Aar: the old term for Ger. Adler (adel ar) and means ‘eagle’: Frid dictus [called] Ar, near Konstanz 1258. See Ahr. Aaron

C (See also K and Z)

Cäcilie (Cilli): St. Cecilia (3rd c.) is regarded as the patron saint of music; cf. Handel’s “Ode to St. Cecilia” and H. von Kleist’s “Die heilige C. oder die Macht der Musik.”

Camilla: ancient Roman fem.n.; popularized as f.n. by literature and movies, e.g. Camilla Horn.

Carmen: popular fem. f.n. in Spain; introduced into Germany by Bizet’s opera “Carmen. “

Cäsar, Caesar: the famous Roman ruler, Julius Caesar; first used as a f.n. in the 19th c., cf. the writer C. Flaischlen; popularized by the theater (cf. Shakespeare’s drama); then used as FN = Kaiser, its German form.

Cascorbi (Käsekorb ‘cheese basket’). See Körber.

Cassens (Fris.) see Karstens.

Cassirer: Jewish (recent name).

Castor (Caster): patron of the city of Koblenz, therefore FN in Rhineland.

Cebulla, Bulla: Polish = ‘onion’, MHG zibolle, occupational name for onion dealer, Johann Cebol, Brsl. 1330.

Cellarius see Keller.

Centner see Zentner.

Charbonnier: ‘charcoal burner’, Huguenot name.

Charisius see Carius.

Charitas: Catholic Ln. (Lat. caritas ‘love’), from the Christian concept of love.

Charlotte (Lotte): from Fr. Charles (= Ger. Karl), a fashionable name in the 18th c. due to French cultural influence (Bahlow VN, p. 18).

Chmelius: Czech. chmel ‘hops’, chmelar(z) ‘hop grower’.

Christ- see Krist-, Kirst-.

Christine: well known on account of Gustavus Adolphus’s daughter, the Queen of Sweden and the movie about her; in the 18th c. Christiane was the usual form. Sh.f. Christa, Christel; archaic: Stine, Tine.

Christoffer, Stoffer, Stoffel, Stöffel, Toffel, Töffel: mean Saint Christopher (Christ bearer). Hence the patr. Christophersen (Schleswig-Holstein), especially popular in UGer. Rhine area.

Chrysander see Goldmann.

Cilljacks see Silljacks.

Cirks(ena) see Sierich.

Claudia: fashionable f.n., popularized by film and theater; fem. form of Claudius (name of Roman emperor, also saint’s name. Fr. St. Claude, hence in Rhineland f.n. Klodius; in Holstein also for Claussen: cf. Matthias Claudius).

Cohn (Cahn): Jewish, Hebrew Cohen ‘priest’.

Cordes (LGer., freq.) see Kordes.

Cording, Cordes see Kording.

Cordua see Kordewan.

Cordula: saint’s name (Lat. ‘little heart’), from the Ursula legend, Corinna: legendary Greek poetess; known as f.n. from Ovid’s paramour.

Corleis (freq. Hbg.); Corleus, Corleissen: = UGer. Kirleis, Kyrieleis (“Lord, have mercy”) liturgical name. Cf. monk Heinrich Kyrieleison, Brombach 1277. Herman Corloys (Curleys), Ro. 1292, Paul Corleis, Harsefeld 1790; shortened MLG loise, leise (‘hymn’) (hence Loische ‘little louse’ by Fritz Reuter).

Cornelia (Nele, E. Conny): ancient Roman f.n.; also Goethe’ “dear little sister” bore this name.

Cornelius see Nehls.

Corona (Lat. ‘garland, crown’). saint’s n.; cf. Corona Schröter, opera singer honored by Goethe.

Corvinus (Lat.) = ‘raven’.

Cotta: pl.n./Sax. Des Coudres: Fr. n. of orig., cf. Des Moulins (from the windmills).

Cramm (von): pl.n. Cramme near Wolfenbüttel (Hinrik (von) Cramme, Haldsl. 1400).

Crecelius: Humanist name for Krekzel, Krätzel = Pankraz.

Credo: Lat. ‘I believe’, liturgical.

Creizenach (Jewish) = pl.n. Kreuznach.

Crescentia: saint venerated in U.Bav. (sh.f. Zenzi); Lat. crescere ‘to grow’.

Curtius see Kurz.

Cyriacus see Silljacks.

Czeck: see Tscheck.

Czeppan: see Tscheppan.

Czerny see Tschern-.

Czettritz (von): Sil. noble family. Cf. pl.n. Zetteritz in Sax.

D

Daab: ‘swampy tract of land’ (still used in Hessian), LGer. dabbe (Dabbe-lo), Swedish dave.

Daa(c)ke (von): loc.n., related to MLG dak ‘reed’ (Dakhorst, Dakwerder, Dakwisch).

Daam(s) see Dahms.

Daasch (Hbg.): E Ger. pl.n. like Laasch, Zaasch; see also Daschke.

Dabbert: (E Ger.) not = Tabbert, but rather = Dobbert. Cf. Dab(b)erkow for Doberkow, Dabergotz for Dobergost.

Däbeler, Däbel (Meckl.): = MLG dobeler ‘dice player, dice thrower’, in Hbg.: Döbeler. Concerning ä for ö (short!), cf. Meckl. Kähler for Köhler. Bernhard Dobelere, Bremen 1317; A. Dobelere, 14th c. farmer near Rostock. Also Döbbeler, Berlin 1455. Cf. Dreidoppel, Knochen-döppel, Knacken-döppel; Döpelheuer; compare Vifundetwe, Lüb. 1337, Quaterdry etc.

Dabelstein, Dabelsteen, Dobbelstein (LGer.): = dobel-sten ‘die’, the dice-player or dice-thrower. See also Däbeler. Dobelsten, Kolberg 1315, Lüneburg 1354.

Daber, Dabermann (Pom.): pl.n. Daber in Pom. (freq.). Cf. Dabel: pl.n. in Meckl.

Dabergotz: pl.n. near Neuruppin (Slav. Dobergost).

Däberitz (Leipzig, Dresden): pl.n. in Sax. (cf. Döberitz).

Daberkow (Dobberkau): pl.n. in Pom. (twice), Slav. Doberkow.

Dach, Dacher, Dachauer: MHG tahe, dahe ‘clay, mud, swamp’, Dachgrube ‘clay pit’, (cf. the Dachauer Moos [Dachau Bog] on the Isar River). Ulrich Dach, Würt. 1220.

Dachröder: from Dachröden, Dachrieden near Mühlhausen in Thur. (like Bleichröder etc.). Cf. Karoline von D, (Wilhelm von Humboldt’s, wife).

Dachs: UGer. = ‘badger’, probably name of a badger hunter.

Dachstein: pl.n. in Alsace (Wolfgang D., reformer in Strasb.).

Dachtler: (Würt.) pl.n. Dachtel near Calw.

Dade, Daden (Hbg., Meckl.): = Dode, Doden Fris. f.n. (cf. Bade for Bode).

Daffner, Daffinger see Deffner. Cf. Daffenreither: pl.n. ending in -reuth.

Dageför(de): ‘ford through a swamp or bog’, place near Celle. For dag see Bahlow ON, p. 69.

Dagge (Münster): MLG = ‘dagger, long knife’; cf. Beseler, Pook, Rüting, Stekemest.

Dahinden(an): UGer.-Swiss, dwelling n. [at the rear].

Dahl(mann): LGer., living in the valley. Cf. also pl.n. Dahl, Dahle, freq. in Westph.

Dahlke (Hbg., Meckl., Pom.): Dalike is sh.f. of Slav. pers.n. Dalibor, Dalimir (dal- ‘gift’). Cf. pl.n. Dalichow, Dalkau and others. H. Daleke, Riyn 1538.

Dahm, Dahms, Dahmke: N Ger. = Adam, Adams. Dam von Hamme = Adam von Hamme, Holstein 1359, Dam (Dameke) Vos, Hbg. 1343, Dahm Heiß = Adam Heiß, Marmagen 1649.

Dahme, Dahmen: pl.n. Dahme in Holstein and Brandenburg, pl.n. Dahmen in Meckl. (Dame in historical documents); cf. A. von der Dame, Oschatz 1529.

Dahmke see Dahm.

Dahmlos: pl.n. Damlos in Holstein. (Kay Dahmlos, Preetz 1699.)

Dahn: pl.n. in the Pal. (also Dahnen in the Eifel). Cf. Bahlow ON, p. 69.

Dähn, Dähne (freq. in Hbg.): the Dane.

Dähnhardt, Dähnert: ancient pers.n., as far back as 742, 784 Denehardus, Denihart (Stark, p. 50). See also Degenhard.

Dahse see Dohse.

Dahnke, Dähneke, Dänecke, Dänick (Hbg., Meckl.): sh.f. of Slav. Danislaw (dan- ‘gift’, cf. Bogdan ‘gift of God’).

Daiber (Würt.): = Täuber (MHG tiuber), ‘dove breeder’, or MHG töuber ‘wind instrument player, musician’, U. Täuber (Daiber), Ebingen 1578.

Daigl see Deeg.

Daimler (UGer.-Swab.): = Deimler = Däumler. (Daumler in Moravia 1397).

Daisch, Deisch, Deischle (UGer.-Swab.): MHG teisch = ‘dung’, cf. Kiedaisch ‘cow dung’.

Dalberg: pl.n. near Kreuznach and Schwerin.

Dalldorf (Hbg.): pl.n. Dalldorf (Han., Brandenburg), Daldorf near Segeberg.

Dallmann: pl.n. Dalle near Cello.

Dallineier, Dallmayr (Bav.), Daller: dalle ‘damp pit’.

Dallmer: pl.n. in Westph.

Dallüge: Slav. pl.n. in Pom.

Dalp, Dapp: clumsy (NHG täppisch; MHG talpe, tape ‘paw’).

Dalsche: ‘blusterer’ (related to LGer. delschen); Johann Dalsche, Westph. 1228, Herman D., Stralsund 1330, Henr. Dalscevoet, Hbg. 1296; Berndt Delscher, Riga 1565.

Dalwigk: pl.n. in Waldeck.

Damaschke (E Ger.-Slav.): like Domaschke = Thomas.

Damas(t), Dammast (E Ger-Slav.): Damast, Quedlinburg 1727, Damasch 1731; probably = Damaschke.

Damek: = Adamek, Slav. for Adam.

Dam(e)s see Dahms.

Damian, Damiani, Domian, Dohmjan: the martyrs Damian and Kosmas (twin brothers) were physicians in Asia Minor, hence patron saints of physicians and pharmacists; also in Bohemia.

Damm, Dammann: related to pl.n. (loc.n.) Damm, Damme (Oldenburg, Rhineland, Brandenburg, Pom.). Bernerus de Damme, Stettin 1296 (= Altdamm).

Dammer(mann): pl.n. Dammer (Sil., several times).

Dammers, Dammert (LGer.): = Dankmar, popular in the North Sea coastal area (also recorded as Tammarus in Lübeck around 1350).

Damp (Holstein): pl.n. near Kiel. But also (Danish?) pers.n.: Dampo Lauesen 1567, son: Lago Damponis, Schleswig 1605.

Danckelmann (statesman of the Great Electoral Prince): cf. pl.n. Dankelmannshof in Pom., Dankelmert in Westph., Dankelshausen near Göttingen. Also Dankelbrink in Hannover. Hilge Dankelshausen and Hans Dankel, Burg near Magdeburg 1396 (cf. E. dank). Dankelman, Bremen 1306.

Dandl(er): (Bav.-Austrian-Bohemian) = MHG tendeler ‘secondhand dealer’ (buy/sell used clothes), Sudetenlandic Tandler (E. Schwarz, p. 315: Tendel, Tendler, Tandler).

Danehl, Dangel, Dengel, see Daniel.

Danger, Dangers (freq. in Hbg.): variants of Danker(s) = Dankwart; cf. pl.n. Dangersen near Harburg.

Daniel(s): the prophet (Hebrew ‘God is my judge’), in Hbg. as early as 1268: Joh. fil. Danielis [son of Daniel] Also Danielsen (patr., LGer.), Danigel, Dang(e)l (Dangel = Daniel Besserer, Ulm 15th C.), Dannöhl, Dann(n)lehl, Danneil. Cf. E Pruss.-Lith. Dangeleit. Latin Danelius; Jewish Danielsohn,

Dan(c)kert, Dankers, Danker (freq, in Hbg.), also Dankwardt, Dankwerth, Dankwirth, Dankworth: a popular pers.n. in Hbg., Bremen, Lüb, Ro., etc. in 1200-1300, likewise Volkward, Detward, Adalward, etc. Dankwart is the name of Hagen’s brother in the medieval epic Nibelungenlied. (dank = ‘thought’). Cf. Danklehf (Danklefsen, like Detlef): also Deinkleff (Dankleff, Bremen 1421); LGer.-Fris. -lef (UGer. –leib) means ‘offspring’ With umlaut (Fris.), cf. Denker.

Dankmar: also Dankwart, popular Ger. pers.n. (Dankmar Crome, Lübeck 14th c.). See also Thamm.

Dannehl etc. see Daniel.

Dannemann: name from origin or dwelling place. [Tanne = ‘pine tree’] B. van der Dannen, Col. 1389. Micheel Danneman Bremen 1466.

Danner (UGer.): = Thanner (likewise Oberdanner, Oberthanner). Related to loc.n. and pl.n. Thann (MHG der tan = ‘pine forest’, still so in Uhland’s works). Numerous examples in Bav., also Würt., Switz. (P. Danner, Solothurn 1362).

Dannheißer (UGer.) see Tannhäuser.

Dantzer (UGer.): = ‘dancer’ (also in the sense of minstrel). Joh. Dantzer, Ellwangen 1484. Cf. also Dantzfuß (H. Danzevuoß, near Mainz 1281), LGer. H. Danczevoet, Han. 1393, Dantzgeschier, Erfurt 1551, Dancekron, Lüb. 14th c., Danzeglocke, Danczewol, Frkf. 1384, Makedanz, Regedanz, Rördanz, Lobedanz.

Dapper (L.Rhine Dappers): LGer., as early as 1294 Joh. Dapper in Rostock, Hinr. Dapper, Stralsund 1327, W. Dapper, Düren 1599. ‘A brave one’. Also Dappermann (Westph.). In Cologne, besides Dapper, also Wrinrich Dappart 1286.

Darboven (LGer.): ‘living up there’, cf. Darnedden.

Darfschlag (Pom.): corruption of Slav. Dargoslaw (Witte, p. 186), dargu, dragu = ‘dear’ (cf. Dragatz, Dargatz), Slav. ‘fame’. Cf. Brettschlag, Rettschlag, Rottschlag, Siedschlag, Wendschlag (Wenzlaff). Dargheslav, Darchslav, Ro. 1270.

Dargatz, Dragatz, Dargusch (E Ger. Meckl., Pom.): related to Slav. pers.ns. Dargoslaw (see Darfschlag) and Dargomir.

Dargemann: from Dargen in Pom., like Dolgemann from Dolgen. Cf. also pl.n. Dargast in Rügen, Dargun in Meckl.

Darjes see Dörries. (Tewes Darges, Darriges, Bastorf in Meckl. 1552).

Darnedden (LGer.): ‘living down there’ (cf. Darboven). Hans darnedden, Lippe 1590. Also Dernedden (Derboven); but L.Rhine Ternedden, Tornedden (= Zurnedden).

Dartmann: cf. Dartlage near Rahden in Westph., Dertmoor in Westph. (like Dartmoor in England), with Dart River (Derte). dert means ‘bog’ (Bahlow ON, p. 75).

Dartsch: Henne mit der darschen, Frkf. 1351. MHG tar(t)sche: an oval shield (of beech wood, with leather), also setztarsche (with point for putting it down on). A Heinr. tatischener, Liegnitz 1372. (For further details see Bahlow, Studien, p. 144.)

Dasbach, Dasbeck: ‘bog creek’. Pl.n., several places (in Taunus, Rhineland, Westph.). Cf. Daslage (in Hase Bog), Daßwang in Bav., Dassel at Solling Forest.

Daschke, Daske (E Ger.): sh.f. of Slav. pers.n. Daslaw, like Raschke from Raslaw.

