Aar: the old term for Ger. Adler (adel ar) and means ‘eagle’: Frid dictus [called] Ar, near Konstanz 1258. See Ahr. Aaron

rowing estate.

Weinmesser (UGer.): town official in charge of measurements [here: for wine], likewise Salzmesser [for salt], Kornmesser [for grain], cf. Ulrich Winmesser, Würzburg around 1300.

Weinöhl (Aust.): corrupted from Weinel.

Weinoldt (Nbg., Lpz.) see Weinhold.

Weinöse (UGer.): wine guzzler, cf. Landöse; Henlin Weinöse, Worms 1366.

Weinpold see Weinbold.

Weinreb(en) [grape vine]: UGer.-Rhineld., surname of a vintner; but also house n.: Jacob vanderWinreben, Trier 1382. cf. Weintraub.

Weinrich, Weinreich: old Ger. pers.n. Wini-rich ‘powerful friend’. LGer. Wienrich. Known through the Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, Winrich von Kniprode around 1350. Also Winrich Omelin, Col. 1147, Winricus, Liegnitz 1324, K. Winrich, Heilbronn 1425, Hans Weinrich, Braunau 1410, J. Weinreich, Moravia 1349.

Weinroth: Thur. pl.n. ending in -rode, -roth [forest clearing) like Billroth, Klapproth, etc. cf. Wienrode in Harz Mtns.

Weinrufer (UGer.): town announcer (crier) of the different wines and vintages for sale, in 18th c. Zurich he was commissioned by the vintners’ guild; thus 1357 Eberli Winrüffer besides Rüdger and Heini Rufwin from the same house. In Würzburg 1409 Betz Winruffer, in Nbg. 1500 Weinschreier. Weinschr ter, Weinschröder see Weimann. Weinschenk [wine tavern owner] is UGer., due to the wine-growing areas there; UGer. Weinzapf [same meaning] has an equivalent in LGer. Wientapper. Weinstein. probably surname for a grocer, has been recorded as a grocery item, as e.g. in Liegnitz 1318 “seyfe unde winstein” [soap and tartar], in Schweidnitz 1336 “allune, winsteyn, seife”. Michael Weinstein, Znaim 1397. Weinstecher (wînstecher, Strasb. 1392) = wine broker.

Weintraut (Frkf., Vienna): metr., old Ger. f.n. Winetrut (wini ‘friend, lover’), cf. OHG wini-liod ‘love song’. Herman gener Wintrudis [son-in-law of W.], Frkf. 1317.

Weintritt (Aust., Sil.): probably surname of a vintner or winepresser, like Blumentritt, Lilientritt, Rosentritt as surnames for gardeners; unless loc.n. (trit = path, trail). Weinzettel (UGer.): cf. Haberzettel, from MHG zetten = ‘to strew around, spread out’ (Lienhart Zeitenwein [give out the wine], Moravia 1414, likewise Zettenwaicz [spread the wheat], Moravia; cf. Zettentwark, Zettmist). Weinzieher (UGer.): in 18th c. Würt. = Weinschröter; Hans Winzieher, Stuttgart 1350. Seifrit der Czeugenwein, Prague 1301 (like garnczeuger: garnczieher).

Weinzierl (UGer., freq. in Bav.): from MHG winzürl ‘vintner’ (from Lat. vinitor). Martin Weinczürel, Olmütz around 1350. Also as pl.n. in Bav. and Aust. Nickname for vintners (or a worker in a wine cellar?) is Weinwurm (Budweis 1387, Vienna 1393), cf. Rußwurm [soot worm] for a charcoal burner or blacksmith.

Weip(p)recht, Wep(p)ert (UGer., Würt., Bav.): the old Ger. n. Wig-berht (LGer. Wiebert) ‘shining in battle’. Without diphthong: Wieprecht, Wipprecht, Wiepert, Wippert. cf. Wiprecht, Wiprechtsson, Fellbach in Würt. 1332. Sh.f. is Wipo. Patr. (UGer.) is Weipprechter, Prague 1365. Corrupted form Weitbrecht, Weitpert (in false analogy to Harprecht for Hartbrecht), cf. pl.n. Weitprecht near Waldsee: 1263 Wiprechts.

Weirauch see Weihrauch.

Weirich see Weihrich.

Weischede (Westph.): pl.n. Veischede on the Lenne, indicating ‘bog water’, like Leschede, Meschede, Müschede.

Weise, UGer. Weis, in some cases interpreted as Weiß [white]: from MHG wîse ‘a wise, sensible, experienced person’, cf. Kluge. UGer. (also in Sil.) Weiser, from MHG wiser also ‘guide, teacher’, likewise Kluge: Kluger [bright, intelligent], Lange: Langer, Kleine: Kleiner, Stille: Stiller. Hence Weisemann. Burkhart der Wîseherre [wise lord], Rottweil 1339. Also Weisheit (Lat. sapientia), in Sax.-UGer. dial. sometimes = Weißhäupt = wise head (from Weißhoit), documented evidence (shortened): Weisheit (Weisheupt), Schmölln 1573; but Hainrich Wishait [wisdom], Würt. 1299; Nic. Weiser, Iglau 1378.

Weisel: from MHG wîsel ‘leader, head, chief. ’cf. the name of the queen in a bee hive: Weisel. A pl.n. Weisel in Wetterau area was called Wise-la = swampy terrain, like Aslar, Roslar.

Weiß [white] (nowadays also Jewish in some cases), Weiße, Weißer (the latter UGer.-Sil.), also Schneeweiß: a white-haired person, especially to distinguish from dark-haired persons with the same first name; thus der weiße und der schwarze Ewald (brothers); missionaries in 7th c. Westph., Uodalrich der wîße and U. der swarze, Würzburg 1136. Weißert (Sax.) = Weißer, with seeondary -t, as in Kleinert, Kahlert [bald], Schwarzert, Rothert [red]. Hence Weißhaar [white hair],like Gehlhaar, Rothaar, Schwarzhaar; Weißhaupt [white head] (Weißhäupel, Weißhappl in Aust.). Nitsche Wysheupt, Liegnitz 1385, Weißkopf (LGer. Wittkopp) [white head], Weißschädel [white skull], Weißbarth [white beard]. Weißärmel [white sleevel (Wysermel, Görlitz 1412) may be a derisive nickname for a miller, like Weißfuß (LGer. Wittfoth) [white foot]; otherwise FNs like Gelärmel, Rotärmel [yellow, red sleeves] are, reminiscent of the colorful dress in the Middle Ages. Weißmantel [white coat] like Weißbrot are baker names, also Roggenbrot [rye bread]; of baker Derpbrot [baker of coarse bread], Brsl. 1362 (MHG weiße = ‘wheat’).

Weißböck, Weißpöck (Bav., Aust.) Weißbach(er), cf. Aspöck, Rohrböck, etc. unless = ‘white bread baker’ (Mitsch Weispekch, Moravia 1414; but Hertel der WeißenpekchvonWeißenbach!, Moravia 1368).

Weißbrich (Weißbricht): E CentrGer.-Sil. dialect form for Weiß(en)berg, like Weitzbrich (Neiße area) for Weitzenberg (pl.n. near Neiße). cf. pl.n. Weißenberg near Bautzen. In Vienna freq. FN Weißberg(er). Likewise Zeißbrich (pl.n. Zeisberg), Hubrich (Hoberg), Hirschbrich (lirschberg), Herbrich (Herberg).

Weißel see Weiß and Weichsel.

Weißenborn (Weisenborn): freq. in Sax.- Thur., from pl.n. W. (several times in above areas).

Weißf1og, Weißpflog, Weißpflock, Weißflock, Weißflug, Weißpflug (numerous in Sax., also Nbg.): probably from MHG vlocke (Schnee)-Flocke [snow flake], also wool tuft.

Weißgerber: from MHG wîßgerwer [tanner], “who tans the leather, tans it with alum”, rather than with bark (from oaks) like the bark tanner. Elbel der wysgerwer, Liegnitz 1370.

Weißhaar, Weißhaupt, Weißkopf see Weiß.

Weißker (Thur.-Sax.): in old documents Wisker 1413, farmer in Zipsendorf in the district of Zeitz, cf. pl.n. Wiske: Weißig (several times in Sax., Thur., Slav.): Paul Weyßig, Liegnitz 1508.

Weißleder: name for an alum tanner (Weißgerber), cf. Ulrich Wisledergerwer, Strasb. 1306.

Weißner, Weisener, Weischner: probably from a pl.n. like Weißen in Thur., Weisenau, Weißenau.

Weißpfennig [a silver coin]: LGer. Wittpenning. cf. Weißheller.

Weist (Sil.): cf. Mertin and Nitsche Wyste (brothers), Brsl. 1363; evidently Slav. since the name occurred only in Sil.

Weitbrecht (freq. in Stuttgart) see Weipprecht.

Weitemeyer: (LGer.-Westph.) ‘Weizenmeyer’ [Weizen = wheat], likewise Weitekamp ‘wheat field’ cf. pl.n. Wethkamp in Holstein.

Weiter, Weitert (Bav.): from MHG weitaere ‘(blue) dyer, woader’, but also ‘fisherman with a weit’, a type of net. Ulrich der Weiter [woader], Regensburg 1266. Woad (Isatis tinctoria), MHG weit, was the most important plant for dyeing in the Middle Ages. The accountant of the dye trade was called Weitschreiber (Görlitz 1389, Zittau 1399), cf. Kornschreiber [grain accountant], Grützschreiber [groats, whole meal acc.] etc. Weitklöppel, Brsl. 1350.

Weithöner (Westph.): like Well-höner, Wem­höner belongs to the loc.ns. ending in -hôn in Westph.

Weitling see Weidling.

Weitschat, Weitschies (Lith.) see Waitschat, Waitschies.

Weitz, Weitze, Weitzmann: means a wheat dealer, wheat farmer, also UGer. Waitz (cf. Waitzfelder), from MHG weitze. Hensel Weycze, 1363 near Znaim. Peter weysenfürer (wheat carter, transporter), Liegnitz 1397. Weizsäcker (UGer.): close resident by or owner of a wheat field [Acker = field], cf. Gerstäcker [Gerste = barley].

Wekwerth see Wegwerth.

Welbers (Rhine) see Wilbers.

Welchert: from Welchau on the Eger River.

Welde(mann): from Welda on the Twiste near Waldeck (old. Walithi, collective noun for ‘swamp’).

Welge (LGer.): lively, upright, honest person; Thid. Welege, Ro. 1270, Stade 1310.

Welker, Welcker see Walker. cf. Hudwelcker = Hotwalker (LGer.).

Welle (LGer.-Westph.): = ‘terrain with springs, spring’ (cf. E. well). Hence Wellmann (freq. in Hbg.), Wellmeyer, Wellbrock, Wellsiek, Wellpoth, Wellpott (= Pflütze, E. puddle), Wellhausen, Wellhöfer, Wellhöner, Wellenkötter (tor Wollen), Wollenkamp, Wellenbrink, etc., “van der Well”, “im Wellen”. Heyne vonWellen (= Welleman), Haldsl. 14th c.

Weller: for Westph. See Welle. cf. Bröcker, Büscher. But UGer. in some cases = Welder: by the woods, from Welden, cf. Schwarzweller [from the Black Forest], in other cases = Waller: pilgrim (Heinrich Weller, Basel 13th c.). Wigel Welder, Frkf. 1358, Nic. Weller, Liegnitz 1387.

