Aar: the old term for Ger. Adler (adel ar) and means ‘eagle’: Frid dictus [called] Ar, near Konstanz 1258. See Ahr. Aaron

X

Xander(s), L.Rhine also Zander(s), Sander(s), see Alexander.

Xaver: Cathol. Ln., popular in Bav. (since around 1700), from Saint Francis Xaver(ius), 16th c. missionary in India and Japan; Xavier is Span. pl.n. Cf. FranzXaver Gabelsberger (1789) from Munich, inventor of stenography.

Xell(er): UGer.-Swab., = Gsell(er); cf. Hans Gseller, Rottweil 1441.

Xylander (Greek).- Humanist name for Holzmann [woodman]; cf. Dryander = Eichmann [calibrator, inspector of weights and measures], Sarcander = Fleischmann [butcher], Neander = Neumann, Chrysander = Goldmann. Yblagger (Aust., Bav.) = Übelacker, farmer with bad fields. cf. dial. lblhcrr besides Übelherr. York (von). Pom.- Kassubian nobility (Jork, Jark), cf. Field Marshal York von Wartenburg (see further: Heintze-Cascorbi, p. 525).

Z

Zaar (Slav.) see Saar.

Zabe, Zabka, Zabke, Zapka, Zapke: Slav. zaba = ‘frog’.

Zabel (freq. in Pom., Meckl., Brandenburg) is documented as medieval f.n. (of Slav. origin), cf. Zabellus Zeghevryt, Strals. 1432, still 1548 in Altmark area Sabellus Kemnitz; Tzabel Rannow, Haldst. 1393, Zabel Preleken, Haldsl. Hans Tzabels, Haldsl. 1382. Also cf. Zobel (in some cases = Slav. Sobol = Sobieslaw). But UGer. Zabel (FN) derives from MHG zabel (Lat. tabula) ‘board game’, like Schachzabel ‘chess game’: Peter Zabel, Neidlingen 1441. LGer-L.Rhine Zabel a variant of Zobel [sable fur!], cf. Hinr. zabelsnidere [sable cutter or furrier], Lüb. around 1325, Thid. Zabel, Col. 1187.

Zach (Zacha, Zache, Zachen) besides Zachmann already documented as f.n. around 1300 in E Centr.Ger. area (Sax., Sil., also Aust.), when Zacharias was hardly known yet: Zachmannus de Casow, knight, Lausitz 1262, Zachmannus, lay assesser in court 1310 in Brsl., Zachmanv. Czabelticz, Neustadt 1393 (U.Sax.), Joh. Czach, Brsl. 1409.

Zachäus, Zachei (rare): Hebr. ‘the just one’; name of the publican in Jericho who took Jesus in; this biblical name was used as f.n. quite late (Joh. Zachei, Weida, Sax. 1467).

Zacher, Zachert: UGer.-CentrGer., means Zacharias (the prophot of the Old Testament or father of John the Baptist in the NT: Hebr. ‘Jahweh [God] remembers’); Czacherys Rulke, Brsl. 1347, Hans Czacher, Habelschwerdt (Sil.) 1400. In Bav., Aust. Zacherl. Also Sacher, Sacherl, see there.

Zachri(e)s, Zachreis (UGer.) = Zacharias, see Zacher. Cf. Chunrat Zachreis= Ch. der Zächerlein (Zecherlein), Passau around 1400, Sigmund Zacharias (Zacherer), Schrobenhausen, U.Bav. 1508. Also fem. f.n. around 1400 in Haldsl.. Zacharia besides nickname Zachele, Zechele.

Zadeck: (Jewish) = Hebrew zadok ‘priest’.

Zadel: MHG ‘want of food’, verzadeln ‘to starve to death’; B. Zadel, Nbg. 1254.

Zader, Zadera: Wend. zadora ‘strife’. Enderl Czader, Bohemia 1402. For Zad(d)ach (Slav.) cf. Slav. Raddach.

Zaffke (LGer.) see Saffke (= Sophie).

Zagel, Zägelein (UGer.): from MHG ‘tail’, sometimes ‘penis’; also field n.; Hensel Czagel, Kolin 1382. Contracted Zahl, see Hasenzahl, Rübezahl. Hence Zahler (Lahr), old Zageler, from field n.; cf. in Tyrol 1518 Hans Zagler of the Zagler farm, 1379 Told von Zagel.

Zager: pl.n. near Wollin. Joh. Zager, Strals. 1287.

Zähler: occ. surname [person who counts items], cf. Nickel czeler, Brsl. 1361 = N. czigelczeler [tile counter], Brst. 1358; in Frkf. 1424 Henchen eyerczeler [egg counter].

Zahn (freq.): surname for a person with a conspicuous tooth (or tooth gap: Simon Zanlücke, Bingen 1348). cf. knight Burchard v. Bodman called Zan, Salem 1235. Older form also Zandt (MHG zant): Stephan Czant, Iglau 1362. Hensel Schartlzant [Scharte = nick], Prague 1408 like Wernher Schertelczan, Brsl. 1281. Also Breitzahn [wide tooth], Scharfzahn, Weibezahn [wobbly tooth], Klapperzahn [chattering t.] UGer. also Zähnle, Zehnle. Reisenzahn [rip the tooth] name for a dentist (UGer. also Zahnbrecher ‘tooth breaker’, Zahnleiter see Hauslieter. Leite: MHG lîte ‘mountain slope’).

Zahner: from pl.n. Zahna near Wittenberg. Cf. Zahnow (pl.n. and FN).

Zahren (freq. in Hbg.): cf. pl.n. Zahren in Meckl.-Strolitz, pl.n. Zahrensdorf (twice in Meckl.), pl.n. Zahrensen (Zarenhusen) N of Soltau. In Wismar also Zahrens. Also cf. Zahrn(d)t in Hbg.

Zainer see Zeiner.

Zaiser (UGer.), also Zeiser: wool plucker (MHG zeisen ‘to pick’), figuratively: ‘quarreller, cantankerous person’; Ruod. der Zaiser, Stuttg. 1314, Hans Zeiser, Moravia 1414.

Zajac(ek), Zajec(ek): freq. in Vienna, Slav. = ‘rabbit, bunny’.

Zamek (E Ger.-Slav.), also Samek: sh.f. of pers.n. Samobor; also Samosch. Zama, Zamjahn, with suffix -an, like Bursian etc. For Zamel, Samel see also Samuel.

Zander (freq.), L.Rhine Zanders: like Sander (Sanders) and Xander = Alexander, see there. Cf. Tzander Goltsmed, Haldsl. around 1400 besides Sander Schöteler, Haldsl.

Zandt see Zahn (twicf. pl.n. in Bav.).

Zang(e); Zängel, Zängle(in) [plyers]: UGer. name for a smith; cf. Hammer, Amboß [anvil], Eisen [iron], Nagel [nail], etc. Landolt Zange, Rottenburg 1309. Hence Zangemeister (Bav. Swabia). Hans Zenglinderschmid, Eßlingen 1431.

Zanger (UGer.), also Zänger(le), Zangerl, from MHG zanger, zenger ‘cheerful, lively, energetic’ (originally ‘biting and sharp’). Jacob Zengerlin, Allgäu 1250.

Zank, Zank(e)l (UGer.-Bav.) = Zänker(t): ‘quarrelsome, cantankerous’; Duke Heinrich II of Bav., called Zänker [quarreller], 10th c. But Zanke may derive from MHG zanke ‘spike, tine, preng’. Zanke v. Rotkirch, Liegn. 1362, WenczIab Czank, Deutsch-Brod 1398. See also Zenker, Zenkel, Zenk.

Zanner (UGer.): from MHG zannen ‘to growl, howl’. Also means squabbler. Ruodolf Zannare, 1225 near Villingen, Hans Zannenbentz 1545.

Zantke (Grünberg): from Zantkau in Sil. Cf. castle) Zantoch on the Warthe River; v. Zanthier.

Zanzig: E Ger.-Slav. pl.n., cf. Danzig.

Zapel (Hbg.): Slav. pl.n. Hagenow in Meckl. Cf. Slav. czapla ‘heron’, hence Czapel v. Zschepelitz 1302.

Zäpernik see Zepernik.

Zapf, Zäpfel and Zäpfle (UGer.) like CentrGer. Zapp(e), LGer. Tappe [tap] means Zapfer or a person who draws beer or wine, LGer. Tapper = tavern owner, cf. Sauerzapf, Weinzapf; Wackerzapp (obscene?). In some cases = ‘drunkard’: as in a Shrovetide Play in Bern 1548 (Fritz Seltenleer [F. raroly sober], ein voller Zapf [a full tap]). Zapfner (MHG) ‘wine pourer’.

Zapke (Slav.) see Zabke.

Zarges = Nazarius (saint’s name). But Zarries (Zacharias) Tappe, Hildesheim 1573.

Zarncke (Tscharnke), Zarnack (Scharnack): EGer.-Sil.’the black one’ (Pol. czarny, Czech czerny: cf. Tschernke, Tschernack, Tscherning). Also the pl.n. Tscharniku was originally Tscharncke.

Zarp (Hbg.): Slav., cf. pl.n. Zarpen near Lüb., Zarpentin etc. Likewise Zars (Hbg.), Zarse, Zarske, Zarski.