Dasch(n)er, Dasch(l) (UGer.) see Taschner: Cf. Raudaschl (Bav.); Däschle(r) (Würt.); Dasche (Tasche), Strasb. 1289.

Dase, Dahse see Dohse, Dose.

Daseler: MHG taselen ‘to pet, stroke’.

Dassel: pl.n. at Solling Forest, originally Das-lo (like Assel: As-lo), from das ‘bog’. Likewise Dasse, Dass derived from pl.n. Dassen in the Rhön Mts., Diss(e) from Dissen.

Dassler (freq. in Lpz.): pl.n. Dasslau.

Dassow, Dassau: pl.n. (Meckl., Pom.).

Datterer: MHG tateren ‘chatter’.

Dathe, Daten also Thate(n) see Dade, Daden (= Dode, Fris.).

Dau, Dauen (freq. in E Friesland and Hbg.): Old Fris. pers.n. Douwo Poppena 1420, Herman Douwama, Oldenburg 1420 (Stark p. 175; Strackerjan p. 40, 30). Freq. in all coastal towns from Bremen to Königsberg. But see Daumann.

Daube: dialect form of “Taube”, also Dauber, Daubert: one who breeds doves. A house “zu der Duben” in Worms 1352, cf. Benz von der Duben, Speyer 1288 (MHG Tube ‘dove’). Also C. dûbendûscher ‘dove dealer’, H. Dûben-ey, Frkf. 1387. LGer. Duwe, Duve (cf. Duwenspeck, Duvenkrul-Dubenkropp, Schönduwe, Schöndube). UGer. cf. Daubenschütz, Daubenmerkl, Daubenschmidt. But Hertwin der Daube, Wetzlar 1323, means the ‘deaf one’, UGer. Daub, Daubmann, Taub, Taubmann, LGer. Dove, Dowe.

Däubler, Deubler, Deibler (UGer.) = ‘dove dealer, dove breeder’. Däuble.

Daucher (UGer.-Swab.): living on the Dauch (= ‘bog, moor’); cf. Dauchingen. A woodcarver Adolf Daucher in Ulm (around 1500).

Daud(e): UGer.-Würt. field n. Dude, Daude = ‘swamp, reed’; details in Bahlow, Deutschlands Fluß- und Ortsnamen (1962), p. 62; Buck, Oberdeutsche Flurnamen, p. 51. Dauden-Berg on Eder Lake.

Daudistel (Rheinhessen): pl.n. Bitburg district, Eifel.

Dauenhauer (U.Rhine):= ‘cooper , barrelmaker’; Swab. Dauge (MHG düge, CentrGer. dübe, Ger. Daube, ‘stave of a barrel’ (Latin doga). Claus Dugenhauer, Baden 1480, H. Dawehauer, Pfungstadt 1538.

Dauer: pl.n. in Uckermark.

Dauger, Dauerer (UGer.) see Dauenhauer.

Daum (LGer. Duhm): having prominent thumbs (archaic dûme). Cf. Graf Ulrich mit dem Daumen [Count Ulrich with the thumb] (in Würt. about 1250), also Däumling [little thumb]. Henneke mit dem dûmen, Brsw. 1373; Dumelose [thumbless], Liegnitz 1372, also W. Drydumen [three thumbs] 1349 (obscene!). Daumenlang (Bav.), also Däumling, Deimling; LGer. Dühmeling.

Daumann: cf. the field n. Daue (Rhineland, Westph.), Joh. vome Dawe, Col. 1241; in der Dauen. Dauriede in Westph.; Daudiek in the Stade district.

Däunder, Dainfler (UGer.): = ‘torturer’ (with the thumbscrew), related to MHG diumeln.

Daun: pl.n. in the Eifel near Dhaun on the Nahe River (Dune in old documents). Related to the bog word dun: Bahlow ON, p. 71.

Daunderer see Donderer.

Daunicht (Hbg.): dialect = LGer. Donicht (Pom.) “do nothing.”

Daus see Duus.

Dausch, Däuschle (Swab.): ‘sow’, an old peasant name, e.g. in the Lenten plays of the 15th c., where the peasant girl is called Tausch, Täuschel. Hermann Tusche (Dusch) 1350-81; “a monk known as Tausch” 1618. Similarly Deusch(le). See Brech., I, p. 298-99.

Dausend, Dausendschön: actually LGer. Dusend(schön) see Tausend, Dusend.

Dauthendey: probably a field n., see Bubendey. For daut ‘reed’ see Daude. Cf. pl.n. Dautphe (Dud-afa) on the Lahn, Dautenheim, Dauden-Berg, etc.

David: see Bahlow, VN.

Debbert see Dibbert.

Debes, Debus: SW Ger. = Thebes (cf. Thebesius) = LGer. Tewes: Matthäus (Matthew). Cf. Thebus = Matthebus Hirter, Konstanz 16th c., Debaß Reinhart, Würt. 1542.

Debold, Debald, Debelt (Pal., U.Rhine), see Diebold.

Debray: Huguenot name.

Debrunner: pl.n. Debrunnen (Switzerland).

Debstedt: pl.n. N of Bremen (a boggy place).

Dechan(d)t: MHG techan(t), dechent (Lat. decanus): one in charge of ten persons, also guildmaster and supervisor of yearly market. Clewin Dechan, Alsace 1370, Dytr. known as Techand, Dux in Bohemia 1413; J. Dönes, glazier, known as Techant, Görlitz 1515. H. Dechent, Kassel 1515.

Dechow, Dechau: pl.n. near Ratzeburg.

Dechsel, Dächsel: UGer., cf. MHG dechsel ‘hatchet’ (cf. David Deichsel, Dechsel, Liegnitz 1562). There is a place Dechsel on the Warthe River.

Decke (freq. in Dresden, Breslau): sh.f. for Deckewert (Dresden, Görlitz) = ‘weaver or maker of blankets and braiders of mats’; In Frkf.: Deckelacher = ‘maker of sheets or coverlets’. Also Deckerner (Frkf., Lpz., Dresden, Breslau), Sil. tekener.

Decken (von der): related to pl.n. Alt-Decken on the Oste River. But cf. LGer. Deecke(n).

Decker, Deckert, L.Rhine Deckers: ‘roofer’. Ulrich Deckere, Strasb. 1251, W. deckere, Lüb. 1350, Hugo lemdecker, Ro. 1280; Leiendecker (Rhineland) means slater. Deckert is Sax.-Sil., with secondary t like Weiner(t) for Wagner; Peucker(t), Kleiner(t), Rücker(t), etc. (For further details see: Bahlow, Teuthonista vol. 3, 1926-27, p. 34). In Würt. and Switzerland also the variant Deck(e): Brech., p.282

De(c)kner (Sax., Sil.): in old documents Tekener, = ‘manufacturer of teken (blankets, mats) (also woven from reeds)’, see also Decke. Wenczlow tekener, Brsl. 1345, Jesk tekner 1359 (also H. tekensnider 1369) Iglau. Nic. tekenschreiber, Budweis 1390 (E. Schwarz p. 314, Reichert p. 148; Bahlow, Diss., p. 144).

Deckwer(th), Deckwart(h): in Sachsen-Oberlausitz = ‘blanket maker, blanket Weaver’ (see Deckener, Decke), cf. Schuwert, Schuwart, Schuwort (MHG worchte = ‘maker’). Michael Deckwerth, Görlitz 1662.

Dede, Dedeke (Deecke), LGer.: sh.f. of Dederich, Dedelef, Dedeward, etc. (ded = did = diot ‘people’). Dedeke = Dethard Osterwold, Han. 1431-42; Gerhard Dhedeke Lüb. 1298. Thede (Thedeke) Stolter, Hbg. 1292. A patronymic (Westph.) is Dedekind (F. Dedecindus 1543) for Dedeking (cf. Sieveking, Gödeking), similarly Wedekind, Wedeking.

Dederer (Würt.): ‘stammerer’ (like Doderer). Heinrich D., Öhringen 1615.

Dederichs see Diederichs.

Dedering see Detharding.

Deder(mann), Deter(mann) see Detharding, Diederichs. Similarly Dedersen.

Deding (LGer.-Fris.): patr. from Dede. Alerd Deding, Oldenburg 1502.

Dedlow: pl.n. Dedelow in Uckermark. 1382: Degenere, in Stralsund 1420: Dedolph see Dethlof, Dethlef.

Dee(c)ke, Deeken: LGer.-Fris., originally Dedeke(n), see Dede. Cf. Fris. Dekena. For LGer. loss of dental sound between vowels cf. also Göcke for Gödecke; Lücke for Lüdeke.

Deede see Dede.

Deeg Hbg.: Dutch-LGer. = ‘dough’, name of a baker like Surdech (sourdough). Cf. UGer. Daigl.

Deemering (Hbg.), Detmering see Dietmar.

Deepholt see Diepholz.

Deeßen (L.Rhine): = Matthäus [Matthew].

Deetjen (Fris.) = LGer. Dedeken, see Dede.

Deetz: pl.n. (Brandenburg, Altmark, Anhalt).

Defner, Deffner (UGer.): hitherto uninterpreted, a dialectally altered form derived ultimately from Deffinger (pl.n. Deffingen in Swabia, formerly Tafingen), like the variant Duf(f)ner from Duffinger (pl.n. Tufingen); cf. also Usener for Usinger, Hettner for Hettinger, etc. In old documents for example a Hans Daffinger, Immenstaad on Lake Constance 1524, is also referred to as H. Taffen; later umlaut occurs as in the pl.n. In Konstanz cf. Caspar Deffner, 1471: in Gutach: K. Dufner (Duffner) 1840, near Triberg: H. Tuffner 1488, in Überlingen: A. Tufinger 1226. Ultimately derived from tuf, taf (Swab. duft, daft, etc.) = ‘heath, bog’ (Bahlow ON, pp. 490, 473-4). Cf. Tuffmoos (Buck, p. 47).

Defregger: from Defregg(en) in Pustertal in Tyrol, where the painter Franz D. came from.

Degeding (LGer.): ‘court proccedings, trial’. Johann Degeding, Haldsl. ca. 1330.

Degen: OHG degan, MHG degen ‘free man, warrior, young hero’ (freq. so in the Nibelungenlied: “Sivrit was geheißen der snelle degen Zuot”), also ‘follower, vassal’. Also sh.f. of the pers.n. Degenhard: Degenhart (Degelin) of Gundelfingen 1324; H. Degen (Tegen), Sindelfgn. 1413; J. Tegenlin, Freiburg 1350.

Deg(e)ner (LGer.): current about 1300 for Degenhard, thus in Greifswald 1385-86: Henning Deghener (Deghenard): in Bremen Deghener Buggenhagen, in Han. 1401: Deghenerd Gudesin, elsewhere also Degheneke. Degneke, Hamelin 1418.

Degering (Westph.-LGer. patr.): cf. Deghere around 1100 (Werden on the Ruhr), Gerwin and Herman Degkere, Ro. around 1270, Deygere, Lüneburg 1312.

Degler, Degel: Dutch-LGer. Degel = ‘(earthenware) pot’. Hinrich Deghel, Lüb. 1339.

Dehde see Dode.

Dehio: of Italian origin (cf. Mussolini’s mother: Adelheid Dehio); a knight Giovanni de Hio 1310 as standard bearer of Emperor Henry VII. (Brech. p. 285).

Dehl(s), Dehlsen (LGer.), also Dehle, Dehling, Delius (Deling, Lüb. 1322): sh.f. of Dietrich (Dederich).

Dehler, Dehlert: from Döhlau near Hof in Bav., like Döhler from Döhlen in Sax.

Dehmel (Sil., U.Lausitz, Bohemia): dialect form for original Thömel = Thomas. Also Dähmel, Döhmel, Thämelt, Demel(t), cf. Bahlow SN, p. 56, with statistics and notes of occurrence. In Brsl. 1375: Thömel Beyr, Temil winczeppe; in Liegnitz 1545: Thomas Thömel, in Görlitz 1542: C. Dömel: in Bohemia around 1400. Tömel, Teml, Demel. Also [the writer] Richard Dehmel was a Silesian. Cf. also pl.n. Demling in Bav.: Tömlingen 1323. Caspar Dömel, Liegnitz 1520.

Dehn, Dehne (cf. Dehneke): the Dane (Denmark’a sphere of influence in the Middle Ages extended beyond the Eider River). Dene, Lüb., Ro., Greifswald, Stralsund, 1300-1400.

Dehn(e)cke: LGer. sh.f. of Denhard = Degenhard. Deneke Scroder, son Deneke, Haldsl. 1458; Nikol Deneke, Greifswald 1399. Similarly Dehning (Hbg.).

Dehnert, Dehnhardt see Dähnhardt and Degenhard.

Dehnkamp: Westph.-Dutch Denekamp (like Venekamp), cf. Denebrok, related to LGer.-Westph. dene ‘moist depression’ (Bahlow ON, p. 73); kamp ‘field’.

Dehns: Fris. f.n. Deno.

Deible see Deuble, Däuble.

Deibler = Däubler = Täubler (Deus Theibler, Ulm 1530).

Deichelbohrer see Deuchler.

Deichert = Teichert (Sax., Sil.).

Deichmann (Hbg.) see Dieckmann and Teichmann.

Deichsel, Deichsler see Deisler.

Dei(c)ke (freq. in Hbg.), Deicken, Deycks: very old Fris.-L.Sax. pers.n. in Westph. as early as 10th c. (Freckenhorst): Deiko.

Deierling see Deuerling.

Deifel(e) see Teufel.

Deigendesch (Würt.): corruption of Steigentesch [get into the pocket] (sentence name), cf. Hans Smid known as Steigindtaschen, 15th c., a ‘pickpocket’, typical name of “travelers,” of journeymen and the like (cf. Brech., “Springinsfeld …,” 1937).

Deigmann, Deigmüller = Deichmann, Dieckmann.

Deikstra, Dykstra (Fris.): ‘living by the dike’, cf. Brookstra, Feenstra (“am Veen” = ‘by the bog, heath’).

Deimer (Hbg.): pl.n. Deimern in Soltau.

Deimler, Deimling see Däumler, Däumling. Deumler, Deimler, Frkf. 1489.

Dein, Deyn (von): Hbg., from the LGer.-Westph. field ns. Deine, Dene ‘moist depression’ (Bahlow ON, p. 73).

Deinhardt, Deinert, Deinlein = Degenhard, see Dihnhardt, also Dehnert. Cf. P. Deinhardt (Degenhardt), Marburg 1559-86. Related to Deindl (Bav.), cf. Meindl.

Deininger: from Deining(en) in Bav., occurs several times.

Deiringer: from Deuringen in Bav.

Deisch(le), Swab.: see Daisch.

Deiseroth, Deuseroth. pl.n. ending in -rode [forest clearing] in Thur.

Deising (Hbg.): like Deusing, L.Rhine Westph. patronymic from Deis, Deus: Matthias, Matthäus.

Deisinger: from Deising in Bav.

Deiß, Deis, Deißmann: Rhineland nickn. for Matthias [Matthew], cf. Deus(sen).

Deißler, Deichsler, Deixler, Deichsel (Sil., Sax., Sud.): ‘shaft maker, cartwright, wagon maker wainwright’: der deyßler, near Eger 1476, Cunat Deychselman, Leitomischl 1415; Hans Deißler (Deichsel), Liegnitz 1534, David Deichsel (Dechsel!), Liegnitz 1562 (in Sil. also pl.n. Deichslau, Deißlaw 1372, and river name “Schnelle [Swift] Deichsel” (Haynau). Bahlow SN, p. 81).

Deißmann see Deiß.

Deißner (UGer.) pl.n. Deising, Theusing; see Defner.

Deister: a wooded mountain range between the Leine and Weser rivers, named for the nature of its soil (Bahlow ON, p. 73).

Deistler see Deißler.

Deistung: from Teistungen near Duderstadt (see Bahlow ON, p. 73, and article “T” in Niederdeutsches Korrespondenzblatt 1961).

Deiter(s), Deittert: see Deter(s).

Deken, Dekena (Fris.) see Deecke. For LGer. Decken cf. MHG deken ‘dean’. (Also ‘superior’ in general, e.g. of the Kaland Brotherhood, thus in Pfaffen Könemann, Götze p. 11).