Welling: cf. Wellinghofen in Westph., Wellinghusen in Holstein, Wellingsbüttel near Hbg.; for UGer.: from pl.n. Wellingen in Würt. or Welling near Mayen; Eberhard Welling (Wällinger), Villingen 1316.

Wellm see Wilm. cf. Wollens = Willems.

Wellner (UGer.): based on Weldner (Eger 1395), like Wallner on Waldner; cf. Gellner for Geldner. Ulrich Mair aus denWelden, Füssen 1485.

Wellpott (Westph.) see Welle. cf. Forschepott.

Welp (LGer.): like Welf = ‘young animal’. But indicating a water word or pl.n.: a creek Welpe (Welphope, Welplage, etc.) and Evert vanWelepe 1261.

Wels, Wells [catfish]: fish name, occ. surname like Bars [bass], Hecht [pike], Hering, Dorsch [cod]. Hence LGer. Welskop (with a misshapen head, Kopf = head). But Welser from pl.n. Wels in Aust., famous due to the Augsburg morchant dynasty; Heinrich Welser, Augsburg 1246.

Welscher (W Ger.-UGer.) like Welsch: person from a Romancf. country (Francf., Italy). Burch. Welschere, Neuenburg on the Rhine, Sifrid Welschin, Alsacf. 1406.

Welte, Welti, Welt(le): UGer.-Alem. nickname for Walther. Weltin (Walther), farmer, Oberwyl 13th c. Welti Rengger, Zurich 1329; also see Wälti. But N Ger. Welte (Welten) derives from pl.n. Welte near Coesfeld (or Welt near Husum). Gert vanWelten, Strals. 1300. HenceWeltmann.

Welter, Welters, Weltermann (Westph.- L.Rhine) = Walther. Hencepatr. Welting. Nickname Weltken. Also cf. 1370 in Brsl.: Welter (Walther) Ber. Weltrich is the UGer. umlauted form of Waltrich (this 1130 near Passau), see Waldrich. cf. “St. Weltreich” = St. Walderich in Widmann’s chronicle of Hall (see Brechemn., p. 783).

Weltzien (freq. in Ro.): pl.n. (Meckl. and Pom.).

Welz: UGer. freq., in some cases = Walz (= Walther), like Welzel = Walzel, in others, = fish name Wels [catfish], or from pl.n. Wels in Aust. Due to the great frequency in Sil. (and Sax.) one must assume that Slav. is involved, cf. Welczek: Welzke, Welzig, probably from pers.n. Welislaw. Jekl Welcz, Kolin 1380, also Brsl., Nikolaus Welcz, Freiberg 1440, Hans Wetz (Wels), Jana 1526, Seitz Welcz, Rotenberg 1354. Also cf. Slav. pl.ns. like Welzow, Welzin.

Welzel (freq. UGer-Sil.) like Walzel = Walther, see Walzel.

Wemhöner (Westph.): wem = wedem, see Wehmer. -hone is loc.n., cf. Wellhöner. Wemhoven = Wedemhoven.

Wemmel (Hbg.): pl.n. in Brabant, loc.n. in Westph. Also Wemme is a N Ger. field n.: “auf der Wemmen” in Hesse, Wemmcf.ields (there), cf. Wemmeworth in Engld. (wam, wem = swamp). But cf. in Brsl. around 1530: Syffrid Wemmener (wemeler) = Sydle Wemener.

Wemmer(s): LGer. pers.n., besides patr. Wemmering. cf. Wimmer(s). In Frisia cf. Wemme(ke) as fem. Ln. (16th c.); HenceHobbeke Wemming, Fris. 1428 (nowadays Wemmie). Also Wempe, Wempen is a Fris. pers.n., besides Wempeke, Oldenburg 1428.

Wenck (freq. in Hbg.) see Wenk.

Wende see Wendt.

Wendefeuer [turn the fire],Wendehake (turn the hook, rake] are occ. surnames in sentencf. form. cf. Brühcf.euer (‘scald the fire’). Similar are Wendeschuh [turn the shoe]; Wendepenning.

Wendelken (Hbg.): LGer. metr. of Wendelke, nickname for Wendelburg, fem. Ln. like Wendelmod, Wendelmut: cf. in Ro. 1283 Bernardus Wendele(ken) and Henricus Windelen, Wendele Bilop, Ro. 1294. Wendele, Windele was a popular LGer. f.n., in Hbg. in the 13th c. Wendelmod and Windelmod(is); nowadays FNo: Wendelmuth, Wendelburg, Hbg. Also Wendeler (Hbg.) bolongs to the group, as male f.n.: Wendelerus, Windelerus, Hbg. 1250. The word stein Wandel-, Wendel originally meant the Germanic tribe of the Vandals. In Barth in 14th c. as f.n. and FN Wendelbern, nowadays (misunderstood) Wendelborn (like Os-bern: Os-born see Ausborn). As sh.f. cf. Wendel (fairly freq. in Hbg.), which however in UGer. ref.ers to St. Wendelin (pl.n. St. Wendel, place of pilgrimage): Wendel Raisch, Heilbronn 1525, Wendel (Wendling) Zimmermann, Hagenau in Alsacf. 1518, Wendel Spreng, Fulda 1559.

Wendernuth (sentencename): one who changes his mind eadily. cf. “Wendunmut”.

Wender (UGer.): obably like Steinwender (loc.n. Steinwand = rock wall). Bernolph Wender, Freiburg 1438. But Wender(s) indicates a pers.n. (Rhineld.). Wenderski (Slav.) like Wendreis = Andreas.

Wend(e)roth: Hess. pl.n. ending in -rode [a forest clearing], Gerlach Wenderod, Fritzlar 1350.

Wendisch (freq. in Sax.) like Windisch: a Wendish Person (Sorb), Slav.

Wendland(t): freq. Hbg., also Wendländer: especially from the “Wendland”- district near Lüneburg, where the Wendiah (or Polabic) language was spoken well into the 18th century.

Wendler, Wendeler: in general probably from MHG wandeler, wendeler ‘traveler on foot, pilgrim’, also MLG wendeler, thus freq. in Hbg.; in some cases patr. of the f.n. Wendel, like Hensler from Hensel. But see also under Wendelbern [under wendelken] (Ernst Windelere, Han. 1353), Hence Westph. Wendling (cf. Wendlinghausen); UGer. cf. pl.n. Wendling in Bav. and Aust.

Wendpap (Hbg.): LGer. sentence name ‘’turn away from the priest, cleric’, like Mötepape (Hbg. 1254): ‘oppose the priest!’ A knight Cuonrat Wendepfaff, Würt. 1260.

Wen(d)rich (Lausitz): Wend. form for Heinrich (as well as Jendrich), possibly Wandrich (= Andreas).

Wendroth see Wenderoth.

Wendschlag (Pom.): corrupted from Wenzlaff, like Redschlag from Retzlaff, Siedschlag from Sietzlaff.

Wendschuh: name for a a shoemaker.

Wendt, Wende: freq. E Ger. fn. for a person from the Slavic tribe of the Wends, or Slavic in general, like Pohl (Pole), Böhm [Bohemian], Unger [HunGerian]. Hannus Wende, Liegnitz 1380, knight Heinrich Wende, Sil. 1336. See also Wend(t)land and Wendisch, Windisch (Wünsch).

Wenger (UGer., Bav., Aust.): from the freq. pl.n. Weng in Bav. etc. (= Wang ‘grassy slope’), cf. Wanger. (Frid vonWeng, Bav. 1278). Likewise Wengner (UGer.) from freq. pl.n. Wengen (Wangen); Wengler see Wängler. Hencealso Wengle(in): “der WenglinvondenWengen”, Allgäu 1424.

Weniger (Weninger), Wenig (Sil., Sax., Thur.): a ‘small, short person’, MHG wênic = small, weak; der Weningenickel, Liegnitz 1397, H. Weninger, Liegn. 1354; Oswald Weniger, Görlitz 1453. cf. “hinder der wenigenkirchen” [behind the small church], Brsl. around 1350; pl.n. Wenigen­-Jena etc.

Wenk, Wenck (freq. in Hbg.), Wen(c)ke, Wen(c)ken(s). derives from LGer.-Fris. Weneke (nickname for Wenemar, Winemar); likewise Menck(e) from Meneke (= Meinhard) and Renck(e) from Reneke (= Reinhard). cf. Wenekofriso [W. the Frisian], Hbg. 1252 (besides Weno, Hbg. 1288). Variant is Wenneke, see there. Patr. Weneking: Joh. Wenkinck, Münster 1582. But UGer. Wenk(e), Wenklin like Wankel means a fickle Person (from wenken ‘to waver, sway’): Heinrich Wenke, 1263 near Überlingen, Joh. Wenkelin, Würt. 1346.

Wenke: also cf. LGer. wenke ‘wide woolen dress’. HenceJoh. Wenke (councillor), Soest 1358, Peter Wenke, Lüb. 1331.

Wenkstern, Wenckstern (von): = ‘planet’ (Ger. Wandelstern is another word for planet, lit. the “roaming star”), from MHG wenken ‘to sway, roam, be in motion’. Perhaps surname for a Sternenkiker [star gazer], unless assumed from a house name. H. Wenkesterne, Haldsl. 1383.

Wenn (Hbg.): Fris. sf. Wen(n)o for Wen(n)emar, see there and Wenneke. cf. Menn (Menno) = Meinard; Benn (Benno) = Bernhard; Renn(o) = Reinhard. Hencepatr. Wenning, Wenninga (Fris.) tike Benninga; pl.n. Wenninghausen in Westph. See also Wehn (like Mehn, Rehn, but also Behn, Benn for Bernhard, so that Wehn, Wenn may also = Werner.)

Wennebeck (Hbg.): an old creek name (‘swamp creek, bog cr.’), originally probably Wendebek (with LGer. nn for nd), cf. the Wende creeks (Ruhr and Harz Mtn. areas), but also the Wenne near Meschede (older: Wene) means swamp water, like the Henne, Menne, Glenne (see Bahlow ON, p. 529, 530). Hence Wenn(e)man (Nikolaus Wennemann, Münster 1576).

Wennecke (LGer.-Fria.): nickname for Wen(n)emar, popular pers.n. in the Middle Ages from L.Rhine to the Baltic, in old decuments Wenemar (Winimar) ‘famous as a friend’. cf. Wenemar de Hecket and son Wenemar (a canon), Westph. 1415, Wenemarus Nydinck, Lüb. 1325, Henrik Wenemar, Ro. 1293; still 1535 in Stettin: Wennemar Schulte. Nickname: Gerhard Wenneke, Greifsw. 1300. See also Wenck.

Wenner (UGer.) see Wanner.

Wenmnaker(s) (Düsseldorf): = ‘tubmaker’ (Wannenmacher), cf. Wannekere, Bremen 1357.

Wennrich see Wendrich.

Wenscher (U.Lausitz): like Wintscher means Wendish (Wendischer, Windischer [a Slav]); cf. Wintsch, Wünsch under Windisch. Hans Wenischer, Wenscher 1399, however probably related to Wenusch, Wenisch, see there.

Wense (von der): pl.n. (several times in area Soltau-Zeven-Brsw.).