Zart(mann): MHG also ‘beloved, lover’; cf. Frauenzart, Olmütz around 1350; Heinrich called Zarte, Mainz 1307; Czarczhauplin, Znaim 1397; Czartesgertel, Brsl. 1350, Heinrich Zartsun 1318.

Zastrow (Pom.): Slav. pl.n. (W Pom.); FN in nobility: Conradus de Zasterow, knight, Greifsw. 1270, Adelgunde v. Zastrow around 1850.

Zauber: magician. LGer. Tover: Conrad Tover, Strals. 1344, de olde Toverersche, Haldsl. 1459.

Zauch(e): from the Zauche (Zuche), region near Belzig, also a forest near Leipzig (1334 Zuche), (Slav. suchy ‘dry’), or pl.n. Zauche, distr. Trebnitz in Sil. (von der Czuche, Brsl. 1350). Joh. Czauchman, Merseburg 1498. Also Zaucher. Cf. Zaucke (Sauke), Zaucker. Without diphthong: Zuche, Zuchke, etc., pl.n. Zuchen near Köslin. Pl.n. Zauchwitz in Brandenburg.

Zaudtke, Zaudig: Slav. pers.n. (Czudek), cf. Czudemar, Brsl. 1350. Zaudner: in Sil. the old (former) Pol. judge was called Zaudenrichter (Walther czudener, Liegn. 1339); in Liegn. 1324 the duke combined the old Pol. zude (“jus polonicale” = Polish laws or justice) with the court justice (Urkundenbuch [docum. register] Liegnitz, p. 48, no. 75).

Zauer (UGer.): MHG zouwer = cloth weaver (Walther der Zauwer, Frkf. 1359).

Zaumseil: occ. surname of a ropemaker or harness maker, cf. Zäumer, LGer. Tomschläger, see there. Nic. Czaumstricker, Prague 1359, V. Zaumseil, Jena 1526.

Zauner (UGer.), with umlaut Zäuner, Zeuner: fence maker (from MHG zûner, zûnmacher); Nic. Czuner sutor (cobbler), Brsl. 1399, MHG zûn ‘village fence, hedge’; also for a person living near it (like Zaunmüller, Zaunmayer), cf. Mechthild zumzûne, Mainz 1297. In Tyrol 1534 also name of a farmstead ‘am Zaun’ [at the fence], 1347 “hof zudemZäuner’ in Tyrol. Zaunbracher: a violent, brutal person. Zaunschliefer = “Zaunschlüpfer” [person who slips through the fence] (from MHG sliefen ‘to slip’), cf. MHG zûn-slüpfel ‘wren’.

Zausch (freq. in Lpz., Halle): E Ger.-Slav. (old: Ckusche), cf. pl.n. Zuscha (Tschausch) near Brüx, pl.n. Tschauschwitz near Grottkau; Conrad Zusche, Glatz around 1350; further info. under Tscheuschner (Tschauschner: Pesco Zouschener, Glatz around 1360).

Zeberer: unrounded form of Zöberer (Vogtland area): from pl.n. Groß-Zöbern near Plauen.

Zeberlein (Zöberlein): UGer., cf. Hans Zäberlein, Kempten 1413, Jerg Zeberlein, Kempten 1559. Zebernick see Zepernick.

Zebisch (Sax.) = Zöbisch, i.e. Slav. Sobisch, sh.f. of Sobieslaw. Also cf. Sebisch, Sabisch.

Zech (freq. in Lausitz, Sax.): Slav. like Zoch, cf. pl.n. Zechau, Zochau.

Zecherle, Zechel (UGer.) = Zacharias. Hence the fem. sh.f. Zachele, Zechele in Haldsl. around 1400. C. Zecherlein (Zachereys), Passau 1404-

Zechetmayer, Zechetner see Zehetmayer, Zehetner.

Zechlin: Slav. pl.n. near Wittstock. cf. pl.n. (FN) Zechlau, Zechin, Zecherin.

Zechmeister. director of a mine (or guild, fraternity of miners); Chunrad der Zechmaester, Schönanger in Bav. 1295. Heinczel Czechmeister, Iglau 1383. Sometimes also ‘church curator’(financial administrator) who is called zechmaister in German (Bav. 1377). Zechmann: MHG ‘member of a mining guild’. Likewise Zecher: MHG also ‘director’ [who gave orders]; Bentz Zecher, Füssen 1395. Hence Zechbauer, Zechmayer (Ulrich Zechmayer, Bav. 1478), Zechner (Lienhard Zechner, Tyrol 1490, Gall Zöchner, Tyrol 1580).

Zeck (UGer.): MHG zecke ‘(wood) tick’ (Herolt Zecke, Rimpar 1213).

Zeckzer (UGer.): ‘rowdy, looter’ (MHG zeckezen, zecken ‘to skirmish’).

Zeddies (Hbg.): probably Fris. for Seddies (= Sedinges), cf. Fris. Sedeke, Ziddick.

Zedlach see Sedlak.

Zedler (Sil., Sax.): dial. for Zeidler, see there. A pl.n. Zedel in Lausitz area.

Zedlitz (von): old Sil.-Sax. noble famil; Slav. pl.n., cf. Zedtlitz in Sax.

Ze(e)be see Zehbe.

Zeeck besides Seeck(t) Fris s.f. of Sigfrid, Sigwart etc.; cf. documented ZegevrZeger (Segefri Seger), Zeggert (Segert), Zeckwart

Zeeh (Ger.), Zeh(c): in sorne cases = ‘toe’, claw, in others = ‘tough’. Götz der Zehe = Gotfridus called Zehe, Bamberg 1322; Cuonrat Zehe (Zähe), Ehingen 1290, a knight Otto, called Zehe, Bödigheim 13th c. [all of the previous mean ‘tough’]. Cf. Reckzeh. Ze(h)be, Zeeb(e) [toe] in UGer. dial., still today in Henneberg and central Rhine areas (Konrad Zeb, Reutlingen 1456). Heinrich Zwelfzehen [twolve toes], Eger 1330.

Zegenbart, Zegenvoth, Zegenwange, Zegenherde: see Ziegenbart.

Zeggert (Hbg.). LGer.-Fris. variant of Segert (Sighart), cf. Seggelke, see also Zeeck. Seeger.

Zehden, Zeeden: pl.n. Zehden in Brandenburg.

Zehender (freq. in Bav., Aust., Würt., Switz.): who levied the tithe (“Zehnten”) for a landlord, a rural tribute (tax) of cattle, grain and fruit; Heinrich Zehender, 1265 near Bühl. Lucz Zehender, Würzburg 1409. Also Zehnder, Zender, Zehnter, Zehner, Joh. Zener (Zehender), Au in Bav. 1498. Hence Zehe(n)tner, Zehetmaier, Zehetbauer, Zehetgruber, Zehothofer; Heinrich der Zehentherr, Eßlingen 1347. Märtl der Zehentner, Tyrol 1380. Cf. LGer. Tegetmeier, Togethoff, Tegeder.

Zehl(e), Zehlicke: E Ger.-Slav., cf. Zehlendorf (Brandenburg, Meckl.).

Zehm(e), Zehmer: from Slav. pl.n. Zehma near Altenburg or Zehmen near Lpz. For Zehmke, Zehmisch also cf. Slav. pers.n. Zemislaw.

Zehne (Hbg.): pl.n. Zehna near Güstrow.

Zehner: mostly UGer. = Zehender, (levier of the tithe, i.e. tax), see there. A committee of ten has not been documentod, however one of twelve (Augsburg), of 44 in Col., of 20, etc.

Zehnpfennig (freq. in Mnch.), Zehnmark, Zehnpfund refer to rental or tax obligations in kind; Hundertmark, Hundertpfund, Hundertgulden probably indicate wealth. Cf. LGer. Teynpenninge, Lüneburg 1366, Twepenning, Han. 1308. See also Pfennig and Penning. P. Czehenschock, Bohemia 1409.

Zehnt- see Zehender.

Zehrer (UGer.): MHG zerer ‘person who lives in grand style (with food and drink)’, eats up all he owns; cf. Zerdasgut, Freiburg 1560; cf. Zehrnpfennig, Zöhrpfennig. Ulrich Zerer, Regensburg 1393, Peczold Czerer, 1359 near Prague.

Zeiberts (L.Rhine) = Seibert(s) = Sigberts.

Zeichfießl (Aust.): Zeigfuß? cf. Seifüßl (Mnch.): corrupted form of Säufüßel (pig foot), tikewise in old docum. Seuheutel, Seuhaut [pigskin].

Zeichner: probably not from MHG zeichener ‘person who does signs and wonders’ but from pl.n. Zeichen near Pirna.

Zeidler (UGer.), dial. Zeitler (Aust.): from MHG zîdeler ‘beekeeper, who keeps bees in the woods’, zîdelweide ‘forest area for beekeeping’. Also Bienzeidler, Zeidelhack (Bav.). Maczke czydeler, Liegn. 1387, Pessko Czeydler, 1418 near Glatz, Mitschke Zeitler, Bohemia 1385. Unrounded form: Zedler (unless from pl.n. Zedel in Lausitz). (Niclas Czedler, Glatz 1403).