Dekker, Dekkert see Decker.

Delbrück: pl.n. in Westph. For the water word del see Bahlow ON, p. 74.

Delfs, Delff (Fris.) = Detleft(s), see there. Cf. Melfs for Meinlefs.

Delitzsch: pl.n. (NE of Lpz.).

Delius see Dehl.

Delk(n)er (Lippe): from the Delkene, now Dalke, a swampy creek near Gütersloh.

Delle(mann): from Delle near Dortmund.

Deller (Westph.): also Schleidfeller, from the field and pl.n. Delle, cf. the Deller Bog near Schwelm, also Dellenbusch, Delwig, Delbeck, Delbrück, etc. Cord Delle, Han. 1391.

Delling: pl.n. near Cologne.

Delp (UGer.): cf. Swiss Dalp: talp: ‘paw’.

Delzig: pl.n. Dölzig near Lpz.

Deman(d)t, Diemant: the gemstone diamond (MHG diemant). Jacob Diemant, Switz. 1588.

Demann, Themann (UGer.) = Thomann = Thoma(s).

Demel(t), Deml see Dehmel.

Demitter, Dem(e)ter see Dimitter, Dimter.

Demke (E Ger.): = Thömke = Thomas. Similarly Demchen: Themechin Hase, Kolin near Prague 1382, Francz Thömechin, Kolin 1386.

Demmer, Demmler, Demmel (Bav.): ‘glutton’ (“Demmel” in the Bav. folksong), related to MHG demmen ‘to feast’.

Dempewolf, Dempewulf (Han., Brsw., Hbg., Dortmund, Bonn): LGer. sentence name for hunter, “choke (extirpate) the wolf.”

Demus, Domes: = Nicodemus, disciple of Jesus (cf. Slav. Nikodemski). Demus Schwartzmann, Ulm 1550, Hans Demuß, Jena 1572.

Demuth: MHG diemuot, demuot, ‘humility, modesty’, a female Christian n. expressing the Christian virtue, fairly common around 1200-1300 especially among the knightly class: Demut, female friend of the knight Winther of Redilnheim, Frkf. 1335; Demut teylerynne, Liegnitz 1429; Hans Demut, Friedland in Bohemia 1381; Emercho filius Demudis [Emercho son of Demuth], Ingelheim 1336; C. Demutenman, near Tübingen 1383; Chr. Demuter, near Böblingen 1463. N. Dymuter, Iglau 1377.

Denck- see Denk-.

Den(c)ker (freq. in Hbg.), also Denkert: is a Fris-LGer. variant of Danker, Dankert (= Dankwart), cf. Fris. Denkena (patronymic genitive plural) like Haijena, Ukena, Siebena. Denker(us), Bremen 1348, Denker, Lüneburg 1302, Greifswald 1362.

Dendler, see Dandler; cf. Tendler.

Denecke, Denicke, Dänecke, Dähnke: nickn. for Denhard, Dähnhard = Degenhard, along the Baltic Sea coast and in Brandenburg; but cf. the Fris. L. Thorwaldsen in Hadersleben, who in 1616 was called Denek by the outside world; see Dehneke.

Dengel see Dangel. (Hans Dängel = Hans Daniel: Nied, p. 36).

Deng(g), Dengs (UGer., Alem.-Swab.:) like Theng, sh.f. of St. Antheng, i.e. St. Anthony, once popular as the patron saint of farmers and pigs (Nied, Heiligenverehrung, p. 77; Bahlow, VN, p. 8). The form Deng also in e.g. Thomas Murner’s Schelmenzunft. (A. Götze, pp. 55-56.)

Denger (Würt., Switz.) = Tenger: ‘from Tengen’. (Tenger, 1439, Denger 1597).

Dengler (UGer.): like Tengler (Tyrol) one who sharpens scythes by hammering or beating (MHG tengeln, cf. OHG tangol ‘hammer’). K. Tengeler, Würt. 1339.

Denhardt see Dähnhard, Degenhard.

Denifle, Denöffl, Danneffel: (UGer.-Bav.-Aust.): from Denifle in Carinthia.

Dening (Hbg.), also Dehning, see Dehnecke.

Denk (like Tenk): UGer.-Bav. = ‘left, clumsy’ (still so today in Bav.). Also Johannn Denk, the Anabaptist, was a Bavarian (from Upper Pal.). Rudgerus Tenko, Aussee in Austria 1301.

Denner (Würt., Franc.): = Tenner, as Danner = Tanner, related to the field n. and pl.n. T(h)ann (a region with “Tannen”, i.e. pine trees). Johann Denner, Schweinfurt 1498 (cf. H. Tennler uff der Tannen, in Allgäu 1451). With -t: Dennert, later distorted to Dennhardt (like Tennert to Tennhardt, Dannert to Dannhardt.)

Denninger: pl.n. Denning in Bav. or Danningen (Tanningen in Baden). cf. Ulrich Tenninger 1340. For Denning cf. Dennig.

Denser (LGer.): = Däntzer ‘dancer’. Herman Densere, Soest 1309, Cord Denser, Hildesheim 1384.

Denys, Denis (L.Rhine): = Sintenis = St. Dionysius (Fr. St. Denis), a saint (auxiliary saint).

Denzler, Denzel Denzle (Würt.): dancer (also fiddler), MHG tenzeler. Hans Denzler, Zurich 1440, Michael Denczel (Dentzer!), Blaubeuren 1513, Clas Tenczel, Kempten 1423; W. dictus [called] Danziler (Tanziler), Reutlingen 1267 (Brech. p. 272, 291). Also related is Dentz: Clas Dentze, Lorch 1366, C. Dentz (Tentz), Konstanz 1325, with i-umlaut; cf. Volmar Tanzi, Zurich 1262.

Depenheuer (L.Rhine), also Doppensnyder: means a manufacturer of wooden tubs or pots (doppe, duppe); cf. Düppenbäcker (potter) and Düppengießer, Cologne 1272, also Düppenmann 1244; Doppengieter, Wesel 1609 (Hagström, p. 310).

Depmer (LGer.): assimilated from Detmar: cf. Herm Depmars (Dethmars), near Depmold 1491: nowadays Detmold.

Deppe (freq. in Hbg.), Deppen, Depke(n); Depping: Ludeke Deppeke, Han. 1451 (cf. Diliendeppe, Dilgenbartold, Lippe 1537, Deppe van Geldern, Lippe 1571); LGer. nickn. for Detbern, see Dibbern.

Deppermann (Han., Dortmund, Essen): Simon Deppermann, Westph. 1645. Cf. Dappermann (Westph.).

Deppisch (Bav.): MHG täpisch ‘clumsy’.

Dep(p)ner (without lip rounding [ö]), see Döp(p)ner.

Derbe: cf.pl.n. Derben near Genthien. UGer. Derb: ‘coarse, crude’ (Jörg Derb, Weilheim 1522), literally ‘unleavened’, as in Derpbrot pistor [baker of coarse bread], Brs. 1362.

Derboven, Derboben see Darboven.

Derchner: pl.n. Derching in Bav.

Derda(u): E Ger.-Slav. pl.n.

Dereser: from Theres on the Main near Schweinfurt (in documents Tatissa ‘foul water’, for details see Bahlow ON, p. 480). Thomas A. Dereser from Franconia 1757 ff.

Derfert (UGer.): dialect for Dörfert = Dörfler ‘villager’.

Derfflinger: from Dörfling in U.Austria; also, the “General of the Cavalry” of the Great Elector came from U.Austria. Cf. also the pl.n. Dörfling in Bav.

Derholtz: Westph. pl.n. Dernholt ‘muddy, decaying woods’, cf. Derbecke, Dermecke, Der(n)born, Der(n)schlade, Derscheid (Bahlow ON, p. 75).

Derichs (Cologne), Dericks; LGer. and L.Rhine for Dederichs. (Bernd Derichsen, Wesel 1609.)

Derkum: pl.n. Rhineland (old form: Derk-heim; derk ‘dirty water’, Bahlow ON, p. 74).

Dermer (like Darmer): Slav. pers.n. ending in -mir, like Tesmer, Jarmer, Jermer.

Dern: Derne in Westph., Dern on the L.Rhine, Dehrn on the Lahn (Indo-European der(n) ‘mud, mire, dirt’, as in Dernbach etc.: Bahlow ON, p. 75).

Dernedde see Darnedden.

Dernehl: Slav. like Possehl, Baggehl.

Derr (UGer.-E Ger.) = Dörr, Dürr: one who is dour, dry, sullen. Georg der Derr, Vienna 1388.

Dersch (E Ger.): Slav., like pl.n. Derschau (U.Sil., E Pruss., also Dirschau). Cf. Derska. See Dirschke.

Dertinger: from Derdingen in Würt. or Dertingen in Baden.

Der(t)z: pl.n. in E Prussia.

Desch(n)er: dial. for Teschner ‘bag maker’ (cf. Wigand deschenmecher, Frkf. 1383, also Rotdesche, Güldendesche). In Würt.

Deschler (Claus Deschler, Täschler, Töschler, Weiler 1452), also Deschle. Cf. also Ruckdeschel.

Desebrock (UGer.): area of an abandoned settlement in Han. (for des ‘mud, swamp’, see Bahlow ON, p. 73).

Desler (Sax., Sil.): see Deisler.

Desselmann: from Des(t)el (Des-lo) in Westph. (see Desebrock), cf. Hesselmann: from Hesseln.

Deßen see Deessen (L.Rhine = Matthäus).

Dessoir: (Jewish) = Dessauer. (French form.)

Detels, Detel, Deitel (like Dedels): sh.f. of names with Det- (Diet-).

Deter(s), Determann, Detering, Deterding: Westph.-L.Rhine patronymics from Detert: Dethard (= Diet-hard), cf. Detharding (also Detward).

Dethard(ing), Deterding, Dethering: Westph. patronymic from the once popular LGer. pers.n. Dethard (UGer. Diethard), likewise Sieverding, Egberding, Humperding, Borcherding, Goderding, Allerding, etc. Dethard Frese 1254; Dethard werkmester, Lüb. 1319, Dethard (Dedeke) Osterwold, Han. 1431, Hermann Detherdinc, Han. 1354; since the Reformation also a family of pastors and professors Detharding in Meckl.

Dethjen(s), Detje (Fris.) = Dedeke(n), see this. Cf. Lüthjens-Lüdekens.

Dethlefs, Dethlefsen (LGer.-Fris., freq.): corresponds to UGer. Dietleib (leib, lef ‘offspring’). Cf. Fris. Redlefs, Gerief, Garlef, Godlef, Hardlef, Meinlef, Ortlef, Ricklef. Related Fris. contracted forms Delfs, Reelfs, Garfs, Jolfs, Melfs.

Dethloff (LGer. freq.) Detholf (Diet-wolf): like Radloff = Radolf, Rodloff (Roloff) = Rodolf. Theodoffus Bolen, Ro. 1268 (FN Dedolph).

Dethmann (LGer.), freq. used for Detmar (Dietmar), see Dettmann.

Dethmar see Dettmer.

Detjen(s) (freq. in Hbg.) see Dethjens.

Detlefs(en) see Dethlefs(en).

Detsch (UGer.): Rudolf Tetsch, U.Rhine 1278 (Rhineland ‘fool’; Bav. = ‘dung’).

Dettbarn: LGer. Delbern 14th c., like Osbern, Wulbern; see Ausborn.

Detten (von): pl.n. in Westph.

Detter(s) see Deters: But UGer. Detter (freq. in Munich) is the pl.n. Detter in Bav., where there are many related pl.ns. e.g. Dettelbach, Detteldorf, Dettelhausen, Dettelhofen, Dettelhart, Dettenheim, Dettensee, etc., which all contain the unrecognized water word dett, ‘mire, mud’. Also Detfinger, contracted form Dettner, cf. Deffinger: Deffner, Daffinger: Daffner.

Dettloff see Dethloff.

Dettmann (freq. in Hbg., Meckl.): for original Detmar, which nowadays is Dettmer, patr. (Westph.) Dettmering. A Saint Detmar was missionary to the Slavs in Holstein around 1150. The father of Theoderich (Dietrich), king of the Goths, was called Theodemer (Dietmar): diot = ‘people, nation’, mar = ‘famous’. See also UGer. Dietmar.

Detward (LGer.-Fris.) like Volkward, Rickward: see Deward.

Detzer (Munich): Michael Detzer, Eßlingen 1584 (related to UGer. detz ‘manure, dung’, as in Detzweg).

Deubel (Alem., Swiss): = devil, cf. Jagendeubel; Deubelbeiß (1649 Dübelbeiß; 1409 Tüfelbiß, Zurich). Brech., p. 356.

Deuble, Deubler (UGer.-Swab.): = Daübler ‘dove breeder, dove dealer’. In documents Tüblin (Düblin), Tübler, Würt. 14th and 15th centuries.

Deubner (Sax.): = Teubner ‘dove dealer’; cf. also pl.n. Deuben near Leipzig and Halle. Unrounded to Deibner (Jena 1612).

Deuber(t) see Teuber(t).

Deubzer (Munich): cf. Scheuchzer, Togzer (tockzen ‘to waver’).

Deuchler (Deichler), Deichelbohrer (Swab.-Alem.): MHG tiucheler, ‘manufacturer of wooden water pipes’, (tiuchel).

Deudeloff see Dethloff.

Deuer(lein): UGer., means ‘expensive purchase’, one who takes a high price. H. Tüwer, Pforzheim 1478, Bentz Diur, Allgäu 1398.

Deuerling, Deuerlich; Deierling: pl.n. in Bav.

Deuker: Johann Deucker, Bohemia 1625.

Deumerti: from Deumen near Weißenfels, like Theumer from Theumen in Vogtland.

Deumlich: = Deumling, see Däumling.

Deuner(t): from Deuna (old form Dunide) in the Eichsfeld (related to dun ‘swamp’: Bahlow ON, p. 71).

Deurer see Teurer.

Deuschle, Deuschler: freq. in Würt., Täschli in documents: Claus Tüschli (Tüschler!), Rottenburg am Nockar 1435; Johann Tuschelin (Tutschelin), Kirchheim on the Teck 1517. It is so frequent (about 60 times in Stuttgart!) that it can scarcely be equivalent to Däuschle, Dausch ‘sow’ (as in Brech., p. 298), but is related to MHG tiuschen, tuschen ‘to barter, to trade’, also ‘to deceive’, hence trader or rogue, deceiver, cf. Deuscher (C. Tüscher, Sonthofen 1396), Roßteuscher, Roßdeutscher [Roß = ‘horse’]. Deusch, on the other hand, is an Alem. variant of Deutsch (MHG tiusch, tiutsch) e.g. in old Freiburg, like Diesch alongside Dietsch. Deutsch is nowadays also Jewish.

Deuß(en): freq. on L.Rhine (Düsseldorf, Cologne), = Matthäus [Matthew]; also Theuß(en). Similarly patr.: Deußing.

Deut(e): pl.n. Deute near Kassel and Fritzlar, old form Düte (related to dut ‘swamp, reed’: Bahlow ON, p. 76); the neighboring places Besse, Baune, Dissen (all prehistoric creek names) also live on as field ns.; cf. the Deutmecke (Dutenbeke), creek in the Lenne area.

Deutelmoser (Bav.): from Deutelmoos (Tutelmos 12th c.), like Rohrmoser from Rohrmoos (deutel: tutel means ‘reed’: OHG tutel-kolbo ‘reed spike’; in Freiburg 1332 a house “zum Tutenkolben” [at the sign of the reed spike]. Cf. also pl.n. Deutelbach in Bav.

Deuten (von): old form Dutene, is a pl.n. near Recklinghausen.

Deutloff also Deutike, Deutchen (CentrGer.) see Dethloff.

Deutsch see under Deuschle. (‘the German’): in border areas with mixed populations; also Deutschmann, Deutschländer. Nicl. Tütschman, Strasb. 1299! Jac. Deucz, Prague 1390! Thonias Deutsch, Görlitz 1471, Hans Undeutsch! Liegnitz 1574, Nic. Deutscher, Oppeln 1450, N. Deutschman, Görlitz 1431 (as well as Bemischman, Glatz 1378, and Windischman, Liegnitz 1354). Also Deutschländer (U.Sil.!): Düczlender, Glogau, Breslau, 1397, Deuczlender, Görlitz 1421.