Wenske (E Ger.) see Wentzke. Wensch.

Wen(t)z: typical of and probably originated in region Worms-Speyer-Mainz as nickname for Werner, contracted from Wern(t)z (UGer.), like An(t)z in the same area from Arn(t)z = Arnold. in the E Ger.-Behemian region, Wentz is sometimes nickname for Wentzlaw besides the freq. Wentzel and Wentzke (Wenczek); (cf. Wencz Swerczel, Nikolaburg 1414). Evidencf.: Wentz Sweyfkrug, 1367 near Mainz, Wentz Leitermecher, Worms 1395, Wentz Claiß, Rüdesheim 1488, Heinrich Wentz, Speyer 1396; also Wenczel Kudreg, Frkf. 1385, Wenzchen, Hanau 1486.

Wen(t)zel (Sax., Sil., Bohemia, Bav., Aust.): the most popular Ger. nickname for the Slav. pers.n. Wencf.slaw (Wenczlaw), like Stenzel for Stenczlaw (Stanislaw). Saint Wenzeslaus was the patron saint of Bohemia. Wenczel Schickentanz, Brünn 1365, Wenczlab Speiser, Moravia 1414. Wenczusch, Bral. 1345. Wanzel is a dialect form (cf. Hockewanzel) like Stanzel. Wentzke is mostly NE Ger.-Pom.; Wen(t)zig (Neiße) derives from Czech Wenzek. See also (Czech) Wach. Wen(t)zler is a patr. Wentzien (Meckl.) is a Wend. pl.n.

Wen(t)zke see Wentzel. (Wenzko, Vencf.ke, Venzlaus, Pom. knights around 1260).

Wentzlaff (freq. in Pom.) see Wentzel and Wentzke. cf. Stentzlaff, Retzlaff, Mitzlaff, Tetzlaff, Pritzlaff, Götzlaff, Butzlaff, Domizlaff, Natzlaff, etc., all E Ger.-Pom.; -slaw = ‘fame’. Also Fenzlaff, Venzlaff, cf. Fenzke, Venzke besides Wenzke.

Wenusch, Wenisch (freq. in Vienna): Bav.­Aust. form for Benusch, Benisch, nickname with Slav. suffix for Benedikt (Czech Benesch); cf. Wenedikter besides Benedikter.

Wenzelburger (fairly freq. in StuttGert): from Winzenburg near Augsburg (later incorporated into Friedberg near Augsbg.); Pilgerinus deWinzenburg 1150; later Winzenburger, Winzelburger, Wenzelburger (see Brechemn., p. 789).

Weper (Hbg.): cf. Weper Creek, flowing from the Solling Hills to the Leine River, with a forest named Weper.

Wepfer (UGer.) = juggler, jumper’ (MHG wepfen ‘to hop, jump’). Ull Wepher, Nikolsburg 1414.

Weppen (von der): Westph. loc.n., cf. Weppelmann (Düsseldorf): pl.n. Weppel near Münster (wepel ‘swamp’).

Wep(p)ner: from MHG waepener ‘man bearing arms’ in the servicf. of a town; also shield bearer or young knight, in the servicf. of a knight; also Weppler; cf. in Görlitz 1399: “den knechten und den rinnern, die mit den weppnern geritten haben” [the thralls and the grooms who rode with the warriors]. Wepener, Liegnitz 1388.

Werbeck (Hbg.): N Ger. creek n., cf. Joh. de Werebeke, Strals. 1286; wer is an ancient water and swamp word, cf. Wero­meri, Holland 960 (‘swamp lake’), Wer­mere, Westph. 1147, Wer-beke Creek in Flanders, the Were near Minden, Were: Wehr near Aachen. See also Wehren, Wehrholz. Werle.

Werber (freq. in Hbg.): cf. Henrik Wervere, Col. 1135, P. Werber, Kolin 1390, means an entrepreneur who has a busineas (Gewerbe).

Werbig (E Ger.): Slav. pl.n. (near Jüterbog, Belzig etc.), from vrba ‘willow tree’; also cf. Werban, Wirbs, Worbs.

Werch(e), Werchan (Werchhahn!), Werchner: E Ger.-Slav., cf. Wirchoslaw (pers.n.) and pl.n. Werchau, Werchow in Lausitz; Simon Werche, Dresden 1493.

Werder(mann): LGer. werder ‘plot of land surrounded by water, river island’, also soveral pl.ns.

Werf, Werft: Dutch werf = LGer. warf ‘elevated land in the (low-lying) marsh, mound suitable for buildings’ surrounded by wetland. cf. Warfsmann, van der Werf (Dutch painter).

Werfel: the writer, Franz Werfel (Prague), as well as his name originated in Bohemia, dialect variant isWörfel, Würfel; cf. Perstl (= Bürstel), Ferst ( = Fürstel), Weifl (=Wölfel). Werfel means Wörfeler, Würfeler = dicf. maker (turner) or dicf. player. Werfel as early as around 1350 in Jitschin; Werfeler, Iglau 1377. See also Würfel.

Werfelmann (N Ger.): pl.n. Werfel on the Ruhr (documented: Wirehuvel ‘wet elevation’).

Werkmeister: master artisan (craftsman) in a leading position, especially in the building trade; thus the Church St. Mary (Marienkirche) in Lüb. around 1300 had its own W. (Hartwicus magister operis); Werkmester, Hbg. 1266, Lüb. 1319, Greifisw. 1383; also UGer.: Rud. der Werkmaister, Wangen 1360. Of similar meaning and origin Werkmann: craftsman, builder; Werker (freq. in Col., Aachen). Werk (Werks, Rhineld.): work, product; Werkle.

Werle(mann): from Werl in Westph. (several times), old: Wer-lo, like Berl: Ber-lo; Herl: Her-lo; Merl: Mer-lo, all for ‘low-lying swampy or boggy placf.s’ (see Bahlow ON, p. 531). Gerhard Werleman, Greifsw. 1324 (besides H. deWerle). Also cf. pl.n. Werla on the Oker.

Werlein (UGer.) see Wehrlein.

Werlich (fairly freq. in Hbg.) like Warlich (LGer.): from MHG werelich = ‘fit to fight, brave’. Werlich pistor [baker], Prague 1381.

Werm(b)ter, Warm(b)ter see Warmbt.

Wenrmeling (Westph.): patr. of Wermbold (see Warmbold); cf. Bruneke Wermelding, Frisia 1428.

Wermke (patr. Wermker): LGer. nickname for Wer-mar, Wermer, see Warmke. (Also for Wormann, cf. Hermke: Hermann).

Wennuth, Wennund see Wahrmund, Wahrmuth.

Werne (von): pl.n. on the Lippe, also near Bochum, prehistor. river name Warina; the Werre near Minden was also called Werne, likewise the Warne in the Harz Mtns.

Wernecke, Wernicke (freq. in Hbg.) besides Warn(e)cke (see there) is the LGer. pet f. of Werner (Wernher): Werneke de Hele = Wernerus de Hole, Strals. 1309. Hencepatr. Hermen Werneking, Han. 1497, also Warneking (Warnkönig). cf. Werning, Waraing.

Werner: very popular in the Middle Ages as attested by numerous UGer. and LGer. sh.fs. not used anymore today, because the name was revived as f.n. only after 1800 (through Schiller’s WilhelmTell and the Romantics). Germanic Warin-hari from verb warjan ‘hinder, resist, dcf.end’ and hari ‘army’. Pet fs. UGer. Wernlin, Werli (now a FN), Wernle, We(h)rle, Wherli, Wernlein, Werndl, with rounded vowel Wörndle, Wöhrlin: cf. Wernlin = Werli = Wernher Gertner sutor [tailor], Basel around 1300, Werlin = Wernher Stamler, Basel 1293. Rare: Wernz, Wörnz (Werz, Wörz): Werntz Ortliep, Pfullendorf 1335. Contracted: Wen(t)z (only in Rhinehesse), see there. Hencealso UGer. Wetzel (Wezilo = Wernherus de Heidelberg, Thurgau 1236). LGer. Werneke (Warnke), see there. LGer.-Fris. Wessel, see there. In Breslau 1369: Wernusch = Wernher v. Schönfeld. cf. Heinusch, Dietusch.

Wernhart (UGer.), Wörnhart (Tyrol), Werneth (Baden). cf. Werner.

Werning (younger: Warning): LGer.-Westph. patr. of Werner, see also Werneke. For evidence see under Warning. Werntjen, Werntjes is Fris.-L.Rhine. Wernle see Werner.

Werntz = Wernher Hägg, Eßlingen 1393.

Werremeyer (Westph.): from the Werre River in Lippe, older: Werne. In the same area occur Kessemeyer, Begemeyer (from the Kesse and Bega rivers).

Werres (Düsseldorf) see Severus.

Wersching, Wersich see Wirsing. But Wers(ch)ek is E Ger-Slav. like Wers(ch)ke, Wierschke, Wersch, cf. Wirso, Moravia 1234.

Wersebe (very old Bremen nobility): pl.n. (at the mouth of the Weser), like Rechtebe in the same area; wers (like recht) = ‘bog water’, cf. Werse River (Wersene) E of Münster.

Werth (LGer.): ‘innkeeper, landlord’ [NHG Wirt], HenceNicwerth: the new landlord. Henr, Wert, Ro. 1295, Hermen dem wert, Göttingen 1426, Hans Lütkewerdt, 1505 near Strelitz.

Werth (von der): W Ger., freq. in Düsseldorf, from MHG wert’river island’; HenceWorthmann, UGer. Werther (Cunrat Werther, Rottweil 1324). Wertheim: pl.n. (on the Main River).

Werthwein see Wörthwein.

Wertz (UGer.) = Werntz = Werner, see there. cf. Wernher Wertz (Werntz), Füssen (Allgäu) 1485.

Werwitz (Pöm.): Slav. pl.n.

Wesche, Wäsche = Wachsmuth (Wasmod) see there. Related as documented in Magdeburg: Wesseke Kessling 1294, Busso Wesseken 1295; also Weschke (Quedlinburg).

Wesel(mann): from Wesel (Rhine), also near Lingen on the Ems River (Wes-lo ‘low-lying bog area’). HenceWeseloh (Hbg.): -loh ‘woods’ (pl.n. near Han.).

Wesemann (Hbg.), Wesemeyer, Wesemüller: see Weese. Likewise Wesendonk.

Weser(mann): from the Weser (River); cf. Wippermann, Leinemann, Huntemann, etc. [all river names].

Weske: see Wesche. But cf. pl.n. Weseke near Coesfeld.

Wesle (Wört.) like Wäßle means a person living near a grase field (NHG Wasen or Wäsle): Rudolf Waßselin, 1508 near Eßlingen, Pater Weßlin, 1474 near Wangen. Also cf. Gräßle (Greßli). Likewise Wäßler (E. Wesler, Würt. 1440), Wäßner, like Gräßler, Grißner. (In Quedlinburg 1592 Weske besides Weschke, Wesche).

Wesse (Hbg., Essen, Düsseldorf): from pl.n. Wessen (1150 Wesnon, like Assen from Asnon), old creek name.