Zeiger (Zeigert), Zeigermann (UGer.-MHG = ‘indicator’, also ‘trail or street marker’, ‘sign of an inn or tavern’. Heinrich Zeigerli, 1270 near Kleinbasel.

Zeigswetter see Kiesewetter.

Zeiher (UGer.): from MHG zîhe ‘backbiter, slanderer’ (MHG zîhen ‘to accuse’). Jörg Zeyer, Tübingen 1546.

Zeil(er): UGer., fiom loc.n. (pl.n.) Zeil (from MHG zile row, ‘row of houses, alley’ or zîl ‘thorny brush’); Nic. Czeile, Brünn 1354 (“die Zeil” was a neighborhood on the outskirts of Brünn; see E. Schwarz, p. 353). Cf. pl.n. Zeil near Haßfurt: I. vonZile 1366.

Zeimer, Zeimert (Sax., Franc.): unrounded form of Zeumer, see there. Heinez Zeimer, Bamberg 1411 (Planen 1506).

Zeiner, Zainer (UGer.): from MHG = smith, who manufactures rod iron, zeinen = to forge, but also ‘to manufacture basketwork or wickerwork’ since MHG zein actually means ‘switch, cane’ (also penis), or staff (cf. Hensel zainsniczer, Brünn 1340), small metal rod, buckle. Stephan Czeiner, Brsl. 1399, Herman Zeyne, Außig 1350, Wernher der Zainer, Eßlingen 1359, Günther Zainer (printer), Augsburg 1475. The basket weaver was generally called Zeinler (from MHG zeiner ‘wickerwork’): Ulrich Zainler, Konstanz 1301; also Zeindl(er).

Zeisbrich (Schweidnitz): dial. for Zeisberg (Schweidn.), likewise Weisbrich for Weisberg, Hubrich for Hoberg, Hirschbrich for Hirschberg; name refers to village and castle (ruin) Zeisberg near Fürstenstein, where 1389 knight Nic. vonCzeisberg (“her Nickel vomCzyskberge” 1371) was documented.

Zeise (MHG zîse) besides Zeisel, Zeisler (MHG zîsel) mean Zeisig [bird name: siskin] (MHG zîsec, from Slav.-Czech), surname of a bird dealer, likewise Stieglitz [goldfinch], Fink [finch], etc. Hence Zeisigbein (Thur.): 1312 in Eisenach Zysikbein. Also cf. knight Albrecht Zeise, 1252 near Bühl. E Centr.Ger. Zeising (Sax., Thur.) is secondary. Zeisler (UGer.) derived from Zeisel, likewise = bird trapper, bird dealer: Michael Czeißel, Prague 1405, Hensel Czeiselmeister, Prague 1364, Cunrad der Zeysler, Regensburg 1348.

Zeiser see Zaiser.

Zeiske, Ziske (ECentr.Ger.) see Zeisig.

Zeiß, Zeiße; Zaiß, Zaißle (UGer.): graceful, charming, gentle person (MHG zeiz, cf. Engelzeiß, Wetzlar around 1300); Zaiß der Suter, Villingen 1318, H. Zaißlin, Ehingen 1409. Enlarged Zeißolf, Zaisolf. Konrad Zeisolf Mannheim 1307, Ebelin Zeizolf, Worms 1234, cf. pl.n. Zeizolfeswiler in Würt. 1152. Zeislof became Zeisluft, cf. Marzolf. Merzluft (Alsace).

Zeißig: pl.n. in Lausitz; but cf. Zeisig.

Zeitler (Aust.) see Zeidler. Hence Zeidlmayer, Zeitlmayer. Cf. pl.n. Zeitlarn in Bav.

Zeitner see Geitner.

Zeitvogel: MHG zîtvogel ‘fledgling’ (bird); Morhard Zitvogel, Stuttgart 1286.

Zeitz: Zeitzmann from Zeitz (pl.n.).

Zeick (cf. under Selck): Fris.-LGer. pers.n., magister [master] Zelkinus, Xanten 1394.

Zelder see Zelter.

Zelger (UGer.): MHG zelge = ‘ploughing (preparation of soil) before sowing; tilled field’, third part in three-field rotation; opposite of fallow land (MHG egerte, see under Egerter). Niclas Zelger, Tyrol 1535.

Zeller (UGer.), freq.: related to pl.ns. (loc.ns.) Zell, Zella (from Lat. Cella ‘cell in a monastery; branch establishment, manor’, like Paulinzella in Thur., Probstzella, Appenzell, Zell am See, etc.). Ulrich Zeller, Eßlingen 1282. Appenzeller, Oberzeller. Zellhuber, Zellmeier (contracted Zellmer, likewise Sellmeier to Sellmer). Zellmann: cf. pl.n. Celle near Han. (Dietrich Czelleman, Mühlhausen in Thur. 1393).

Zelt(n)er (UGer.). baker who makes flat loaves or pastries (MHG zelte); cf. Lebzelt(n)er (gingerbread baker), Pfanzelter. (Sebastian Zeltner, Nbg. 1539). Also Zelder. Also note MHG zelter = ‘ambler, palfrey (horse)’.

Zemann (Hbg.): LGer.-Fris. = Semann (Simon).

Zembol (Zembold), Sembol indicates Slav. origin, cf. Simbol, Sambol. Likewise Zemke, Zemplin: Slav. pl.n. like Zempin (in Usedom).

Zender see Zehender.

Zeng(el) see Zängel, Zange. Also cf. Zingel.

Zeng(el) see Zanger.

Zenk, Zenke (F Ger-Slav. pers.n.): cf. Czech Cenek ‘the honorable’; her [lord] Czenk v. Potensteyn, Glatz 1350, Czenke v. Pritticz; Czenco Dompnig, Brsl. 1350.

Zenker see Zänker. (Cünel Czenker, Glatz 1368, Lorenz Czenker, Liegn. 1372).

Zenner (UGer.) see Zanner. (Rudolf Cenner, Zanner, Villingen 1292). For Zenner(t) also cf. pl.n. Zennern near Fritzlar and pl.n. Zenn near Nbg. where Merklin vonZenn was documented besides Zenner.

Zennig, Zennak (Slav., see Zenk).

Zens, Zensen (LRhine) see Zenz.

Zentgraf, Zintgraf, Zinkgraf, Zinkgreff, Zinngrebe (W Centr.Ger.): supervisor of the old Zentgericht [court of justice] (Zent = unit of one hundred, Lat. centum, MLatin centa ‘court district of 100 towns’), later also provost of a village. Joh. Zentgraf, Fulda 1463, Concze Cinggreffe, Frkf. 1377.

Zentner, Centner (UGer.-Sil., Centnerowsky) = tithe, see Zehender. MHG zentener also Zentrichter ‘district judge’, see Zentgraf. But Drithalbescentner (Nbg. 1333) indicates a tax obligation.

Zenz, Zentz, patr. Zensen (Rhineland), sh.f. of Viezentz, Vinzentz = Vincentius, saint’s name, see there. In old documents Zentz Brikan - Vitzentz Brikan, Lübben 1545. But Zenzi (Bav. Cn.) means Saint Crescentia.

Zepernick, Zebernick, Zäpernick, Zeppernick: Slav. pl.n. Zepernick near Berlin-Bernau or Zeppernick near Magdeburg.

Zepp (Col.) like Zepf probably variant of Zapp, Zapf; cf. winczeppe; zepfen = to tap. But zepfe ‘grape, (grain) ear’. Konrad Zepf, Rottweil 1375.

Zep(pe)lin: Slav. pl.n. Zepelin East of Bützow in Meckl.; Henricus de Zepelin 1286. Ferdinand Count Zeppelin, inventor of the dirigible, blimp.

Zerbe (freq. in Hbg.): cf. pl.n. Zerben near Magdeburg.

Zerbst(mann): pl.n. near Anhalt (Slav. Cervest). Also Zerbich, Zerbock is Slav. according to its ending, cf. pl.n. Zörbig N of Halle. For Zerck, Zerche cf. pl.n. Zerkwitz near Lübben in Spreewald.

Zerfaß, Zervas, Zirfaß (L.Rhine) = Servaes = Servatius, see there.

Zerna: Slav. pl.n. in Lausitz, likewise Zernitz, Zernin.

Zernecke, Zernik: Slav. Like pl.n. Zernikow in Brandenburg. Cf. enlarged form Zerning. See also Tscherning, Tschernike.

Zerrahn = pl.n. Serrahn near Güstrow.

Zerrath: L.Rhine pl.n. ending in -rath -rode, -rade ‘a clearing’.

Zerrenner (UGer.): MHG zer-rennen ‘to make run’, probably means ‘squanderer, spendthrift’. Fridericus Zerrenner (Zerer), monk, Michelfeld 1436.

Zerr(er), Zörrer (UG-.) = ‘rowdy, tough’ (Bürklin Zerrer 1372; Zerrer 1585, Zerr, Tauberhischofsheim 1672).

Zerres (Col. freq.), Zerries, Zerges, Zarges = Nazarius, saint in Rhineland.