Deutz: pl.n. in the Rhineland.

Deventer: pl.n. in the Netherlands (Daventre ‘boggy place’, 772).

Devermann: from the field name Dever (Diever) ‘boggy meadow’, several instances in Westph. and the Netherlands, also Deverlage (Bahlow ON, p. 79).

Devissen (LRhine) see Thovissen = Matthäus.

Devrient (Flemish): ‘the friend’ (cf. LGer. Fründ, L.Rhine Vrind).

Dewald: = Diebold!

Deward, Dewerth: in documents Dedeward (1533 Anklam) = Dietward.

Dewes (L.Rhine): = Thewes = Matthäus [Matthew].

Dewitz (about 100 instances in Berlin): name of several places (in Meckl., Altmark, Sax.).

Dex(e)l (Bav.) see Dechsel.

Deycks see Deicke.

Dey(e), Deyen (von), Dey(e)manns: L.Rhine-Westph. field n. Cf. Deyekamp in Oldenburg.

Deyerling see Deuerling.

Dibelius: Latinized, as was the practice of the Humanists, in the 16th c. from UGer. Diebel (= Diebold), see Diebold. Also Dibbelt, Dibbels (like Göbbels).

Dibbern (Dübbern, Düttbernd): popular Old Fris.-LGer. pers.n. (= Dietbern. ber(n) = ‘bear’), freq. in Hbg., cf. Sibbern for Sigbern. Also Dibbert (Hbg.), cf. pl.n. Dibbersen (Bremen, Harburg). Fris. Ditbrand has also become Dibbern in some case, like Sibrand becoming Sibbern. Gerhard Detberni, Barth 1325.

Diburtz see Tiburtius.

Dichte (Cologne): cf. MLG dichte ‘strong’.

Dichter (Hesse), Tichter (Franconia): MHG diechter ‘grandchild’ (still used by Hans Sachs), still in Hess-Franc. dialects (in the works of the Thur. O. Ludwig: “Tichterle”). Wigand Dichtere, Wetzlar 1287; cf. “myn eldester dichter, “ Wetzlar 1369.

Dichtl (Munich), Dichtler: MHG tichter, tichtener ‘one who composes something in writing’ (related to Lat. dictare). Brother Berthold the Tihteler, near Zurich 1296, Hugo Tihteler, near Konstanz 1267, the Tichtler, Dichtler, Rottweil 1409, 1493.

Dick, Dicke: rarely means a ‘fat, corpulent’ person (e.g. her Berhttold der Dicke [Lord Berhtold the fat one], Freiburg 1291), more often the UGer. field name: MHG dicke ‘thicket’, thus H. von der Dicke, Offenburg 1351; cf. the woods “den man heißet der Dicke” [which people call thick], near Rastatt 1283. Also related is Dickert: H. Dicker gesessen in der Dick, Tyrol 1495, (Tarneller, p. 34). Also many names of localities in the Rhineland: Dick, Dicke, Dickschied, Dickerhoff, etc., in Westph.: Dickenbruch, Dickenbrock, Dickede (collectively ‘swampy thicket’); Dickel (Dick-lo) near Diepholz. Nonetheless L.Rhine-Westph. diek ‘dike, pond’ may be involved, cf. Dickmann alongside Dieckmann.

Dickhoff, Dickmann see Dieckhoff, Dieckmann.

Dickhut(h), Dickhaut (freq. in Kassel): ‘thick skin’, probably not ‘thick-skinned person’ (figurative), but rather indirect occ.n. for a worker with skins (tanner, dealer in hides), related to MHG hut, hout ‘hide, parchment’, cf. Sewhawt Liegnitz, also Hans mit der haut [with the skin] (Eger 1376). Dickehut, Lüneburg 1302, Dickehaut, Bamberg 1488, Liegnitz 1368.

Diekopf, Dickopp, Dickob, Dickof [thick head] (freq. in Col.): cf. Grotkopp, etc.

Didden(s): Fris., patr. (Didde = Diede, Diederich), cf. Hidde(n). A Fris. chieftain Didde Tansen 1568.

Dieb(e)ner = Dübener: from Düben in Anhalt, or from Diebenau.

Diebitsch: Slav. (cf. pl.ns. Rawitsch, Delitsch, etc.): like pl.n. Diwischau (Bohemia, Moravia).

Diebold (nickn. Diebel): popular saint of Alsace (with place of pilgrimage Thann), still popular in the 16th c. (“sant Thiebott”), Lat. Theobald, e.g. Diebold Ruotsch 1575 in Alsace, Diebold Harscher, Villingen 1645, hence numerous dialectal or rural forms such as Diepold (Diepolder), Tippold, Theopold, Dippelt, Diepelt, Diebald, Debald, Dewald, Debelt, Diebels (Lat. Dibelius), etc. This is the old Germanic Theudebald (MHG Dietbold), W Franc. royal name (the son of Theudebert and grandson of Theuderich (= Theoderich), 6th c.); theud (diet) = ‘people, nation’, bald (bold) = ‘bold’. Cf. Fr. Thibaut, Italian Tebaldi.

Diebschlag, Diepschlag (Münster): Westph. field n. like Holtschlag, Nieschlag, Tauschlag. Cf. also Diepholt, Dipe-sele, Diepenveen (related to dip ‘bog’: Bahlow, p. 78).

Dieck (van): freq. in Hbg., like Dieckmann either from the loc.n. or meaning one who lives near a dike. B. oppen Dyke, Wesel 1323. Cf. Westph.-LGer. Dieckgrebe ‘dike warden’ (Wolter Dicgreve, Hbg. 1271). L. Dykmester, Greifswald 1396, P. Dykman and Markwald Dyk, Lüb. 1335. See also Dykstra: Deikstra.

Die(c)kelmann (Hbg., Rostock): from Dickel near Diepholz, like Brockelmann. Johann Dykelman, Greifswald 1331.

Dieckgrebe, Dieckgräwe (LGer.-Westph.): ‘dike warden’, manager in the dike service, cf. Holtgrebe, Holzgräfe; Zentgrebe, etc. See Dieck.

Dieckhoff (Westph.): ‘farmstead by the dike’, cf. Eickhoff, Lehnhoff, Moorhoff, Küchenhoff, etc., all Westph., reflecting the pattern of settlement in farmsteads.

Dieckmann (see Dieck): one living near a dike: Johann ufm Dieke, Bentrup 1590.

Diede: Hess. for LGer. Thiede, sh.f. of Diederich, known through Wilhelm von Humboldt’s friend Charlotte Diede; Hans Diede, Frkf. 1387.

Diederich(s), Diederichsen: LGer. for Dietrich, the medieval folk hero.

Dief(f)enbach: pl.n. in the Rhineland (several places), also Würt.: Heinrich D., Heidelberg 1200.

Diefer(t) see Tiefer(t).

Diegel (UGer.): ‘pot’, name of a potter, cf. H. Tygelbecker, L.Rhine 1417, Hans Digel, Villingen 1599, Eberhard Tigel, Eßlingen 1392.

Di(e)bl: Hess., Rhineland, Main-Franc. (like E Ger. Thiel) sh.f. of Dietrich; also of Diehlmann or Thielmann. Diele Montabur, Frkf. 1397, Dyle Dylemans son, Frkf. 1345.

Diehm see Diem.

Diehn see Dien.

Diek- see Dieck-.

Dieken, Diekena (Fris.): like Ukena, Ommena.

Diel see Diehl.

Dielschneider (Rhineland), Dehlenschneider (LGer.): = ‘board cutter’. Similarly, Dieler (Rhineland-Hoos.); C. Diler, Worms 1304.

Diem, Diehm (Würt.): sh.f of Diemer (Würt.), i.e. Dietmar (cf. Rei(n)mar). Diemo of Tüßlingen 1100; Diem Brayt, Stuttgart 1350; Johann Dieme, Eßlingen 1309. Götz Diemer, Ulm 1292. Dymar, Frkf. 1387. Dypmar 1360. See also Thieme and Dittmer, Dettmer.

Diemke: creek n. (Din-beke) in Westph. (like Leimke, Riemke) = ‘bog creek’.

Diemuter see Demut.

Dien, Diehn (freq. in Hbg.): living in a damp depression (LGer. diene, dene).

Dienemann: see Die(h)n.

Diener: UGer., servant (friar Conrad Diener, Freiburg 1304).

Diener: from Diengen in Würt. or Baden.

Dienst, Dienstl: MHG = ‘servant’, also ‘service, tribute, tax’. Cf. Kleindienst. Frauendienst, Würt. 1504.

Dienstknecht: ‘servant boy’ (L.Rhine).

Dienstmann: in the service of a (temporal or spiritual) lord, a ministerial.

Diepel (UGer.) = Diepold (freq. in Munich, also Diepolder), see Diebold.

Diepschlag see Diebschlag.

Dier (UGer.): = Tier [animal] (MHG ‘game’, esp. deer), n. of hunter or house. Cf. Hans Tizerlin 1441.

Dierig see Düring.

Dier(c)ks, Dierck, Diercksen, Dierking: LGer.-Fris. for Diederik (Dierick). Similarly Diers. As early as 984 a Count Dirk (Diderik) of Holland. Cf. also the pure E Fris. Tjark(s). Dierk Albers, Oldbg. 1632, Hamje Diercks 1681, now Hamjediers.

Dierolf see Thierolf.

Diers(sen) = ‘Dierk’s son’, see Diercks.

Dierschke see Dirschke.

Diesch: Alem. form of Dietsch = Dietrich, like Frisch for Fritsch.

Diesel (UGer.): probably = Hiesel = Matthiesel.

Dieser: cf. pl.n. Dies on the Lahn.

Diesing: like Thiesing = Matthias.

Dieske: Slav., from Dieskau near Halle.

Dießel like Dießelmann, Dießelmeier, Dießelhorst (Westph.): = Diestel-, Distel-

Dießner, Diesener (freq. in Sax.): from Dießen (name of several places).

Di(e)stelkamp, Di(e)stelhorst, Di(e)stelmann, etc. (Westph.): from the dwelling n. Also simply Diestel. See Distel.

Dietdegen: MHG = ‘national or folk hero’ (Switz., Würt.).

Dietel, Dietlein, Dietle, Dietl (UGer.) = Dietrich, also Diethelm etc. Dityl = Diterich luerlin, Brsl. 1361. Patr.: Dietler (cf. Seidel: Seidler).

Dieter (UGer.): usually used for Dietrich (Diether = Dietrich of Roßriet 1287, Dieter = Dietrich Röder, Würt. 1486), originally also Diet-her (diet ‘nation, people’, her ‘army’), thus on the U.Rhine about 1100 (Socin, Mhd. Namenbuch, p. 11 etc.). Cf. also Dietermann and the nickn. Dieterle, Dieterlen (Swab.).

Dietert (UGer.-Sil.): = Dieter (with additional t), sometimes also Diethard. Similarly Dittert. Cf. G. Diettert, near Glatz 1653.

Dieth (Switz., U.Rhine): Dieto 1192 (Socin, p. 11). Sh.f. of Dietrich etc. Similarly Dietmann. Conrad Diethe, near Weingarten 1296. For Dieth: Dietold cf. Swiss Lüthi: Lüthold. A pl.n. Diethe (‘bog creek’) on the Weser.

Diethart, Dietert (like LGer. Dethard): C. Dithari, Würzburg 1296, E. Dyethart, near Gießen 1379. Cf. also pl.n. Diethardt in Taunus.

Diethelm (UGer. as ns. ending in -helm usually are), Bav.-Aust. Diethalm (sh.f. Halm): Johann Diethelm, Freiburg 1291 (freq. on U.Rhine: Socin, p. 11). Less freq. LGer.: Dethelm (Hbg., Lüb., Ro.).

Diethold: in old documents Thietold, U.Rhine 1136, Hbg. 1271. Ruf Dietold, Stuttg. 1394 (diet ‘people, nation’, olt = walt, waltend ‘ruling’).

Dietle(in) see Dietel.

Dietleip (UGer., Styria): hero of the Dietrich legend, see LGer. Detlef.

Dietmar (nowadays Dittmar, Dittmer, Dittmers, UGer. Diemar, Diemer; LGer. Dettmer, Dettmers), sh.f. Diem (UGer.-Hesse.), Thieme (CentrGer.), Timm (LGer.): familiar as the name of the minnesinger [poet of courtly love] Dietmar von Aist, from history as the name of Theodemer, king of the Goths (father of Theoderich the Great); Thietmar (Thimmo) of Merseburg was a well-known historian around 1100. (diet = ‘people, nation’, mar = ‘famous’). For UGer. Diemar cf. Reimar (Reinmar).

Dietram (Bav.-Aust.): rare Germanic pers.n. (ram = hraban, Odin’s ‘raven’, as in Wolfram, Gundram, Sindram, Heimram). A Saint Dietram founded Dietramszell [Dietram’s cell] in U.Bav.

Dietrich, Dieterich, Dietreich (Aust.), Dittrich (MGer.-Sil.), Diederich(s), Diederichsen (LGer.), Dierk(s), Dirksen (Fris.): with numerous sh.fs. such as Diede, Thiede, Thiel, Diel, Tietze, Dietz, Tieck, etc., which bear witness to the former popularity of the folk hero Dietrich von Bern (Verona) and to the Dietrich legend; in the background looms the figure of the king of the Goths, Theoderich the Great (5th c.)! A complete overview of the forms in Bahlow DN (1932), p. 26. Cf. also Bahlow, “Die deutsche Heldensage im Spiegel der deutschen Familiennamen” [The German heroic tale as reflected in German family names] (Der Sammler, Augsburg 1926, No. 206).

Dietsch, Diesch (Alem.): an UGer. sh.f. of Dietrich, Swiss Dietschi. Cf. Margarete Dietschin = Dieterich, Villingen 1577. Other forms are Hess.-Thur. Dietze, Dietzel, Sax. Dietzsch (Dietzschold), Sil. Tietze. As late as 1614: Diezel Dippach in Berka on the Werra River.

Dietwein (UGer.): win ‘friend’, Ditwin Dumlose, Brsl. 1382.

Dietz(e) see Dietsch: Similarly Dietzel, Diezemann, Dietzsch. For Dietzold (Sax.) cf. Nitzold, Hensold, Petzold, Heintschold and the like. A Ditzman Schider, Eger 1320, Heilmar Ditzeman, Mainz 1323; a Heile Dyczeler, Frkf. 1351.

Diewald see Diebald. Cf. Gottwald for Gotebold.

Differt: from Differden in Saar area.

Digeser (Würt.): from (Upper) Digisheim near Balingen (“Digise” in the dialect, cf. E. Nied, p. 40). M. Digisser, Villingen 1595. The squire Heitze von Achern, “dem man do sprichet Digensheim” [who is there called D.], near Bühl 1356. The pl.n. contains the prehistoric creek n. Digena (see Bahlow ON, p. 80).

Dihl(mann) see Diehl.

Dijk (van) see Dieck (von).

Diktes, Dictus, Dix: UGer.-MGer. = Benedictus (‘blessed’, a saint, founder of the Benedictine Order). Thus in Saalfeld around 1500: Dictus = Benedictus: in Jena 1587: Benedictus (Dictus) Willing; in Angermünde around 1570: Bendix (Dix, Dictus) Tiden. Cf. in the work Heiterethei by the Thuringian Otto Ludwig: Old Benediktus, called simply Diktes. See also Bähnisch.

Dilger, Dilcher (UGer.): like Dilg(e), Dilie in the Southwest = son of Ottilie, i.e. a metronymic (name indicating one’s mother) ending in -er, cf. Sil. Tilgner, Ilgner. St. Odilia was the patron saint of Alsace (Odilienberg) and helper in case of eye ailments (Bahlow, VN, p. 80; Linnartz, p. 89). Jäckli Tilger, Hegau 1393, Mathis Dilger, Tübingen 1456, Diliger Tyliger, etc. (Nied, p. 34). Dylige = Othilie, prioress, Baden 1355, Gyse Odylien son, Ingelheim 1351, Odilienhans, Kehl 1422; Fred. fil. domine Odilie [son of the lady Odilia], Bremen 1292. For details on Sil. Tilgner see Bahlow SN, p. 75.

