 1350. Eckerl(e), Eckerlein (UGer.).

Eckerich: Germanic pers.n. (Eghericus, 12th c.; Alsace: Joh. Eckerich, 1425). LGer. Eggerichs. A dwarf Eggerich appears in the medieval epic ThidreksSaga.

Eckermann: name derives from the small Ecker River in the Harz Mountains (originally Eckerne; prehistor. Akrina; see Bahlow ON, p. 96). Henning deEckere, Han. 1360, Clawes Ekerman, Lüneburg 1365.

Eckert (E Ger.-UGer.) see Eckhardt.

Eck(e)s see Ecke, Egge.

Eckhardt, Eckart, Eckert: very popular name in the Middle Ages (Germanic Agihard ‘bold with the sword’), also popular through a figure in the Nibelungenlied, E. was also the faithful helper of the Harlungen brothers (“the old faithful, Eckart”). “Meister Eckart”, the German mystic, was active around 1300. LGer.: Eggert, Eggers; Fris. Edzart. See also Eckel.

Eckhoff, Eckholt, Eckhorn, Eckhorst, Eckhusen (all Westph.) indicate the dwelling place near oak trees (LGer. Eek, Eik ‘oak’). Also Eckmann = Eichmann. Joh. vonderEcken (a quercu = Lat. ‘from the oak’), 1524.

Ecklebe(n): pl.n. in the area of the Unstrut River.

Eckler (UGer.): patr. of Eckle, Eckel = Eckehard, likewise Ebler from Ebel.

Eckli(n), Eckle see Eckel.

Eckloff (Hbg., Danzig): Ekolf(us), Lüb. 1350 (Germanic Agiulf, king of the Goths).

Eckmann (LGer.) see Eckhoff.

Eckner: name which indicates origin [Ecke = corner]. See Ecke.

Eckol(d)t, Eckgold: rare pers.n., compare Eckhard, Eckebrecht; the ending -old stands for -wald ‘acting, wielding’.

Ecks, Ex see Ecke, Egge.

Eckstein: MHG eckestein, probably name of the stonecutter or mason. Name was a FN in Brsl. as early as 1350: Cunot eckestein and son Nicol eckestein.

Eckwert: a Margrave Eckewart appears in the Nibelungenlied; an Ecwardus in Bremen 1300. Cf. Eilwart, Detwart, Alwart, Volkwart.

Eddelbüttel (freq. in Hbg.): pl.n., likewise Edesbüttel (Bahlow ON, p. 97).

Edden (LGer.-Fris.): son of Eddo, likewise Eden (= ‘son of’) from Edo. Sibrand Edden (Frisian) 1557. Cf. Adden from Addo. Fris.-Engl. Ed- (in Edward, Edlef) corresponds to LGer. Od- (Odward). From it derives Eddicks like Addicks; patr. Edding.

Ed(d)eler (Fris. pers.n.): Ed(d)elerus like Giselerus in Lüb.

Ede (LGer.-Fris.): old pers.n. Edo (like Odo), patr. Eden (see Edden), also Edens, Edsen, Edema. Edo Aldersna, 1277, Ede Winken, 1511 (Stark, p. 182, 171). Ede, Edo also near Hbg., Ro., Stralsund around 1250. Cf. Edlef(sen), Edward.

Edel, Edeling, Edelmann: means mainly the freeman, one who is not in (feudal) bondage; also the noble, member of the aristocracy (the social order is count, knight, squire). Freq. also Ed(e)ler. Cf. dominus Edelmannus miles, Freiburg 1285. A Konr. Halpedel, 1415.

Eder, Ederer (UGer.): = Öder, from the freq. field n. and pl.n. Öd, Ed ‘uncultivated land, wasteland’, cf. Manzenöder, Manzeneder, etc.

Edert (Fris.): = Edewart, 1421, cf. Redert from Redward.

Edinger: UGer. pl.n. Edingen, freq. occurrences.

Edlböck (Bav.) corresponds to Edelbach in Würt.; from edel = adel ‘sewage’ (Bahlow ON, pp. 1-2).

Edlef(sen), Edsen see Ede.

Edler see Edel.

Ed(t)mayer, Ettmayer, Ed(t)müller (Bav.) see Eder, Öder. Cf. Edmühle [a mill], district of Urfahr, which was called Ödmüll 1348.

Edzard: Fris. (with a z-infix) for Eckard; note the writer Edzard Schaper.

Eenboom (Hbg., Wismar): Reemt Eenboom, a Frisian; probably name for a small boat, dugout canoe.

Efferen: pl.n. near Col. (doc. Everiche Celtic Avriacum: see Bahlow ON, p. 98).

Efferoth: pl.n. Efferode in Thur.; Almeroth, Billroth.

Effertz (Rhineland) = Evertz.

Effey: loc.n. near Vörde in Westph., likewise Ardey, Espey, Erley, Hülsey, all indicating water and swamp (-ey ‘pasture, wet field, water’: Bahlow, p. 434).

Effinger: from Effingen near Zurich.

Effler see Eiffler.

Effmert (Lenne district): loc.n., originally Effenbracht, likewise Edemert, Ludemert, Plettmert (Bahlow ON, pp. 235, 310). Eff- (Aff-) means ‘waste water’ as in the pl.ns. Effeln (Affeln), Efferen, Effey, etc. There is a pit called Effengrube in Lübeck.

Effner, Effler see Öffner.

Effringer: from Effringen in Würt.

Egarter see Egert(er).

Egber(t)s (Hbg.) see Eggebrecht.

Egelhaaf: recent Franc. variant of Egloff, see there. (Brech., p. 379.)

Eg(e)lhofer: from Eglhof (freq. in Bav.). Egel(s)eder (Mnch.): from Egelsed, Egelsöd. Eg(e)lseer, Eg(e)lsehr (Bav.): from Eglsee (freq. in Bav.). Egelmos(er): from Egelmoosen in the Allgäu area.

Egeling (LGer.) see Eggeling.

Egen (UGer., Würt.), also Ege, Egi, is the old German form of the present pers.n. Egon, OHG Egino = Eginolf (Germanic Agin-olf ‘point of the sword’ and ‘Odin’s wolf’); favorite name of the Alem.-Swab. nobility: Egeno = Egenolf of Fürstenberg, 1351. Valentin Egen (Egon), Marbach 1578. A bishop Agino (Egino) in Konstanz in the 8th c. A Benz Ege, Rottweil 1351. See also Egli, Egilolf.

Egenberger, Egenhofer, Egenrieder (all UGer.) contain the water word eg (ag) as in Egenbäche, Egnach, Egene (Agina), all names of creeks. (Bahlow ON, p. 99, 100.)

Egenlauf: distorted from Egloff.

Egenolf(f) see Egen. A variant: Egelolf: Egloff, see there, also Egli. Cf. Egenolf = Eglolf of Wartenberg, 1380. See also Einhard, Einolf.

Eger, Egerer, Egermann: UGer., derived from the pl.n. Eger; there is an Eger Creek (762 A.D. the name was Agira) near Bopfingen (Bahlow ON, p. 99, 100). Cf. pl.n. Egern near Rottach and pl.n. Egerer in Bav. (FN Egerer freq. in Mnch.).

Egert(er), Egart(er), distorted form Ehgartner, Ege(n)ter (all in Bav. and Austria) contain MHG egerte ‘fallow land’ (corresponds to LGer. Driesch, Dreesch). Jacob abderEgert, Tyrol 1320, Rud. inder Egerden,1288; Sweiker derEgerder, Tyrol 1313. Also Egertmayer, Egetenmeier, Ehgattenmeier!.

Egge (freq. in Hbg.): old LGer.-Fris. sh.f. of Eggebrecht, Eggehard, Eggerick (doc. in Hbg. around 1300 Ecgo, also Ecgehardus, cf. Joh. Ecghe,Lüb. 1322). Patr.: Eggen(s), Egges, Egging, Eggena.

Eggebrecht, with the sh.f. Egge, contracted also: Ebbrecht, with sh.f. Ebbe, still today used as first name in the form of Egbert, was a favorite name of the North Sea Germanic people, see Ebbe. (Bahlow, VN, p. 25.)

Eggeling (freq. in Hbg.): patr. of Egge(brecht), Eggert, Ecghelingus van Brunswich, Lüneburg 1367. Eggeling Berckhane 1564.

Eggen(s), Egges, Eggs (Westph.) see Egge.

Egger (UGer., freq. in Mnch.): after the dwelling place, cf. Hainrich aufdemEgg [on the corner], Tyrol 1297, where there are many farms with the names Egg, Eggen, Egger. (Tarneller, p. 37, 160.) Also Arnegger, Astegger, Bernegger (Bernecker), Defregger, Heidegger (Heidecker), Niederegger, Rosegger etc.

Eggerding, Eierding: Westph. patr. of Eggerd, likewise Alberding, Elerding, Humperdinck from Albert, Elert, Humbert. Lodew. Eggerding, Soest around 1320.

Eggerichs, Eggericks (LGer.-Fris., but UGer. Eckerich): Eggerich Siben, a Frisian; Eggerick Hilgegeistes,in Oldenburg 1453; an Egerik Beninga wrote the chronicle of East Frisia, 1723. In Stade the name Eckericus was frequent in 1306.

Eggers (freq. in Hbg.): ‘son of Eggert’ (= UGer. Eckehard, Eckert). Cf. Eggerding, Eggersman (Westph.)

Eggerstedt (freq. in Hbg.): pl.n.

Eggl, Eggli see Egli.

Egg(e)s see Egge.

Egidy, Egyde: Ägidius is one of the fourteen auxiliary saints (Nothelfer), see Bahlow VN, p. 2-3 Egidius Ropenacke, Han 1523.

Egli (Eggli): freq. in the area of Lake Constance (esp. Switz.) as a sh.f. of Egenolf and Egloff (Egilolf), see there. For geographical distribution see Brech., p. 382. Egli Bleckenzan, Feldkirch 1390, Uli Egli, St. Gallen 1419; Egli (Eglof) of Rorschach, 1392; Egli and Eginolf amOrt, brothers, Überlingen 1305 (Nied, p. 109). Eggli (Bav. Eggl) indicates the dwelling place [on the corner], likewise Eggler: cf. Joh. am Eggeli, Appenzell 1502.

Egloff (Switz., Alsace, Baden, Würt.), distorted form: Egelhaf, older Egilolf with the sh.f. Egli, is the Langobardic royal name Agilolf (cf. the dynasty of the Bavarian dukes, the Agilolfingers). Agil means sword point, like Agin-; thus Agilolf and Aginolf were used at the same time, also with umlaut Egilolf, Eginolf (seeEgen): Egenolf = Eglolf of Wartenberg, 1380. From the 7th to the 15th c. E. was a popular pers. name in the Alem. area. Distorted: Eglauf, Egenlauf.

Egner (UGer.): name of origin, likewise Ebner and similar names. Cf. Egenbach, Egenhofen, Egenried, Egenhausen, Egenbrunnen, which may also derive from the creek name Egene (Bahlow ON, p. 100). Joh. Egner,Konstanz1388.

Egon see Egen.

Ehalt (UGer.): MHG êhalt ‘servant’, contracted servant, who lived in the house (ê means ‘contract’). Peter Ehalt, Würzburg 1409.

Ehbauer, Ehmeier, Ehmüller, Eh(e)mann (all from UGer.-Bav.): under contract, from MHG ê ‘law, contract’, Herman Eman,Eßlingen 1349. But for Ehgartner see Egerter.

Eh(e)brecht = Egebrecht, likewise Ehelolf = Egelolf.

Eheglücksfurtner (Mnch.): funny distortion of Eglesfurt(ner) [Ehe = ‘marriage’, Glück = ‘good fortune’, Furt = ‘ford’].

Ehelebe(n): pl.n. in Thuringia.

Ehelolf see Egloff.

Ehem, Eham, Eheim (Bav.) means Öheim, Ohm (‘uncle’). For Swab. Eha (Eham) compare Beha (Beham).

Ehemann see Ehbauer. Also Ehelechner.

Ehl(e), Ehls, Ehlke, Ehling (LGer.) are related to Ehlebracht, Ehler(t), like Eile, Eils to Eilebrecht, Eilert; Eil-, El- (Ehl-) are derived from Agil-, Egil- ‘sword point’. Agila is the name of a king of the Visigoths in the 6th c. See also Egloff.