Zerrgiebel, Zörrgiebel, Zörngiebel, Zirrgiebel, Zirngibl: freq. UGer. surname for a rowdy, tough (in sentence form; from MHG gebel ‘skull, head; gable’; meaning: split the head!); Hannus Zerrengibel, Görlitz 1404 (Bamberg 1312). Cf. Fellgiebel. Similar Zerrenkittel [tear the jacket], Liegn. 1368-82 (Allgäu 1424), Zernmantel [tear the overcoat]; Zörnlaib, Zirnlaib (Zerenlaib, Tyrol 1494). Zerreis(en): for a blacksmith, Zerrleder: shoemaker, Zerr(en)weck [the roll]: baker. Zerrehelm [split the helmet], 1305 near Bozen (MHG zerren ‘to split’, thus also ‘ruffian, tough old soldier’).

Zerssen (von): pl.n. Zersen N of Hamelin (with change to z from original Kersen, like Zeven for Keven); prehistor. creek name, cf. the Kersenbeke, tributary of the Lenne.

Zerwas, Zervas, Zerfas see Servatius.

Zesch: Slav. pl.n. in Lausitz like Zescha (Laus.), Zeschau in Sax. Also cf. Zeschke, Zeschmar.

Zessler: cf. pl.n. Zessel near Öls in Sil.; likewise Slav. Zessner, Zessel, Zessak, Zeß; pl.n. Zessin in Pom.

Zesterfleth, Zestermann. from prehistor. river n. Seester (Sestra), with town Seestermühe, S of Elmshorn (in the Lower Elbe marsh).

Zetsche see Zetzsche.

Zettel(meier) see Sedelmeier.

Zettenwein: (Aust.): ‘spill the wine’. Occ. surname like Zettentwark [spread the cottage cheese, for a cheese maker], Bohemia 1382, Zettenwaitz [strew, spread the wheat), Moravia 1414. Jekli Zettmist [spread the manure], farmer in 16th c. Switz.

Zettler, Zettel (UGer.): cf. MHG zettel(-garn) [thread], perhaps name for a weaver; zettel also means document, Hence name for a scribe. Also see Zedel. Merten Zettelschreiber, Altenburg 1560.

Zettritz (von): Sil. noble family; related to pl.n. Zetteritz near Rochlitz in Sax.

Zet(z)sche: from Slav. pl.n. Zetscha or Zachetzsch in Sax., cf. Zetschowitz in Bohemia.

Zeuch: EGer.-Slav., cf. Zauch (Zuch), Zeuchfeld near Naumburg. Also Zeuk (Sil.) is Slav., like Teuke etc.

Zeumer see Zäumer.

Zeuner see Zäuner.

Zeuschner (Sil.) see Tscheuschner. Cf. Zeutschel: Christoff Tscheutschler, Görlitz 1589. Also pl.n. Zeutsch near Pößneck.

Zeyher (UGer.) see Zeiher. For Zeyer also cf. pl.n. Zeyern near Kulmbach.

Zeymer see Zeimer.

Zeyn see Zein. But Zeyen (Col.) means ‘son of Luzeie: Lucia, fein. church patron in Col. Cf. Feyen.

Zeyse See Zeise.

Zeyß see Zeiß.

Zeyßig see Zeißig, Zeisig.

Zibell, Zieboll: MIIG zibolle (Lat. cepulla) = ‘onion’ (Ger. Zwiebel), surname of a farmer or herb grower. Jakob Ziboll, Basel 1386, Ulrich Zibel, Füssen 1372. cf. Slav.-Pol. cebula (Johann Czebol, Brsl. 1330): FN Cebulla, Bulla (U.Sax.). A Slav. pl.n. Zibelle in Lausitz.

Zick, Zicke (Hbg.): Fris., see Sick(e). Zicker(mam) (Hbg., Ro.): pl.n. Zicker on Rügen Island, Beneke vonZickere, Strals. 1295. For Zickert cf. Zickra near Greiz.

Zickendraht: ‘pull the wire’, surname of a wire smith, wiredrawer (corrupted to Humanist form Thraciger!). Hensel Köler der drotcziher, Liegn. 1381.

Zickler (freq. in Vienna): name for a goat farmer [Zicke, Ziege = goat]. Cf. Zickelbein [goat’s leg].

Zickmantel (Sax.) see Zuckmantel.

Ziebarth (Fris.-LGer.) see Siebarth, Siebert. Zieberts (Fris.-LGer.) see Sieberts. Zieboldt, Ziebolz (Fris.-LGer.) = Siebold (Sigbald). Ziebe, Ziebke (Fris.) see Siebe, Siebke. Ziebell (Hbg.) see Zibell (except when = Fris. Siebel).

Zi(e)chner (UGer.-CentrGer.): Heilman Zechener, Frkf. 1350, weaver of ticking (MHG zieche ‘pillowcase, case for a comforter or coverlet’, also sack cloth). Cf. Bettziech, Bettziehe, Bettzüge. In Liegn. 1348: Knothe mitdercychen. Also Züchner. Zieche: Heinrich Ziech, Franc. 1307. Ziechert (Ulrich Zicher, Regensburg 1287), but cf. Ziegert.

Ziedrich, Tschiedrich: Slav., pl.n. Zidderich in Meckl.

Ziegann see Zigahn.

Ziegenbein [Zoat’s leg], Ziegenfuß [goat’s foot], Ziegenbarth [g. beard], Ziegenspeck [g. fat], Ziegenhals [g. neck] are derisive nicknames (Ziegenhals also pl.n. in Sil., cf. Peter vondemCzigenhals, Brsl. 1400. Ziegenhardt is LGer. for goat herder (like Pagenhardt ‘horse herdsman’), in old documents Tzegenherde 1466. Ziegenbalg, Ziegenbalk [Balg = hide]: ocf. surname. Ziegengeist, Ziegengeiß (both forms around 1475 in Vogtland area): misinterpreted form of Ziechengast, Ziehengast ‘feed and treat the guest’ (name for an innkeeper), as in the same area-. Nagengaist, Nachengaist for Nagengast, Nachengast. Ziegenrücker: from town of Ziegenrück in Thur. (Nickel Zcegenrücke, Jena 1430).

Ziegeltrum, Zigldrum: probably surname of a mason (trum ‘remnant piece, fragment’; stand. Ger.: collective noun Trümmer (pl.) ‘ruins’; Ziegel = brick; tile). In Brsl. 1358 Nickel czigelczeler [brick counter] besides czigelführer (brick carter, transporter).

Zieger, Ziegert (UGer.-E CentrGer.): MHG ziger ‘cottage cheese’ (ziger-käse). Also Ziegerer: cheesemaker (: a farmer Zigerer, 1290 near Lörrach). Küni der Zigerli, Switz. 1336. Zigermanger, Zurich 1357 (cheese dealer). But Sil. Ziegert probably = ‘goat herder’. Nic. Cziger, Liegn. 1385, G. Czigert, Liegn. 1491.

Ziegler (LGer. Tegeler): brick maker (of clay); cf. Hensel czigelstricher, Liegn. 1372; a city ordinance from Nuremberg (15th c.) demands: “they shall make all bricks according to one pattern and shall use a round iron with which they daub them so that they are smooth.” Ulreich der zigler, Eger 1340. In Frkf. 1440 Henne Ziegeldecker, near Worms 1337 Joh. indemziegelhof [brickyard].

Ziegner see Ziechner. (Heinrich Zigner, Bamberg 1306).

Ziehbold, Ziebolz, see Zieboldt (Sigbold).

Ziehe, Ziebes (Hbg.) see Siehe.

Zieher (UGer.): MHG ‘one who raises someone or something, legal guardian’. Niklas der Zieher, 1362 near Vienna.

Ziehl(ke) see Ziel(ke).

Ziehm(s): Hbg., Fris., see Ziem(s), Siems. Ziehnert see Zienert.

Zie(h)r: MHG zier ‘gorgeous, beautiful’. Cf. Zierfuß [Fuß = foot], Zierhut [Hut = hat], Ziervogel [Vogel = bird]. Lorenz Czyre, Friedland 1381. Pl.n. Zier near Düren.

Zieler (UGer.): from field n. Ziel ‘end, border’.

Zielfleisch see Sielfleisch.

Zielke (freq. in Hbg.), Zieleke, Ziele, Zielisch are E Ger.-Slav. sh.fa. of Zielzlaff (pers.n. Ziloslaw); cf. Mielke, Miete from Miloslaw.

Zielinski: E Ger.-Pol. name of origin, cf. pl.n. Zielen near Thorn, Zielonka in E Pruss.

Ziem, Zieim (Ziehm, Ziehms), Ziemssen; all with LGer.-Fris. Z- for S-, see Siem(s), Siemesen. Likewise Ziemer (freq. in Hbg.) = Siemer (Sigmar): Simarus, Bremen 1297, Symer Werneman, Bremen 1392, Ernest Symers, Ro. 1262. Likewise Ziemann (freq. in Hbg.) = Siemann (Sigmann), in some cases Simon is involved: Czymen Ryke = Simon Ryke, Haldsl. 1458, the same as Ziemens besides Siemens (Peter Simensen, Flensburg 1598). For Ziemke, Hbg. (Ziemkendorf) cf. Siemke: Symke, Ro. 1289.