Wessel (freq. in Bremen and Danzig; Hbg., Han., Dortmund, Kiel, Strals.): LGer.-Fris. spet.f. of Werner; Wessel mit der vust [with the fist] = Wernerus cum pugno ferreo [W. with an iron fist], Strals. 1277-1306, Wessel (Wernerus) carnifex [executioner], Stettin 1350, Nic. Wessels, Lüb. 1325, WesselWessels, Brilon 1417, still 1612 in Münster: Wessel Vifhueß. Wessling is its patr. (Heinrich Wessel or Weßling, Wegenstadt 1564); in Rhine area pl.n. Wesseling near Bonn is involved (Hermann de Wesselich 1391). Also Wesselmann (Col., Düsseldorf, Barmen etc.) in some cases = Wessel = Werner, in others also name of origin: from Wessel in Westph. or Wesseln near Hildesheim (Weslohun = swampy copse). cf. Hesselmann and pl.n. Hesseln, Asselmann and pl.n. Asseln. Wesseloh (Hbg., Bremen): pl.n. near Soltau; see. also Weseloh. Wesselhöft (freq. in Hbg.): loc.n., likewise Visselhövede (on the Vissel River), Bornhöft (pl.n. Bernhöved) etc., LGer. hövet = ‘head’, rcf.erring to watershed area.

Wessely (Czech): pl.n. near Olmütz, freq. in Bohemia; also cf. Czech vesely ‘cheerful’.

Wessig, Wessing, Weßnig: E Ger.-Slav., like Lessig, Lessing, Leßnig (wesnik ‘villager’, lesnik ‘woodsrnan’).

Wessler (LGer.) = Wechsler, see there. (Joh. Weslere, Strals. 1343, Walther Wesselere, Col. 1170).

West, Weste (Westph., Rhineland) like Westemeier may also derive from field n. “Im West” (S of the Lippe) or the Weste, Creek near Warstein; apparently west = wes ‘mud, decay’. West(e)rich: pl.n. near Soest. Westerling (N Ger.).- person living toward the west, cf. Osterling. Likewise Westermann (freq. in Hbg.) and Ostermann. Westermeyer, Westerweller. For Westing cf. Fris. Osting. Also Wester (Düsseldorf) = westward.

Westarp (Westph.): pl.n. ending in -torp ‘village’, like Westtorf near Lemgo, Westrup, etc; Westarp (like Natarp) is near Telgte E of Münster: on the Werse River, Hencein old documents was called Wersetorp.

Westfelhing: patr. form (also Fehling) of Westfahl, Westphal (freq. in Hbg.) besides Westphalen [Westphalian]. Sometimes indicating relations with Westphalia(ns), like Preuß [Prussia], Reuß [older form for Russia], Böhm [Bohemia], Sachs [Saxon], etc. For the contingent of Westphalians in the settlement of Mecklenburg and Pomerania and their share in the trade between the port cities of the Baltic Sea (on the basis of their FNs), see Bahlow: “Der Zug nach dem Osten,” Teuthonista, 1933, p. 227, with maps. Egbert Westfal, Strals. 1294, Joh. Westfeleke, Greifsw. 1350.

Westram = Westrum (pl.n. on the Hase River), i.e. Westerheim; cf. Sustrum, Sottrum, etc.

Westrick (Westph., L.Rhine) derives from pl.n. Westerwick, like Ostrick from Osterwick (wik = placf., town).

Wetegrove (Hbg.) corresponds to Wetecumbe in Engld. (cf. E. wet). Hencepl.n. Wetvelde (Weetfeld near Hamm), lange Weth near Goslar, also Weth-Berg. Also cf. Wette(born), Wettmar, Wetten (L-Rhine), etc.

Wetjen (Fris.), Wäthjen: = Wedeke, see Wedekind.

Wetter (von): from pl.n. (near Marburg, the river of the Wetterau; or on the Ruhr near Nelle); prehistor. river n. Wedra (like cf.lto-Ligurian Cucra, Locra, etc.), from water and swamp word wed. Hencealso Wettern (freq. in Hbg.): pl.n. like Seggern etc. But UGer. Wetter(le) is probably a surname for a weatherman (MHG wettersager), cf. Kiesewetter (= check the w.): Cunrad cognomento [known as] Wettere, Basel 1244, Nik. Wetterlin, Worms 1343.

Wetterhahn see Wehrhahn.

Wetterhold see Wiederhold.

Wettering (N Ger.). “from the Wettering, van de Wetering* = from the drainage trench.

Wettig (Hbg.) see Weddig.

Wethmar (Wedemar): pl.n. near Han. (Echardus de Wetemere, Han. 1327); for meaning of the word see Wetter. cf. Bettmar, Rettmar.

Wettwer (Hbg.): LGer. Wedewer, see there.

Wetz, Wetzig = Wetzek, Wetzke = Wetzlaw, Slav. pers.n. like Wentzlaw. cf. Wetzel, Wetzold.

Wetzel (freq.): in E cf.ntrGer.-Sil.-Bohemian region = Wetzlaw, as Wentzel = Wentzlaw, see there. cf. “her Weczel (Weczlaw) v. Schellendorf’, Liegnitz 1424; enlarged: H. Weczold, Freiberg 1447 (FN Wätzold in Sax.), cf. Pätzold, Petzold from Petz (Peter). But in UGer. area Wetzel is documented as sh.f. of Werner (see there): Wezil = Wernherus de Binnikeim (Hirsau); with rounded vowel (Bav.-Swab.) Wötzel.

Wetzger, Wetschger, Wetscher (UGer.) from MHG = ‘travel bag, knapsack’, probably rn. (Ruod. Wetscher, Isny 1250).

Wetzler = Wetzlar (on the Lahn).

Wetzstein = ‘whetstone’, rn. (Joh. Wetzstein, Freiburg 1290. B. Wetzsteinmesserer, Nrbg. 1363).

Wuffkens see Wülfken.

Weuste see Woeste and Wüst.

Wevelsiep (Düsseldorf): loc.n. like Ramsiepen, Mort-siepen, Schmie-siepen, Schade-siepen, all synonyms (in S Westphalia) for ‘swampy low-lying land with a creek’. cf. Wevelsbeke near Dortmund, Wevelrusche (Wivelrus), Col. 1189, Wiveleshole, Gladbach 1170, Wief.elspütz, Wewelsfleth, like Wivelslake, Wivelscombe in Engld.; also Wefelen N of Aachen.

Wever (LGer.) besides Wevers (L.Rhine) see Weber. Also Wewers, Wef.er(s), Weifers. Hence patr. Woverinck.

Wex: in old documents Wechs, cf. in Jena around 1150-60 Christoph Wechs, in Heidingsfeld 1315 Herman Wehse; perhaps a loc.n., cf. pl.n. Wiechs in Bav.

Weyand, Weiand (Düsseldorf) see Weigand.

Weyel (Düsseldorf) see Weigel.

Weyer, Weyers (Düsseldorf) see Weier. There also the freq. FN Weyergraf (Graf = here: supervisor, cf. Holzgraf, Deichgraf), also Weyermann(s).

Weyerstall, Weyerstahl (UGer.): loc.n. like Bremstall, Bremstahl, Bockstall, Bockstahl, etc.; freq. in Tyrol; stal = ‘spot, plage’.

Weyh(e) (Hbg.): pl.n. Weyhe near Hoya (older: Wege, see Weihe); Erpo v. Weyhe 1241.

Weyke = Woyke (U.Sax.) = Woytke (sh.f. of Slav. Woitslaw); cf. Niclas Weytke, Liegnitz 1425. But UGer. Weick (freq. in StuttGert) = Weickmann.

Weyland see Weiland. Weymann see Weimann. Weymar see Weimar.

Weynen (L.Rhine) see Wienen.

Weyrich see Weyrauch, Weihrich, Weihrauch.

Wiarda, Wyerda, Wiards, Wiart, Wiert, Wierds(ma) are Fris. forms of Wi(g)hard, Wichard ‘bold in battle’. A Frisian, Tileman Dotias Wiarda, was a respected scholar in the study of names (onomastics) around 1800. Doc. evidencf.: WiardusFriso, Col. 1178, Wiardus (abbot, Kl. Belbuck 1265), Wierd (Frisian) 1442, Adde Wyersna 1461 (patr.); the complete form is Wichardus (Wigardus) Nagel, Hbg. 1298.

Wibbelt: LGer.-Fris. = Wig-bold ‘bold in battle’, cf. Gernandus Wicholdi, Hbg. 1269; hence. sh.f. Wibbe, Wibben, Wibbelmann, Wibbeling (patr.), also of Wic-bern, Wic-bert. Nowadays also Wiebold, Wiebols, Wickbold (Ro.): Wicboldus, Ro. 1259, Wicbolt Knakenhour 15th c. in Oldenburg.

Wibberding see Wiebert.

Wicheltnann (Hbg.): name of origin from Wiecheln E of Lüneburg, likewise Wiechel, cf. pl.ns. Mrichelhausen, Wichelförth.

Wiehern, Wiechern (freq. in Hbg.): based on Wic-horn (‘rnoist spot’), pl.n. in Westph.

Wichert, Wiechert (freq. in Hbg.) besides Wichers, Wiechers is the old Ger. pers.n. Wighard (‘bold in battle’; wig = fight, battle; hard = bold, courageous), with LGer. doubling of consonant also Wiggert, Wiggers (like Eggert, Eggers besides Eckhard, Eckert). Also Wickert, Wicherts; L.Rhine Wicharz (like Richarz), patr. Also cf. Barteld Wicherding, Han. 1458. For Wicher cf. Mrigger. See also Fris. Wiard. UGer. equivalents are Weich(h)ard, Weichert, Weickert, Weigert, see there.

Wichmann, Wiechmann (freq. in Hbg.) was a popular pers.n. in the Middle Ages in N Germany; UGer. equivalents are Weichmann, Weigmann, see there. Also Wie(g)mann , short Wi(e)ch: Wichman Nagel, Oldenburg 1281; Wichman, archhishop of Magdeburg around 1175; Wichman Hengefoß and Wyche Hengefoß (peasants) around 1500-1550 in Meckl., Hans Wyche, Meckl. 1538. Wighe as early as 1304 in Hbg., Ro., Lüb.

Wicht: derogatory name ‘gnome, dwarf, imp’; in Brsl. 1350 Tummerwicht [dumb imp]. In some cases possibly secondary form of Wich (both freq. in Hbg.) = Wichmann.

Wichterich: from pl.n. in Rhineland.

Wick, Wicke (freq. in Hlbg.): LGer-Fris. pers.n., cf. Wicke Onnama, Frisia 1422; probably sh.f. of Wickbold, Wickbrand, etc., like Fris. Sick, Sicke from Sickert etc. (Sicke Fricksma). HenceWicken, Wicking.

Wickbold (freq. in Hbg.) seeWibbelt.

Wickbrand: LGer. pers.n. Wig-brand (wig ‘fight’, brand ‘flaming sword’); Joh. fil. Wyckbrandi (J. son of Wyckbrand), document reg. of Werden 1412.

Wickede: pl.n. in Ruhr area, besides Holzwickede near Dortmund. Godeke deWickede, Strals. 1300.

Wickel, Wicklein (UGer.): probably plant n. Wicke [sweet pea] (MHG also wickelin); Nicl. Wiklein, U.Pal. 1347, Erhard Wickel, Nbg. 1500-

Wicker (freq. in StuttGert): from MHG = ‘magician, soothsayer, juggler’; M. Wicker, Kirchheim/Teck 1476. Also cf. pl.n. Wicker near Mainz (Celtic creek n. Wic­ra).