Ehlbeck (freq. in Hbg.): pl.n. near Lüneburg. It is also an old creek name like Ehle near Magdeburg. For el ‘mold, decay’ (Ele-siek, Ele-pol, Ehlscheid) see Bahlow ON, p. 101. Cf. Eilbeck.

Ehlebracht: lengthened form of Eilebrecht, Elebrecht (Germanic Agil-berht),see Ehle. ­bracht for -brecht is common in Rhineland-Westph., cf. Albracht, Gerbracht, Geselbracht, Lambracht, Öhlbracht, Vollbracht, Wybracht.

Ehler (older Eler), in North Sea area name was a popular variant of Ehlert (i.e. Eilhart or Eilwart, originally Agil-hard, Agil-ward; see Ehl. Eler Scerf, Hbg. 1290, Eler jegere, Ro. 1268. Also Ehlermann. Eler (Elhardus)Muddepenning,Oldenburg 1425.

Ehlers (numerous in Hbg.-Bremen-Lübeck-Rostock area), is patr. of Ehlert, likewise Eilers = patr. of Eilert = Eilhart; see also Ehler. 1592 Elert Petersen in Flensburg. The E Fris. variant is Eilderts (with an added d as in Aaldert for Alert); shortened form is Eilts. Name is still known through Eilhart vonOberge, ministerial of Heinrich der Löwe and author of an epic Tristrant around 1200. In the LGer.-Fris. area the name is still used as first name: Eilhard Mitscherlich (chemist), Elard Hugo Meyer (anthropologist). Cf. Eylardus filius Eylardi [Eylard son of Eylard], Lüb. 1325, Tyleke Eylerdes,Han. 1379, Eilard von der Hude (historian), Verden 1590. In some cases the name Eilward (from Agil-ward, Egil-ward) may be involved: Eylardus = Eylwardus = Elewardus Kopman,Hbg. around 1350. For the Westph. patr. Eilerding, Ehlerding see Alberding, Egberding, Detharding, Humperdinck etc. See also Ehl, Ehlke.

Ehlgötz see Ölgötz.

Ehlke, Ehlken, Ehlker see Ehl. Cf. Elike filius Eliken [E. son of Elike], Bremen 1306.

Ehmann (Mnch.) see Ehbauer.

Ehm(c)ke, Ehm(e), Ehmen, Ehms, Ehrnsen (all LGer.-Fris.) are variants of Eimicke, Eimcke, Eime(n), Eims derived from the complete form: Ehmer, Ehmert, also Eimer(t), Eimers; all are based on Germanic Agi(n)mar (‘sword fame’), likewise Reimer(s), Rehmer are based on Raginmar.The sh.f Eme(ke)isparallel to Reme(ke),both of which were popular pers.ns. in N Germany around 1200 to 1400; 1446 in Kiel: Emeke Syrckes.

Ehmer (Bremen) see Ehmcke.

Ehmig seeEmig.

Ehms, Ehmsen see Ehmcke.

Ehnert (LGer.-Fris.) see Einhart, Einert. Cf. Mehnert = Meinhart. Also the contracted form Ehnt, Ehnts occurs besides Eints. Sh.f. Ehne, Ehnen. Cf. Mene, Meents.

Ehni (UGer.) = Ähni = Ahn (grandfather). Eberlin der eni, 1366; Jakob Ehni,Nürtingen 1597, Paul Äny,Hirschau 1505, Hans Änlin,1424 (cf. “der knaben änlin” [the boys’ grandfather], 1424).

Ehnimb (Hbg.): like Arnimb, Vernimb are clearly determined as spelling variants (by the chanceries) of pl.ns. like Einem or Einum; Joh. van Enum,Flensburg 1592.

Ehr: a creek and town south of Boppard on the Rhine.

Ehrath, Ehret (often in Breisgau area) goes back to Saint Erhart (Ehrhart) as Burgath to Saint Burghard and Morath to Saint Morhart (A. Götze, p. 77).

Ehrck(e) see Ehrke. Also Ehrecke.

Ehren (von): pl.n. near Quakenbrück (older: Ederen, likewise Rehren from Rederen: ed, red mean ‘swamp water’; Bahlow ON, p. 97).

Ehr(en)brecht:Ehrimbertus,abbot of Salem, 1169; Giso Erenberti,Volkmarsen 1326.

Ehrenfried: old pers.n., as early as 1100 Erenfrid in Werden on the Ruhr; Ernfrit in Würt.

Ehrengut:Ereundgut! [honor and property], Basel 1442.

Ehrenholdt: used by Luther and Hans Sachs for the herald, MHG erhalt, heralt.

Ehrenpreis: MHG ‘prize of honor’. Etinpris,Brsl. 14th c.

Ehrenreiter: from Ehrenreith in Bav. (-reit = ­reut [clearing of land], likewise in Bärenreiter, Bernreiter, Stollreither etc.).

Ehrentraut (Sil., esp. in Görlitz): lengthened form of Ermentraut, Irmentraut, old: Irmintrut,formerly a popular fem. first name (Bahlow SN, p. 35). Distorted also Ehrmanntraut. Cf. Matz Ermtrautt (Irmetrautt),1560; Jorg Irmentraut,Görlitz 1554; Adam Ehrentraut,Zwickau 1598. Cf. Ehrengart from Ermengart.

Ehren(t)reich: MHG êrenrîch ‚‘rich in honor’.

Ehresmann (Ehrensmann), Ehrismann, Erismann: cf. Erishompt,Aargau 1379, Eriskirch in Würt. [Ehre = ‘honor’].

Ehrhardt see Erhard, Ehrath.

E(h)rhorn (Hbg., Bremen): pl.n. near Soltau.

Ehrich, Ehrichs (freq. in Hbg.) see Erich.

Ehring: patr. (cf. pl.n. Ehringshausen in Hesse). Chr. E(h)ring,Leipzig 1485. Also a pl.n. Ehring in Bav., Ehringen in Hesse and Thur. The FN Ehringer was derived from the pl.n.

Ehrismann see Ehresmann.

Ehrke, Ehr(e)cke, Ericke (freq. in Hbg.), Eekres (E Fris.): is not identical to the Scandinav. Erik (Erich).

Ehrl (Bav.): sh.f. of Erhard.

Ehrle (Alem.-Swab.): name cannot be proven to be the sh.f. of Erhard (in Baden: Ehret), therefore it is probably the older sh.f. of the Germanic name Erinbert, Erinfrid with an l-suffix; cf. Erlin,son of Erlin of Horneck, Strasb. 1341, which however may derive from Erlewin (as in Erlemann,Mainz 1277); Erlin Ferber, Heilbronn 1433, Henni Erli,Baden 1381, Bertold Erlin,Strasb. 1275.

Ehrler see Erler.

Ehrlich: carries the older meaning of the MHG word êrlich ‘to have honor, be respected’.

Ehrmann, Ermann (UGer.): probably ‘man of honor’ [Ehre = ‘honor’]. Wernher Müntzmeister called Ereman,Basel 1385. Hans Erman,near Biberach 1447.

Ehrmanntraut see Ehrentraut.

Eib, Eiber (UGer.-Bav.): belongs to the numerous pl.ns. Eib, Eyb, in Bav. Albrecht of Eyb; the first Ger. Humanist (15th c.) also called himself Eyber.

Eiben (Hbg.): Fris. patr., cf. Eibe Heringa, 1516, Olrik Ayben (Stark, p. 127).

Eibl, Eibler, Eiblmayer, Eiblhuber (UGer.-Bav.) indicate a dwelling near a stand of yew trees [Eibe = ‘yew tree’], see Eibicht. Cf. Ibejeckel,Brsl. 1393.

Eibner (Vienna) like Eibler (Vienna) see Eibl. Eiben is also a pl.n.; Eibenstein (Vienna): a pl.n. in Upper Austria. Eibenschütz: pl.n. in Moravia; Eibenstock: pl.n. in Sax. For Eibner and Eibler compare Eichner und Eichler.

Eich, Eicher, Eichler, Eichner (all UGer.): indicating the dwelling place under the oaks [Eiche = ‘oak’]; compare Birkner [Birke = ‘birch’], Büchner [Buche = ‘beech tree’], Lindner, etc.; in some cases from pl.ns. Eich, Eichen, etc.; some also derive from the house name “domus zer Eiche“ [house at the oak] (Basel), Burkard under Aichun (Basel); Cunrad zur Eiche,near Freiburg 1298. Likewise Eichmann, Aichmann. In Eicher (cf. Siebeneicher) the occ. name of the calibrator, inspector of weights and measures (MHG îcher) may interfere [the verb eichen means ‘to gauge’]: Heinrich der Icher (Ycher)[the gauger], Eßlingen 1368. But Aycher,Budweis 1380. Eichele, Aichele is also a field name. For the widespread name Eichbaum see Brech., p. 386.

Eichbüchler, Aichbichler (UGer.): ‘living on the oak hill’.

Eichenherr see Eigenherr.

Eichentopf (Hbg.): probably a field name.

Eichhorn (freq. UGer.) [squirrel]: like other FNs from animals, FN probably originated from house name: e.g. in Freiburg 1460 a house zum Eichhorn and a family Eichhorn (also in Mainz 1337); in Istein also a farmer Clewi Eychorn bore the name because he “squirreled” things away.* As loc. name: “locus qui dicitur Eichhorn” [a place called E.]: 12th c. on Lake Constance peninsula.

Eichler, Eichner see Eich. Cf. Siebeneichler and Siebeneich(n)er in Brsl. Bahlow SN, p. 82.

Eichrodt: Hessian-Thur. pl.n. ending in -rode [roden = ‘to clear land’, rode = ‘clearing’], likewise Bleichrodt, Klapprodt.

Eick, Eyck (LGer., L.Rhine) = UGer. Eich, after the dwelling place: Ondereyck (in Krefeld) ‘under the oak’, Vandereicke, etc.; the Dutch painters, brothers van Eyck,came from Eyck on the Maas River. Cf. Eick(e)-meyer, Eickmann, Eickhoff, Eickhorst, Eickworth, Eickriede, most of them Westph.; in Lippe 1538 Ekmeier tomEkhove,1590 a Bernt im Ek. Notice the pl.n. Eicken near Melle: FN von Eicken derived from it. Bröker, Büscher are formed similarly to Eicker: H. Eicker near Alzey, 1335.

Eicke (freq. in Bremen, E Frisia, also Hbg.): (unless = Eick = Eiche ‘oak’) this name is the Fris. sh.f. Eicke or Eilke for Eilhard, Eilward; name is famous through Eicke von Repgow, author of the law book Sachsenspiegel (around 1220). Cf. the Frisian Eycke (Eylke)Onsten 1501 (Stark, p. 72).

Eickelberg, Eickelborn, Eickelkamp are Westph. pl.ns.

Eickeler see Eyckeler.

Eickernjäger (LGer.): ‘squirrel hunter’.

Eide, Eiden (Fris.) = Ede, Eden. Cf. Benno Eide Siebs.

Eidem, Eidam(s): MHG eidem ‘son-in-law’. Also Kleineidam.

Eidenbenz (Würt.): doc. Bernhard Ytenbenz, Horb 1472; Eitenbenz,17th c. (likewise Usenbenz, Smalbenz etc.), i.e. ‘Benz (= Berthold), son of Ite(a woman), cf. Arnold Ittenson,Meersburg 1300, Hertel ldenson,Würt. 1375. UGer. Itta corresponds to LGer. Ida (cf. E. Vornydensone,Dithmarschen 1300).

Eideneier see Euteneuer.

Eidtner see Eitner.

Eierding see Eggerding.

Eiermann [Ei = ‘egg’, pl.: Eier], Eieresser [egg eater], Eierkuch [= Eierkuchen = pancake], Eiermenger [egg dealer], Eierknecht [collector of eggs as tax payment] ee Ayrer. An Eyerczeler [egg counter] in Frkf. 1424, there also 1450 Conrad Eiertanz [egg dance]. Eierrund (= Eierhändler [egg dealer]) Eierschmalz [Schmalz = ‘lard’] in Bav. see Ayrimschmalz (‘fried eggs’, the cook): cf. “in das Häferl ... vier Eyr hineingeschlagen und ein Eyrnschmalz gemacht”, see Schmeller, Bairisches Wörterbuch II, p. 257 [break four eggs into the pan and make a fried egg dish]. Franz Ayrenschmalz,Bav. 1519, Martin Eyer im Smalcz,Görlitz 1472, Eyrynschmalcz,Brünn 1365.

Eierstock (Würt.) is a Swab. field name. A farmer L. Ayerstock,1468.