Ziener(t); Ziehnert: E Ger. name of origin, cf. pl.n. (FN) Zienau; Zienecke.

Ziepke (Hbg.): Fris. variant of Siepke, Siebke, see there. Pl.n. Zipke (Slav.) near Strals. (Boydeke von Cippeke, Strals. 1280).

Zieprecht, Zyprecht = Sieprocht (Sigbert), likewise Zieberts = Sieberts.

Zier see Ziehr. Hence Zierlein (UGer.). Zierfaß (Rhineland) see Servatius. Zierfuß [pretty foot], Zierhut [p. hat], Ziervogel [p. birdl from MHG zier ‘gorgeous, beautiful’; Hans Ziervogel, Aust. 1385.

Ziergiebel see Zerrgiebel.

Zieriacks see Cyriacus. Also Siliacks. (Ciliacus Ecke, Haldsl. 1452, Cyriacus Spangenberg, Humanist).

Ziering see Siering.

Zierke, Ziercke (freq. in Hbg.) see Sierk, Sierich. (Ziricke, Siricus, Strals. 1290). Also cf. pl.n. Zierke (Slav.) on Zierker Lake near Neustrelitz; related pl.ns. (FN) Zierau, Zierow, Zieritz, Zierahn, all Slav. like: Zierold (Zierhold, Zierholtz); but cf. Hans Zcirold (Zcirholt), Jena 1481. An ostentatious person, see Zier,

Zierott, Zieroth, Zierrath: probably not from MHG zierôt ‘ornaments, decoration’ but pl.n. ending in -rode [‘a clearing’] (cf. Billroth, Aschrott, etc.).

Ziervogel see Zier.

Ziesche, Zieske: E Ger.-Slav., likewise Zieschang, Zieschank.

Zies(e)mer: E Ger.-Siav. pers.n. like Blisemer, Tesmer, etc. Hence Zieske. Ziese (freq. in Hbg.): Slav. pl.n., hence Ziesernann (Hbg.).

Ziesing see Zeising.

Ziethen, Ziethmann: from Slav. pl.n. Ziethen (Brandenburg, Meckl., W Pom.). General Hans Joachim v. Ziethen was from Brandenburg. Ziethen (besides Ziethnitz) also cf. Slav. Sitno ‘lake’, Pol.-Czech sit-’rush, reed’. Also pl.n. Zieth.

Zietz (freq. in Hbg.): E Ger.-Slav. pl.n. (or pers.n.), see Zitzlaff.

Zietzschmann: cf. pl.n. Zietzschen near Lpz.

Zifreund (Aust.): probably same meaning as Zieher ‘one who raises someone or something, legal guardian, stepfather’.

Zigahn, Ziganek: ‘gipsy’; also Czygan (Slav. form).

Zigldrum see Ziegler.

Zigra (von): pl.n. Ziegra in Sax.

Zilg (Zilch), Zilg(n)er: metr., son (or husband) of Cecilia, likewise Tilg, Tilg(n)er: [son or husb.] of Ottilia, Cf. Cilie Tilgenerinne [wife of Tilgener], Brsl. 1368, Cecilie Öchslerinne [wife of Öchs1er], Eger 1356, Andreas Czilger, Klattau 1406, Wolfhart Czilgner, 1386 near Eger.

Zille (Sax.): known on account of engraver Heinrich Z. (Sax.); cf. Zille (MHG zülle), a word for a river barge: W. Tzülle, Altenburg 1557; see Zülle. But: Czylle (Cecilie) Hohercz, Bral. 1365.

Zillies, Zillius, Zillessen, Zillken(s): all L.Rhine, from Ziliacks which is dial. for Cyriacus (saint’s name).

Zillmer: Slav. pers.n. (in Barth 1460 Tzilmer), cf. Ziloslaw under Zielke. Czilmer Barkholt, Stettin 1535.

Zilske: E Ger.-Slav., sh.f. for Zil(o)slaw, see Ziehlke.

Zimansky: Slav. Ziman = Simon; Hence Zima (like Sima); Zimek (Simck); cf. Schimansky.

Zimdars: Slav. pl.n. in Pom., also cf. Zimdahl.

Zimmer, Zimmerle, also Zimmerling, mean the same as Zimmermann: ‘carpenter’, (LGer. Timmermann); of MHG zimber ‘timber, wood construction’. Cunrat Czimerl, Mährisch-Trübau 1335. In Würt. the freq. pl.n. Zimmern is involved: cf. knight Hans vonZimmern, whose seal reads 1414 Hans Zimmerlin (see Brechenm., p. 860). Hence Zimmerer. In Görlitz 1502 Czymmerpeter, 1506 Czymmerhans. Also Zimmerhäckel (= Zimmerhacker ‘timber chopper’).

Zimmet(h), Zim(m)et [cinnamon]: surname of a spice grocer, like Kanehl, Lorber, etc. For Zimmat (E Ger.) cf. Simmat (Lith. = Simon?). UGer. Zimmethalde see Simmet.

Zimpel: may be interpreted as a pl.n. in Sil., Hence Zimpelmann. But otherwise probably surname = Zimper, UGer. Zimpfer ‘finicky, squeamish’. In Freiburg 1480: der Zympher, in Hayingen 1332: der Zympherli. Bohemia 1359: Heinusch Czimphel.

Zimprich (UGer.) see Simprecht. (Hans Socher called Zimprecht, Allgäu 1613).

Zind(e)l: = MHG zindal, zindel ‘silk material, taffeta’ (also for a dealer in these). Albert der Zindel, Reutlingen 1297. But E Centr.Ger-Sil. name derives from pl.n. Zindel in Sil., hence also Zindler.

Zingel, Zingler (UGer.-Sil.). from dwelling at the outermost part of the city wall (MHG zingel, Lat. cingula ‘belt’); N Ger. Zingelmann: Willeke upderCingelen, Lüneburg 1363. Conrad Cingel, Liegn. 1316, Andreas Zingel, Augsburg 1354.

Zingerle (Tyrol) = Zengerle (like Zint- for Zent-). Conrat Zingerle, Bozen 1319, Hans Zingerlein 1448.

Zink(e), freq.: MIIG zinke = (sharp) point, tine, prong; field n. as well. Also = ‘hooked nose’ (as still today). At times for a musical instrument: to blow the Z. [cornet]; Joh. Zinkenist, Würt. 1519. UGer. Zingg. Name for a smith: Zinkeisen (Thur.): barbed iron.

Zinkgraf, Zinkgreff (Hess.) = Zintgraf, Zentgraf, see there.

Zinn [pewter], Zinnkann [p. pitcher] means the same as Zinngießer, UGer. also Zinner ’pewterer’: Bertold Cinner, 1275 near Eger, also cf. pl.n. Zinna near Torgau. With seeondary -t: Zinnert. Side czingisser, Brünn 1343, Leupolt Czingießer, Vienna 1376. Cf. LGer. Tingeter. Pewter was custornary in well-to-do families, ordinary people could afford only wooden dishes, plates and spoons. See also Kannengießer.

Zinngrebe (Hess.) like Zinkgreff see Zentgraf.

Zinser, Zinsser (UGer.): MHG = ‘tenant farmer, person liable to pay rent’; Cunrat der Zinser, Urbach in Würt. 1297. Sometimes = Zinsmeister (Bav., Würt.) ‘rent or tax collector’ like Zinsmeier. But Zinnsmann = ‘tenant farmer’. Hence surnames: Zins, Zinsli; Konrad Zins, Biberach 1371, Georg Czyns, Prague 1409. Zinsler (freq. in Vienna) probably means flatterer (MHG zinzeln ‘to flatter, fondle, caress’), unless = Zinsser, cf. Zinselmeyer. But also cf. MHG zinsel = zisel ‘siskin (bird)’. Zinserling, Zinzerling (freq. in Thur.): from MHG zinzerlich ‘tender, loving, pretty’; Hensel Czinczerlincz, smith, Brsl. 1376, Ortlieb fil. Cinerlini [son of Cincerlin], Würt. 1254, Wenczlaw Czynczerlyn, Chrudim 1399.

Zintgraff see Zentgraf.

Zintler (UGer.) see Zindler. Zinzerling see Zinserling.

Zipfel, Centr.Ger. Zippel: ‘point (tassel) of a hood’, cf. Bertold Kappenzipfel, Stuttgart 1304 (corresponding LGer Kogeltimpe), Jacob Czippel (peasant), 1359 near Liegn., Breitczippel, Brsl. 1350. Sometimes also field n. Alem. Zipfeli (corrupted Zipfehli!). Zipfler (Sil. Zippler): also cf. MHG zipfeler ‘parasite, hanger-on’. With Lat. ending: Zippelius, Zipf is UGer. variant of Zipfel, Centr.Ger. Zipp(e): ‘an der Zippen”, field n. near Hanau 1334; Gerbold Zippe, Worms 1256, Gutelman Zippelin, Worms 1304.

Zipoll: see Zieboll = Zwiebel ‘onion’.

Zippajahn (1608 in Quedlinburg; 1606 Ciprian) = Cyprian.