Dill(mann): Rhine-Franc., Würt., Bav. = L.Rhine Tillmann(s) = Dietrich. Hans Dilman (Tilman), Heilbronn around 1460; her [Lord] Dilman (Tilman), Würt. 1326, Joh. fil. Dilmanni [John son of Dilmann], Pal. 1350.

Diller (UGer.): freq. in Bav., = Dillenseger, Dillschneider ‘board sawyer, board outter’ (MHG dille, dill ‘board, plank’), less commonly from the farm n. Dill (Baden, Bav.).

Dillich: pl.n. near Wabern in Kassel. W. Dilich, Wabern 1575.

Dillner (Sax.): = Tillner, Sil. Tilgner, son of Ottilie, cf. UGer. Dilger (Archiv für Sippenforschung [Archive for Ancestral Study] 19, 86).

Dillschneider, Dillenseger see Diller. Also Dielenschneider, Delenschneider.

Dilltapp: = ‘awkward fellow’ (Henr. Tiltappe, Han. 1316).

Dilthey (from Siegen in Siegerland): familiar as the name of the philosopher Wilhelm Dilthey 1833-1911. In old documents Dillendey 1404, Dilndey, Diltey, etc., cf. Dauthendey 1404, Dilndey, Mommendey Finkendey, Hinckeldey, Dindeldey, all indicating bog or marsh, Westph.-LGer. field names. For dil: Bahlow ON, p. 80.

Dimmel(meier): Bav., see Demmel.

Dimpfl(maier), Dimpel, Dimperl (Bav.): living by the (swampy) pond (MHG tümpfel). Cf. Bierdimpfl, Biertümpfel (derisive nickn. of a tavern owner). Dimpfel is also a pl.n. in Bav.

Dimter (UGer., Bav.): a kind of cloth (woven with double thread) was called timît, dimît in MHG (from Greek dimitos); thus ‘producer, weaver of dimît’. Cf. Dimitter, Dim(p)ter, Braunau on the Inn 1428; Tympt, Dympt, Allgäu 15th c.

Dingeldey: old field n., see Dilthey. For ding ‘bog’: Bahlow ON, p. 80.

Dingelmann: from Dingel (Dinge-lo) in Oldenburg. See Dingeldey.

Dinger: UGer., probably related to pl.n. Ding. But cf. MHG dinger = ‘judge, attorney’.

Dinges see Dinnies.

Dingler (UGer.) see Dengler: (Related to MHG tengeln, tingeln ‘to sharpen a scythe’.) Cf. also pl.n. Dingl (Bav.). Bentz der Dingler (farmer), Würt. 1366.

Dingmann, Dingmeier (Westph.): related to the field n. Ding, like Brokmeier, Strukmeier, Schlingmeier, etc. Cf. Mecze uff dem dingreyne, Frkf. 1347.

Dingwort(h): LGer., elevated dwelling place (Wurt, Wort) in swampy area. Cf. Langewort, Terwort, Worthmann, Wördemann. Pl.n. Dingwörden on the Oste.

Dinkel, Dinkelmann, Dinkelacker, Dinkler (UGer.): spelt farmer [Dinkel, ‘spelt’, is a kind of wheat]. Dinkel is Bav.-Würt. in contrast to the Alem. word Fese. Cf. Burkart der Dinkel, Villingen 1370. H. Dinkelbrot 1381, Dinkelmayer like Fesesenmayer, etc.

Dinkgräfe (Westph.): president of the Dinggericht [a kind of local court in the Middle Ages].

Dinklage: pl.n. near Vechta in Oldenburg, in boggy areas like Veßlage, Harplage, Babbelage, Amlage; cf. Dinklar, Dinkloh (Bahlow ON, p. 81). A Dinkel River (‘bog water’) flows from Münster to Vecht River Holland.

Dinnies, Dinniges, Dinjes, Dins(e): L.Rhine and Westph. = Dionys, see Denys. For the form, cf. Plönnies (Apollonius), Börries (Liborius), Thönnies (Antonius). For Dinnies: Dins cf. Lönnies: Löns.

Dins-, Dinsen (LGer.) see Dinnies.

Dinter, Dintner: ‘ink maker’, also Tint(n)er. [Ger. Tinte = ink] Hans Dintener, Frkf. 1387. Ula Tyntner, Prague 1361. Cf. the writers’ ns. Tintenhörnlin, Dintenhorn [ink horn], Augsburg 1329, Eßlingen 1415.

Dipp(e)l (UGer.-Bav.): nickn. for Dippold = Diepold (Dietbold), see Diebold, Diepel.

Dippert see Dibbert.

Dippold, metronymic Dippolter, see Diebold.

Dirk(s), Dirksen see Diercks.

Dirlam: from Dirlammen near Lauterbach in Hesse. (Hans Heinrich Dirlam 1650, same place).

Dirly, Dierl see Dirrler.

Dirolf, Dierolf, Diruff etc.: old pers.n. from the Rhine to Franconia. Originally Tyrolf (for details see Bahlow in the journal Teuthonista 1931, p. 54).

Dirr (UGer.): dialect for Dürr = ‘thin, skinny’. Contze der Dirre (Würt.). Cf. Dirrigl (Bav.-Aust.) = ‘door bolt’, Dirnagel, Dirly (Alem.) = ‘little door’ (in old documents. zem Türlin), Dir(r)ler = Dürler, Türler (from the dwelling). Cf. the MHG poets Heinrich and Ulrich von dem Türlin from Carinthia (13th c.). A steward Hans Türli near St. Blasien 1391.

Dirrwächter = Türwächter [doorkeeper].

Dirsch, Dirschl (Bav.): often also Dirscherl: MHG türs(e) ‘giant’.

Dirschedl (Mnch.): = Dürrschädel [gaunt skull], like Breitschedl [broad skull], Großschedl [large skull].

Dirschka, Dirska (freq. in U.Sil.), Di(e)rschke, Dürschke: nickn. for Slav. pers.n. Dirslaw. Cf. Dirschko der Cretschmer von Dompsl = Dirsco (Dirslaus) de D., Brsl. 1451-56. Dirske Mrokot, 1339 Court Judge at Liegnitz. Also Dürschwitz in distr. of Liegnitz was called Dirskewitz in 1341 (Bahlow SN, p. 56).

Dirtheuer, Tirteier (UGer.): manufacturer of coarse cloth (of wool and linen) for peasants’ clothing (MHG dirdendei, from Fr. tiretaine). Zile Dirredeyer, Frkf. 1389, Konrad Dyrenday, Eßlingen 1350 (Brech., p. 318).

Discher: LGer. for E CentrGer. Tischer ‘carpenter’. The Lith. Dischereit is related.

Diss(e), Dissmann: from Dissen near the Teutoburg Forest (Peter von Dissen, Lippe 1590). For the bog word dis: Bahlow ON, pp. 81-82.

Dissel see Distel.

Distel, Distler (UGer.): [thistle] from the habitation name. Also Distelmaier etc. Distelbarth is a peasant name like Linsenbart etc. Diestelkamp, Disselkamp, Diestelbrink, Diestelhorst, Diestelmann are Westph. See also Baudistel.

Dithmer, Dithmar see Dietmar.

Ditschke, Dietschke (E Ger-Sil.): nickn. for Dietrich, like Mitschke for Nikolaus. Cf. Diczke von Baruth, Brsl. 1393.

Dittberner, Dittborner, Dietberner, Dettberner, Düttbrenner: related to pl.ns. ending in -born or ­bronn [spring, well] in UGer., Bav., Sax., or Bohemia, with unrounding –börner:-berner as in Schönberner (from Schönborn) or –brönner:-brenner as in Weilbrenner (from Weilbronn)!

Dittebrandt (LGer.) see Dibbern.

Dittfurt, Dietfurt: name of several places (twice in Harz, twice in Bav.); related to dit ‘swamp, mire’: Bahlow ON, p. 79 [Furt = ‘ford’].

Dittloff see Dethloff.

Dittmai(e)r, Dittmeyer (UGer., Würt., Bav.): obviously reinterpretations of Dittmar, Dittmer, like Kretschmeyer from Kretschmar or Vollmeyer from Volkmar, Vollmar. Cf. Ludwig Volmayr (Volmar), Rottenburg on the Neckar 1509, Volkmeyer, Biberach 1459. Cf. C. Ditmair = C. Ditmar, Nbg. 1370.

Dittmann: used since the 15th c. in Sil., U.Lausitz, Sax.-Thur. for original Ditmar, as also in the pl.n. Dittmannsdorf in Sil.: 1372 Ditmarsdorf Ditt- for Diet- is a Sil. characteristic (cf. Mittmann for Mietmann). Ditmar, son of Ditmar Fleischauer, Glatz 1367, Heinke Ditmar, Liegnitz 1382, not until 1438: Peter Dittman in Liegnitz. For further information, also on Dittrich, Dittersdorf, see Bahlow SN, pp. 34-35.

Dittmar, Dittmer, Dittrich see Dietmar, Dietrich.

Ditz, Ditze (UGer.) see Dietz.

Dix = Benedix, see Diktes.

Djurken: Fris. pers.n. (diur ‘dear, expensive’) (Strackerjahn, p. 25).

Dlugosch (U. Sil.): Slav., like pl.ns. Dlugoschka, Dlugy. For the pers.n. Dlugomil (dlug ‘tall’) see Miklosich, No. 112.

Dobbe, Dubbe (N Ger.): MLG dobbe = ‘swampy ground’ (cf. das Dobbeloch [the Dobbe hole], a swampy place in a forest meadow near Grebenhain in Hesse, according to Hermann Schmidt of Londorf). “Prußen was ein grot landt vull wiltnusse, waters unde dobben!” [Prussia was a vast land of wilderness, lakes, and swamps.] Conrad Dobbe, Dubbe, Ro. 1289, Wilhelm Dobbe, Wattenscheid 1410. An H. Dobeken, Han. 1525, but cf. Slav. Dobbek, Dobke (Brsl. 1349), Dobkowitz, related to the pers.n. Dobislaw.

Dobbelstein see Dabelstein.

Dobbermann: from the E Ger. loc.n. Dobberphul in Pom., Dobberan, etc., or from the Slav. pers.n. Dobromir (Dubbermer); also Dubbermann! (dobr- ‘good’).

Dobberstein (Pom.): probably pl.n. like Dobberphul (3 times in Pom.).

Dobbert, Döbbert, Dubbert, also Dobberke, Dubberke: can be recognized as E Ger.-Slav. from the pl.ns. Dobbertin in Meckl., Dobberkau, Döbbern, etc. Also related is Dob(b)ratz, Dobberahn, Doberschütz: Cf. the Slav. pers.n. Dobromir (dobr ‘good’, mir ‘fame’), also Dobirke (fem.), Brsl. 1361, Cf. also MLG dobbert ‘swamp plant’.

Dobe, Doobe (Hbg.): = Dove, LGer. for ‘dove’. But Dobat (Lith.) = Tobias, Dobisch.

Dobel and Dobler (UGer.): one who lives in the Tobel (‘valley, wooded glen’). Cf. Tobel, Tobler. But for Döb(e)ler (LGer.) see Däbler.

Döbereiner: from Döberein in Bav.

Döberl, Döbl (Bav.) = Tobias.

Dobers(ch): cf. pl.ns. Dobers in U.Lausitz, Doberschau in Bautzen, also pers.n. Doberslaw (Slav. dobr- ‘good’). Also related are pl.ns. Dobergast, Doberschütz, Döberitz.

Dobmann, Dobmeier, Dobmayer (freq. in Bav.): ‘a raging madman’ (MHG tob, dob ‘out of one’s mind’, tobehaft, tobic ‘enraged, raging’). Tobhen(d)l, Moravia 1365, 1414, modern FN Dobhan. A Tobesucht, Eßlingen 1327.

Dobner (freq. in Munich): n. of orig., cf. Dobeneck(er) in Bav.

Dobrick, Dobrindt etc. see Dobers, Dobbert.

Dobroschke: pl.n. Dobruschka in Bohemia.

Dobschütz: pl.n. near Meißen in Sax. Cf. Doberschütz.

Dobslaff (Pom.): Slav. pers.n. Dobislav (Miklosich, p. 55), in German form Dubislaf, in Pom. and Meckl., with the variant Dubberslav (Greifswald, Stralsund, around 1300). Cf. Dubeslaff von Eickstede, 1316, Pommerisches Urkundenbuch [Pomeranian Book of Historical Documents] 5, 268; Doberzlawe, Ro. 1295, Dubbeslaf Smantevit, Stralsund 1340, P. L. Dubschlaff, Belgrade 1681. Similarly Sitschlaff, Zitzschlaff, Mitzlaff, Gützlaff, Butzlaff, Retzlaff, Tetzlaff, Wentzlaff, Domizlaff, sometimes also corrupted to -schlag: Siedschlag, Dittschlag, Brettschlag, Rettschlag, Wendschlag, Darfschlag.

Dochtermann (UGer.): see Tochtermann = ‘son-in-law’.

Dockenfuß: Tockenfus, old Augsburg, related to MHG tocke ‘doll’, cf. tockenspil, tockenlade. For Dockenwadel (Würt.) cf. Katzenwadel [cat’s tail], Hasenwadel [hare’s tail], Hühnerwadel [hen’s tail], Hurenwadel [whore’s tail] (MHG wadel ‘tail’), perhaps obscene, since MHG tocke ‘doll’ was also a word of flattery to a girl; cf. sumertocke ‘beloved, vulva’; related is Dockenkolb.

Döcker (UGer.): = Decker; see there. (“kain murer noch kain döcker” [neither a bricklayer nor a tiler], Ulm 1479).

Dockhorn (Hbg.): loc.n. like Ahlhorn, Balhorn, Druchhorn, (horn ‘corner’, dock ‘mud, bog’, cf. Dockfurlong in England ‘bog ditch’, Dokkum in Holland. Further details in Bahlow ON, p. 83).

Döckler (Würt.): MHG tockeler ‘supporting pillar’.

Dode, Doden: Fris. pers.n. (Strackerjan, p. 20), an old form derived from baby talk like Dude, Duden. A Count (Lat. comes) Dodica, 9th c. in Westph., cf. also “Walterdus qui et Dodico vocabatur” [Walterdus who was also called Dodico] (Archbishop of Magdeburg) in 1012 (Stark, p. 35, 33).

Döderlein, Doderer: UGer.-Swab. = ‘stutterer’ (MHG toderer). H. Keller genannt [called] Däderlin, Ulm 1471, K. Doderer Herrenburg 1374; Toderlin 1414. Also Töder, Döder (Switz.).

Doflein, Dofele: UGer.-Swab. nickn. for David (?).

Döge (Hbg.): ‘capable, efficient’.

Döhler (Sax.): from Döhlen (name of several places in Sax.). Döhle is a pl.n. in the Harburg district. Cf. Dehler: from Döhlau near Hof in Bav.

Döhling(er): from Dehlingen in Würt. Cf. Böhringen (old form Beringen).

Dohm (Hbg.): Dohme, Zumdohme [zum = ‘at the’] (like Zumbroich, Zumdieck in Westph. and L.Rhine: old Westph. field n. (a spring called “der Dom” e.g. near Hörle in Waldeck). Tid van dem Dome, Stralsund 1325. But Dohms, Dohmann, Dohmen (Rhineland, Baden) = Thomas. Cf. Domeskirche: Thomaskirche [St. Thomas’s Church] in Sil.

Döhmel see Dehmel. Dö(h)mer: MLG demere ‘one who leads the high life, gourmand’. Ludolf Domere, Goslar 1330, Hinrich Domere, Bremen 1350. Cf. the Landverdömer, Ro. 1300.

Dohmjan see Damian.

Dohmstrich, Do(h)mstreich see Domstrich.

Döhn (UGer.): = Doni, Thoni, Töni = Anton (Nied, Heiligenverehrung, p. 77). Heinz Tön 1423; Heinrich Dön, Lake Constance 1456. Patr. probably Döhner(t): Hans Töner (Döner), Rottweil (Nied) 1441. But for Döhnert, Dönhardt, cf. Dehnert (Degenhard). Döhnel, Dohnke = Anton.