Eiffe: cf. creek and town Eifa (on the Eder River in Schwalm area), old: Ifa.

Eif(f)ler (freq. in Görlitz): newcomer from the Eifel. Rolf de Eifeler = R. svon der Eyfelen,Lippe 1406, Nickel Eiffeler,Görlitz 1456; Eifelmann, Col. 1135.

Eig(e)brecht = Eggebrecht.

Eigel, Aigel (Rhine Hesse). in the Icelandic saga Egil (Eigil)appears as Welund’s brother. A monk Eigel isrecorded as early as 800. Eygel in Worms 1321, Sigel Eygelmar 1285, Eygelmar Frkf. 1335, Heinrich Eigel and son Eigel in Friedberg (Hesse) around 1300, Eygel Deickwecke 1375, Johann Eigel in Freiburg 1344, Ludwig Eygel in Lüneburg 1307, Benz Aigelwart in Reutlingen 1342, H. Eigelmann 1474, Aigelwart (son of Ulrich of Seedorf) in Rottweil 1324; cf. also Eigelbert (Agilbert, Egilbert),archbishop of Trier, and Eilbert.

Eigenbrodt: someone who eats his own bread (meaning: who owns a household?), in contrast to “Herrenbrot” [meaning: who eats his master’s bread, i.e. is in his service].

Eigenherr: MHG = living on his own property (in contrast to the tenant farmer “Lehmann”).

Eigenmann (UGer.): MHG = serf, bondsman.

Eigensatz (Switz.): living (sitting) on his own property. C. Eigensatz,Basel 1496.

Eigner, Aigner (Austria, Bav.): the freq. UGer. word aigen means ‘owned property’ in contrast to a hereditary fief; in Tyrol the name is often used as farmstead name form in dem Aigen,1390. Cf. Altmann von dem Aigen,Bav. 1302, Sifrit uf dem Aigen,1245; Herman ab dem Aigen,Würt. 1406, Walther im Aigen,Tyrol 1401, B. Aygner = Ayger = Aygen,near Konstanz 1531 ff. J. Eigner,Basel 1492 (cf. pl.n. Eigen in Switz., Bav. etc.).

Eik- see Eick-.

Eikelder(ten): L.Rhine pl.n. like Apelder; cf. Eyckeler like Apeler; ten means ‘at’ (tom = zum, ‘at‘), like ten Hoff [Hof = ‘farm’], ten Brink.

Eilbracht (Westph.) = Eil(e)brecht, see Ehlebracht.

Eilderts, Eildermann (Hbg.): = Eilert, with a Frisian dental sound d added.

Eiler(s), Eilert, Eilderding, Eilmann, Eilke, Eileck(e) see Ehlers. In the Westph. farm area the word -mann was often added to FNs: Eilersmann, Ehlersmann. For the sh.f. Eile, Eyle cf. Eyle Eleman,Kassel 1420; for the patr. Eyling compare Ehling (Eling,Stade 1300).

Eilger see Elger.

Eilhauer (old: Eylhauer, Eulnhauer) see Eulner.

Eilhart see Ehlers.

Eilke(n), Eileck see Ehl(ke), Ehlers, Eilers. Also Eicke.

Eilmann (LGer.-Hess.): = Eile = Eilert (Eilhart or Eilwart). Eyleman,Hbg., Lüneburg 1290, Eilmann,Hachenburg 1451, Eyle Eleman,Kassel 1420.

Eilmar, Elmar, Elmer (LGer.): old is Agilmar, Egilmar (cf. Eigelmar). A Saint Elmar around 700 was bishop of Liege; Elmarus,Greifswald 1310; Eilmarus Stufe, Hbg. 1267, as late as 1844 there was a Duke Elimar of Oldenburg.

Eilrich, Ellrich (LGer.): Germanic Agil-rich, rare (agil means ‘sword point’, rich means ‘mighty’). Eylricus,Bremen 1299; Elricus in Lüb.; Elrich of Wesenberg, armiger [armor bearer] in Holstein 1372.

Eils (Bremen), Eilts, Eilsen: patr. of Eile = Eilert.

Eilward see Elwert.

Eimbeck from Einbeck on the Ilme (area of the Leine River), old Hanseatic city, famous for its beer.

Eim(e), Eims, Eimen, Eimecke, Eimke: LGer-Fris. sh.f. of the full form Eimer(t), Eimers (Hbg., Bremen), which is Germanic Aginmar, likewise Reimer, Reimers from Reginmar, Raginmar. Eymer as early as 1375 in Bremen. Also Ehme, Ehms, Ehmcke, Ehmer are related. Eime, Ehme, Emke are still today Fris. first names (Strackerjahn, p. 16). Cf. the pl.ns. Eime, Eimen on the Leine River.

Eimer(s): Germanic Agin-mar (Agin- ‘sword point’, -mar ‘famous’) see Eime.

Eimke: pl.n. near Ülzen (old: Einbeke, likewise Steimke from Steinbeke, Bahlow ON, p. 105). Also Eimbcke. However see Eime.

Einbrodt (Hbg.), Eimbrodt. one who eats his bread alone, the lonely one.

Eineigel, Einäugler (Vienna): the one-eyed. Hänslin der Ainaüglein,Traun 1398. Cf. Nikol. cum uno oculo (eenoge)[with one eye] Ro. 1257.

Einem (von): pl.n. Einum near Einbeck on the Leine River. Ekkehard de Eynern, Hildesheim 1212.

Einemann (Bremen): from Einen near Vechta in Oldenburg (also near Münster).

Einenkel = Enenkel: old form of Enkel [grandchild, literally: ‘small ancestor’]. Ulman Cremers enenkel,Glatz 1342. A Johann Eninkel (Vienna) wrote a MHG World Chronicle around 1230.

Einerhand (Hbg.): cf. Mitdereinenhand [with one hand] L.Rhine area and old Brsl.

Einert = Einhart.

Einetter, Eineder see Einöder.

Einfeldt (freq. in Hbg.): pl.n. near Neumünster.

Eingrieber (Tyrol): after the dwelling place like Einberger and Einwaller; -grieber is an unrounded form from -grüber, thus Griebler besides Grübler: at or in the hollow (a depression in the mountain slopes).

Einhart: Germanic pers.n. Aginhard, Eginhard (like Meinhart from Maginhart, Meginhart), means ‘bold with the sword’; also Einert, Fris-LGer. Ehnert (likewise Meinert and Mehnert). Name is well known through Einhart,writer and biographer of Charlemagne around 800 and founder of the cathedral at Aachen; he was from Franconia.

Einhorn: ‘unicorn’, a legendary animal of Oriental origin; E. was a popular house name in the Middle Ages (still present in Germany as name of pharmacies: “zum Einhorn”), in Worms 1336, Basel, Col., etc. Cunrad zem Einhorn,Basel 1325. See also Ainkürn.

Einicke, Eineke: cf. pl.n. Einecke near Werl in Westph. Bahlow ON, p. 105.

Einig: town near Mayen in Rhineland, old: Inica (likewise Reinig from Rinica). Bahlow ON, p. 106.

Eining: town on the Danube near Kelheim, old Roman fort.

Einöder, Eineder, Einetter (UGer., Vienna, freq. in Mnch.): related to the freq. field name and pl.n. Einöd ‘wasteland’. Cf. Öder, Eder.

Einold (rare): Germanic pers.n. Agin-old, Egin-old (Fr. Enault, likewise Reinold: Renault). See Einhart, Einolf.

Einolf (rare): Germanic pers.n. Agin-olf Egin-olf (like Einold, Einhart). Corresponds to the more freq. Würt. Egenolf, see there. Eynolfus,Wetzlar 1311, Heincze Eynolff,Frkf. 1387, Enolfus Ottonius,Kaub 1401.

Einsiedel: MHG = ‘hermit‘. But more frequently probably from the loc.n. Einsiedel (Bav., Austria): Hans Ainsiedler at Ainsiedeln in Würt. 1445, P. Eynsydel,Prague 1363, Heinrich von Einsiedel,Meißen 1265, Hildebrand v. E. member of Goethe’s circle in Weimar. The monastery at Einsiedeln in Switz. goes back to the hermit Meinrad around 830.

Einsle see Ensle.

Einsporn, Einspar: LGer. spar = ‘spur’, cf. Sparmacher [spur maker] Einsporn,Liegnitz 1369.

Einstein: loc.n. or pl.n. like Eppstein, Bilstein; sometimes Jewish like Silberstein, Goldstein.

Eins(t)mann: from Einste near Verden (Bahlow ON, p. 105).

Eints (Fris.) = Einharts, likewise Meints = Meinharts.

Einwächter: a single guard (as opposed to a group of guards or police).

Eiper (Hbg.): doc. de Ypere ‘from Ypern in Flanders’, also means a merchant who is engaged in (cloth) trade with Flanders. The name Eyper also in old Brsl.

Eipper(le) (freq. in Stuttg.): = Eiberle, likewise Aupperle = Auberle.

Eirich see Eyring.

Eirund see Eierrund.

Eisbein see Eisenbein.

Eisele (freq. in Würt.): doc. Isenlin, Isely from îsen ‘iron’, likewise Hafeli(n),later Häfele from hafen ‘pot’; just as this means (in doc.) the potter, Eisele means the iron dealer, hardware man or the iron smith. Cf. Stäheli(n), Häberle etc. Ruod. dictus Isenli [called I.], Waldshut 1288, Hainrich Isenlin,Balingen 1320, H. Isely,Villingen 1457. (Cf. Nied, p. 94-95.) See also Eisen.

Eiselt see Eisold.

Eisen = Eisenmann, Eisele. Hans Ysen,Riedlingen 1452.

Eis(e)nach, Eisenächter: pl.n. (Thur. and in Rhineland), Celtic (Bahlow ON, p. 106). Andr. Yzenach,Liegnitz 1369.

Eisenbart (UGer.): famous through the song of Dr. Eisenbart (Joh. Andr. E., surgeon from Viechtach in Bav., died 1727 in Han.-Münden). In the Middle Ages Isenbart was a frequent surname: Heinrich dictus [called] Ysinbart,Speyer 1294, Jenni Ysenbart,Egerkingen 1329, Peter Ysenbart,Waldshut 1422. Probably means the person who is as hard as iron, cf. Eisenkopf, Eisenhaupt [Kopf, Haupt = ‘head’] Eisenbeiß [beißen ‘to bite’], Eisenesser (Eisenfresser) [Esser, Fresser ‘eater’] or simply Eisenschmied [iron smith].

Eis(en)bein, now: Eisbein (Hbg.): historically documented. Joh. Ysemben (Ysekenben)in Hbg. 1294 (probably means iron shin of the armor or literally: shin; cf. the Riga councilman Arnold Isernhand,1287).

Eisenbeiß: MHG îsenbîß ‘iron eater, braggard’, cf Isenesser,1275. Wernher Ysenbyß,Baden 1363.*

Eisenberg: pl.n. in Thur. Henr. (von) Ysenberg,mining foreman in Liegnitz 1332.

Eisenblätter (freq. in E Prussia): name for the barrel or drum smith or the armorer. Frequency of the name in E Prussia indicates immigrants from Salzburg.

Eisenbold (Allgäu): cf. “der Ysenbolt(tax collector?), Oberstdorf 1361, also pl.n. Eisenbolz near Kempten (zem Ysenboltz); Ysenbold, Xanten 1394.

Eisenbrand, Isenbrand: old pers.n. (Chr. Isebrand,Bremen 1464).

Eisenführ(er): MHG vürer is the drayman, carter, dealer, who has his merchandise with him. Eisenmann by the same token is the iron (metal) dealer, hardware dealer, Weinmann is the wine merchant; also Eisenmenger [here: Menger = ‘monger’]; cf. Eisenköper, Eisenkrämer [LGer. Köper ‘merchant’, Krämer = ‘retail dealer’]; Nickel Ysenfürer,Görlitz 1423 (Liegnitz 1362). Similar names are Brotführer, Buchführer, Kornführer, Lehmführer, Hopfenführer, Salzführer, Weizenführer. (See Bahlow FN, p. 149.)

Eisengarth, Isengarth: fem. pers.n. like Irmengart, Odalgart; cf. Isentrut like Irmentrut. Eisengarten is a corrupted form. Cf. Isengart.

Eisengrein (Würt., Baden): old pers.n. Isengrin (like Isegrim, the wolf in the animal fable); ­grîm means terrifying mask of a warrior as in Adalgrim, Hildegrim. Cf. Isegrim,abbot of Ottobeuren around 1150.