Zipperlen (Würt.): cf. MHG zipperlin ‘podagra, gout of the foot’. Peter Cziperl, Eger 1397. For Zipperling however cf. Sipperling, LGer. patr. of Sigbert: like Zippert (freq. in Hbg.) besides Sippert, Zippold besides Sippold (Zippoldus de Hirtzberg, Lüb. Urkundenbuch [document register] 1162). For Zipp(e)rich (Hbg.) of Zyprecht, Zieprecht = Sigbert.

Zips, Zipser: from pl.n. Zips in Sil. or Zips near Pegnitz in Bav., also from the Zips area in Hungary; Martin Czypser, Görlitz 1475, Brünn 1402.

Zirbes, Zirwes (Rhineld.) see Servatius.

Zircher = Zürcher [from Zurich]. Zir(c)k (Hbg.) see Zierke.

Zirfas see Servatius.

Zirjacks = Cyriacus.

Zirkler, Zirkel: MHG zirkeler ‘who makes the round’, town watchman, as in Chemnitz around 1500, in Brsl. around 1350 (Czirkeler); Bernhard Zirckler, Füssen 1525; also Zürcklert (Sax.).

Zirler (Tyrol)- from Zirl near Innsbruck. But in Brsl. 1350 Czirler, Czirle besides vonderCzirlow (pl.n. near Schweidnitz).

Zirlewagen (UGer.): probably surname of a carter (zirlen ‘to pluck, pull’): Jakob Zirlewagen, Würt. 1543.

Zirngast (Aust.), Zierngast (Bav.) = ‘pull the guest’, name of an innkeeper. But Zirnbauer (Bav.), older Zürnbauer, like Zürn(i) = angry,.

Zirngibel (UGer.) see Zerrgiebel. Zirwes see Servatius.

Zirzlaff (E Ger.-Slav.): Slav. pers.n. ending in -slaw (‘fame’), cf. Firzlaff, Zitzlaff, Mitzlaff, Tetzlaff, etc. Hence Slav. Zirz, Zirzow, Zirzevitz.

Zismer (E Ger.-Slav.) see Ziesemer. Also cf. pl.n. Cismar in Holstein.

Zistler (Bav.): Ibuketmaker’ (MHG zistel, Lat. cistella ‘little basket’). Zistler e.g. in Moravia 1414.

Zithier: Slav. pl.n. like Pritzier (pl.n. in Meckl.), Putzier, Bernier, Polthier, Zanthier, Studier, etc.

Zitschke (Sil.): Slav. pers.n., also Tschitschke; cf. Zetschke: Tschetschke: C. Czeczke, Rothkirch near Liegn. 1414 (Tschetschke, Rothk. 1460).

Zitte: from Zittau (dial. “von der Sitte”, likewise “von der Biele”: Bielau, pl.n.).

Zittel (UGer.): unrounded from Züttel? Ulrich der Zittel, Um 1412, Alb. Zittelin, 1392 near Pforzheim.

Zitterbaum: loc.n., cf. Zitterwisch near Melle, Zitterwald in Eifel Mts; Sitter, Zitter = moist, musty woods’.

Zittwer: surname of a spice grocer or herbalist (MHG zitwar, zitwan, Arabic zedwar: a spice and medicinal plant); Czitwar, Brsl. 1350, Joh. Zitwan, Würt. 1360; Hinrik Zedewer, Hbg. 1342, Cedvar, Strals. 1298.

Zitzlaff (Pom.): Slav. pers.n., s. Zirziaff. Sh.f. Zitzke. Cf. pl.n. Zitzewitz, Zitzow, Zitz (FN Zitzmann). A Slav called Zitcebur (bor- ‘fight, battle’) filius Dummeslaw [son of D.], Strals. 1304.

Zobel: generally means sable fur, thus surname of a furrier or fur dealer, likewise Hermelin, Zobel borrowed from Slav. (sobol). Wenczlaw dictus [called] Czobel, Iglau 1389. Also a village Zobel, in the Liegn. distr., Sil.; Sobolow 1287 (Mertin Czobelaw 1391), hence FN Zobel in Liegn. more than 50 times (Nickel Zobel, Liegn. 1532).

Zöbelein, Zebelein (UGer.): MIIG zobelîn (adjective: ‘of sable’), surname of a fur dealer?

Zobeltitz: Slav. pl.n.

Zober (E CentrGer.) = Zuber (container with two handles). Hensel Czober, Liegn. 1372, Sigemund Czober, Freiberg 1467. Cf. Zoberbier (Liegn.): ‘bucket beer for servants’. Also see Zuberbier.

Zobrist (UGer.) like Obrist: one living on top, at the highest: Clewi Zoberist, Schliengen, Baden 1471, Verena zObrist, Aarau 1585.

Zoch, Zocher (E Ger.-Slav.): cf. pl.n. Zochau in Sax.; Henezel Czocher, Saaz 1407.

Zöckler, Zöckel, Zöggeler, Zöggele (Tyrol): manufacturer of wooden shoes (MHG zockel ‘wooden shoe’); a farm “zumZöckelein” 1412, Zöckele, Tyrol 1482.

Zodel, Zodelmann, Zodler: pl.n. Zodel N of Görlitz, doc. Michel Czodelman, Görl. 1389, Steffan Czodeler, Görl. 1455. But Zodl (Bav.) from pln. Zodl (Czech Sadlno, Bohemia). Cf. Zadel near Meißen (FN Zadler, Zadel: but UGer. = MHG zadel ‘need, hunger’, Kuonz der Zadel 1363, Hans Zadler, Stuttgart 1477).

Zoder: see Soder. Henning vanZodere (pl.n. Söder near Hildesheim), Han. 1383. In Tyrol Zoder beside Zoderer.

Zogel, Zoglmann, Zogelmeier besides Zaglmann, Zaglmayer (Bav., Aust.) see Zagel.

Zöl(c)k see Zöllick.

Zoldahn, Zoldann (E Ger.) see Soldan.

Zolg (UGer.): MHG zolch ‘boor, lout’ (abusive word).

Zolk: pl.n. in U.Sax.: Czolka.

Zoller, Zöller, Zoliner, Zöllner (UGer.): MHG zoller’customs collector, c. official’. LGer. Töllner (in old documents Tolner, Toller). Cf. Aust. Mautner. Hartman der Zoller, Immendingen 1329, Eberhard Zollner, Eger 1290, Joh. Vryenstat derczölner, Liegn. 1388. HenceZollmann, Zollmayer; Zollschriber, Rastatt 1488.

Zöllich, Zöllick (Meckl.), also Zölck, Zöllig: like Zülke (Zulek) sh.f. of Slav. pers.n. Sulimir (Zulimir); Zülke, Sülke. Cf. pl.n. Züllichau, Zollchow, etc.

Zollikofer: from Zollikofen near Bern (Switz.).

Zöllmer (E Ger-Slav.): Sulimir, Slav. pers.n. (cf. pl.n. Zöllmersdorf, Lausitz), unless Bav. for Zellmer (= Zellmeier), cf. Zollmer, Zollmeier.

Zons, Zoons (cf. Jewish Zunz): freq. in Col., Krefeld, from L.Rhine pl.n. Zons.

Zo(o)zmann: from Zoozen, freq. Slav. pl.n. in Brandenburg.

Zopf, Centr. Ger. Zopp, UGer. Zöpfl, Rhineld. Zöpfgen: becomes clear through Hensel mitdemczopf [H. with the plait], Kuttenberg 1410. Peter mitdemczoppe, Brsl. 1394. Hence Güldenzopf, LGer. Siedentop (silk plait), see there. Cf. Duke Albrecht mitdemZopf of Austria. But Sauerzopf see Zapf. Zoppke (Zuppke) is E Ger.-Slav.

Zorn (Zorndt), freq.: UGer. Zörnle, Zerndl, CentrGer. Zörnchen: angry person (Zorn = ‘anger’); MHG zorn can also be an adjective. Nicolaus dictus [called] Zorn [the angry one], Strasb. 1252, knight Conrad dictus Zornlin, Würt. 1283. Wenczl. Czorn, Prague 1381; Hamnan Czorner, Kolin 1376. But E Ger. Zornig, Zörnig is Slav. like Zorneke, Zschörnigk, Tschornig, Schornak, cf. Zarnke, Tscharnke, Zscharnack, Tscharnack, Tschernig, Tschernke, all mean ‘black, with black hair’ (Pol. czarny, Czech czerny). Also cf. pl.n. Zornikau, Zornow, etc.

Zör(n)giebel, Zörnlaib see Zerrgiebel.

Zörrer see Zerrer.

Zoschke like Zoske are E Ger-Slav., likewise Zuschke, Zuske. cf. Hans Czoschwiczer, Eger 1373, Niclas Czoschel (from Eger), Prague 1410.

Zott, Zotterl, Zottel, Zöttl like Zottmann, Zotter, Zottmaier, Zottler (all UGer.) refer to MHG zotte, zote ‘shaggy wool’, cf. Nic. Czolketel (shaggy jacket), Littau 1361, Czotenslaher, Chrudim 1399 likeWolslaher [wool bester], Nic. Czotter, Olmütz 1375; Jesco Czötler (Czetler), Saaz 1406, Nic. Czötel, Saaz, Heynl Czotner, Iglau 1362.