Wickern (van): Düsseldorf, see Wichern.

Wickert, Wieckert (Hbg.) see Wichert.

Wicking, Wiecking: LGer. patr. of Wick, see flüs.

Wickmann (Hbg.) see Wichmann.

Wickram, Wychgram: ‘battle raven’, old Ger. f.n like Wolfram, known through Jörg Wickram (from Colmar) and his Rottwagenbüchlein around 1550.

Widdel (Hbg., Düsseldorf): LGer. variant of Weddel, see there. Also cf. in Frkf. 1367 Lotz zumWiddel (living in a house called “zum Weddel”). Widdicke: Widdeke Detleves, Brsw. 1488 = Weddege D., see Weddigen.

Widder [ram]: like Stier [steer], Ochse [ox], etc. were house names first; Humbrecht zumWider, Mainz 1265 (Strasb. 1270). cf. Widderkopf [ram head], LGer. Wedderkop.

Widdig: pl.n. near Bonn. But cf. Widdicke. Weddig.

Widmann (UGer.): in Alem. area refers to a man near willow [Wide = Weide ‘willow’]; cf. Joh. Widman, Maichingen/Würt. 1440 (who called himself Lat. “salicetus”); but also cf. Wittmann ‘woodsman’ (like Widhopf = ‘wood hopper’, but Wiedehopf = hoopoo, the bird).

Widmer (UGer.): from MHG widemer ‘holder of a prebend’, a farm belonging to a parish church (Widem). Hainrich Widemer, Überlingen 1249. Contracted (Bav.).- Wimmer (freq. in Bav., Aust.), also as loc.n., cf. farmstead Wimmer in U.Aust. (near Petenbach). 1325 near the Widem! Hainrich Widemer, Tyrol 1357; H. vondemWidem, Tyrol 1328; H. der Wimmer, Regensburg 1294. Also Hierlwimmer, Hochwimmer, Hinterwimmer. See also LGer. Wehmer (Wedemer). In wine growing areas MHG wimmer = windemer ‘grape picker’ may be involved.

Wiebe (freq. in Hbg.), Wieb(e)ke (Hbg.) besides Wiebeking (patr.) is sh.f. of Wiebert (Wiebers: Hbg.), i.e. Wigbert ‘shining in battle’, or from Wie(g)bold (Wiebelt, Wibbelt) and Wigbern, Wigbrand. Also Wiepke, Wiepking. Patr. Wieben, Wiebensohn, which can also be a metr. (mother’s name), since Wiebe, Wiebkeis also a fem. Fris. f.n. (= Wigburg from Wiburch), cf. Marquart Wibenman, Strals. 1284. Fris. Wig-bern (bern = a bear) was a popular name, nowadays Wibbern, Wippern, like Sigbern: Sibbern. See also Wickbrand, Wickbold. Wiebring is based on Wibberding, Wigberding (Westph. patr.), cf. Albring, Detering.

Wiebusch (Düsseldorf) = Wiedebusch ‘willow bush’, cf. ‘Wie(de)meyer. Kort imWiebusch, Lippe 1617.

Wiech, Wiechern, Wiechert, Wiechmann see Wich-. As late as 1522 in Hbg.: Wichman Wipeking.

Wieck (freq. in Hbg.): old LGer. wîk = ‘small town, place’, also in pl.ns. (Bruns­wik); in some cases probably a spelling variant of Wick, like Wiecking: Wicking. But Wieckhorst means decaying woods.

Wieczorek (Wieczorke, Witschurke): freq. Sil-Slav. FN, also cf. pl.n. Wieczorka etc.

Wiede(mann): freq. LGer., UGer. = Weidemann, from the residence near, willow trees; Gödeke indenWyden, Duderstadt 1406. Joh. vandereden, Strals. 1277. Contracted Wiemann, like Wiebusch, Wiemeyer, Wiebrock unless = Winman ‘wine dealer’, see Weimann.

Wiedermar: pl.n. in district of Delitzsch; Schiban v. Wedymar, Strehlen 1323. But cf. f.n. Widemar, Col. 1150: modern f.n. Wedemar. UGer. Wiedemer see Widmer (Bentz ufderwideme, Horb, Würt. 1340). (Son. M. der Widmar).

Wieder, Wiedermann (Liegnitz Brsl. freq.): cf. Wiedera (Brsl.) and pl.ns. like Wiederau in Sax., Wiederitzsch etc. Bosse v. Wedrau, Liegnitz 1415.

Wiederhold: formerly a popular pers.n. in Hesse was Widerolt, probably meaning ‘adversary’ or ‘offering resistance’; especially in the nobility; Widerolt of Linden, knight, Wetzlar 1264, Heise Wederholt, Duderstadt 1369. Also Wiederholz, Wetterhold.

Wiedersich: Pol. forrn (Wederzych) for Dietrich.

Wiederspahn see (LGer.) Wehrspohn.

Wiedner see Weidner.

Wiedstruck (LGer.) = Weidenstrauch [willow bush].

Wieduwild, Wieduwilt (LGer.) = “wie du willst” [as you like].

Wiefelspütz (L.Rhine) see Wevelsiep.

Wi(e)gand(t): LGer. and Rhineld. = UGer. Weigand, see there. Corrupted Wiegank. Hencesh.f. Wiegel, Wiegelmann (Rhineld. also Wiegels), see Weigel. (Cf. Wigel Widenbusch, Frkf. 1398).

Wiegard = Wieghardt, Wig-hard, see Wichert.

Wieger(s), Wiegert (freq. in Hbg.) means Wighard or Wig-her, see Wichert. Also with LGer.-Fris consonant doubling: Wigger, Wiggers, Wiggert. Wieghorst see Wieckhorst.

Wiegleb: pl.n. Wiegleben near Gotha, cf. Briegleb, Heinleb, etc.; wig is an old water and swamp word (see Bahlow ON, p. 537).

Wiegmann (freq. in Hbg., Han.): LGer., = UGer. Weigmann, see there. Cf. Wi(e)chmann.

Wiegner (UGer.-Sil.): probably a scale maker (MHG wige ‘scale’); cf. Schebek Wigmacher, Prague 1408; Wigener, Liegnitz 1372 (also Brsl.).

Wiegreffe, Wieggräfe, Wieggrebe (Westph.­LGer.): administrative supervisor of a town district (wik = ‘town, city’); Wulverus dictus (W. called) Wichgreve, Han. 1344.

Wiehe (fairly freq. in Hbg.): LGer. = Wiede ‘willow tree’; HenceWiehemeier. cf. Wiehenbrauk (Wiedenbreck). But also pl.n. Wiehe on the Unstrut River may be considered. Otherwise cf. Fris. = LGer. Wighe, see Wich. In Stade around 1300: dominus Wigh (Wigmannus) de Haghena.

Wiehl: pl.n. in Bergisches Land, on the Wila (1137); prehistor. water name. Hence Wiehler.

Wiehr see Wier.

Wiek see Wick.

Wieland: The story of W., the most artistic forger, was still known and told in the late Middle Ages. cf. in Freiburg 1341: WielandderSchmied. In Liegnitz 1333 Master Wiland (founding builder of the Peter and Paul Church); in Eßlingen 1301 Konrad Wielant, in Greifsw. 1374 Mathias Weland.

Wiele (Hbg.). cf. pl.n. Wielen near Preetz and Wiehl on the Wila, also pl.n. Wieldrecht in the Netherlands, Wielpätz (Willpütz, L.Rhine), etc.; wil is an old water word, a Wil-apa (Wilpe) in Waldeck.

Wielepp: pl.n. ending in -leben, see Wiegleb and Weilepp.

Wiem, Wiemschulte, Wiemhöfer (Westph.): from Widem ‘parish farm’, see Wehm(er).

Wiemann (LGer.) see Weimann (i.e. Wienhindler, Weinhindler ‘wine dealer’), in some cases however = Wiedeniann (at a willow stand), like Tiemann for Tiedemann; cf. Wiebusch: Wiedebusch. Wiemeier (LGer.) = Wiedeineier.

Wiemer (freq. in Hbg.) besides Wiemers (freq. in Hbg., Düsseldorf) corresponds to Siemer, Siemers, i.e. Wig-mar ‘battle famous’ or Sig-mar (‘victory-famous’); in old documents: Wichmer, Ro. 1266. Hencethe sh.f. Wiemken (patr. Wiemker): Conrad Wymekonis, Lüb. around 1325, Edo Wijmconius, Frisia 1408. cf. Wimod (Wigmod), 10th c. (fem.).

Wienacht: (LGer.) = Weihnacht [see there] ‘Christmas’. cf. Wigenacht, Danzig 1377.

Wienand (Wienands, Wienandy): freq. in Col., Düsseldorf, Barinen, see under Weinholtz. Hence sh.f. Wienke, see there.

Wienbeck: LGer. creek name (Winebeke), cf. pl.n. Wiembeck (Lippe); the old word win ‘water, swamp’ also contained in Wien-siek, Wien-siepen, Win-brok, Wine-pole, Wine-mere, etc. (see Bahlow ON, p. 527), also in Wiensen, Winsen (Win-husen), Wienberg (wine did not grow there!), Wienbarg, van Wienen.

Wienbreyer: in Quedlinburg 1677 Wienbreier besides Wienbräuer 1669 and Weinbreuer 1635. cf. Kalbreyer, Kallbreier; Merbreier, Mehrbrei.

Wiencke see Wienke. Likewise Wiene(c)ke.

Wiener: from Vienna, Aust. (now also Jewish).

Wieners, Wienen see Wiens.

Wienhol(t)z besides Wienhold see Weinholtz.

Wienke, Wieneke (freq. in Hbg.); patr. Wienken, Fris. Wient(jes): in the Middle Ages a popular sh.f. for Wienand (Wignand), see there and Weinholtz, Wienhold. Wineco (Winandus) de Soltwedele, Hbg. 1295, Wineke Makedust, Lüb. 1349, Wyneke Tymmerman, 1406 in document register of Werden. Full form Wijnand is still a f.n. in the Netherlands.

Wienkoop (LGer.) see Weinkauf. Wienkopf [kopf = head] is an (half-standardized) and [falsely] interpreted formation. Wilenkopf = Weinkauf ‘wine merchant’.

Wienrich (LGer.) see Weinrich. Wiens (Hbg.): LGer.-Fris. sh.f. (patr.) of Wienand, Wieneke. cf. Wienen (Düss.). Wieners probably from Winihart.

Wienschröer: (LGer.) = Weinschröter: person who carted and delivered wine barrels. See Weimann.

Wientapper, Wientepper: LGer. = ‘wine tapper, wine pourer’; Swaneke Wintappers, Bremen 1404. cf. Sifrid Haletappe, Ro. 1301 (“hole den Zapfen” = go and get the tap). Giseke Wientepper, Han. 1344. Cf. Wynberner (Weinbrenner) [wine distiller, brandy maker], Riga 1505. For Wienkopf (Weinkauf) cf. Mehlkopf etc.

Wien(t)zek: Slav. sh.f. of Vinzenz, see there.

Wiepke, Wiepking see Wiebke.