Eisenhar(d)t: old pers.n. Isenhard. A Saint Isenhardus already in tho 7th c. in Bav. A vassal of a count, Isenhart,Breisgau area 1278. A knight Heinrich Isenhart in Meßkirch (Baden) 1303. Iser(n)hardus in Ro. 1259, Herman Ysenhard,Kassel 1404.

Eisenhauer [iron miner]: as an occupation mentioned as early as 1136 in Hallstatt. The ancestors of the U.S. general and president hailed from the Odenwald Mountains: Johann E., 1446, etc. Cf. Volmar Isenhouwer,Eschau (Alsace) 1419; Eisenhauer,Augsburg 1312.

Eisenhaupt, Eisenkopf [iron head]: FN sometimes taken from a house name; cf. Peter (zum) Eysenhaup [“zum” indicates a house name], Prague 1406-29; Nikolaus Isenhobit,Mainz 1306. Henne Ysenkopf,Worms 1418.

Eisenhut (freq. in Bav.): MHG îsenhût ‘helmet made of sheet metal’; means the helmet smith, armorer. Frider. Isenhut,Nassau 1298, Walther Ysenhut,Würt. 1228, Nik. Eysenhut,Moravia 1414.

Eisenkolb (UGer.): MHG îsenkolbe ‘iron club’, a weapon.

Eisenlöffel: only recorded in documents, Caspar Isenlöffel, Eysenlöffel,Bensheim 1554; manufacturer of iron spoons [Eisen = iron, Löffel = spoon]. In the Middle Ages only wooden spoons and pewter spoons were used.

Eisenlohr, Eisenloher, Eisenlauer (Swab.): related to the loc.n. Eisenloh, cf. Eschenlohr, Eschenlauer.

Eisenmann: metal or iron dealer. Heinrich Isenman, Augsburg 1300. Sometimes also pers.n. Isenmannus de Grangiis, Alsace 12th c.

Eisenmenger: MHG îsenmenger ‘metal dealer’ (OHG mangari, Lat. mango ‘dealer’), cf. Eiermenger [Eier = ‘eggs’], Heumenger [Heu = ‘hay’], Senfmenger [Senf = ‘mustard’], Fischmenger, [Fisch = ‘fish’], Fleischmenger [Fleisch = ‘meat’], Pferdmenger [Pferd = ‘horse’], Salzmenger [Salz = ‘salt’], Strohmenger [Stroh = ‘straw’], Also LGer.: Radolf yserenmenger, Ro. 1267, cf. Henr. yserenkopere, Hbg. 1291 [LGer. Kopere = ‘dealer, merchant’].

Eisenreich (freq. in Mnch.): old pers.n.; herre Hainrich Ysanrich, Augsburg 1272. Conrad Ysenrich (Eysenreich) from Brsl. 1445.

Eisenschink (Regensburg): MHG schinke ‘thigh, upper leg’, hence manufacturer of leg armoring.

Eis(en)traut: fem. pers.n. Isentrût (cf. Irmentrut), UGer. and Sil., formerly common in noble families.

Eisenwinder: from Eisenwind in U.Franconia. Hans Isenwinder, Jena 1500.

Eisenzieher (UGer.) [wire drawer]: only doc. in Moravia (cf. Drahtzieher). Heinrich Eysencziher,Brünn1348 (and in Budweis, Olmütz).

Eiser, Eisermann (freq. in Mnch.) are variants of Eisen, Eisenmann, with the original r from MHG isern, iser ‘iron’ (also iron armor), cf. Ise(r)nhard: NHGEiserhardt; MHG iser-hose [iron pants], iser-kolze [iron leggings], iser-ram [iron ram], etc.; still today Westph. “Eiserkuchen” (for the waffle iron). Also the MHG adjective iserin, isenin means metal dealer or blacksmith: Nitsche Yseryn, Liegnitz 1369, Peez eysereyn,1399,also Peter eysneyn, Moravia 1360. (Schwarz, p. 83.) Ysernehenneke, Greifswald 1352. But: Iserin strit in old Brsl.

Eisfeld: pl.n. in Thur.

Eisfried (Math. Eysfrid, Brüx 1393): rare pers.n. Isfrid. Cf. Isverd(ing).

Eising(er): pl.n. (UGer.).

Eisler (UGer.): Swab.-Alem. Ißler ‘metal dealer’, MHG isener. See Eisele.

Eislich: MHG egeslich, eislich ‘terrible’, cf. Eyslich, Brsl. 14th c.

Eisner (UGer.): MHG sener ‘iron or metal dealer’. Walther der Isiner, 1272.

Eisold, Eiselt (freq. in Sax.): UGer.-Franc. pers.n. Isolt (retained in pl.ns. like Eisolzried, formerly Isoltesriet in 1140, or Iselshausen on the Nagold River (Black Forest), which in 1138 read Ysolteshusen);name became rare very early, however. Cf Berthold Isolt, Main-Franconia 1266, Leukart relicta Eisoldi, near Nbg. 1289, the woman: Eysoltin, district of Landshut 1314, Nicl. Eysolt, Zittau 1427, Greger Eiselt from Bohemia, Görlitz 1572. That MHG literature had an impact on the choice of names becomes evident in the freq. use of Tristan and Isolde (cf. the epic by Gottfried of Strasb.) as f.ns.: e.g. Heinr. Ysoldis, juror in Reichenbach (Sil.) 1284. (Reichert, p. 145; Kegel, p. 113.)

Eistraut: see Eisentraut. Likewise Eismann: Eisenmann; Eisrich: Eisenrich). Cf. Eystrawt, Brsl. 1391 (also Isentrud, 1352), Nikl. Ystrud, near Kassel 1494.

Eisvogel: MHG îsvogel. A cunning, tricky person; as in Johann Fischart’s work Gargantua, 1575: “er als ein verschmitzter Eisvogel” = ‘like a mischievous E.’* Adolf Ysvogel, Werden on the Ruhr River 1361, Hensel Eysvogel, Budweis 1369.

Eitel, Eytel, Eydel (UGer.): MHG îtel ‘only, merely’. Eitel-Fritz (graf Itelfricz zu Zolr, 1419) means ‘just called Fritz’ (and no other names); cf. Wolf v. Spanheim, called Ydel Wolf, Hesse 1372, Ytel Dietrich Vogtand Hans D. V., sons of Dietrich V. (Radolfzell) 1431. Hanus Herman, called Eytelhans, Teplitz 1486. Cf. also Gundfrid, called Itelguntfrid, Villingen 1356; Iteltegan, Echterdingen 1428; Ydelweise (knight), Hesse 1415; Nic. Eytelpoß (from: böse, ‘angry, bad’), Bohemia 1397; Nic. Ytelrocke [Rock = ‘coat’], Liegnitz 1369; Cuncz Eitelprot [prot = Brot = ‘bread’], Olmütz 1374; Itelschelm [Schelm ‘rascal’], 1499; Eitel Egen 1371 (brother and son Volkart Egen).

Eitner (Sil.), also Eidtner, Eythner and Eyth: a metronymic (mother’s name) like Alschner, Jüttner, Leuschner, in documents also: Aytener and Eythener,15th c. (in Liegnitz and Görlitz), which means ‘son of Aythe (= Agathe)’, evident also in Opecz der Ayten,Liegnitz 1388, Andres Aytener,Mertschütz 1461, Georg Aithe,Görlitz 1564 (for more details see Bahlow SN, p. 57), Eythe,Saalfeld 1512, Eyth,Würt. 15th c.

Eitzen, von (freq. in Hbg.): pl.ns. Eitzen and Eitzum freq. in Hannover (Bahlow ON, p. 108). Of the same origin is Eitzmann (Hbg.), likewise Eixmann from the town Eixe.

Eixmann (Hbg.): from Eixe near Peine, likewise Eitzmann from Eitzen.

Ekhoff see Eickhoff.

Elbe see Elben.

Elbel (UGer.-Bohemian-Sil.): sh.f. of Albrecht (see there). Elbel (Albrecht),brewer from Brünn 1343, Albrecht Elbel,furrier, Glatz 1368; Elbel hefteler, Brsl. 1352 (for more information see Bahlow SN, p. 35). Compare also Pach-elbel (i.e. Elbel am Bach, E. ‘on the creek’) in Eger.

Elben, Elbe: pl.n. Elben on the Elbe River (tributary of the Eder), also on the Sieg and near Olpe. For the river name Elbe Ebene, Albina)see Bahlow ON, pp. 108-109.

Elberding: Westph. patr. From Elbert, likewise Alberding from Albert.

Elberfeld: doc. as Elverfeld (see Bahlow ON, p. 109).

Elbert, patr. Elbers, Rhineld. Elbertz, also Elbrecht, Elbracht, Ehlebracht was a popular pers.n. From the Rhineland to the lower Elbe area, originally Germanic Agil-berht, Egilbert (e.g. was the name of the chancellor of Emperor Henry II around 1000 A.D.), contracted forms are: Eilbert, Eilbrecht, Elbert, Elbrecht, Elbracht (variants: Eilmar: Elmer; Eilrich: Elrich; Eilers: Ehlers; Eilward: Elwert). Concerning the meaning of the word see Ehlebracht, Ehle. Doc.: Eilbetius, Elbertus,around 1300 in Hbg., Bremen, Lüb., Greifswald, Ro. etc.; Elbertus Louwe, Xanten 1379, Elbrecht Schicke, Frkf 1377, Heincze Elbrecht,Frkf. 1387, Elbracht Lorber, Frkf. 1387.

Elchlepp, Elchleb, Elgleb: belongs to the Thur. pl.ns. ending in -leben,like Büschlepp, Hemlepp, Hemleb, Eischlepp, Ortlepp etc. (Bahlow DN, p. 93). In this case the name comes from Ellichleben east of Arnstadt.

Eldagsen: pl.n. (districts Minden and Springe). Berward v. Eyldagessen, Han. 1316 (pers.n. Agildag, Eildag like Adeldag).

Elend, Ellend, Ehlend: MHG ellende ‘living in a foreign country, banned, unhappy, miserable’ (der ellende man ‚‘the miserable man’). Niclas Ellend,Brünn 1352.

Elepfandt see Helfant.

Elert(sen), Elers (Hbg.) see Ehlers.

Elesser see Elösser.

Eley see Eligius.

Elfeld(t): pl.n. Ellefeld in Vogtland.

Elfers, Elfert see Elvers.

Elfreich (older: Elferich) see Elverich.

Elfring (Westph.): contracted from Elferding like Albring from Alberding; means ‘Elvert’s son’.

Elfroth: name comes from a pl.n. ending in ­rode.

Elgast, El(l)gas: reminiscent of the Germanic heroic legends*; in the MHG epic Ortnit of the Dietrich Cycle Eligast is a cunning dwarf. As early as 1178 name occurs in Col.: Albertus called Elegast:also Eligast of Kenzingen, Baden 1262, Elgast of Sleheried, Lower Franconia 1241, Cuonrad Elgast; Johann Elegast,Han. 1358, Sigism. Eligast,Prague 1402, Elgast in Brsl. around 1350.

Elger, Elgering: rare old German pers.n. (Agil-ger, Eilger); Elger, Eilger was a traditional first name with the counts of Hohenstein. Elger Schindel, Liegnitz around 1300, Elger v.Crokaw, Brsl. 1375.

Elgleb see Elchlepp.

Elhardt (UGer.), is actually Ellenhardt, rare pers.n. like Ellenrich.

Elias: the prophet (Book of Kings I, 17). Biblical name rarely used before the Reformation. Also Eliassen, Ellissen, Elies, Leyes. Elias Godjar, Ro. 1268.

Eligius see Eloy.

Elisabeth: Hebrew ‘God has sworn it’. The mother of John the Baptist; was the most popular female Christian name in the Middle Ages besides Margaret and Catherine, especially after the sanctification of Elisabeth, famous Duchess of Thuringia (helper of the poor) around 1230. Variants are Elsbeth, Else (cf Elsenhans), Bele, Nele, Liese, Lisbeth, Ilsebey, etc. Henr. Elisabeth,Quedlinburg 1289, Dietrich Elisabet (knight),Tautenburg in Thur. 1289, Thomas Elsbeth (from Franc.) around 1600. A patrician Elsbetter Elspeter 1310, 1382 in Bav. A Sil. name is Hielscher (Wendish!). A patrician Engelbert Lyse(n)= E. filius domine Lyse [E. ‘son of lady Lyse’], Ro. 1280-90.