Dohna (a noble family): pl.n. Dohna (Sax., Sil., e.g. Dohnau near Legnitz.).

Dohr, Dohrmann (LGer.): living at the gate, cf. Amdohr, Amthor.

Dohren (LGer.): expanded form of Dohrn (freq. in Hbg.) = ‘thorny thicket’, like Dohrendorf (Hbg.) from Dorndorf (name of several places in Thur.).

Döhring (MLG-LGer.) = Döring ‘person from Thuringia’. See Düring.

Döhrmann = Dohrmann: But also from Döhren (name of several places in Han. and Westph.).

Dohse see Dose.

Dold (Hesse, Würt., U.Rhine): like Told Berthol.! Very common in old Frkf. (also Dulde) for Berchtold: Dolde kommeder 1387, Dulde Bart 1387, Henne Dolde 1387; also in Kassel: Tolde Gnyeß 1449, Tile Toldeken 1400; in Würt. cf. Döldli Balgheim, Pfohren 1364. Occasionally from MHG tolde = NHG Dolde ‘treetop’: thus in Worms 1350 as house n.: B. zu der Dolden [by the treetop]. Also Dolder(er), cf. M. Tölderli 1397 (like Hölderlin: am Holderbusch [by the elder bush]).

Dolf, Dölfel: UGer. sh.f. of Adolf, L.Rhine Dolfs!

Dolge (E Ger-Slav.); Dolgemann: person from Dolgen (Meckl., several places in Pom., Uckermark, Han.), like Dargemann from Dargen. Hans Dolgeman, Stettin 1530. For Dölger cf. de Dolgar, Dolgher, Stralsund around 1300.

Dölker (Würt.) like Dölk, Tölk: a stammerer (MHG tolken ‘to babble’, Swab. dolken). Auberlin Tölker, Black Forest 1472. But

Dölkner, Dölken is n. of orig., cf. pl.n. Dölkau in Saale area.

Doll, Dolle, Dollen (von): N Ger. from the pl.n. Dollen or Dolle, also a field name; cf. also UGer. Dollenhurst and Dollenmeier. UGer. Doll (freq. in Munich) also = MHG tol, dol ‘foolish, out of one’s mind, crazy’.

Döll, Dölle, Döllen (von): N Ger., from the pl.n. Döllen in Oldenburg (dul ‘bog water’), Duliun 890 (like Völlen on the Ems: Vulliun), see Bahlow ON, p. 83. There is a Döllbach [Döll Creek] near Kassel.

Doller, Döller (UGer.): from the field n. Dolle, Dölle. Cf. der Tölter, near Rottweil 1357, Fr. Toter, Iglau 1359, uf der [on the] Tolen, Tölen, Villingen 1338, 1380.

Dollfuß (UGer.): same as Klumpfuß [clubfoot]. DWB 2, 1228. As early as 1273 in Bav. an Otto Tolvuoß, but Tolinvus in Brsl. 1345 = Dohlenfuß; Fr. Tolfuos in Bohemia 1363, in Um 1523 a Johann Diepold genannt [called] Dollfuß (Dollfließle): cf. in Swab. 1736: “hat einen Tollfuß so groß wie ein Rührkübel” [has a clubfoot as big as a mixing bowl].

Dollhäup(t)l (Bav., Aust.): misshapen hydrocephalus (cf. Dollfuß).

Dollhopf (Bav.): = ‘pound cake’. Andreas Tolhopf, U.Pal. 1484.

Dolling(er), Dölling(er): from Dolling in Bav. or Dellingen in Aust. Fr. Tollinger, U.Pal. 1413, Henne Dolling, Frkf. 1387, Hannus Tolli(n)g, Braunau in Bohemia 1450.

Dollmeier (UGer.): in old documents the “mayer ze Dollendorf” [land owner at Dollendorf] 1454 (today Dollhof in Würt.), 1487 Tollenmaier, 1521 Dollemayer (Brech., p. 325).

Dollmetsch: ‘interpreter, translator, linguist’, borrowed from the Slav. (Bohemian tlumacz, Hungarian tolmacs) into MHG (tolmetsch). As early as 1350 Abreht Tolmetzsche near Stuttg.

Döllner (Munich): n. of origin, cf. pl.n. Döllen in Würt.

Dölz (Plauen): pl.n., like Dölitzsch, Dölzschen etc. in Sax. Cf. Dölzig in Sax., Thur. Johann von Dolzig, a knight J. Dolze, Dolzge 1530.

Domam, Domandl, Thomann (UGer.): = Thomas Hans Doman, farmer, Überlingen 1350.

Domaschke (Maschke), Domaschek, Domansky: Slav.-EGer. = Thomas. Cf. Tomaschek: Thomaschek.

Dombrowski: from Dombrow (Slav. ‘place of oaks’).

Domernicht: LGer. ‘do nothing to me’. Cf. Tumernit 1446 Nbg.

Domizlaff (Pom.): Slav. pers.n. Domaslav (thus 1153, Pom. nobleman), Dummeslav (thus 1307, Pom. knight); Johann D. Dumschlaff, Kammin 1752. Cf. Domstrich, Domke, Dumke (Sil., with Slav. k-suffix): like Thomke = Thomas; cf. Simke, Schimke = Simon (documentary examples: Bahlow SN, p. 75; Reichert, p. 19).

Dommer(t): Rhine area, See Dummer and Dommermuth.

Dommermuth (Rhine area): = Dummermut: simple-minded. W. Dommermoth, Jülich 1589, Tümmermuot, Augsburg 1327. See also Dommer.

Domnick (E Ger.-Sil.) = Dominik(us), founder of the Dominican Order. Common f.n. and surn. in Breslau around 1350: Czenke Dominik, Jeschke Dominik, even Dominik, Dominiks. In Liegnitz 1384: her Dominik von Beckern der prister [Lord Dominik of Beckern, the priest], Dompnig, Rönberg 1491, Hans Dompnig, Liegnitz 1491.

Domröse: E Ger.-Slav. pl.n. Dumröse near Stolp, like Dargeröse in Pom. (cf. Domislaw: Dargeslaw).

Domsch(ke), Domschky: E Ger-Slav. = Thomas.

Domscheit: E Pruss.-Lith. ‘son of Thomas’. Cf. Endruscheit etc.

Domstreich, Dohmstreich (Meckl.), Dumstrey: Wendish like Millstreich, Milstrey, Milstroy, also originally Domstroy (dom- ‘home’, mil- ‘dear’). Cf. Domislav, Miloslav.

Donat(h), Donaty; Donet: esp. E Ger., Saint Donatus (‘given’ by God), bishop and martyr under Julian around 350 (Donatus Seminary in Meißen). Donat Czideler, Görlitz 1409, Donet Ratold, Grünberg in Sil. 1400, Donalt Brix, Angermünde 1592. Schoolchildren of the Middle Ages were familiar with “Donat” as the author of the Latin grammar, which also appeared in print at the time of Gutenberg.

Donaubauer (freq. in Munich), also Donabauer: = pine tree grower, cf. Hof [Farm] Donabauer in U.Aust. (1414 “vor dem Tannech,” also Donach for Tannach in U.Aust., represent the dialect form; cf. Tanngraben in U.Aust.: old form Tongraben); Donhauer = Dannhauer, Tannhauer [pine cutter], also Donheißer and Dannheißer = Tannhäuser; Donabam = Tannebaum [pine tree]; Donnauser (freq. in Munich).

Donder(er), Dundrer, Daunderer (UGer.): a ‘thunderer’, a noisy person. Hans der Dunre 1384 Villingen (with firebrand in his coat of arms).

Donges, Dönges: Rhine-UGer. = Doniges, Thönges = Antonius. In Würt. also Dongus (1507: Johann Thonges near Calw). C. Doniges 1467, Anthoniges Dethmers, Han. 1541.

Donheißer (Aust.) means Tannhäuser, see Donaubauer.

Donicht: LGer. ‘do nothing’, a lazy person.

Donner(er) see Donderer: An A. Donnerschlegel [thunder hammer] in Feuchtwangen 1496.

Donnersmark: pl.n. in Upper Hungary, known from Henckel-Donnersmark, a family of Sil. counts.

Donnerstag [Thursday]: like Monday and Friday, refers to services to be performed, or rent or tax payments to be made, on particular days.

Donop: pl.n. in Lippe (see Bahlow ON, p. 71).

Dönselmann (Hbg.): from Dönsel near Diepholz.

Doose see Dose.

Döpelheuer see Doppel.

Döpfer, Döpfner (Franc.): = E CentrGer. Töpfer [potter], or Töpfner on the Bav. Bohemian border (influenced by Bav. Hafner), see E. Schwarz, Sudetenländische Familiennamen 1957, with map p. 21.

Döpke: (freq. in Han., Hbg.), Döppe, Döpping, later forms of Depke, Depp, etc. = Detmar, Depmar. See Deppe. Döpke Feldman, Stelle 1725, Tileman Döpke, Han. 1611. Similarly Döpkens, Döpking. In Bockhop as late as 1731: Döpke Twarloh.

Döpner see Döppner.

Dopp(e), Döppe: LGer. doppe, duppe, ‘small vessel, jar’, as made by the Doppengieter (L.Rhine) or Doppengießer (Frkf. 1387). Cf. also LGer. dop ‘pot’: Volkmar Dop, Lüb. 1330.

Doppler, Doppelstein (UGer.): MHG topeler, ‘dice player, die maker’, topelstein ‘die’. Johann Doppeler, Haguenau in Alsace 1292, H. Toppeler, Rothenburg 1408 (with two dice in his coat of arms).

Döp(p)ner E LGer. = CentrGer. Töpp(n)er: ‘potter’.

Dopsch (Aust.) = Topsch, Tobsch, Tobisch = Tobias: Cf. Kopsch = Jakob or Prokop.

Dopslaf see Dobslaff.

Dörband, Dorband (LGer., Meckl., Hbg.): = ‘door band’, meaning the blacksmith who made the iron fittings for gates and doors. A. Dorebant, Hbg. 1250, Ludolf Dorbant, Ro. 1297. Similarly: J. Dornagel [door nail] 14th c. Lüb., see Thürnagel.

Dordenbusch (LGer.): Stralsund 1307, like Durchdenpusch around 1300 in the works of Hugo von Trimberg, Bamberg, name for robber knights, robbers, mercenaries, vagrants, or daredevils. Cf. Dordenbrack, Dörrenbrack, Prenzlau 1587-91 [through the swamp]; Dordentan [through the hedge]; Dordelant [through the land], fäldesheim 1270; Dordewand (Dörwand) [through the wall], Brsw. 1378; Durchdenwald [through the forest] (1300 U.Rhine), Durchdenwind [through the wind], Strasb. 1466, Dordewrangen [through the planks, ribs of a ship], Hbg. 1274.

Dören (von): Hbg., cf. pl.n. Döhren near Han., also name of several places in Westph.

Dörfer, Dörfert, unrounded Derfert, without umlaut Dorfer (Tyrol): all UGer. ‘villager’ [Dorf = ‘village’], in contrast to Bürger, Burger ‘townsman’. But Dörf(f)ler (UGer.) is from the common Bav.-Aust. pl.n. Dörfl or Würt. Dörfle, also Dörflein, Dörfle; Dorfner: from Dorfen in Bav.

Dörfling(er): pl.n. Dörfling (several places in Bav.). Cf. Derfflinger.

Dörge, Dörges see Dörries.

Dörgschlag see Dörschlag.

Döring: CentrGer. and LGer., a Thuringian, old form Düring, see this. Bertram Doringh, Greifswald 1367.

Dörken (Hbg.), Dörk(s), Dörksen: in L.Rhine area like Fris. Derk(sen) = Dietrich. But cf. Fris. Duhrken.

Dörle (Franc.-Thur.): = ‘small gate (in the city wall)’, meaning a person living there or a gatekeeper (UGer. Dorwart), cf. Dörler (1287 Törler) in Würt.

Dörling: probably a pl.n. ending in -ing.

Dormagen: pl.n. L.Rhine, of Celtic origin like Remagen (Rigomagus ‘water Meadow’). For further details see Bahlow ON, p. 85.

Dormann, Dormeyer: living by the gate. L.Rhine Dormanns. Cf. Dorwart.

Dörmer: dialect = Türmer ‘tower watchman’.

Dornblüth (UGer., Baden): living by the flowering thorn hedge. Cf. Rosenblüth.

Dornedden, Dornieden see Darnedden.

Dörnemann (LGer.): living by the Dörnicht [thorny thicket] or from Dörnen (Westph., Rhineland). Cf. pl.ns. Dörnschlade, Dörnhagen, Dörnbrack, etc.

Dörner, Dorner: UGer., on the Dörnicht or from Dorn, Dornau in Bav., Dorna in Sax., Thur.

Dornkamp(f): Westph. ‘field with thorn hedges’. Martin Dornkampf, Wismar 1633.

Dornquast: LGer. ‘clump of thorns’.

Dornseiff, Dornseiffer: Westph., from Dornseifen or Dornsiepen (seifen, LGer. siepen = ‘damp, swampy depression near a creek’).

Dörnte (Hbg.): from Dörnten near Goslar. (Dornete, Lüb. 1337.)

Dörp (LGer.): pl.n. Dörpe or Dörpen (B. van der Dörpe [from Dörp], Han. 1363).

Dörr, Dörre (LGer., also Pal.-Hess.): = Dürr, a thin person. Unrounded Derr, Dirr (Aust., Sax.): Georg der Derr, Vienna 1388. Contze der Dirre (Achalm). Alb. Dörre, Lüb. 1331, H. Dörr, Pal. 1381. Dürre Enderlin, Brsl. 1272. Dürresnabel [thin beak], Brsl.

Dörrbaum [dead tree]: from the dwelling n. E. Hartrad zum dörren baum [by the dead tree], Frkf. 1387.

Dörries, Dörges: Eastphalian shortened form of Dörringes (Döring = Thuringian). Cf. “ut dem Lande to Dörrien” [from the land of Thuringia], Hildesheim 1585. Pl.n. Dörriesfeld: Döringsfeld in Lippe.

Dorsch [cod], Dorschmann [cod man] (like Schlie, Schliemann): means the fisherman or fish dealer. Bertold Dorsch, Ro. 1291.

Dörscher see Döscher.

Dörschlag: MLG dör-slag ‘sieve, strainer’ (kitchen utensil), cf. “eyn senffmöle, eyn dorslag, ein pfanne” [one mustard mill, one strainer, one pan], Magdeburg 1464 (Zeder I, p. 385). Cordt Dorslag, Ilsenburg 1498.

Dorß (UGer.): = MHG torse ‘cabbage stalk’ (derisive nickname for a cabbage grower). Cf. the farmer “der Dorß”, Kirneck in Würt. 1370; Walpert Torse 1212; Cunr. Dorse, Eßlingen 1240. Probably also Dorsch (freq. in Munich).

Dörwand (LGer.): Dordewant, Brsw. 1378 = ‘through the wall’, see Dordenbusch. Clawes Dordewandt, Bukow in Meckl. 1544. Similarly Dörwald(t): ‘through the forest’.

Dorwart: ‘gatekeeper’ at the city gate. Clarman Dorwart, Heidelberg 1383. An H. Dormeister [gate master], Frkf. 1387. Franczke der torwarte an dem breczlawischen thore [at the Breslau gate], Liegnitz 1386. Dorwarder, Barth 15th c.

Dosch (UGer.): = ‘bush’. Cf. Doschenschein 1542 (like Blumenschein). Also related is Döschler: Toscheler, Isny 1250, Um 1530. J. Tosch, Bav. 1399, H. Dosch 1423.

Döscher (freq. in Hbg.): LGer., shortened form of Dörscher (now uncommon) = Dröscher (with metathesis of r): ‘thresher’. Cf. “döscher und tymmerlüde” [threshers and carpenters], Stettin 1535.