Zotzmann see Zootzmann. cf. Zotz: Hensel Czocz, Iglau 1378. Czoczel, Czoczefsky, Brsl. around 1350.

Zschäpe like Tschäpe, Tschepe, Schepke, etc. (Sil., Sax.): sh.f. of Slav. Czepan = Stephan; A. Czepe, Freystadt 1465. Also of Zschepang. A pl.n. Zschepe in Sax.

Zscharnack (E Ger.-Pol.) see Zarncke.

Zschauer: pl.n. Zschau in Brandenburg.

Zscheile (Sax.). pl.n. Zscheila (Brandenburg).

Zschetzsche (Sax.)- pl.n. Zschetzsch or Zetscha.

Zschiedrich (Sax.) see Ziedrich (Tschiedrich).

Zschiesche, Zschieschan, Zschieschang see Ziesche.

Zschirnt (Sax.) = Tschirne, Tschirnau, pl.n. in Sil., see there. Cf. Nickel Czirne (vonCzirnaw), Liegn. 1413.

Zschoche, Zschoke, Zschoker (Sax.): from Zschochau or Zschokau or Zschocken (all in Sax.). Cf. Simon Zschocker (also Zschockau), Pausa (Sax.) 1582. Hence Zschöckener. In Brsl. 1369 Jenchen vonCzockelow, cf. (T)zschöckel; also Zschockel(t), Zschuckelt (1476 Czockolt).

Zschoppe (Sax., Sil.), Tschoppe see Tschöppe (Cf. Schoppan, Schoppe like Scheppan, Scheppe: Stephan). Cf. also pl.n. Zschoppach, Zschopau in Sax.

Zschörner from pl.n. Zschornau (twice) in Sax.

Zschörnigk we Zörnig.

Zuber (UGer.), Zober (CentrGer.)-. wooden container (vat, tub) with two wooden handles; surname for a tubmaker; Scheibenzuber, Scheichenzuber (UGer. journeyman’s name) = ‘avoid the tub’, like Scheibenpflug, Scheichenpflug [avoid the plough], etc. Ulrich der Zuber, Freising 1301, Merklein Zuberlein, Bamberg 1372: today Züberlein. Also house name as in Basel 1298- Wernher zemZuber [at the sign of the tub]. Zuberbier, Zoberbier (cf.ntrGer.): surname of a tavern owner (cf. “Eimerbier” i.e. beer from a bucket for the servants); similarly MHG zuberwîn ‘low grade wine’ (for servants).

Zubke (Zube) see Subke, (Sube) = Subislaw.

Zuch (Such), Zuche (Suche), Zuchke, Zuchantke (Zuchanek): E Ger.-Slav. (suchy ‘dry’, see under Zauche). Related pl.ns. Zuch, Zuchen in Pom., pl.n. Züchen in Sil. But for Züchner see Ziechner. Also cf. FN Zuch(h)old (Sil.), Zuchowski, etc. Jesco Czuch marescalcus [equerry, master of royal stables].

Zuckeir [sugar] possibly for sugar manufacturers (FN 1555 near Mergentheim) or dealers (FN Zuckermann); Gerdt Zuckerbecker, Bremen 1502. But UGer. = MHG zucker, zücker ‘robber’!. Cf. Zuckmantel. Mette Zucker, Haldsl. 1428, Burchard dictus [called] Zucker, Überlingen 1295. Zuckermandl (Bav.) = Zuckermann, cf. Cunczmandl.

Zuckmantel: surname for highway robbers (“zücke, raube den Mantel” = rob the coat); reminiscent of the dangerous highways in the Middle Ages; also freq. loc.n. for hazardous areas, also pl.n. near Landeshut in Sil. Nic. Zukmantel, Kuttenberg 1396, Fricz Zuckenmantel, Würzburg 1376. With umlaut Zückmantel, with unrounded vowel Zickmantel (Sax.). LGer. Tückmantel. Zuck(en)riegel (UGer.) means thief or looter. Cf. Zuckwurst (Zugwurst): ‘grab the sausage’. Zuckenranft (Füssen 1363): ranft = ‘end part, erust of the bread loaf. Zucksack (Col. 1163). Sifrit Zuckeysen (helper of a smith), Landau 1431.

Zuckmayer (UGer.): in old docum. Zugmayer: person living by a field called “Zug”.

Zu(c)kschwerdt (UGer.): person who is ready to reach for a weapon at any moment; MHG zucken, ‘to draw (a weapon), produce something’, also cf. Zucker. Similar is Zucksmesser [Messer = knife] (Augsburg 1350). Cf. Wernher Zuckeswert [Schwert = sword], Strasb. 1300, LGer. Conrad Tuckeswert, Hbg. 1248. Also Zugschwerdt. Zuckendremel (U.Aust. 1508): ‘reach for the club, stick’. Zuckdenwürtt (Sulz, Alsace 1577): a violent guest.

Zudener see Zaudner.

Zufall: MHG ‘(additional) tax received, income that was received on the side’.

Zugehör (Sil.): shortened from “Zugehörer” (Michel Czugehörer, Görlitz 1466), late medieval legal term for a bondsman or bondswoman or serf who “belongs” to the lord of the manor (gehören = to belong). Cf. “Bürger und Zugehörer [citizens and thralls], Veringenstadt near Sigmaringen 1550. Zugelder: MHG zuo-gelt ‘marriage portion, dowry’. But MHG gelter = debtor.

Zühlke (freq. E Ger.-Pom.) besides Zülck(e), Zühl etc., also Zuleck, sh.f. of Slav. pers.ns. Zulimir, Zulislaw, cf. Zielke: Ziloslaw, (In Ro. 1270 Zulimer, Zuleke, Sulimer, Suleke). In Belgrad, Pom. 1284 Zulislaus, high steward (at court); in Greifsw. 1393 Tzule(ke). Teetze Czüleke, Rügen 1473. See also Sulke, Schülke. Related pl.ns. Zühlen, Zühlsdorf, Zülichendorf, Zölichow, Züllichau, etc. (FN Zühlkendorf, Zü(h)lsdorf- 1320 in Lüb. Zulestorp).

Zulauf (UGer.): a newly arrived person or nosy person? (MHG zuo-louf ‘a great rush, run’, but also ‘refuge’); Wernher and Konrat Zulof (serf), Ruchenschwand 1278.

Zuleger: from MHG = assistant, helper.

Züllich (Zülch), Züloke see Zühlke. Andreas Züllich, Belgrad, Pom. 1635 (there also Zulislaus 1284).

Züllmaier (UGer.): cf. Züllenbühler (Allgäu). But MHG zülle = ‘small boat, skiff’. Endres Czüllmayer, Eger 1419.

Zumpf, Zump(t): MHG = penis, cf. Fiesel and Zers (Langzers). Also Zümpfel: Enderlin Czumpl, Prague 1385.

Zumwinkel (zum Winkel), originally tomWinkel (L.Rhine-Westph.), surname according to a dwelling [zum = at the, Winkel = corner, nook], likewise Zumbrink (Tombrink), Zumbroich (tomBrok) Zumbeck (Zumbach), Zumbusch, Zumdieck, Zumhoff (like Imhoff, stress on the preposition), Zumkley (tomKley: clay soil), Zumholz (tomHolte), Zumloh [latter two mean: by the woods]. UGer. Zumbühl, Zumbichl (‘hill, knoll’), Zumtobel (‘valley, Gerge’), Zuntsteeg [small bridge].

Zundel, Zündel, Zundler, Zündler (UGer.): MHG zundel = ‘tinder; fire’; person who works with it or deals in it like a kindler, stoker, or furnace man; cf. Clewi Zünduf, Breisgau 1385, Rütschi Zündli, Neuenburg in Baden 1397, cf. verb zündeln ‘play with fire’.

Zunke: supposedly UGer. = Zinke (‘prong, tine’), see there. In Saulheim 1321 “der Zunke”. But Zunker is probably a name of origin.

Zunz (sometimes Jewish) = pl.n. Zons near Col.; Heinrich deZunce, Col. 1180.

Zupan see Supan.

Zup(p)ke see Zoppke.

Zürcher = person from Zurich.

Zürch, Zirch: from MHG = ‘excrement’; Sifrit called Zürchv. Stetten, Würt., Wernher Zirch, Nürtingen 1481.

Zurek (Zurke), Surek (U.Sax.): Slav. pers.n.

Zurhellen (W Ger.-Rhineld.)- from the dwelling [zur = at the], see Helle. Berthold zurHellun, Strasbg. 1270, Joh. zurHeller, Münster 1616. Zurkaulen (Zerkaulen, originally torKulen, Westph.; Kuhle = ‘pit’), cf. Kuhlmann. Zurnedden = Tornedden (LGer.-Westph.) like Zurnieden [nieder = low]. Zurwesten (torWesten, Hornburg 1492). See also Tor-, Tel-. Zurmühlen see Tormählen, Tormöhlen [under Torbeck].

Zürner (UGer.): MIIG = ‘angry person’; Joh. Zürner, Strasbg. 1371.

Zuschke (E Ger., Sax., Sil.): Slav. pers.n. (Conrad Zusche, Glatz 1350 (now also Zausch), Jurge Czuschener, Glatz 1359), see Tscheuschner. Cf. Zuschendorf near Pirna, Zuscha near Brüx.