Elkan (like Alkan): Jewish (‘won for the cause of God’). Cf. also Elkusch, Elkisch: with Slavic suffix -isch in Silesia.

Elker see Elger.

Elle, Ell: since the name is found as early as 1324 in Barth (Pom.) in Henning Elle and 1357 in Liegnitz in Nicclos Elle (cloth merchant), it can only mean the tailor’s measure: ell, yard (MHG elle, ellen, elne from OHG elina); name probably indicates a member of the cloth trade.

Ellebrecht, Ellbracht (Westph., Bremen) see Elbert.

Ellenbogen: numerous pl.ns.

Ellend, Elend see Elend.

Ellenhans, Ellensohn (UGer.-Swiss): son of Elle (= Else, fem. n.), cf. Elsensohn. Occurs as name of a farmer’s wife in the works of the Minnesinger Hiltbolt von Schwangau: “Elle und Else tanzent wol” [Elle and Else dance well]. Ulrich Ellinson,1276; Heinrich fronEllinun [man of lady E.], Zurich 1331.

Ellenhardt (UGer.): occurs as Old Ger. pers.n. in Strasb. Ellenhart 1299, Joh. Ellehart 1433; in the Allgäu area Bentz Elhart 1375; ellen (from Germanic aljan) means ‘strength, prowess’, cf. MHG ellenthaft ‘brave’ and Ellentreich, name of a MHG poet.

Eller, Ellermann (N Ger.): names become clear through Ellerbrock, Ellersiek, Ellerbrake, Ellerbaum, Ellernkamp, which are all formed after the dwelling place near alder trees or alder stands (LGer. eller = ‘alder’). Also Ellerhorst, Ellerbeck, Ellerbusch, Ellermeyer, Ellerhusen. Eller is also a prehistor. pl.n. and creek name (older: Elnere or Elera, Alira) on the Lower Rhine and on the Moselle and Nahe rivers.

Ellert, Ellers see Ehlers.

Ellgas see Elgast.

Ellguth, Illguth (U.Silesia): a Slavic term for a German settlement on a clearing which was exempt from taxes (tithes); from Igota ‘relief’, waiving of tributes. Freq. pl.n. in U.Sil. (Bahlow SN, p. 82) vonder El(le)got 1423 etc.

Ellinger (UGer.): from Ellingen in Franconia. For Elling (Hbg.) compare the pl.n. Ellingen near Soltau.

Ellissen see Elias.

Ellmann (UGer.), Ellmaier, Ellmüller: cf. Ellhofen on the Ellbach [creek] in Würt., also Ellwangen etc.; these are related to a water word elch (alch), eln, (aln).

El(l)mers (Hbg.) see Eilmar.

Ellrich (Hbg.) see Eilrich.

Ellspermann (Westph.): from Elspe on the Lenne River (Bahlow ON, p. 112).

Ellwanger: from the town Ellwangen on the Jagst River.

Ellward (freq. in Danzig), Elwert, Eilward: derives from the Germanic name Agil-ward, Egil-ward, likewise Ellebrecht, Elbert derive from Agil-berht, Egil-berht. Name was a popular pers.n. in the LGer.-Fris. area. Cf. Agilhard which becomes Eilhart. In Hbg. around 1300 Eylwardus = Elewardus = Eylardus Copman.

Elm, von (Hbg.): pl.n. near Bremervörde.

Elmenhorst: numerous pl.ns. in Holstein, Meckl. Pom.; elm is the Germanic-Old German form of NHG Ulme, E. elm (from Lat. ulmus).

Elmer: in the UGer. region it contains the field name and pl.n. Elm (Werner der Elmer,Glarus 1322, comes from the pl.n. Elm in Switz.). But LGer. Elmer is a pers.n., see Eilmar.

Elösser, Eleöser, Elesser besides Lesser, Löser and others are Jewish names for Hebrew Eleazar, Elieser: ‘God is my salvation’.

Eloy, Elloy, Eley, also Gloy, Gley, Loy, Ley are SW German and Rhineland forms for the saint’s name Eligius,patron of gold miners, smiths and horses.

Elsbeth, Elspeter see Elisabeth.

Else, Elsemann, Elsen (L.Rhine area: Tenelsen, Vanelsen) contain the loc.n. or pl.n. Elsen, Els(e), which occurs freq. in the L.Rhine-Westph. area; the documented Cord Elseman,Han. 1382 comes from the pl.n. Elsen near Paderborn (see Bahlow ON, p. 112). In the Aachen, Düsseldorf, Duisburg area the variant Els, Elß occurs freq. (Gerit van Eis,Wesel 1549); els is the Dutch form for LGer. Eller ‘alder’, indicates swampy terrain (cf. Fr. alise, Span. alisa ‘alder’). Cf. Elsholz, Elshorst, Elshoff, Elsenbrock. But Hans Else,Erfurt 1436, Hans Elsin,Arnstadt 1412 are metronymics (a mother’s name).

Elsenhans (Würt., Baden) is a metr. like Elsensohn: they are equivalent to Ellenhans and Ellensohn in the same area (Elle = Else). Cf. “Elle und Else tanzent wol” [Elle and Else dance well], which refer to farm girls or women in the songs of the MHG Poet Hiltbolt of Schwangau. Cunr. filiusElse [son of Else], Alsace 1323, Peter Elsen sone,Grünberg (Hesse) 1357, Nicze der Elsen [N. of E], Sorau 1381.

Elser (UGer., Mnch.): is a metr. (= Elsensohn, E. ‘son of Else’) like Grether (= Gretensohn, E. ‘son of Grete’) and Neser (Nesensohn, E. ‘son of Nese’), all of which are UGer.-Swiss. Hans Elser,Würt. 1475.

Elsler (UGer.): metr. (mother’s name) ending in ­er, -ler like Gretler; cf. Elser, Greter. Fanny Elßler, ballet dancer, was from Vienna.

Elsner (freq. in Sil.): son or husband of a woman by the name of Else; metr. like Jüttner, Tilgner etc. Nitsche der Elsen, near Sorau 1381, Nitsche Elsener, Liegnitz 1388, Bartusch Elsener, Jacobsdorf near Liegnitz 1433, Hans Ylsener, Görlitz 1476. Since the name always shows an “e” it should not be confused with Ölsner (from Slavic olesna ‘alder’), cf. “von der Ölsen”, Liegnitz 1382, which was not unrounded until the 16th c. to “von der Elsen”, Liegnitz 1576, so from then on the two names could be confused.

Elsper see Ellsper.

Elst (van Elst): pl.n. in the Netherlands (older: Alisto).

Elste: cf. pl.n. Elsten in Oldenburg, but also the Fris. patr. Haje Elstena.

Elster: in Sax. (freq. in Lpz.) name is related to the Elster River; cf. “Elstermann von Elster” in Chemnitz. E. is also a pl.n. near Wittenberg en the Elbe, and Elstra is a pl.n. in the district of Bautzen. Elstermann may derive from the river name or the pl.n. Also the (bird) magpie (= NHG Elster) may be involved.

Elsterwerth: pl.n. Elsterwerda in Sax. Hans Elsterwerd,Görlitz 1471.

Elten: pl.n on the L.Rhine (B. v. Elten,Barth 1425).

Elter(mann): Westph., Hbg., Bremen, Danzig; name is related to pl.n. Eltern on the Hase River in the Ems region.

Eltester: ‘the oldest’ of a guild or community.

Elting: pl.n. Eltingen in Würt. Uolr. Elting(er),Rottenburg 1332.

Eltrich (Allgäu area): see Altrich.

Eltz, Eltzer: pl.n. Eltz (Moselle, Neckar), is actually a prehistor. river name (Bahlow ON, p. 113).

Eltzemann (Lüb.): pl.n. Eltze near Peine.

Elvers, Elfers (without umlaut: Alvers): Elver was a popular pers.n. From Westph. to Pom.; it is a shortened form of Elverich (Alverich);cf. the king of the dwarves in the Nibelungenlied. Alvericus (modern form is Alverk, Kiel) freq. in Hbg., Bremen, Stade, Lüneburg, Rostock around 1250-1350. H. Alverkes,Kiel 1415. Elverich v. Heyle, Westph. 1229 Elverus filiusElveri [E. son of Elverus], Lünebg. 1313, Elver Weland, Bremen around 1300, Godeke Elfers,Bremen 1352. Patr. is Elvering,Elfering. For Elverich: Elver compare Oderich: Oder and Frederich: Freder. For Elfert see Alfert (Alfhart).

Elwert (LGer. = Eilward) see Ellward.

Elze: town on the Leine River (in documents: Alice, from al ’swamp water’). Lüdeke Elze Brsw. 1399.

Embert, Embers, Embrecht (LGer.): pers.n. Aginberht, Eginberht.Cf. Aginhard, Eginhard; Aginolf, Eginolf, Aginmar, Eginmar.

Embke, Emke (Hbg., Bremen) see Ehmeke. But consider also pl.n. Em(b)ke near Ülzen: Borcherd deEmbike,Han. 1308. Also Eim(b)ke and pl.n. Eimbeck.

Emde (freq. in Hbg., Bremen): from Emden on the Ems River. For Em(b)den consider also pl.n. Emden near Haldensleben. But FN “von der Emde” in Marburg comes from Emde near Höxter.

Emeis see Ameis.

Emhard (UGer.): Emhard Lülchsenring, Bav. 1352.

Emig, Emich, Ehmig (Hess.-Franc.-UGer.): is a documented sh.f. of Emmerich (Embrich). Emicho = Emercho de Wolveskelen miles [knight], Wetzlar 1260; Emicho = Embricho,bishop of Würzburg 1140; Bentz Emich,near Stuttg. 1350.

Emke(n): Bremen, Hbg., see Ehmcke. Also patr. Emker. Emler see Emmelrich.

Emme, Emmen (Hbg.): Fris. pers.n., cf. Ubbo Emmius,Fris. chronicler in the 16th c.

Emmelrich, an umlauted form from Amelrich (see there), popular Germanic pers.n. in the Middle Ages (an Ostrogoth ruler was already called Amalrich); hence UGer.-Rhineld. Emmel, Emmlein, Emmelmann; LGer. E(h)mcke (Emeke),unless it comes from Eimke. Emelricus Pape, Lüb. 1320, Emelricus de Ponte, Col. 1170, Emmelrich Ruodel, Nassau 1336; Thylo Emmelrich,Bingen 1317, there also Emmelman 1338. Patr. is Emler, Amler.For Emmelmann consider also pl.n. Emmeln in the Ems region.

Emmer (freq. in Mnch.): UGer.-Bav. Emmer (cf. Emmerland) means grain for threshing. Cf. Halbemmer,Nikolsburg in Moravia 1414.

Emmerich (in the middle Rhine area, Frkf., Wetzlar): reminiscent of the Ermenrich legend, where the Harlungen brothers Imbrecke (Emerca)and Fritele, nephews of the king of the Goths, live in the castle of Breisach in care of faithful Eckehard (“getreue Eckehard”). The name Emmerich is also documented as a first name in noble and patrician families: Knight Embrico of Lahnstein 1217, Knight Emercho of Wolveskelen, Wetzlar 1267, (also Emicho), Embrico (Imbrico)Duke of Leiningen 1077, Emmercho Rosenwasser, Wetzlar 1264, Emmerich Schepkessel, Frkf. 1371. As late as 1770 Emmerich Baron of Breidbach near Mainz.

Emmerling (Mnch.): Bav.-Austr. “Goldammer” (bird) = ‘yellow hammer’ (of the hunting species).

Emmermann (Hbg.): from Emmern near Hamelin (there is an Emmer River, tributary of the Weser). But FN Emmermacher comes from Dutch emmer NHG Eimer ‘pail, bucket’.

Emmert (Mneh.): = Emmer (with a “t” added on). But also see Emhart.

Empen (Hbg.): a very old creek name and/or place name like Ampen in Westph., cf. pl.n. Empede and Empelde in Han. (for the water word amp, amb see Bahlow ON, p. 115).

Empfenzeder (Bav.-Austr.): likewise Lempenzeder, Leibenzeder (Leipoldsöder) which are all related to loc.ns. ending in -öd, ­ed [meaning ‘uncultivated land‘].

Empl (Mnch.), Emperle: probably Ambl(ing), Amelung (see there); cf. Lemperle Lambrecht.

Emrich see Emmerich.

Emund, Emundts, Emonts (L.Rhine-Dutch): Germanic pers.n. (compound of MHG ê ‘law, contract’ and munt ‘protection’). Knight Edmund of Gymnich 1300; King Erik Emundsson,Sweden 850.