Dose (freq. in Hbg.), Dohse, Doose, Dase: freq. in Nordelbingen (Holstein, Hbg., Meckl.), where Dose is attested as a f.n. in noble families in the Middle Ages: Knight Dose Block, sons. Dose, Hartwich, Volrat Block, pages (young nobles), Holstein 1371. Dose Godendorp, page 1368 (Holst. Urkunden IV); a Doso de Helle was the owner of the village Dosenbeck near Preetz; cf. Dosenrade near Rendsburg; Dosen Bog in Oldenburg. But the Dose is also a tributary of the Ems and a pl.n. in E Friesland! As FN: Eler Dose, Lüb. ca. 1350.

Dössel (Hbg.): from Dössel (Westph.).

Doss(mann), Dosse (Hbg.): from Dosse in Altmark. (Cf. also Dossow on the Dosse in Prignitz and the “Dosse Zee” in Belgium.)

Dost, Dostmann, Dostler (UGer.): MHG toste, doste = ‘bunch, umbel’, also ‘wild thyme’ (as a medicinal plant).

Dötsch, Dötschmann (Bav.): a lumpish person.

Dotterweich [soft like egg yolk]: ‘soft, feeble person’; a knight K. Totterweich; a Godeke Doderwec Stralsund 1302.

Dotz, Dotz(l)er: UGer. ‘small, feeble person’, in old documents Totz, Tötzlin 1337. But Dotzauer: from Totzau in N Behemia, cf. Slav. Dotzek, Dotzmann = Dotz, cf. Dotzmann (farmer) 1450, Totzman, Würt. 1473.

Dotzlar: pl.n. in Siegen.

Dove (LGer.), Dowe: a deaf person (cf. modern German doof ‘dumb, stupid’). Ava Dove, Hbg. 1273. A Johann Dovekat [deaf cat], Ro. 1281. But Dovendig (Ro. 1257, Lüneburg, Lüb. 1373) means ‘raging, out of one’s mind’, cf. rasendig [raging], lebendig [lively], hinkendig [limping].

Dövel, Döbel (LGer.): = ‘dowel, wooden peg’ (Dövelhauer [dowel cutter] Westph., H. Dövel, Lüb. 1345).

Dovermann: pl.n. Doveren in the Rhineland.

Dowidat, Dowideit: Lith. E Pruss. ‘son of David’.

Draa(c)k, Dracke (LGer.): ‘dragon’, NHG Drache, UGer. Drach; SW Ger. also a house n.: thus in Frkf. “zum Drachen.” J. van deine Drachin, Trier 1363; C. Drache, Frkf. 1357.

Drabe, Draabe (Westph.), Drave: related to Dutch drab ‘sediment, dirt’.

Draber(t): also Drawert, see Drawehn.

Drabner: refers to the Sax.-Slav. pl.n., cf. Drabitzsch in Sax.

Drabot see Tragebot. Cf. Traber(t).

Drachsel (UGer.): = Drechsel ‘turner’.

Draffehn see Drawehn.

Dragatz, Dragosch, Dragon: sh.fs. for the Slav. pers.n. Dragomir (drag ‘dear’). Cf. also pl.n. Drage near Winsen, Dragen near Gifhorn, Dragahn in Wendland. Henneke de Draghe, Greifswald 1350.

Dragendorff: pl.n. in Thur. (Drakendorf near Jena).

Dräger (LGer.): = Träger [porter]. In Danzig, for example, the “Dräger” formed their own guild.

Drahn (freq. in Hbg.): probably Slav., cf. Pl.n. Drahnow. But MLG drâne ‘idler, loafer’ (drone!).

Draht see Drath.

Drais: pl.n. near Mainz. Cf. Draisine [a kind of primitive bicycle], invented by K. F. Baron of Drais.

Dralle (LGer.): ‘firm, firmly twisted, roundish, solid’, cf. dralle Deern [buxom maiden], draller Faden [firmly twisted thread], Drellstoff [canvas, twisted cloth].

Dransfeld: pl.n. south of Göttingen.

Dransmann: from Dranse in Prignitz.

Dratel(n), von: freq. in Hbg., corresponds to Nateln near Soest: drot (like not) means ‘swampy water, dirty water’.

Drath: like Siebdrath, Eisendrath, meaning a wire drawer or wire maker. Cf. Dratsmid, Görlitz 1451, drotcziher, Liegnitz 1381, Prague, Eger, (corrupted form Traziger, a Humanist in Nuremberg), LGer. Ebeling dratogher, Lüb. 1344. An Ulrich Drato (Dratlin), Budweis 1358-69. But M. Dratlauffer, Moravia 1414, means a fast runner (MHG drate ‘fast’).

Drathen (von): refers to the pl.n. Dratum near Melle (old form Droten). There is a Drothwater River in Lippe, and a Drootbeke [Droot Creek] in Flanders.

Draude: = LGer. Drude ‘beloved, dear’, also Draudt (Hess. bibliographer, 1625: Draudius, Bibliotheca classica).

Drauz see Trautz.

Drave see Drabe.

Drawehn, Draffehn: = Polabian, Wend from the Lüneburg Heath or from Wendland. A pl.n. Drawehn in Pom. (near Köslin). Similarly Drawiel, Drawanz, Drawer(t).

Draxel, Draxler (Bav.) see Drechsel, Drechaler.

Drebber: pl.n. near Diepholz (with the Drebber Bog). See Bahlow ON, p. 80.

Drebert: from Dreba near Schleiz in Thur.

Drebljahr, Treblegar: Slav. pl.n. Drebligar near Torgau.

Drechsel, Drechsler [turner]: from Thur. to Sil. Dressler, Dressel, in Aust. Draxl(er), in Tyrol Draschl. Also Beindrechsler [bone turner]. See also Traxl(er). The turner’s products were of wood, bone, ivory, and amber; in Munich, for example, in 1347 die makers and bone ring makers were separate trades.

Dreck(mam): Drecke [mud, mire] Westph., living in a muddy region, cf. Dreck Bartold 1483, now Dreckmeier in Lippe. Arnd tom Drecke 1606. L. uppe den Drecke: der Dreckman (Lippe.) etc.

Dre(e)rup: Westph. pl.n

Drees, Drees(s)en (L.Rhine): = Andreas [Andrew]. Cf. Dreabeimdieke. Also pl.n. Drees in the Rhineland.

Drefahl (E Ger.-Slav.): like Kufahl, Pufahl, Landahl: pl.n. Drehfahl in Meckl. But for Drefs see Drews. Cf. Drefke (Dreifke).

Dreger (LGer., freq. in Hbg.) = Dreier (Drechsler), see there.

Dreher (UGer., Switz., Würt.): = Drechsler [turner]. Also Spindeldreher, Stockdreher, Trappendreher.

Dreibrodt [three loaves]: refers to duty of tribute (cf. Dreipferd [three horses], Dreipfenning [three pennies], etc.)

Dreidoppel [thrice double] (LGer.): means a dice player (in old documents Drydoppel), see Doppeler, Döbler, Däbier.

Dreier, Dreyer (LGer., freq.), also Dreger: = ‘turner’. Cf. also Schötteldreyer; Vlaschendreyer [bottle turner] (Han. 1431); Stuhldreier [chair turner]; Krochdreger [pitcher turner] (Greifswald 1372); Kopdreger [cup turner]; Holtdreger [wood Turner], Rohdregher [rough turner], Greifswald 1354, spillendreger [capstan Turner], ringdreier [ring turner], Lüb. 14th c., L. dreghere, Han. 1348, Dreyere, Han. 1370; Boltendreyer [bolt turner]. Dreifuß see Dreyfuß. Dreiling, Dreilich (Sil.): MHG driling: the third part (a measure or container), also a coin (3 pennies). Dryling 1368 Liegnitz and Brsl., Magdeburg 1388, Cologne 1135; Dreyling, Zittau 1415.

Dreiocker, Dreiucker (Liegnitz): corruption of Triaker = Theriak, an antidote made from juniper, laurel, gentian, and honey, also called otter ointment; hence surn. of Theriak storekeepers (DWB II, col. 1373).

Dreiroß: MHG treiros = dance tune. cf.Heinrich Treyroß, Dreyros, in Hesse. 1351.

Dreis: sometimes = Andreas [Andrew]. Cf. also pl.n. Dreis (Eifel; Siegen).

Dreißig: pl.n. in Sax. Cf. also pl.n. Droyßig near Zeitz.

Dreißigacker: pl.n. in Thur.

Drei(t)zner: from Droitzen near Naumburg.

Dremel (Bav., Aust.) = Tremel ‘coarse fellow, ruffian’, MHG dram, tram ‘beam, holt, block, cudgel’. Hans Dremel, Munich 1437. Cf. Kuntz Dremelindemarsch, Augsburg 14th c.

Dren(c)kha(h)n (LGer., freq. in Hbg.): = Drinkha(h)n = ‘Trinkjohann’ [drinking John], like Drinkgern ‘a great drinker’; similarly Drenker ‘drinker’. Cf. Johann Vroverdrunkene Han. 1323, where also Johann Drenkehane 1363.

Drenkmann: from Drenke near Höxter.

Drescher [thresher]: rural occupation (one who threshes grain with a flail: cf. Drischaus: Hans Druscute, Haldsl. 14th c.). LGer. Dröscher, see this. UGer. also Trescher, Tröscher (see Brech., Stuttg. 1939, under “Drescher”). Expanded form Dreschner, Draschner: Nickel Dreschner, farmer 1463 Mertschütz in Sil.; Nickel Vildrescher, Liegnitz 1372.

Dres(ch)ke, Dresky: E Ger.-Stav., cf. pl.n. Dreska, Dresow.

Dresel = Dreßel (= Dreßler): in old documents in Sax. (see Brech., p. 342, 345). A village Dresel in Westph.

Dreske, Dresky see Dreschke.

Drespe: CentrGer. = MHG trefze ‘Trespe’ (weed). But also a pl.n. (Dres-apa) near Waldbröl.

Dressel, Dressler see Drechsel. (Cf. Bahlow SN, p. 104).

Dreusicke: Slav. pers.n., cf. Droyseke van Crocheren, Meckl. 1317, see Droysen.

Drever(mann): from Drever in Westph. or Drebber near Diepholz (Bahlow ON, p. 80).

Drew(e)s: LGer., formerly the usual form of Andreas [Andrew], like Mewes for Bartholomäus [Bartholomew], with labial fricative w in the hiatus between the vowels; apparent in Andrewes Ebeling, Harz 1480. Cf. Drevs (Andreas) Witgerwer, Stralsund 1334.

Drewi(e)n: pl.n. in Meckl.

Drewing (Hbg.): LGer.-Westph. = Drewes = Andreas [Andrew], like Mewing Barthelmewes [Bartholomew].

Drewitz: pl.n. (Brandenburg, several places in Meckl., Pom.).

Drexel (Drexelius), Drexler (Munich, Vienna, freq.) see Drechsel. M. Drexel in U.Pal. 1600.

Drey, Dreymann (Westph.): from Dreyen near Herford or Dreye near Bremen. Cf. Dregman in Lippe 1595, now Dreimann; dreg (drag) means ‘mire, swamp, mud’, as also in Dreileben (Dregleben); a Dreiberg at the Solling Forest (Bahlow ON, p. 87).

Dreyer see Dreier.

Dreyfuß: MHG drivuoß ‘three-footed vessel or pan’. A jester Cläwe Tryfuoß in a Swiss Shrovetide play 1548; a councillor Conrad Tryfus, Augsburg 1500; for the Jewish FN cf. Mardechai Trifuß, Aargau 1753.

Dreyhaupt, Dreyhäupl (UGer.): Drihäup(t)el, 14th c. (Bav., Moravia).

Dreyocker see Dreiocker.

Dreytwein (Eßlingen 1548): = Treutwin. Nickn. Dreitle. See Trautwein.

Driels: L.Rhine driel ‘moor, bog’.

Driemel see Dremel.

Driesch, van den Driesch, Drieschmann: LGer., ‘by the uncultivated field used as pasture’ (dialect form drêsch). Cf. also pl.n. Driesch (several places in the Rhineland). E. uppn Dresche, Lippe 1571: Dreischmeier.

Drieschner: cf. pl.n. Drieschnitz near Cottbus. Similarly Driesner: from the pl.n. Driesen (Brandenburg, Posen).

Driessen: (L.Rhine) like Andriessen = Andreas’ [Andrew’s] son.

Driewer, Driver (LGer.): ‘cattle driver’. But cf. the bog village of Driever near Leer on the Ems River.

Drinkuth (LGer.): ‘drink up’, one who is fond of drinking. Hans Drinkut, Ro. 1304, Ilsenburg 1529. Cf. M. Trinckus, Zwickau 1388. Johann Utdrank, Lüb. 14th c. Cf. Drenckhahn (likewise Drinkhahn).

Drippe see Trippe.

Drischaus: ‘thresher’. H. Druscute, Haldsl. 14th c. (like Rütut in the same place).

Drischmann = Drieschmann: ‘living by the pasture’; see Driesch.

Drobe, Drobisch, Drobek, Drobig, Drobnig, Drobezyk: Slav., cf. pl.n. Droben near Bautzen, Drobitz, etc. Gerhard Drobe, Barth 1474. But Johann Drove, Ro. 1257, suggests the (LGer.) interpretation ‘der Trübe’ [the sad one], e.g. Drovighe, Lüb. 1328.

Drogan(d): Slav., like Drogatz, Drogasch, pl.ns. Drogen, Drognitz in Thur., Drögen in Meckl., Drogansmühle in Lausitz. Cf. Horan(d), Iwan(d), Trojan(d).

Dröge (LGer., freq. in Hbg. and Meckl.): ‘dry’. Cf. Wichman Droghe, Lüb. around 1300. H. Droghespot, Lüb. 1332. Also related is Drogekopp [dry head] (cf. drögenlistich). Drög(e)möller (cf. Drögemühle in Lauenburg, in a dry location, opposite: Peemöller, from pede ‘swampy area’); cf. Drögenkamp [dry field], Drögenheide [dry heath].

Drohn(e): pl.n. Drohne in Westph., cf. Drohmann: pl.n. Drohe near Ülzen.

Drolshagen: pl.n. near Olpe in Westph. (cf. Peter D., a Westphalian poet).

Drömer (LGer.): ‘dreamer’.

Drommeter (UGer.): ‘trumpeter’.

Drope, Dropmann: from Drope in the district of Lingen. H. Drope, Han. 1494.

Droschke, Druschke: E Ger-Slav., pl.n. Droschka(u).

Drosdowski: from Drosedow in Pom.

Dröse (freq. in Hbg.), Drose, Drösemeyer, Drosemeier: MLG drôs ‘devil, lout’. But cf. drose = ‘dirt, mud’; pl.ns. Drösede, Drosedow, etc.

Drossart, Drossert: Dutch drossaard ‘official, office holder’.

Drossel: [NHG] ‘thrush’, the songbird (MHG trostel). Wenczlaw Drossl, Chrudim 1399.

Drößler (E Franc.-Thur.): = Dreßler.

Droste (Westph.): MLG drossete = MHG truchtsäße, person in charge of a nobleman’s followers (truht) and of their supply of food, later a high court official like chamberlain, marshal, cup bearer. Cf. the noble families of Münster: Droste zu Hülshoff; Droste zu Vischering. Hinr. Droste, Han. 1444.

Droth: dialect for Drath, see there.

Drotlef, Drodtloff (LGer.): = Drocht-lev, Drucht-lev, UGer. Trucht-lieb, a rare old pers.n. (OHG and MHG truht, ‘band of warriors, entourage’), especially among the nobility. Cf. deminus [lord] Drohtlevus de Kolden (priest), Holstein 1366, Druchtlevus canonicus [canon, priest], Magdeburg 1361; Henne Drochtliebe’s son, Frkf. 1387. Bernger Truhlieb, Eßlingen 1369; also Drucklieb (Swab. dialect form, cf. Druckseß for Truchseß): A knight Druchtolfus Botmer in Oldenburg around 1350.

Droysen, Droyseke see Dreusicke.

Drube, Druve, Druwe (LGer.): Druve, Stralsund around 1280, Druve, Greifswald 1301. See also Drobe (Drove). A melancholy person.

Drückeferken: [press the piglet] (LGer.): a “piglet presser,” one whe was paid to press out certain glands from piglets, i.e. a castrator. Similarly Drückenhengst [press the stallion]. For LGer. Ferken see Puttfarken.