Wieprecht see Wiebe and Weiprecht. A saint Wipertus (Wiprecht) was a disciple of St. Bonifacf. (Fritzlar).

Wier (Hbg.) an old water word (wir), see Bahlow ON, p. 538. Related pl.n. Wieren near Ülzen and FN Wiermann. Also pl.n. Wierum in the Netherlands.

Wierig, Wiering (often in Hbg.): Fris.-LGer. pers.n. Wiric, documented as early as 900, probably = Wig-rik [strong in battle], like Sierich for Sig-rich; for Wiering cf. Siering. Hence patr. Wiers. Fris. Wiersma is an enlarged patr. from Wiert. Wiard, i.e. Wighard, see Wichert. cf. Adde Wyersna, Frisia 1461.

Wierschke (cf. Wierschowski) is E Ger.­Slav. sh.f. of pers.n. Vrchosiav (Vrsek); see Miklosich no. 49; Bahlow SN, p. 77. cf. pl.n. Wierschoslawice near Bromberg. Hence also Werschke, Wersch(eck), etc. An archdeacon Wirchozlaus in Liegn. 1262.

Wiersig see Wirsing.

Wiesch, Wiescher see Wisch, Wischer.

Wiese (very freq.): name taken from rural dwelling [meaning ‘meadow’]; Hainrich anderWise, Bozen 1275. Also cf. pl.n. Wiese, Wiesa (several times in Sax.). Hence Wiesemann, Wieser (UGer.), Wies(e)ner (freq. pl.n. Wiesen), freq. in Sil., Sax., Aust.: Mathes Wisener (vonderWisen, zurWisen), Glatz 1456 (pl.n. Wiesau). But “mitderWise”, Brsl. 1350 = ‘owner or tenant of a meadow’. In Mainz 1333 Dile offderwiesen. Also: Wiese, Wiesemann: (LGer.) wise, intelligent, experienced person. Albert Wise, Lüb. 1317, Hinrich Wiseman, Soest 1308.

Wiesendanger: from Wiesendangen near Zurich (Wisuntwangon in 8th c.).

Wiesenhavern: (Hbg.) Wiesenhafer [meadow oats], loc.n.

Wiesent: from MHG wisent ‘wisent, European bison’; surname of a young knight near Oppenheim 1361: Joh. Wiesant, shield bearer; in Strals. 1314 Joh. Wesent, also Ro. 1259. But Heinrich der Wisenter, Regensburg 1294 probably from local pl.n. Wiesent.

Wiestaer, Wiest see Wüstner, Wüst.

Wietek see Wittek.

Wiethase, Weithase: ‘wide pants’.

Wiethölter: (Westph.) living at the Wietholt (woods or copse).

Wiethop, Wietheuper: (Westph., Han.) hop = knoll in moist terrain. Joh. updenWithopen, near Osnabrück around 1550.

Wietze: pl.n. near Celle.

Wietzke see Witzke.

Wiewesiek (Westph.): loc.n. (siek ‘swampy lowlands on a creek’); Abeke imWiversieke, Lippe 1590.

Wiezorrek see Wieczorrek.

Wigand see Wiegand.

Wigge (Westph.) see Wicke and Wigger.

Wigger, Wiggers (freq. in Hbg.), Wiggert is LGer. form for Wig-hard, Wigher, see Wichert. cf. Egger(s), Egger for Eckhard, like Riggers, Riggert for Rikhard. As early as 1157 a hishop Wigge in Brandenburg; 1257 in Ro.: Wigger hoke [huckster], 1242 in Frisia: Wigger, father of Wigbold,­ around 1300 in Stralsund: Joh. Wigger; still 1535 in Stettin: WiggeWeggere.

Wilberding: LGer.-Westph. patr. of Wilbert,

Wilbers, Wilbertz (Rhineld.) or Wilbrecht, Wilpert, like Alberding from Albert. Meaning ‘strong-willed person’. Willbarth has LGer. ar for er, like Volbarth (Volkbert), Albart, Siebart.

Wilbrand(t), Willbrandt (freq. in Hbg., Meckl.); corrupted form Wildebrand(t), cf. reverse process in Hildebrand (common) and Hillebrand. likewise Adalbrand, A(h)lbrand, Siebrand, Herbrand, Harbrand, Wolbrand, etc-; W. is a popular LGer.-North Sea Germanic pers.n. in North Sea-Baltic region. The writer Adolf W. was from Meckl. Around 1275 the name is attested 18 times as f.n. in Ro.

Wilck(e), Wilcken(s) see Wilke, Wilkens.

Wild, Wildt, UGer. Wilde, MHG wild = ‘wild, without morals’, but also ‘foreign, non-native’. Strong form (full adjective ending) Wilder (except when Ger. Wilderer ‘poacher’ as in Wernher der Wilderer, Würt. 1350). HenceWildersinn (Willersinn) [wild mood or spirit], Wildermuth (Würt.) [same meaning], Wildsplut [wild blood] der hirt [the shepherd], Eger 1386.

Wildbrett, Wildprett: MHG wilt-braete ‘roast of venison’, name for a game dealer as in Wiltbreter, Brsl. 1365.

Wildebrand see Wilebrand.

Wildeis(en), UGer.: name of a blacksmith, see under Findeisen.

Wildemann (cf. Wilde): sometimes house name, as in Jena 1446 Hennel zumWildenmann, likewise in Strasbg. 1544. The “wild men” in the Middle Ages were regarded as strange, uncanny creatures.

Wildenbruch: pl.n. in Pom. and Brandenburg; Hinr. Wildenbroke, Greifsw. 1326. cf. Ernst v. W., writer, grandson of Prince Louis Ferdinand.

Wildenhayn (Sax.) = N Ger. Wildenhagen; freq. pl.n. in Sax.

Wildfang: MHG = ‘stranger’, in rare cases = wilt-ban ‘hunting grounds’. Thid. Wiltfanc, Ro. 1300.

Wildfeuer (Bav., Aust.), LGer. Wildführ, Willführ: perhaps surname of a charcoal burner.

Wildgam [wild goose] (UGer.): like Wildhuhn, Wildvogel probably surname of a hunter.

Wildgruber (Bav., Aust.): from loc.n. Wildgrube [game trap] (Fridr. Wiltgruober, Tyrol 1365).

Wildner, ‘Willner (Sax., Sil., Aust., Bav.): from Wildenau (twice in Sax., also in U.Franconia, U.Aust.); cf. knight Heinrich v. Wildenau Würt. 1253 (an abandoned village near Tübingen); Hempel Wildener, 1381 near Sorau; JocoffWildener, Freiberg/Sax. 1445 (MHG wildener ‘poacher’ was not used in E CentrGer. area).

Wildschütz: in E CentrGer. area does not mean ‘hunter’ but derives from Slav. Wiltschitz (near Liegnitz e.g.); Herman v. Wiltschicz, Sax. 1392.

Wildtraut: corrupted from Wiltrud, see there. (Wiltrudis around 1325 in Lüb.).

Wildung: from pl.n Wildungen on the Wilde (near Eder River); Ludewig Wildunge, Kassel 1409.

Wildwerker (UGer.). from MHG = ‘furrier, fur dealer’; cf. master Lutz der Wiltwerker, Stuttgart 1355.

Wilfert, Wilfarth, Wilfahrt: L.Rhine, means Saint Wilfrid, Anglo-Sax. missionary with the Frisians in the Netherlands (7th c.). Wilfrid is still an E. f.n.

Wilfling (UGer.): from pl.n. Wilflingen (Baden-Würt.).

Wilhelm (freq.), patr. Wilhelms, Wilhelmsen (Holstein), Wilhelmer (UGer.), Wilhelmi (Lat. genitive), also Wilhalm (Bav., Aust.), cf. the medieval epic Willehalm by Wolfram von Eschenbach; shortened Halm (like Helm); Wilharm is a dissimilated form (documented around 1000 as Willermus). See also Fris. Wilms (besides Helms), Wilmsen, sh.f. (LGer.) Wilke (Wilken). Wilhelm (‘strong-willed, helmeted fighter’) is an old Germanic, especially Norman name (freq. also in England since William the Conqueror 1066: William,Willy, Bill), Fr. Guillaume; at a knights’ festival in Bayeux around 1171, 117 Wilhelms were counted! In Germany the name became popular in the 19th c. through the Prussian royalty. cf. also WilhelmTell by Schiller and WilhelmMeister by Goethe.

Willke, Wilken(s): freq. LGer.-Fris. sh.f. for Wilhelm. Willeke v. Tramp = Wilhelmus Trampo, Pom. knight around 1300; Willeke Stokvisch, Strals. 1338, Willeke Schutenröver, Hbg. 1262, Wilcke Rewerda, Frisia 1422. In Silesia the Slav. pl.n. Wilkau, Wilka, Wilk is involved.

Willamow(itz), Wilamowski (E Ger.-Slav.): pl.n. Willamoven in E Prussia.

Willbrandt (freq. in Hbg.) see Wilbrand.

Wille, Will (freq. in Hbg.) = Willeke, Wilke, see there. But also freq. UGer.: as sh.f. for Willahalm etc.

Willemer = Willmer, Wilmar: old Ger. pers.n. (‘strong-willed, famous’).

Willenberg (Liegn.): from Willen Mt. in Katzbach Valley.

Willers (freq. in Hbg.) besides Willer(t), in the form of Willer was a very popular pers.n. in the North Sea coastal area, documented around 1275 in Re. 16 times; Willer de hoppenere, Lüb. 1320, Willerius apud salinam, Lünebg. 1291. Patr. (Westph.): Willerding (like Allerding: Wil-hard, Al-hard).

Willführ see Wildfeuer.

Willgeroth see Willroth.

Willhöft (Hbg.) means Wildehovet ‘wild head’. Cf. Joh. Wildelevend [‘living wildly’], Hbg. 1467. Willgôs = ‘wild goose’. Willschrei (Hbg.): wild cry.

Willibald: ‘strong-willed and bold’. Saint W. was the first bishop of Eichstätt.

Willich: freq. pl.n. in Rhineld.; otherwise also sh.f. of Willehelm etc. Likewise Willig, Willigmann. Willing(s): LGer. patr. of ‘Willehelm etc., cf. pl.n. Willinghusen near Hbg., Wilingrade in Holstein; Willingshausen, Willingshain in Hesse; Willingen near Soltau; Willing in Bav.

Willkomm (freil. in Dresden): a welcome, pleasant person. A Willicumo as early as ca. 900.

Willmann (Willmanns, L.Rhine): sh.f. of ‘Willehelm etc.; Willemm (Wilhelm) Schedesalz, Wetzlar 1303; Richward Willeman, Lüb. 1320, Claus Willman. Schlettstadt 1402, Peterman Willman, Bohemia 1333.

Willmer, Wilmers (often in Hbg.) see Willemer. (Wilmarus, Hbg. 1266).

Willmuth: rare old Ger. pers.n. (Willemodus, Strals. 1285, Wylmet Tannen, a Frisian 1387, Heinrich Wilmuot, Würzbg. 1295).

Willner see Wildner.

Willroth: pl.n. in Nassau (E of Neuwied); also Willrodt, ‘Willruth; -roth means -rode ‘a clearing’.

Wilm, Wilms (freq. in Hbg.), patr. also Wilmsen: LGer.-Fris. form for Wilhelm(s) like Alm(s) for Adelhelm(s). Also Helms, see there. Wilm Lübben, Barth 1373, Wilke Wilm, Barth 1403.