Encke (Hbg., Bremen): Fris. sh.f. (Eniko,10th c.) with k-suffix from En(n)o,analogous to Mencke from Men(n)o etc. Patr. of E. is Enking, Enneking. Compare Enninga and Menninga. The name must not be confused with UGer. Enke ‘farmhand, servant’.

Enckevort is related to a pl.n. ending in -furt.

Ende, Endemann: s.o. who lives at the end of the village or road. Cf. Amend [at the end]. Heine an dem ende,Sorau 1381, Michel am ende,Liegnitz 1438, Conrad in fine ville [= Lat. for ‘at the end of town’], Basel 1300; the name was hereditary as early as 1410-1430: Paul amende,his son Hensel amende (Braunau in Bohemia). Heinrich Endeman,Brsl. 1397.

Ender, Enderle, Enderlein, Endel(e): UGer. sh.f. of Enders, Endres = Andreas. Also Endermann. Endelin Kromer, Ulm 1530, Nikel Endel, Moravia 1414.

Enders, Endres are UGer. forms with umlaut of Anders, Andres = Andreas.

Endler (UGer.-Bohem.): name is patr. of Endel (Andreas), with UGer. -er as in the names Hensler, Michler, Hempler, etc. Endler seyler, Budweis 1396, Fridlin Entler,Iglau 1359, Nikel Endel,Moravia 1414. There is also a pl.n. Endlau in Bav.

Endres, Endraß (UGer.) see Enders. Endresser (Austria) is a patr., also Lith. Endruweit, Endrulat.

Endruhn: E Pruss.-Lith. = Andreas [Andrew], see Endres.

Endzweig (Regensburg) means ‘broken (in two)’. Cf. Mittenzweyg, Rammenzweyg.

Enenkel (MHG): means ‘grandchild’ (actual meaning: ‘little ancester’). Cf. the Viennese writer around 1250, Jansen Enikel,author of a WorldChronicle.See also Ehni.

Engbert(s), Engberding (Rhineld.-Westph.) see Ingbert. Also Engwers corresponds to Ingwers like Engebrand to Ingebrand.

Enge, Eng(e)mann: named after the dwelling near a narrow place [eng = ‘narrow’]. But the name Eng(e)mann occurred so freq. in Görlitz (50 times!) that in this area the name must have merged with Endemann since it does not occur until around 1500 (Caspar Engeman,tanner, 1515, also Merten Endeman,1503); clear evidence: Melchior von Enge = Melcher vom Ende,Quedlinburg 1632-43. In N Germany Eng- often is related to Ang- ‘swampy pasture, meadow’, see Engelage.

Engebrand is a variant of Ingebrand: Engebrand, Ihgebrand of Wortford, Gießen 1250.

Engel: sometimes was a house name first [Engel = ‘angel’] and was then used as FN, or it was a sh.f. of Engelhard and others, likewise Engelmann, Engelke. Hans zumEngel,Mainz 1439, Billung zem Engel,U.Rhine area 13th c. Occurs as metr.: Heinrich fronEnglun = H. domine Engele [= H. of Lady Engel], 1244; as a surname: Knight Iwan .. called Engel,Holstein 1365. Thomas Schauenengel,Danzig 1533. Cunrad Engelsun [son of Engel], near Meßkirch 1329.

Engelage (Bremen): pl.n. near Lübbeke in Westph, (eng = ang ‘wet pasture, meadow’), cf. Engbüttel, Engden near Vechta (with boggy wasteland), Engelern (Angelare)near Bramsche. Enger near Herford, Engern on the Weser etc. (Bahlow ON, p. 116).

Engelbrecht: old Ger. pers.n., popular in the Middle Ages (from Angil-, Engel-,which might derive from the tribal name of the Angles, later interpreted as the Christian word “angel”). Engelbrecher is the Austr-.Sil. patr. (like Erkenbrecher, Weipprecher, Rainprechter, etc.). N Ger.: Engelbert, Engelbertz (Rhineld.). Engelbrett is distorted like Eckbrett (instead of Eckebrecht); Engelbrecher (UGer.) like Eckenbrecher. Cf. sh.f. Engelke, Engelmann. Charlemagne’s son-in-law already bore the name Engelbert; highly revered in the Rhineland was Archbishop of Cologne (martyr), who is praised in a song by the MHG poet Walther von der Vogelweide.

Engelger (rare, noble pers.n.): councillor Engelger Engelgers,Brsl. 1292.

Engelhard(t): the best known of all pers.ns. with Engel-, promoted in the Middle Ages by a legend of friendship: Engelhard and Engeltrud,a courtly short epic of Konrad of Würzburg. Contracted form: Englert (unless it was originally Engler). Westph. patr. Englerding, likewise Deterding, Humperdinck, etc., also Engelking from the sh.f. Engelke, likewise Gödeking.

Engelke, Engelken: LGer. sh.f of Engelhard, Engelbert. Hence patr. Engelking (Westph.), like Gödeking from Gödeke, Abeking from Abeke. Cf. Engelke Mandüvel, 1362.

Eng(e)lmann: sh.f. of Engelhard, Engelbrecht, Engelger, Engelmar, Engelschalk. 1170 in Col.: Engelman (father and son). Gunther Engelman,Liegnitz 1348.

Engelmar (UGer.): -mar means ‘famous’. Engilmarus,1261 on the Enns River, Engelmar,Frkf. 1387, Würzburg 1409.

Engelmut (fem. first name): Godefr. Eizgelmudis fil. [son of Engelmud], Wetzlar 1245.

Engels (L.Rhine) see Engel.

Engelschalck, Engelschall (UGer.): freq. in Austria, like Gottschalk, Gottschall.

Enger(t): UGer., related to the loc.n. Enge or the pl.n. Engen in Baden. Cuonrad Enger,Villingen 1405. Jod. Engerer,near Mannheim 1498.

Engesser (UGer.): living on a narrow street, lane [eng = ‘narrow’], cf. her Henrich, called von der Eingingassen [of the narrow street], Lahn district 1327, Merklin in Enggassen,Friedgn. in Würt. 1338.

Engfer (Holstein). Sigfrid Engvari, Ingwers,1647, Germanic pers.n.

Engleder (Bav., Austr.): from the pl.n. Englöd, likewise Bichl-eder, Riedl-eder, Schießl-eder.

Engler (UGer.): patr. of Engel, or it is equivalent to Engelher. Heinrich Engeler (farmer), Thurgau 1301.

Englerding see Engelhard.

Engling (Westph.): patr. like Engelking, Englerding; cf. Ebeling, Gobeling.

Englisch (E Ger.): sh.f. with Slav. suffix, compare Engelusch,Brsl. 1330 (for Engeltrud or Engelhard see Engel).

Engmann see Enge.

Engster, Engstler (UGer.): named after the dwelling place like Angster; e.g. Bertschi an der Angist (‘at the narrowest place’), Basel around 1300. Heinrich Engester,near Amorbach 1395; Engster = Engstler,Feldkirch 1624.

Engwers see Ingwers.

Enke, Enk (UGer.): = MHG enke ‘farmhand, servant’. Sifrid Enke,Ellwangen 1220. See also Fris. Encke.

Enking (LGer.) see Encke.

Ennen (Fris.): son of Enno (Eino, Eno) = Einhard, cf. Menno (Meino, Meno) = Meinhard. With k-suffix: Enneke, Enneking; patr. Enning (Eining), Ennenga, likewise Menninga.

Enneper: pl.n. Ennepe on the Ruhr (Bahlow ON, p. 117).

Enslin, Ensle (Alem., Swab.): sh.f. of Anshelm, see there. (See Socin for evidence: Enselinus = Anshelmus). Name occurs also without umlaut: Conrad Ansli,Saulgau 1370.

Enste (Düsseldorf): pl.n. near Meschede; a prehistor. creek name like Ennest (from: Anista)near Olpe.

Ente: ‘poultry dealer’ [Ente = ‘duck’]; cf. Mates mit der ente,Brsl. around 1350.

Entholt: LGer. pl.n. (holt = ‘woods’), e.g. Bockholt etc.

Entres, Entreis, Enter, Enterlein (Bav.-Austr.) = Endres, Ender = Andreas.

Enz, Enzmann, Enzlin (UGer.): old pers.n., e.g. Anz, Anzmann. Enzman v. Thalheim, farmer in Würt. 1138; Hainr. Entzen chint [child] v. Vels, Tyrol 1280.

Epe (L.Rhine-Westph.): freq. pl.n. and field name in the Gelderland district to Osnabrück, indicating wet, swampy terrain. Also Epen besides Ape, Apen. Cf. location and name “in den Eppen” (Westph.); ap, ep are very old water words.

Epp (UGer.) besides Epple (Swab.) is the sh.f. of Eberhard. Eppo = Eberhard v. Nellenburg, Baden 1018, Eppo = Eberhard Zeiße, Basel 1299. Epplin Haintzeltnan, Augsburg 1358. In some cases the name comes from Albrecht: Albertus (Appelinus) dictus Eppelin [A. called Eppelin], Heilbronn 1283.

Eppen(s): the LGer. patr. of Eppert, Eppers, likewise Ebben (Fris.) of Ebbert, which is Egbert (see Ebbe); a Westph. patr. is Epping, Eppink, also Ebbing. Cf. Eppmann (Hbg.). Eppo de Dokum, a Frisian, 1300.

Eppler (UGer., freq. in Mnch.): meaning becomes clear through the FN Eppelbauer ‘fruit farmer, fruit dealer’, e.g. Epphelchramer [chramer = Krämer = ‘retail, dealer’], Moravia 1414 (cf Appelkrämer, Neuß 1617). Nic. Eppler,Iglau 1390, Joh. Eppeler,Görlitz 1485, Rudel Eppfeler,Glatz 1367. Hensel Eppel,Bohemia 1390.

Ep(p)stein: pl.n. (Taunus, Pal.).

Eptinger: related to the pl.n. Ewatingen in Baden.

Erasmus (‘likable’), Erasmi, Eras (see also Rasmus, Asmus, Raßmann, Aßmann and Bav. Rasem, Asarn): martyr and auxiliary saint, patron of turners (woodworkers) and seamen, navigators. Not popular until the 15th c., cf. the Humanist Erasmus of Rotterdam.

Erath see Erhard.

Erbe, Erb: a popular pers.n. in the Upper Rhine area 1100-1400 (OHG erbo,Gothic arbja ‘heir’). Doc.: “ich Erbo, Erben sun” [I, Erbo, son of Erbo], knight, Colmar 1282, Erbo Schonterlin, Strasb. 1260, Erbo Mendewin, Strasb. 1353, Joh. Erbe,Konstanz 1320. Patr. is Erben.

Erbelding, Erpelding, Erbeling: Westph. patr. of the pers.n. Erbold;cf. Erboldus Ebbena (a Frisian), 1277 (Stark, p. 163).

Erber (UGer.): probably means the one from (who inherited) the patrimonial farm or estate [erben = ‘to inherit’], cf. Hans Erber,Tyrol 1441, Hans Erb,Tyrol 1501; Hainr. der Erber,Rottweil 1324.

Erb(e)rich (Düsseldorf): pl.n. (twice) in the L.Rhine area. See Bahlow ON, p. 120.

Erbs(e), Erbst: UGer., also Erbisser, means ‘pea grower, pea dealer’. Cf. Heinrich Erwißman,Würt. 1342. Also Erbsmehl [Mehl = ‘flour, meal’], Erbsstroh [Stroh = ‘straw’], Erweißmus [Mus = ‘mush, porridge’], 1305.

Erbslöh (Düsseldorf), Erbschlö: pl.n., which was originally Erpes-lo (Bahlow ON, p. 125).

Erbstößer: probably ‘pea dealer’ (MHG stôßen ‘to do retail’, cf. Splettstößer, Krautstößer).

Erchmeker (LGer.): the equivalent of UGer. Ircher, ‘one who processes buckskins’. Richard erchmekere, Lüb. 1321. Conrad erchmekere, Hildesheim 1265, where there is still an Erchmeker Street.

Erdbeer: MHG ertber, ‘strawberry grower and/or dealer’.

Erdl (Bav.), Erdle(n): see Örtel (= Ortlieb, Ortwin), unrounded: Ertl.