Drückescherf like Drückenpfennig means a miser. See Scherf and Pfennig. A B. Drükkescherf in Barth 1338.

Druckenmüller, Truckenmüller see Drögemöller.

Drückhammer [press hammer]: probably means a hammer maker. (Cf. Drücketunne [press the barrel], Brsw. 1377: = ‘cooper’.) Drückebeker (press the beaker), Greifswald 1379, cf. Stärtebeker.

Drucklieb see Drotlef.

Drude (LGer.): sh.f. of Gerdrude = Saint Gertrude; gêr ‘spear’, trud ‘strength’ (later associated with traut ‘dear’). Cf. in Lübeck: Wilhelm de sancta Druda 1332, also more freq. as a fn. Druda, Drudeke: in Lüneburg 1352: Heyne Druden. The related patr. is Druding (Westph., Fris.), Drüding: Drüing! Loss of dental sound between vowels is also found in Drücke from Drüdecke, also Drüen for Drüden. In Lippe: Druden, Druding, Drudener (patr.) around 1500.

Druffel: pl.n. near Wiedenbrück (1088 Druflo boggy depression). Cf. Druffelbeck near Gifhorn.

Drull, Droll see Trull, Troll.

Drumm (Munich, Hbg.): MLG drum (MHG trum) ‘block of wood, uncouth person’.

Drummer, Drümmer: = ‘drummer’ (MHG trumme ‘drum’, cf. Trumenschläger [drum bester]).

Drump (Nuremberg, Stuttgart): MHG trump ‘trumpet, drum’. F. Trump, Würt. 1434. Cf. “Pfeifer und Trümpeler” [piper and Trumpeter]. Trumpenschedel, Lahr 1356, trumper, Trumpeke, Han. 15th c.

Druschke see Droschke.

Druse (LGer. drus ‘sullen’): Claus Druse, Greifswald 1364, Godeke Druseboc, Hbg. 1262.

Drüssel: MHG ‘throat, gullet, jaws’ (cf. Wolfsdrüssel).

Druve, Druwe (LGer.); Drube: a melancholy person. Druve Strals. 1281, Greifsw. 1301.

Dryander: Humanists’ name for Eichmann. See this. (Cf. Neander for Neumann, Chrysander for Goldmann, Sercander for Fleischmann.)

Dubbern, Dubbert, Dubber(s) (Hbg., Bremen): Fris. variants of Dibbern, Dibbert, Dibbers, see these. Cf. Suffrid for Siffrid. Dubbe(n) is a sh.f.; but see also Dobbe.

Dube see Duwe.

Dübel: where it is not a variant of LGer. Düvel ‘devil’, name probably means MHG tübel ‘dowel, wooden peg’: Eberlin Tübel, near Tübingen 1383.

Dub(i)slaff, also Dubke, Dubick, Dubian, see Dobislaff.

Dübner (Sax.): from Düben (Sax., Thur.).

Düchting: ‘a capable, efficient person’, de Duchtige, Lippe 1538.

Dück, Duck (Hbg.): probably ‘a shirker, sneak’, like Duckehals. But Ducks (LGer.) means ‘devil’.

Dü(c)ker (LGer.): ‘duck’, whose skin was used by the furrier. Albert Dukere, Lüb. 1324. Cf. also MLG düker ‘devil’.

Dud(d)a, Dud(d)ek, Dudka, Dudy: Slav. (Polish) dudek ‘hoopoe’ [a bird].

Duden, Dudden (LGer.-Frig.): patronymic related to the name Dude (Dudo) derived from baby talk, probably representing Lude (Luden, Ludo) = Ludolf, a popular traditional name in the Old Saxon ruling family Of the Ludolfingers (Emperor Heinrich I, Otto the Great, etc.); in old documents the son of Otto I, L(i)udoy, is also called Dudo in 951 and 957, and Otto’s sister Luitgardis is also called Dudicha (Stark, p. 33). In addition, the name was once quite common in the Rhineland: Dudo de Malberg 1204; Emerich Dude, Worms 1321, Dudeman de Lorch 1350. A related sh.f. is Dudeke (like Ludeke): Hinrich Dudeken, Oldenburg 1511. Besides Dude also Düde, Düe (Hbg.).

Duderer (Swab.) see Doderer.

Duffner (Würt.) see Deffner.

Duf(f)t, Dufter (UGer.): = ‘bog, swamp’. A related word is Duftschmied (also a pl.n. in Bav.).

Dugge(n): LGer. (probably Fris.-Danish).

Duhm, Duhme (LGer. = UGer. Daume [thumb]): with a prominent thumb. Henneke mit dem dumen, Brsw. 1373; Otto Dume, Lüb. 1321. See also Daum.

Duhn (Hbg.), Duhne: dun is a very old term for ‘mud, swamp, mire’ (see Bahlow ON, p. 71), as in Dunede, Dunope in Westph., Dunum, Dunwarden in E Friesland, Dunau in Han. Cf. J. Duneman, Lüb. 1332. But Wyt Dunema 1536 is a Frisian patronymic.

Dühnfahr (Schwerin), Dühnfarth (Hbg.), Dühnfort: at the time of the Hanseatic League, a merchant who regularly traveled to Düna (Riga). Thus in Lübeck around 1350: Hinrik Dunevare: also in Lüb. Vlandervare, Norevare, Rostokervare [traveler to Flanders, Norway, Rostock]; in Rostock: Swedhevare, Gotlandesvare [traveler to Sweden, Gotland]. Similarly Duhnkrack (Hbg.): MLG krake = ‘merchant ship’.

Dühr (LGer.): ‘dear, i.e. expensive’. Hinrik Düre, Magdeburg 1264, Cordt Düre, Hildesheim 1402.

Dühr(en), Dührssen (LGer.-Fris.): patronymic from the Fris. pers.n. Duhr. Cf. Dure Mynsen (16th c.); Tanno Duren, a Frisian in 1468; also Duhrke. See also Djurken, Duursma. Durlef, Lüb. 1327.

Dühring see Düring.

Dü(h)rko(o)p see Dürkop.

Duis (L.Rhine-Westph.): as in Duisburg, Duisberg, is a very old word for a bog (Old Indic dus ‘rottenness, putrefaction’), see Bahlow ON, pp. 92-93. Cf. Düshop (also Düshorn): pl.n. near Soltau.

Dujardin: Huguenot n. (‘from the garden’), cf. Jardin.

Düker see Dücker.

Dulde see Dold. (Dulde Kopp, Frkf. 1366 = Berthold).

Dulheuer (Westph.): ‘knife maker’ (Brech., p. 359).

Dulk, Dülk(e), Dülks: L.Rhine field n. Cf. pl.n. Dülken near Krefeld (Dulika) from dul ‘bog’ (Bahlow ON, p. 91). Also related is Dülsen (Dul-husen). Also Westph. Düll(mann). Cf. pl.n. Dülmen (Dul-menni ‘bog water’) in Westph. Gosen (Goswin) von Dulk, Friesland 1463.

Düll (UGer.): ‘thick head, stubborn’ (G. Tüll, Säckingen 1360).

Duller (UGer.): Tuller, Eßlingen 1294, cf. pl.n. Duller in Würt.

Dulz, Dultz: Slav. like the pl.n. Dulzen in E Prussia, Dulzig in Pom.

Dumböck, Dumbeck, Dumbach: pl.n. Dumbach (Baden, Aust.); -beck, -böck for -bach [creek] is Bav.-Aust., cf. Meichelbeck (Bav.), Aspöck (Asbach in Aust.). Dumbach is derived from Tun-bach, found in old documents, just as Dombach in Bav. is derived from Tun-bach and Dambach, Damböck are derived from Tan-bach: tun, tan are very old words for mud, bog (Bahlow ON, p. 473, 485).

Dumke see Domke.

Dümling (Hbg.): LGer. for Däumling, see Daum.

Dummann (Hbg.): LGer. ‘a stupid man’, like Klockmann ‘a clever man’. In old Breslau cf. Tummisheubt [stupid head] and Clugisheubt [clever head], also Tummer, Tummerwicht [stupid fellow]; cf. Dummer, Dummermuth (Cologne). In Würt. 1293 a knight Thieter of Talheim, called “der Dumbe” [the stupid one]. Johann Dumbe, Lüb. 14th c.

Dümmer: a large lake south of Diepholz (also in Meckl.). For dum see Bahlow ON, p. 91.

Dümmler, Dumler (UGer.): ‘restless, noisy person’ (MHG tumelen, cf. Getümmel [tumult] and Tümmler [tumbler] = dolphin!). Endres Zobe, known as Tumeler, Würt. 1323. Cf. also MHG tumeler ‘slingshot’.

Dumrath (Pom.): Slav. pers.n. Cf. Domerat, court judge (Preußisches Urkundenbuch [Prussian Document Register]); Könike Dumradevitz, Pom. 1296.

Dumröse see Domröse.

Dumschlaff, Dum(t)zlaff (Pom.): = Dubislav, see Dobslaff. Cf. J. D. Dumschlaff, Kammin 1752. See also Domizlaff.

Dumstrey see Domstrich.

Dunckel(mann): MLG dunkel ‘conceited’. G. Dunkel, Cologne 1186.

Dun(c)ker: MLG = ‘dark’, also ‘blind’. Perhaps also ‘whitewasher’ = Ger. Tüncher. There was once a Dunkerstraße [Dunker Street] in Reval.

Düngen: pl.n. on the Innerste in Harz Mtns., like Dungen on the Weser and Dunge near Bremen, in a ‘boggy’ location. Cf. Diederich von Dungen, Frkf. 1387.

Dung(s): L.Rhine, from the field and pl.n. Dung, Dunk, Donk = ‘a mound in a swampy area’. Cf. Dunkmann. Von der Dunk, Dunhase (Wesel 1388).

Dunkel, Dunker see Dunckel, Duncker.

Dunkelgod, Dunkelgut (LGer.): Eler Dunkelgot, Lüb. 14th c. See Dunckel.

Dünkler, Dünkel, Dünkelmann = Dinkler, Dinkel(mann). See there. Cf. Dünkelrode for Dinkelrode; Dünkelsbühl: Dinkelsbühl.

Dünne: a thin, slim person. As a FN as early as 1354: Rapot Dünne and son R. D. in Würt.; Ricbern Dünne, Hbg. 1294. Cf. Dünnebacke [thin cheek], Dünnehaupt [thin head], Dünnemund [thin mouth], Dünnebein [thin leg]; Dünnebregen [thin brain; bregen (LGer.) = ‘brain’], Hildesheim 1395.

Dünn(e)bier: ‘beer brewer, innkeeper’ (freq. in Sil., see Bahlow SN, p. 124: Dünnebier, Dinnebier, Dennebier, all mean ‘thin beer’). Similarly Dünnebeil, Dünneisen (blacksmith), Dünnespeck, Lüb. 1338, for a pork butcher, Dünnschwengel, etc. For Dünnfründ see Freund.

Dünser: from Düns in Aust.

Dünsing (Hbg., Han.): contraction of Du(d)ensing, Du(d)ensiek (around 1600) like Vahlsing (Han.) from Vahlsiek (siek = ‘swampy place’); Tubbesing from Tubbesiek; Bensing from Bensiek.

Dunst: ‘vapor, steam’, probably refers to a bather in the steam-filled bathhouse. A Cunr. Dunst in Nassau 1278. But Dunst(maier)in Bav. is probably from a field n., cf. Also Dunzmayer.

Düntzer (UGer.): cf. Dünzebach, Dünzing, etc. (in old documents Tuntz-, tunt ‘dung’.

Dünz(e)l (Bav.), Dünzelmann: cf. pl.n. Dünzelbach, Dünzlau, Dünzling (all in Bav.).

Duphorn (Hbg.): pl.n. like Druchhorn, Balhorn, etc., all indicate damp corners. Cf. pl.n. Düpe in Oldenburg.

Düppengießer (L.Rhine: freq. in Aachen): = ‘pot molder, potter’ (Rhine area düppen, MLG duppe ‘pot’, metal or ceramic). similarly Düpper (cf. Ricker, p. 24). A Bernd Duppe, Han. 1400.

Durban: = Saint Urban (from Pope Urban, died 230; patron saint of vintners), a popular f.n. from 14th-16th centuries, esp. In E Ger.-Sil., Slav. Urbach, Urbisch, Urbanek (Bahlow SN, p.76) Cf. Turbanstag = Urban’s Day. Torben = Urban, Angermünde 1603. Similarly Durs = Urs, a count in Basel 1511.

Durchdenbusch, Durchdenwald [through the Woods], Durchdenwind see Dordenbusch. For Durchdenwind (Strasb. 1466) cf. Schneidewind: The robber chief Johann Bückler (“Schinderhannes”) in the Rhine area around 1800 also called himself Durchdenwald. A lancer (Glefner) Durchshus in Strasb. 1405.

Dürer (UGer.): Cunzelin der Durer, near Stuttgart 1334; a (fem.) Mätzlin Dürer(lin) in Würt. 14th c. Probably from the house n., see Dürmeyer. Dürer’s father came from the village of Ajtos in Hungary (Ajtos is said to mean ‘door’).

Düring, During: an old term for a Thuringian, cf. “die Düringe und die Sachsen” [the Thuringians and the Saxons] in Walther von der Vogelweide. Occasionally also used as a f.n. : Duringus Filius Dietmari de Steyr [Lat. Düring son of Dietmar of Steyr] Enns (Aust.) 1240, Duringbertus, Erfurt 1288. Names connected with the “eastward expansion” are Dü(h)ring (CentrGer. Dö(h)ring), Dührig, Dürich, Dörich, Dierich, etc., freq. esp. in Sil.-Sax.-Bohemia. (Bahlow SN, p. 81.)

Dürkop, Dührko(o)p etc. [expensive buy] (LGer.): standardized form Theuerkauf around 1600, meaning the merchant from whom it is expensive to buy; opposite Wohlfeil [cheap] (L. Wolveyl, Greifswald 1363), Dürekop, Hildesheim, Lübeck, etc. around 1300. Dürkop in Quedlburg 1661, but Theuerkauf 1693! In Wetzlar 1315: C. Durekauf. A J. Nimmerteuer [never expensive], Prague 1418. Cf. Teursfischel. Hans Tiuwer, Pforzheim 1478.

Dürmeyer, Durmeyer (UGer.): from the house n., like Durwieser, Durmann, Duregger, where dur means ‘water’ as in Durbach in Baden, Durlangen in Würt. etc. (Bahlow ON, p. 92) Durmeyer, near Stuttg. 1342.

Dürner (UGer.): from pl.ns. like Dürn in Bav., Dürnau in Würt. Cf. K. der Dürner von Dürnau. The field n. Dürn means ‘thorny thicket’.

Dürr (CentrGer.-LGer. Dörr): a lean, gaunt person. Cf. also Dürrehoubet [lean head], Bingen 1256, Dürresnabel [skinny beak] Brsl., Dürrezan [lean tooth], Worms 1336.

Dürschke see Dirschke.

Dürschlag, Dörschlag: (LGer.) dör-slag ‘colander, strainer’ (kitchen utensil). Cordt Dörslag, Ilsenburg 1498. In Westph. Also = ‘squanderer, wastrel’.

Durst, Dürstle (UGer.): a brave, bold person (MHG turst ‘bravery’, türste, türstic ‘bold’). Cuonrad der Türste, Überlingen 1295. But in Tyrol also a farm name: der Mair am Durst [the dairy farmer at Durst] 1398, Acker “auf dem Durst” [field at Durst] 1534.

Duscha, Duschek, Duschau, Duschinski are

  1. Anonymous (leach w. E. ?)

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    -Anonymous, 1917. " Results of the South Australian Museum expedition to Strzelecki and Cooper Creeks. September and October 1916". p 490. Trans.
  2. Recherche bei Umlauten ggf. über ae, oe, ue suchen! Dasselbe gilt: Wenn mit „ß“ kein Ergebnis vorliegt, ggf mit „ss“ suchen! Bei den

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    Recherche bei Umlauten ggf. über ae, oe, ue suchen! Dasselbe gilt: Wenn mit „ß“ kein Ergebnis vorliegt, ggf. mit „ss“ suchen! Bei den Signaturnummern gibt das letzte Kürzel (z.

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