Wilmanns see Willmann.

Wilprecht, Wilpert see Wilbrecht. (Joh. Wilprecht, Mnch. 1475).

Wi(l)rich: old Ger. pers.n. ‘strong-willed and powerful’; Wilricus, Hbg. 1248 (also Liegn. 1345), Nitsche Wilrich, Liegn. 1380.

Wilrodt see Willroth.

Wilster(mann): Hbg. from Wilster near Itzehoe.

Wiltrud: name of a Valkyrie. cf. Wiltrud and Helmtrud, daughters of Ludwig III of Bavaria.

Wiltsch, Wilschke, Wilczek: E Ger-Slav., cf. Wilczke von der Ölsen, Brsl. 1359.

Wimmel (Hbg.): loc.n. like Wemmel, see there.

Wimmer (freq. in Munich, Vienna), see Widmer. But N Ger. Wimmer(s) (Düsseldorf) due to the patr. form (Wimmers) indicates a pers.n. derived from a patr. form; Wimmer is pl.n. near Lübbecke in Westph.

Wimpassinger, Windpassinger (Bav., Aust.): from pl.n., several in these areas.

Wimpf. from Wimpfen on the Neckar.

Winand(s), Winandy see Wienand.

Winde, Wind(t) like Windisch means Wend, Wendish, cf. Wendt. Theodericus (Slawus) qui dicitur Wint, [Theodor (a Slav) called Wint] Col. 1188-97; Nic. Windman, Znaim 1363. See also Windt.

Windeck(er): UGer. name of origin.

Windeis: UGer. name of a blacksmith; see Findeisen.

Windel, Windels see Wendel. Windler see Wendler.

Windelband: MHG = ‘swaddling clothes’, see under Bandel.

Winderlich (UGer.-Sil.) see Wunderlich.

Windfried (wini = ‘friend’), was the name of the Anglo-Saxon missionary St. Boniface.

Windfuhr (Westph.): loc.n. like Wassorfuhr (Peter Wndfuhr, 1665 near Kierspe, on the estate “zur Windfuhr” [at the wind passage]; cf. Windhorn, Windhorst [Horst = eerie], Windwehe (= Wind-wede ‘swampy copse’), Windhövel (= -hügel ‘knoll, hill’), all related in meaning. HenceVanderfuhr, Anderfuhr etc. Also Windgassen is L.Rhine loc.n. (cf. “to Wintgaeten” 1486).

Windisch (Wendisch), Winsch, Windischmann, Winschmann, also Wündisch, Wünsch(e) (6o times in Görlitz!), Wünschmann: a Wend or Sorb [slav], thus most fteq. in U.Lausitz. Cf. “der windische Mertin”, 1381 near Sorau, “der windische Jorge”, Görlitz 1537, Hannus Windisch, Liegn. 1405, Nick. Winsche, Görl. 1528, Paul Wünsche, Görl. 1564; hence Windischman, Liegn. 1354, Winschman, Liegn. 1547. cf. Bemischman, Deutschman.

Windler (Hbg.) see Wendler.

Windmöller: tenant of a windmill. Thid. Wintmölner, Stade 1327.

Windrich (Lausitz, Sax.) see Wendrich.

Wuidrath (Düsseldorf): pl.n. near Düss. (-rat = -rode ‘a clearing’).

Windschügl, Windschigl (Aust.) see Schuh.

Windt = Wendt, see Winde, Wende, Windisch. But also cf. Ulr. Wint (Ventus) [wind], Überlingen 1280, Rud. zuomWinde, Strasbg. 1331. See also Schneidewind.

Wingartz (L.Rhine) besides Wingert, Wingardt means ‘vineyard’ (loc.n.), like Bongartz, Bungert ‘(fruit) tree garden, orchard’. MHG wîngerter ‘winegrower, vintner’.

Windweh, Windwehen (LGer.) = Windwede, loc.n. like Brückweh: Brickwede, see under Wede. For Windwehr cf. Brackwehr (= -wede).

Wingen (van der): Düsseldorf, L.Rhine loc.n.

Winkler (UGer. and CentrGer.),

Winkelmann (more N Ger.), Winkel: from the dwelling location [in a corner, niche]; Winkler sometimes = grocer who has a mom-and-pop-store, cf. LGer. Winkelhoke: Winkelhake [hoke = huckster]. In Görlitz 1305, Pezolt von der Aue is also called by the name of his farm (location) P. indemwinkele [in the corner]; cf. Gerbod zudemwinkel, 1343 near Mainz (modern FN Zumwinkel, zum Winkel W Ger.-Rhineld.); Nic. Winkeler, Liegn. 1397, Hans Winkelman, Bral. 1360 (also Mainz), Thilman Winkelseßer, Limburg 1305. Winkelsträter, Virinkelströter (Düsseld.): strot ‘swampy underbrush’.

Winne, Winnen, Winneke = Wenne(ke), sh.f. of Win(n)emar, Wen(n)mar. Patr. Winni(n)g; but also cf. pl.n. Winningen (Koblenz). Winninghusen (Han.). A pl.n. Winnekendonk near Kevelaer.

Winnepenning (LGer.): ‘win the penny’ (see under Pfennig), derisive nickname for a stingy person or a shopkeeper? Thid. Winnepenning, Ro. 1259, Lüb. 1333, (Hbg. 1294).

Winner(s): LGer. = UGer. Gwinner, see there.

Winsch(er), Winschmann see Windisch.

Winsemann: from Winsen on the Luhe or Aller River (Win-husen ‘swamp place’).

Winter (freq.), Winters (L.Rhine), Winterl(e), Winterlein (UGer.): as with FNs Sommer and Herbst, seasonal obligations (of a social nature) may be involved, cf. Michel winterhoke [winter grocer or dealer), Sorau 1381, Winterbecker, Winterbier, Winterkorn, Wintergerste [Gerste = barley]; Wintertag, Wintertanz; MHG winterdiener, wintergelt (indicating tribute). Also two brothers, Winter and Sommer (Wintar and Sumar) are documented 858 in U.Rhine area. In some cases the rare name Wint-her may be involved: Wintherus Henlin, Karlstadt 1311; Wynther, son of Emelrich v. Ryfenberg, Wetzlar 1331; cf. king of the Visigoths Winit-hari (‘fighter of the Wends’) 6th c.

Winterhalter (Freiburg 1460) = Winterhalder, like Sommerhalder, Sonnenhalder, Sommerhalter, Sonnenhalter (halde = slope).

Winterling: MHG = ‘wild grapevine’; Herman dictus [called] Winterlinc, 1249 near Überlingen. Cf. pl.n. Winterlingen.

Wintermantel (Schwarzwald): like Regenmantel [rain coat], Langenmantel, Kurzmantel [short coat] etc.; sometimes probably sumame of a coatmaker.

Winzer(l), Winzerling see Weinzierl.

Winzig: pl.n. near Wohlau in Sil.

Wipfler (UGer.), Wippler (Centr.Ger.): from MHG wipfeln = to cap tree tops, perhaps name for a Gerdener.

Wipke see Wiepke under Wiebe.

Wippel (von der): Düsseldorf, besides Wippel(mann): L.Rhine-Westph. name of origin.

Wippermmn (freq. in Hbg.): from the Wipper River, prehistor. river name, distribution from Westph. to Pom. freq. (twice between Harz Mts. and Thuringia); also the Wupper River was originally called Wipper (cf. Wipperfürth and Wippern on that river); wip means ‘decay’ (cf. MHG verwepfen ‘to get moldy’).

Wippern (Hbg.): (Wig-bern), see Wiebe, except when = pl.n. Wippern on the Wipper.

Wippler see Wipfler.

Wipprecht, Wippert, Wippold see Wieprecht under Wiebe or Wiebold under Wibbelt.

Wirbs (freq. in Liegn.), W(i)rba etc. (E Ger.-Slav.) see Werbig.

Wirfler see Würfler.

Wirick (LGer.) see Weihrauch [incense] (name for a priest). Cf. wirik-vat ‘incense container, censer’. Clawes Wyrik, Halle 1414, Reimar Wirek, Meckl. Urkundenbuch [document register] 1373, L. Wirok, Han. 1498.

Wiring, Wirringa see Wiering.

Wirndl, Wirnhör (Aust.) see Werner, Werndl.

Wirsing, Wirsig: hardly from MHG wirsic ‘bad, evil’; Wirsing = Savoy cabbage, but the plant has not been documented before 1479; however there is evidence for it as a medieval loan word (from Italian) through FNs! Cf. Ekkehardus dictus [called] Wirsing, Ichtershausen (Thur.) 1306, Bertolf Wirsinch, Ober-Wesel (Rhine) 1275, Reititz Wirsinch, Altheim (Würt.) 1323, Nic. Wirsing (Wirsung!), Brsl. 1350, Leuther Wersing (curate), Liegn. 1395, Conrad Wersing (Wirsing), knight, Walkenried (Harz Mtn.) 1258, Wolfhart Wirsinger, Eger 1381. In Görlitz also Würsig (dial.) besides Wirsig, in Brsl. Wiersig, Wiersich; here Slav. Vrsek (sh.f. of Vreheslaw) may be involved, cf. Sil. Wierschke, Wers(ch)ke, Wers(ch)ek, Wersch.

Wirth, Würth, Würthle (UGer.), Wir(t)z (L.Rhine freq. besides Wirthgen, Wirths): innkeeper, tavern owner (cf. Sil. Kretschmer), MHG wirt also ‘householder, husband’. Michel wirt von Ebersbach, Liegn. 1398, Hans Wirtchen, Liegn. 1383, Steffel Wirtel, Nikolsburg 1414. Cf. Bierwirt, Frühwirt, Gutwirt, Siebenwirt (Bogusch Sebinwirt, Brsl. 1350), Magerwirt; in sentence form: Findewirt [find the w.], Suchenwirt [search for the w.] (surname of a traveling person looking for a place to stay), cf. Peter Suchenwirt, MHG poet in Aust. around 1380.

Wirthwein see Wörthwein.

Wischer (Westph.): person from the Wische = Wiese ‘meadow’, cf. Westph. Büscher (from the bush], Bröcker [from the brook], etc. HenceWischmann, Wisch, Breitwisch, Aus der Wischen, Hegewisch, Gosewisch (= Gänsewiese ‘goose pasture’), v. Pogwisch (= Froschwiese ‘frog meadow’); Angewisch (L.Rhine) = an der W. ‘at the meadow’. Also Wiesche, Wiescher, Langewiesche. For Wischeropp cf. Sönderop etc. (-derop = -dorp).

Wiske(mann): Fris. = Wischmann, see there (under Wischer).

Wislicen(us): Brsl., also Wislica in Poland.

Wismer, Wismar: several pl.ns. (Meckl., Hesse), Joh. v. Wismer (deWismaria), Strals. 1287, H. Wisemer, Hesse 1362.

Wispel: MLG wik-schepel = grain measure, possibly surname of a grain measurer, Joh. Wichschepel, Hbg. 1262, Hence W., Wismar 1272, Hinr. W., Strals. 1285.

Wispler: MHG ‘whisperer’.