Erdmann, Erdtmann, Ehrtmann: name does not occur before the 14th c.; derived from the formerly popular pers.n. Ertmar (ert ‘earth’, mar ‘famous’). Also the towns Erdmannsdorf in Sil. and Sax. were called Ertmarsdorf. Cf. Ertwin.Doc.: Ertmarus Anklem, Stralsund 1303, Ertmar,Greifswald 1288, Ertmer Walhuser, Lüneburg 1326, Ertmar Liscow, Ertmar Craz, Ro. before 1400, Ertmar occurred in Ro. 8 times before 1300, several times in Lüb.; Lemmeke Erdman,Barth 1343, Nic. Ertmar,Liegnitz 1369, Peter Ertman,Linderode near Sorau 1381, Ertwin Erdtman,Osnabrück 1509, still in 1498 Erlmar Knolleysen in E Prussia; the earliest: Ertmar 1264 near Mainz. For the present-day first name Erdmann see Bahlow, VN,p.30; the fem. name Erdmuth doc. as FN as early as 1302 in Boppard: heinr. filius Ertmudis [son of Erdmud].

Erdwin, Erdwiens (win ‘friend’): Ertwin Erdtman,Osnabrück 1509, where also Harbert Erdwining was recorded 1350.

Erfmann, Erf see Arfmann, Arf. Erfling (Lippe area) is a patr.

Erforth, Erfurt, Erfert: pl.n. Erfurt in Thur. (Bahlow ON, p. 121). Also pl.n. Erferth on the Sieg River.

Ergang (Hbg.): = Irrgang [maze, aberration]. Joh. Erreganc,Hbg. 1301.

Ergele (Baden, Würt.): according to Brech. (p. 413) = Erkelin = Erkenbrecht, Erkenger. Ergelinus Schaffrat, Rottweil 1397, Walther Ergelin,Baldgn. 1294.

Ergmann see Erk.

Ergenzinger: pl.n. Ergenzingen on the Neckar River.

Erhard(t): freq. in Bav., also Ehrhardt, in Baden Ehrst, Ehret, Ehrt. Saint E. was a bishop of Regensburg around 700 A.D. Due to his prayer, Odilia (Alsace), who was born blind, gained her vision.

Erhorn see Ehrhorn.

Erich (freq. in Hbg.), Erichs, Erichsen (freq. in Hbg., Kiel etc.): attests to the former cultural unity of the LGer. area (Hanseatic League!) and Scandinavia as Erik is an old Scandinavian royal name (cf. King Erik Ernundsson of Sweden in the 9th c.); the name was spread in the form of Erich through dynastic models: three counts (father, son and grandsen) Erich of Hoya, 1377-1426, three dukes Erich of Lauenburg, 1357-1422; there were also several Guelf dukes Erich in the 15th-16th c. Erich v. Segern, Lüb. 1293, Erich v. Koppelow, Meckl. 1320 (see also Bahlow, VN, p. 30). Erichson is of Swedish origin and relatively recent in Germany (since the Middle Ages).

Ericke see Ehrke.

Erisniann see Ehrismann.

Erith, Eritt see Erhard (Ehret, Ehrat).

Erk, Erken(s), Erkes (L.Rhine), also Erkmann, sh.fs. of the Germanic pers.n. Erkenbrecht or Erkenger, see these. Erkenzweig = pl.n. Erkenswick in Westph.

Erkelenz pl.n. in Rhineland (Bahlow ON, p. 123).

Erkenbreht, Erkenbert, patr. (UGer.) Erkenbrecher: in the Middle Ages in the Rhine area and UGer. (from OHG erkan ‘genuine, pure, perfect’, berht ‘shiny’). See also Erk. Doc. 1141 in Basel, 1296 in Ro., Lüb., 1414 in Moravia. Also Erkenger, Erkenfrid derive from it (both names recorded only in U.Rhine area).

Erkenzweig see Erk. Cf. Ahlzweig (Ahlachweig).

Erl (UGer.) see Erlewein.

Erl(e)mann see Erlewein.

Erler (UGer.): named after the dwelling near an alder stand; “der meier in den erlon, “ Breisgau area 1283. Also Erlacher (UGer., Tyrol, Allgäu). Erlach is also a pl.n. Cf. Ehrler and Ehrlenholz [probably ‘alder wood’].

Erl(e)wein, Erlenwein (UGer.): formerly a popular pers.n. in noble families on the U.Rhine (Germanic erl ‘free man, noble warrior’, cf. E. earl). Erlwin,Knight of Möckmühl (father and son), 1290; Erlewin Rümmelin, Pforzheim 1295, Walther Erlwin,Ehingen on the Danube 1272, Beczold E.Würzburg 1409, Hans Erlenwein,Isny 1558. Related sh.f.: Erl(e)mann (Erlemannus,Mainz 1277; also in U.Rhine area: see Socin, p. 140) and Erl(in): Erlin von Horneck (father and son), Strasb. 1341, Berthold Erlin,Strasb. 1275. Cf. Erlebolt,Tauber area 1169, Col. 1197. Erlo isstill a first name in Würt.

Erman (UGer.) see Ehrmann.

Ermatinger: pl.n. ending in -ingen in Switz.

Ermbrecht: shortened from Erminbrecht, Irminbrecht, likewise Ermrich from Ermenrich; also Ermtraut from Ermentraut (Irmintrud); instead of Erm- one may also find Arm- (as in Armbrecht, Armgard, Armenreich, Armhart). Germanic Innin was the surname of the Germanic sky god Tiu, meaning ‘powerful, great’; brecht (berht)means ‘shiny’. Ermbrecht,the schoolmaster, Brsl. 1349, Hans Ermbrecht,Duderstadt 1476, also Cord Armbrecht,Duderstadt 1463. Hainrich Yrmbrecht,Villingen 1336.

Ermel (UGer.): unless the name stands for Ermeltrud (Ennel, Irmel was a fem. first name 1371, 1346 in Brsl.) it is the old spelling for sleeve (Ärmel) and means tailor of sleeves (Cf. Burkard Ermeltucher [tuch = ‘cloth’], Rottweil 1317) or one who wears conspicuous sleeves, as in LGer. Mau ‘wide sleeve’. In Wetzlar the gentlemen “with the red sleeves” were famous (hence FN Rothermel [rot = ‘red’], Weißermel, Blauermel). However see Ermler.

Ermeling: Westph. patr. see Ermert.

Ermenrich, Ermelrich see Ermrich.

Ermentraut see Ehrentraut, Ermisch, Ermel, Ermler.

Ermer (Mnch.): old pers.n., cf. pl.n. Ermershausen, Ermersricht in Bav.

Ermert, Ermers (LGer.): an old pers.n. which becomes evident in Ermert, Ermerdinges,Han. 1375 (cf. FN Armerding in Westph.). Sh.f. is Ermke, patr. Ermeling in Westph.

Ermgard see Armgard. Cf. Ermegart,lady friend of Marshall Ludolf, Haldsl. 14th c.; Henr. vir Ermengardae nobilis feminae [Henr., man or vassal of the noble woman Ermengard], 10th c.

Ermisch, Ermischer (Sax., Sil.) are variants of Irmisch(er): Irmisch, Irmusch (with Slavic suffix) is a sh.f. of Irmentrud, Ennetraut as Irmel, Ermel, Irmler, Ermler are sh.fs. of the variant Irmeltrud. (Bahlow SN, p. 42).

Ermke, Ermecke (LGer.): sh.f. of Ermenrich,see Ermrich. A pl.n. Ermke in Oldenburg (older: Armike).

Ermler, Ermeler: = Irmler, see there. Jocof Ermler,Görlitz 1559.

Ermold (UGer.): rare pers.n., see Ermrich.

Ermrich (Ermenreich), in the Middle Ages usually Ermelrich for the older Ennenrich (like Irmeltrud for Irmentrud): reminiscent of the heroic epic of the king of the Ostrogoths Ermana-rik, Ermina-rik ‘all-powerful ruler’ (4th c.). Ermenrich was the name of a bishop of Passau around 870 A.D.; Ermenricus,Werden/Ruhr 1260, Ermentrich Keyser, Frkf. 1387, Joh, Ermenrich,Kempten 1314, Kunrad v. Grifenberg called Ermericus,Görlitz 1298, Rüdeger Irmelrich,Mainz 1347, C. Ermelrich,Bingen 1325, Fritz Ermrich,Würzburg 1409, Nic. Ermelrich,Liegnitz 1369, P. Ermelrich,Görlitz 1405. The form Ermrich (Hirschberg, Liegnitz, Görlitz) through false interpretation changed to Ermlich [Ger. ärmlich = ‘poor, miserable’] (freq. in Liegnitz).

Ermtraut see Ehrentraut, Ermisch, Ermel, Ermler.

Ermwein see Ernwein (Erndwein).

Erne(mann), Erni: Alem.-Swiss sh.f. of Arnold (cf. the Swiss freedom fighter, Arnold Winkelried, 1386). Swiss citizen Arnold an der Halden, also called Erni from Melchtal, 1308. Ern(d)le (cf. Wernle and Werndle = Werner): Joh. Erndlin = Ernlin,Rottweil 1541. For LGer. Erneman Ernemans,Han 1449 and Erneke Hund, Han. 1421 compare Ernfrid,Sangershausen 1391, Erendfridius,Werden/Ruhr 12th c.; Ernhild,Werden 1150.

Erner, Ernert (UGer.): probably related to MHG ern ‘floor, threshing floor’; ‘harvest’.

Ernke: LGer. sh.f. of Arnold, see Ernemann. Erneke Hund, Han. 1421 (also M. Erneken,1350); Ernke vom Goltberg (city councillor), Brsl. 1357, Th. Ernke,1371.

Ernst (freq. everywhere): actually means ‘serious battle’ (compare Old English eornost ‘duel’). Name was popular in noble circles (cf. epic and legend of Ernst,Duke of Swabia, a model of faithfulness and loyalty among friends, around 1200). Cf. Bahlow, VN,p. 31. Patr. Ernsting in Westph.: H. Ernesting,Warendorf 1285. Silesian dialect variant is Arnst: Arnest v. Czedelicz, Liegnitz 1463. Compare Nernst.

Ernwein, Ermwein (UGer.): rare pers.n., Erniwin;Heinz Ernwin, Würt. 1343.

Erold (UGer.): rare, cf. pl.n. Erolzheim in Würt.

Erp see Arp. Doc. Erp (Erpo)1270 in Hbg., 1272 in Ro., 1297 in Waldeck, 1241 near Hoya, 1383 in Frkf. As FN: Hans Erp, Han. 1456. UGer. Erpf. A pl.n. Erp in Rhineland.

Erpel: LGer. ‘drake’ (male duck). Also a pl.n. in Rhineland (Bahlow ON, p. 124).

Ersch: loc.n., cf. pl.n. Erschwyl in Switz. An Ersch was recorded in Alsace (Schlettstadt) 1427.

Ert(e)l (UGer.-Bav.-Austr.) see Örtel (Ortwin). Also Ertelt, Erdtel(t).

Ertmer see Erdmann.

Erve, Erven(s), Erwes: L.Rhine pers.n., cf. Arwe(n).

Erwin: in the Middle Ages the name was popular in the U. and Central Rhine areas, famous through the builder of Strasbourg cathedral, Erwin v. Steinbach, around 1300. Cf. Knight Erwin Kranich, Frkf. 1325, where also Erwin Hartrad 1387 and Henne Erwin 1387, etc. were documented; a squire Erwin Halber, Wetzlar 1334.

Erxleben: pl.n. (doc. twice in the Magdeburg-Helmstedt area), Arkesleve is an older form (see Bahlow ON, p. 125).

Erythropel: Humanist name for “Rothut” [red hat] (evidence in Heintze-Cascorbi, p. 185, Brech., p. 417). Still freq. today in Han.

Esch: from loc.n. and pl.n., dwelling place and origin. Cf. Lubbert van den Esch [Esche = ‘ash tree’], L.Rhine 1550. UGer. Escher: ‘near an ash stand’, likewise Aicher, ‘near oak woods’, also Eschle. Cf. Eschenmair, Eschehreuter etc.

Eschels, Eschelsen (Flensburg): Dan. Ekelson, Ekelsen, from pers.n. Eskil. Cf. Eschel Netler, Flensburg 1595, Nils Eschelsen,Flensburg 1600.

Eschenhorn: loc.n.; Pauwel E., Liegn. 1351.

Eschenlohr, Eschenlauer (UGer.): Eschenloh means ash woods (also pl.n. in Upper Bav.). Peter Eschenloer,Silesian history writer around 1470.

Escher see Esch.