Zuschlag (LGer. Tauschlag). field n. See also Schlag.

Zutavern (UGer.) see Taferner.

Züttel (UGer.) see Zittel. (Heinrich Zuttel, Durlach 1376). Zutzel, Zutzelmann (UGer.): from MHG = ‘suckling rag’; Frid. der Zuzel, Würt. 1293, Götz Cuczelmam, Spay (Rhine) 1276; cf. MHG zitze = tutte ‘suckling teat’.

Zuzok, Zuzan: Slav, pers.n., cf. Zutz (czucz ‘dog’). Heinrich Czucz, Brsl. 1349.

Zwack (freq. in Bav.): dial. = tack, small nail; surname for a cobbler or nailsmith; MHG zwac however means ‘bite’, zwacken to pinch off, tear’, but also cf. pl.n Zwackau in E Thur.

Zwang, Zwanger: MHG zwange ‘plyers’.

Zwanzig(er): member of a committee of twenty; cf. Dreißig(er) etc. The name occurs in G. Hauptmann’s drama TheWeavers (for a textile dealer). Albrecht Eynundczwenczig, Jena 1406.

Zwarg (UGer.) = MHG twarc = CentrGer. Quark ‘cottage cheese’, cf. twerc: Zwerg ‘dwarf’, C. Ger. querch.

Zweck, Zweckerl (UGer.): small nail, tack, surname for a cobbler or nail (tack) smith. But also field n., Henceprobably Zwecker (UGer.): Hans Zwecker, Stuttgart 1429.

Zweckstetter: pl.n. Zweckstätt in Bav. Cf. Zweckham, Bav.

Zweers (Fria.) = Sweers: Sweders.

Zweidorf: pl.n. near Brunsw. (Fricke Twedorp, Brunsw. 1390).

Zweifel, Zweifler (UGer.): an undecided, fickle, fainthearted person (from MHG zwîfel; zwîvelmuot ‘undecidedness’); Herman Zwivel, Fritzlar 1350.

Zweig(le), Zweigler (UGer.) [twig, bough]: surname of a gardener, MHG zwîg graft, slip’. LGer. Twieg. Cf. Maienzweig, Rosenzweig, Alem. Zwiglin.

Zweigert, ZweiGert, Zweichard: cf. Joh. Zweigher, Baden, Aargau 1391, B. Zweigart, Bern 1536. Chuonrat der Zwiger, 1293 near Zurich; probably from MIIG zwîgen ‘to graft, plant’, thus name for a gardener, see also Zweigle.

Zweiner (UGer.): a quarrelsome person, MHG zweinen ‘to fall out with s.o.’ Cf. Hans Zwaindel, Klettgau 1395. For Zweynert also cf. pl.n. Zweinert near Frkf./Oder.

Zweinger: probably Alem. name of origin, Hence Zweini(n)ger, cf. Reinger: Reini(n)ger.

Zweipfenning [two pennies], Zehnpfennig and similer names see Pfenning. A peasant Zwenpfennig, 1279 near Zurich. LGer. Twepenning, Han. 1308. cf. Zweenschilling, Zurich 1357.

Zwengel (UGer.). MHG twengel ‘force’, likewise twenge; Contz Zwengel, Heidelbg. 1426, Hans Zwenge, Allgäu 1519. A brutal person, tormentor.

Zwenker: from Zwenkau near Lpz.

Zwerg (LGer. Dwerch) [dwarf]: Herman Dwerghe, Lüb. 1418. Hensin Bapst derZwerg, near Stuttgart 1480.

Zwerner, Zwernemann see Zwirner, Zwirnemann.

Zwick (UGer.). MHG like Zweck = ‘tack, nail, bolt’; Heinrich Zwick, St. Gallen 1436, Zwicknage(l), freq. in Mnch. (sentence name: grab or tear the nail), surname of a nailsmith: Walther Walpolt der Schmied [the smith] called Zwicknagel, Alpirsbach 1405. cf. Zwickenpflug freq. Bav.): peasant name (MHG zwicken ‘to grab, tear’), Hence’grab the plow’. Zwicky (freq. in Switz.) is Alem., Zwickel, Zwickle, also Zwiggl = Zwickel [triangular piece of land] is a field n.; hence Zwickler, Zwickelbauer, Zwickelmair (Bav., Aust.), cf. pl.n. Zwickl, Zwicklöd in Bav. Berchtold der Zwickel, Augsburg 1317.

Zwicker: UGer. mostly occ. surname (MHG zwicken ‘to pinch, grab, tear’ etc., cf. Zwickennagel, Zwickenpflug); derZwicker, 1350 near Stuttgart, Josef Zwicker, Ulm 1407. But E CentrGer. (in Sax., Sil., Bohemia) it mainly means person from Zwickau, as documented in Brsl. 1348 Herman Czwicker (Czwickower), cf. Hennel Steyner (Stynawer), Glatz 1371; likewise Breßler (from Breslau], Gloger [from Glogau], Schirmer, Pirner [from Pirna], etc. With secondary -t: Zwickert (Zwickart, Zwickhart), like Steinert, Bielert, Tauchert, etc. all E CentrGer. Hence also Zwicke (local dial. form for Zwickau, cf. Kricke: Krickau).

Zwiebler, Zwiebelmann (U.Ger.) [Zwiebel = ‘onion’] = ‘onion grower or dealer’; see also Ziboll. Zwiefel, Zwiefler (from MHG zwivolle, zwival) is Bav.: Jekl czwifaler, Iglau 1362, Czwifoler, Prague 1360.

Zwiesler (UGer.): from field n. Zwiesel (‘fork in the road’), cf. Zwieselbach, Zwieselberg.

Zwilcher (UGer.) name of a weaver (MHG zwilch = ‘fabric with a double thread weave, twill’); Cunrat der Zwilcher, Kempten 1333. Cf. in Zurich Zwilchenbart (Ludy Zw., peasant near Lörrach 1483).

Zwingel, ZwüWer: from the dwelling at the citadel (= Zwingel; MHG zwingelhof ‘citadel’, zwingolf = zwinger, part of the city fortification between wall and moat).

Zwinger = ‘oppressor’: Hugo Mönch, called Zwinger, knight, Basel 1303.

Zwingly (Alem.): known through the religious rcf.ormer Ulrich Z., means Zwilling [twin], from MHG zwinelinc, patr. Zwillinger; Czwinling(er), 1381 near Friedland. Cf. LGer. Dwilling.

Zwing(mann): MHG zwinc = legal (court) district.

Zwinkaug (UGer.) = ‘twinkle eye’; cf. Zwickaug ‘squinch eye’.

Zwin(t)scher (UGer.): ‘squinter’ (MHG zwinzen, zwinkezen). Peter Zwintzer, Würzburg 1390.

Zwirlein, Zwielein (UGer.): probably Zwirnlein, surname of a twiner, twister (of thread).

Zwirner (UGer.): manufacturer of twine, two-ply twisted yarn (of flax, hemp or silk). Also Zwerner, besides Zwirnnann, Zwernemann. Hence surnames: Zwirn, Zwirnlein, Zwi(e)rlein (cf. Max Zwirlein, U.Pal. 1615, Hannus Czwierl, Prague 1382, unless from MHG zwieren ‘to blink one’s eye’). Leutl zwirner, Prague 1412 , Ulrich Zwirner, Gunzenhausen 1424. Cunrat Zwernevaden (Faden = thread), Bingen 1210.

Zwölfpoth (Graz): MHG zwelfbote ‘apostle’; Hans Zwelfpott (Zwalfbott), Vienna 1599. But Zwölfer (freq. in Vienna) = member of a committee of twelve.

Zybarth LGer. see Siebert (Sigbert).

Zybrandt see Sie(g)brand.

Zygan (E Ger.-Pol.) = gipsy; also Czyzan, Zigahn; pl.n. Zigahnen in E Pruss.

Zylmann (Fris.-Dutch) becomes clear through “van der Zyl” and Fris. Zylstra (like Brookstra, Veenstra, Dykstra, Ekstra, Hoekstra), from the dwelling near a sluice (Zyl, Sil), old water word, Dutch Zijl; cf. Dutch Zijlmaar (1309 Silemar); in the sense of ‘dirty, murky water’.

Zypen (von der), Dutch-L.Rhine, see Siepen.

Zyprecht see Zieprecht.

Zyprion see Cyprian. (Ziprion S.chenweger, Tyrol 1640).

Zyrus: pl.n. near Freystadt.

491

  1. Anonymous (leach w. E. ?)

    Документ
    -Anonymous, 1917. " Results of the South Australian Museum expedition to Strzelecki and Cooper Creeks. September and October 1916". p 490. Trans.
  2. Recherche bei Umlauten ggf. über ae, oe, ue suchen! Dasselbe gilt: Wenn mit „ß“ kein Ergebnis vorliegt, ggf mit „ss“ suchen! Bei den

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    Recherche bei Umlauten ggf. über ae, oe, ue suchen! Dasselbe gilt: Wenn mit „ß“ kein Ergebnis vorliegt, ggf. mit „ss“ suchen! Bei den Signaturnummern gibt das letzte Kürzel (z.

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