Escherich: old Germanic pers.n. (Ask-rik compare Aschwin, Ask-lef which becomes Eschloff). Ash wood was used for making spears and boats. Ascepicius Belle a. Gent, Stralsund 1294.

Eschger, Öschger: Alem. for Eschinger, Öschinger.

Eschhei, Eschhai (UGer.): Öschhei from MHG essischheie, eschheie ‘field guard, ranger’ (essisch ‘field, pasture’).

Eschke see Eske.

Eschloff (rare): derives from Asc-lef see Escherich. Berendt Eskeleffs, a Frisian 1592. Cf. Oslef. Osloff.

Eschrich(t) see Escherich.

Eschstruth: pl.n. near Kassel (strut ‘woods’). Name is known through the woman author Nathalie Eschstruth.

Eschwe (Hbg.): truncated form of Eschwede or Eschwey (compare Ahlswe from Alswede; Koldeweh from Koldewey, also Brückweh from Brickwede); LGer. -wede from -widu means ‘forest’ (sometimes from wedel ‘ford, passage’).

Esders (Fris.) like Edzard = Eckard (Stark, p. 74).

Esel: old surname for a naive, simple-minded person [Esel = ‘ass, fool’]. Heinrich Eselherz,Wetzlar 1339; Eselkopf [Kopf = ‘head’], Eselesvot [LGer. vot = ‘foot’], Ro. 1266 (has an Eselföter Street). Compare also the FNs Baresel, Frumesel, Riedesel, Grauesel (Hessian nobility).

Esemann (Hbg., Kiel, Bremen, Ro.): also Eseke, Eske, Eschke are sh.fs. From the Fris. pers.n. Es-bern (Ro. 1263, Greifswald 1264); Esbern is the Frisian variant of Osbern. See Ausborn. Esico (Essico)around 1200-1300 in Bremen, Hbg., Lüb., Ro., Haldsl. A bishop Esico in Bremen as early as 1020, and in the 15th-16th c. FN Esich, Essich occurred freq. in patrician families (there is an “Essighaus” in Bremen). As parallel forms appear Esbern: Osbern, Esmund: Osmund (pl.n. Esenshamm in Oldenburg formerly: Esmundeshem).

Esenwein (Würt.): unrounded form of Ösenwein‘swallow the wine’, name for a wine lover or wine tavern owner, likewise Bausenwein, Schlindenwein; compare Ösenbrei(Aisenbrey) [Brei = ‘mush, porridge’], Ösenwald,Ösenkorb[Korb = ‘basket]’; from MHG ösen ‘to empty, clean out, eat or drink up’.

Esich (Bremen) see Esamann. Also Eske (Hbg.), Esken(a), Esmann.

Eskuche see Eßkuchen.

Esmarch (Kiel, Hbg.): pl.n. in Schleswig. Known through the surgeon from Tönning, F. von Esmarch (who belonged to the circle of the 19th c. writer Th. Storm).

Espanner, Espenner (UGer., Tyrol): MHG esban, espan ‘pasture land’. Mespan: cf. Nikle an demEspan,Sarntal 1371.

Espenhahn: pl.n. Espenhain near Leipzig.

Espey (Westph.) see Effey.

Espig, Espich: ‘near aspen woods’; cf. Lindig [Linde = ‘linden tree’], Röhrig (Röhricht) [Rohr = ‘reed’], etc.

Essegern: old sentence name [‘like to eat’], likewise Lebgern etc. Nic. Essgern,Brünn 1365, Laur. Essegern,Erfurt 1453.

Esselmann (Hbg.): from Essel (Es-lo ‘swampy lowland’) east of Bremervörde, also near Fallingbostel; cf. Asselmann from Assel near Stade. For es see Bahlow ON, p. 126.

Essen (von): pl.n. (freq. in Ruhr area, Oldenburg, Osnabrück). In documents: Assini or Asnidi which become Essende,seeBahlow ON, p. 125.

Esser (freq. on the L.Rhino, also Essers): means chimney mason or forger (Assenmacher, Essenmacher), axle maker, wagoner, wheelwright (still common in the 16th c.).

Essig, Essich (Würt., Pal., U.Rhine area): like Essigmann means ‘vinegar dealer’. Also the FNs Essigkrug [‘vinegar jug’], Bohemia 1382, Saueressig (likewise Sauersenf, Senf [Senf = ‘mustard’]). Rud. Essich = R. acetum [Latinized form of Essig], Basel 1248-65; Essigman, Essigfrouwe, Essigmenger (menger ‘dealer, monger’), Frkf. 1320-50. Wolf Essiger,Thur. 1562.

Essing: pl.n. in Bav.

Eßkuchen, Eskuche: sentence name [eat the cake] like Stopfkuchen [stuff the cake], Pustkuchen [blow the cake], nickname for the pastry baker. Curt Eßkuche,Kassel 1452.

Esslen (Würt.): is probably Ens(s)len = Anshelm.

Essmann (Düsseldorf, Hbg.): from Essen (see there). Lambert Esseman, Ro. 1301. Cf. Glissmann from the town Glissen.

Eßwurm: Nic. Eßworm, Prague 1400; name for the blacksmith, cf. Rußwurrn [‘soot(y) worm’]!

Eßwein (Würt.): doc. 1277 as Ößwin = Eßwin = Oswin = Auswin (pers.n.) like Gießwein for Göswin [Eßwein insinuates a false meaning: ‘eating (dinner) wine’, likewise Gießwein ‘pouring wine’].

Esterl (Mnch.): likewise Estermann, Estermaier (Mnch.) named after the dwelling place at the pasture fence (Ester; MHG ester, estor, originally essisch-tor means field or pasture gate). Likewise Ester(er) unless from pl.n. Ester (freq. in Bav.). For Estermann also see pl.n. Estern (also Estermann) in Westph.

Estner (Mnch.): cf. Astner.

Estorf(f): from the pl.n. (near Stade and near Nienburg on the Weser).

Etegerne see Essegern. Cf. the names Etwat ‘eat something’, Etfleisch ‘eat meat’, Lünebg., surname for the butcher.

Ettema: Fris. patr. = Edema (descendant of an Ede, Ette); Etten = Eden.

Etter(er) (UGer.): named after the dwelling near the village fence (Etter; MHG eter ‘village enclosure’, eter-zûn ‘wattle border fence’).

Etterli(n): MHG etter ‘cousin’.

Etterwindt: pl.n. Etterwinden in Thur.

Ettinger (UGer.): from Etting(en) or Ötting(en).

Ettl(e): unrounded UGer. form from Öttl(e) = Otto. Related is the FN Ettlmayr (Mnch.).

Ettmayr, Ettmüller (Mnch.): = Edtmayr, Ödmayr; see Eder (Öder).

Ettner (Mnch.): may be understood as Ettinger like Hettner for Hettinger, see Defner.

Ettwein (Würt.): unrounded and diphthongized form of Ötwin (pers.n. Otwin: od ‘property, happiness’ as in Otto; win ‘friend’). Cf. her Ötwin 1290, Benz Ötwin 1356, Etwin Sengli 1371. Also Eßwein from Oswin.

Etzel (UGer., freq. in Mnch.), also Etzler (patr.): originated from Atzilo (= Adelbrecht) with i-umlaut; see Atze. Etzel is the German name for Attila (the Hun). Etzelin Elernosina, Col. 1135.

Etzold (Hbg., Bremen): Fris. for Eckold like Edzard for Eckard.

Eucken (Friesland): the -n indicates the patr. genitive ‘son of Eucke’; known through the philosopher Rudolf Eucken from Aurich. Cf. Fris. Auke (Auco), see there.

Euen (Hbg.): Fris. patr. (Focke Eusma fil. Euonis, 1415 ‘F. Eusma, son of Euo’).

Euler, Eulner (less freq. Auler, Aulner): in Rhine-Hess-Nassau name for the potter (S Ger. = Hafner, N Ger. Pötter); still used today in the Wetterau area in N Hesse; MHG ûlner (ûl, aul from Lat. olla ‘pot’). Cunr. Ulenere, Dieburg 1276. Gerhard der Ulener to Linepe 1362, Wilhelm Ulnere, Frkf. 1303, G. Eulener, Wimpfen 1460, Gerhard Euler, Ursel (Taunus) 1598.

Eupert: pl.n. near Wittenberg; cf. pl.n. Eupen in Rhineland.

Euringer (freq. in Mnch.): from Euring.

Euteneuer, Eideneier: pl.n. Euteneuen in Rhineland.

Even(ius) see Ewen.

Everding: Westph. patr. of Evert, likewise Alberding, Sieverding etc. Also Everling.

Evermann, Ewermann see Evers.

Evers (LGer.): ‘son of Evert’, i.e. Everhart; also Ewers, Ewert; L.Rhine Evertz. Enlarged forms are Evermann, Ewermann. Patr.: Everling, Everding (Westph.). Sh.f. Everke (Han. 1348); Eveking like Sieveking, Gödeking. For Evermann also consider pl.n. Evern near Lehrte, cf. Nevermann and pl.n. Nevern.

Ewald, Ehwalt: ‘keeper of the law’ (Old Saxon êo ‘ancient law’). E. is the patron saint of Cologne, the patron of Westphalia, in commemoration of the brothers white and black Ewald, missionaries there in the 7th c. Name was not revived as first name until the 19th c. (Bahlow VN, p. 32). Cf. LGer. Ewold(s), Ewoldsen.

Ewe, Ewe(n)s (also Eve, Even): very old Fris. pers.n.; corrupted: Ewest.

Ewert see Evert, Evers.

Ewerwein, Ewerwahn see Eberwein.

Ewig (van): pl.n. (and first name) near Attendorn.

Ex (Hbg.): = Eck(e)s. But also = LGer. for ‘axe’: exenhower,Lüb. 1332.

Exle (Swab.): unrounded form of Öchsle.

Exner: well-known name in the Sil. mountain region (and in U. Lausitz) with UGer. unrounding of original Öchsner ‘oxen farmer’ (see Bahlow SN, p. 104). Still a Mates Öchsner near Glatz 1559; Peter ochsner,Tyrol 1472. Sporadically: Exler.

Exter: pl.n. in Westph. (Bahlow ON, p. 130: a prehistoric river name). Also Exsternbrink.

Extra see Eyxtra.

Ey, Eying see Aye.

Eyb see Eib.

Eybächer: pl.n. Eybach in Würt.

Eyban see Iwein (likewise Gaban besides Gawein 1414).

Eycke see Eicke. Eyck see Eick.

Eyckeler (freq. in Düsseldorf): from the town Wanne-Eickel. Cf. pl.n. Eickelborn in Westph.

Eyd(e)ler (freq. in Hbg.): probably = Edeler, as Fris. Eide = Ede. (A forest in the hilly area of Waldeck called “der Eideler”).

Eyf(f)ert: cf. Eiffe, Eiff.

Eyerie see Ayerle.

Eylmann (Hbg.), Eyele(s), Eylert, Eyling see Eilers, Eilmann.

Eyme, Eymes, Eymers see Eime, Eimers.

Eying = Egging, likewise Eierding = Eggerding.

Eypper see Eipper.

Eyring: reminiscent of heroic poetry, where in the Nibelungenlied Margrave Iring occurs (who according to Widukind of Korvey, 967 A.D., was a treacherous adviser to the last Thuringian king Irminfrid, around 530). Cf. Iring = Eyring of Redwitz, Bav. 1389-95; Count Iring,Moravia 1295; Eyringus,Mies 1329; Iring Kirslach, Erfurt 1311.

Eyselein see Eisele.

Eysolt see Eisolt.

Eyssen, Aissen (Fris.) see Aye.

Eyth see Eitner and Agethen. Max Eyth (author of Hinter Pflug und Schraubstock)was from Würt.

Eyxtra, Extra (Ekstra): Fris. name like Brookstra, Dykstra (Deykstra) etc.; -stra means ‘living near …”

  1. Anonymous (leach w. E. ?)

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    -Anonymous, 1917. " Results of the South Australian Museum expedition to Strzelecki and Cooper Creeks. September and October 1916". p 490. Trans.
  2. Recherche bei Umlauten ggf. über ae, oe, ue suchen! Dasselbe gilt: Wenn mit „ß“ kein Ergebnis vorliegt, ggf mit „ss“ suchen! Bei den

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    Recherche bei Umlauten ggf. über ae, oe, ue suchen! Dasselbe gilt: Wenn mit „ß“ kein Ergebnis vorliegt, ggf. mit „ss“ suchen! Bei den Signaturnummern gibt das letzte Kürzel (z.

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