Wissel (Hbg.) = Wessel (= Wernher). Wessel (Wissel) Olde, Lüb. 1287, Tile Wessel (Wissel), Haldsl. 1450, Wissel

Wisser (Oldenburg) = Westph. Wischer, see there. Cf. Seggewiß (‘sedge meadow’), Mark-wisse etc. Hence Wiss(e)mann (= Wischmann, Wiskeinann) except when from pl.n. Wissen on the Wisse (Siegerland); also Wissmeyer. For Wissing (Düsseldorf) cf. pl.n. Wissingen on the Hase (also pl.n. Wissing, Bav.).

Wißkott, Wißgott: pl.n. ending in -kot ‘cottage’ (Ruhr area). cf. the novel by Rudolf Herzog DieWißkottens, 1906. Cf. Holtkott, Waterkotte.

Wissler (Hbg.): LGer. variant of Wesseler (Wechsler), see Wechsel. Wissel = Wessel = Wernher. Wessel (Wissel) Olde, Lüb. 1287. Tile Wessel (Wissel), Haldsl. 1450. WisselWissels, Hildesheim 1478.

Witkowski (E Ger.-Slav.): name of origin (from Witkowo), cf. pl.n. Wittkow in E Prussia, Witkow in Bohemia.

Witsch: cf. Wycze Marschalk, Froburg 1368.

Witschel, Witzschel (Sax.): Witschel Jeger, Löbau in Sax. 1364, Wiczschel (Weczel) von der Bobritzsch, Sax. 1405, Volkmar Wizschel (Wetzel), Jena 1537.

Wittbrodt: (LGer.) = white bread, name for a baker, cf. Roggenbrot [rye bread], Haverbrot [oat bread].

Witte, Witt (freq. LGer.) = Weiß, Weiße ‘white’ for a white-haired, fair-haired person, likewise Wittkopp, Witthöft (Weißhaupt ‘white head’). Hence Wittjohann, Witthinrich, Wittmaak (freq.: white Markward). Also Wittke (freq. in Hbg.): Hermann Witteke, Ro. 1278 (but in Sil. = Slav. Witteck!); patr. Witting (freq. in Hbg.): Henr. Witting, Ro. 1280; also cf. pl.n. Wittingen near Ülzen; Fris. Wittje, L.Rhine Wittgen(s).

Wittek (U.Sax. freq.), also Wietek: sh.f. of Slav. pers.n. Witoslaw: (Budiwoy and Vytostaw, brothers 1316 Tinz near Liegn.); Vitek rzebniczco = V. nagler [nailer], Prague 1380; Germanized: Witel Wüsthub, Littau 1380 (cf. Peschek: Peschel); Wittel (Witkel) krämer [grocer], Brsl. 1315; Ull Witusch, Nikolsburg 1414; with Slav. suffix -an: Wittan (like Petran, Pechan). Also cf. Wittkowski.

Wittekind, Widdekind see Wedekind.

Witten (freq. in Hbg.): patr. of Witte (‘son of Witte’). Also cf. pl.n. Witten on the Ruhr.

Witter (freq. in Hbg.), Mritters: old Ger. pers.n. Widuhari, Widher (Widerus, Ro. around 1260), cf. king of the Quadi (Germanic tribe) Viduarius, 4th c.

Wittern (freq. in Hbg.), von W.: pl.n. like Seggern, Finnern (all in Hbg. region); seg, finn, witt are old words for water or swamp, bog, apparent in pl.ns. like Wittmar, Wittlar, Witten (Wit-lo), Witterda, etc.

Wittfoth (LGer.). derisive nickname for a miller: (Weißfuß ‘white foot’). Wittgerber (LGer.) = Weißgerber ‘alum tanner’. Bernh. Witgerwer, Strals. 1300, Ro. 1257.

Wittgen(s) see Witte. Also Wittje.

Wittgrefe (Wutph.) = Holtgrefe: ‘forest

Witthöf(f)t (freq. in Hbg.); LGer. Weißhaupt’white head’ (Herm. Wittehovet, Lüb. 1345, besides Hardehovet, Mildehovet, Schonhovet).

Witthohn, Witthuhn (LGer.) = Weißhuhn ‘white hen’, surname of a chicken dealer or grower.

Witthot: Weißhut’white hat’, as late as 1650 near Lauremberg name for a miller: “Herr Wittehoet”. Hinrik Wittehoet, Hbg. 1352.

Wittig, Wittich (freq.): German heroic epics know Wittich and Heime as heroes of Theoderich (Dietrich of Bern = Verona). Popular f.n. in UGer.-Sil. area in the Middle Ages: Witche der schenke [tavern owner], Liegn. 1383, etc. Wittich Wieland, Stuttgart 1463, Sigmund Wittich, Görl. 1460, C. Wittig, Liegn. 1558, Niclos Witche, Hermsdorf 1419. Patr. Witicher, Eger 1395. See also LGer. Weddig. Cf. the Bohemian Witigons: Witigo Boemus miles [knight] 1341.

Wittkamm (Westph.) = Wittkamp (kamp

Wittke (freq. in Hbg.) see Witte. But in Sil. Slav. Wittek is involved. See there.

Wittkohl besides Wittkogel: ‘white hood’, Caspar Wittkohl 1724, Hinrich Wittkogel, Hildesheinm 1666.

Wittkop(p), Wittkopf see Witte.

Wittkowski see Witkowski.

Wittkugel (Hbg.): LGer. Wittekogel ‘white hood’, see Kogel. Cf. Wittrock.

Wittler (UGer.): probably = MHG witling ‘widower’; Cunz Witler, 1407 near Biberach.

Wittmaa(c)k (freq. in Hbg.): LGer. ‘white-haired Mark-ward’, see Maack.

Witmaier (UGer.): from the dwelling at the wite = forest, copse’, likewise Wittmoser etc.; in some cases corrupted form of Widemmaier, see Wimmer.

Wittmann (Hbg. Witte, UGer. Wittmaier).

Wittmar, Wittmer: pl.n. near Wolfenbüttel, like Wettmar, Bettmar, Rettmar in same area; all synonyms for stagnant water. The pers.n. Widemar (Col. 1150) is hardly involved. (A king of the Visigoths Widimer, 6th c.). cf. Wiedemar.

Wittmund (Hbg.).- pl.n. near Oldenburg.

Wittneben, Wittnebel (Hbg.): distorted from LGer. Witte-ne-ve ‘white-haired nephew’ (Joh. Witteneve, Helmarshausen 1325).

Wittpenn see Pfennig (Weißpfennig ‘white penny,).

Wittrich (Widderich): old pers.n., cf. king of the Visigoths Widi-rik around 500; also a Widi-mer.

Wittrisch: E Ger.-Slav. = Dietrich! cf. pl.n. Witrschkowitz: 1347 Dyetrichsdorf!

Wittrock (freq. in Hbg.): Weißrock ‘white jacket’ (E. Witterok, Hbg. 1299, Han. 1443).

Wittstock: pl.n. (on the Dosse River in Brandenburg), freq.

Wittvagel [white bird] = ‘Weißling’, a kind of butterfly; Hans Wittevoghel, Husum 1441.

Wittwer [widower]: UGer. Wittiber, LGer. Wedewer, see there (Hans Witteber, Liegn. 1417).

Witzel: in Hesse formerly documented as popular sh.f. for Wigand (see Wiegand); Witzel (Wigand) Harnasch, Fulda 1392-1401, Witzel (Wigand) Eigenbrot , Fulda 1495, knight Witzel of Rengelrode, Eichsfeld 1325, Witzel Steinmetz, Fulda 1496; as late as 1936 Witz was used in the Schwalm area for Wigand! But also see Witsch(el).

Witzke is E Ger.-Slav. like Witzki, Witzick, Witzkewitz; cf. Witzlaff (Witzlaw, prince of Rügen around 1300). A place Witzke near Rathenow.

Witzleben: pl.n. in Thur., also Witzleb, like Wiegleb, Kutzleb.

Wloch (U.Sax.) see Floch (Fluch) and Bloch.

Wlodasch, Wlotzka (Wlotzke): Slav. sh.f. of Wlodislaw, Wladislaw or Wladimir; cf. Wlodiczek: Fladiczke, Brsl. 1350.

Wlome: (MLG) = ‘gloomy, melancholy’. Arnold Wlome (patrician), Lüb. 1317.

Wobbe (freq. in Hbg.), besides Wobben (metr.): in the Middle Ages a popular Fris. sh.f. of Wolburg (Walburg); documented around 1300 in Lüb.: Wobbe Groperesche = Wolburgis, widow of Willehelm Gropere; Henr. Webbenman, Han. 1305. Wobbe, Wobbeke was formerly popular throughout the LGer.-Fris. area. Today also FN Wöbb, Wöb(c)ke (freq. in Hbg.), Wöbken, Wöbbeking (Wöbbekind), some of which are patronymics: for Wobbe as sh.f. of Wolbert, Wolbod, Wolbern, Wolbrand cf. Wobbo Luppens, Frisia 1462, Uffo Wobbonis, 12th c. in Fris. Hence also Wöbber = Wölber, see there. See also variant Wübbe for Wulbern.

Wobbermin (Pom.): Slav. pl.n. in Pom.; Hinrik Wobermyn, Stettin 1352.

Wober: dialect for Weber (area Frkf.-Speyer); Bentze der Wober, Speyer 1313, Clese Wober, Frkf. 1393.

Wobeser: pl.n. in Pom.

Wobig (Stettin): Slav. pl.n. Cf. Wöbs.

Wöbs (Lüb., Hbg.): Slav. pl.n. near Lüb. (in documents Wobes).

Wocke (Sil.): documented as Slav. pers.n. in Sil.-Bohemian region, cf. Wocco filius Borutonis [son of Boruto], Wocco filius Bene8onis [son of Beneso], Moravia 1234. Hence pl.n. Wockendorf in Bohemia.

Wockendreyer: (LGer.) = ‘spindle maker, turner’. Gerd Wockendregher, Hbg. 1347.

Wöck(e)ner: (freq. in Han., Hbg.) MLG wokener ‘usurer’. Henr. Wockener, Han. 1327.

Wockenfuß (Danzig, Berlin, Hbg.): MLG wocke ‘spindle, bobbin’. [Fuß = foot] Barthol. Wockenfoet, Jüterbog 1454. Cf. Nic. Wokenstel, Hbg. 1270.

Wodarg(e): Slav. pl.n. in Pom. (Jacob Wodarghe, Greifsw. 1358).

Wodarsch = Wodarz: Slav. = ‘water carrier’; cf. Wodka: hence Wodtke, Wottke etc., also Wodicke, Woedtke.

Wode: (Han., Hbg.) wod = ‘furious’.

Wod(e)rich (Hbg.): LGer. = Wüterich ‘hothead’.

Woedtke: (Pom.) Slav. pl.n. near Greifenberg and near Lauenburg.

Woeffkens (Weuffkens): L.Rhine = Wölfken, see there.

Wogram(m): E Ger.-Slav. pl.n. like Pulgram, Kloddram etc.

Wöhl, Wöhle, Wöhleke, Wöhlck see Wöhlke, Wöhler.

Wohlan(g): sh.f. of Slav. Wolimir, Wolisaw.

Wöhlbier, Wohlbier (LGer.): (freq. in Magdeburg) corrupted from Wol-bero, see Wölber; or from MLG wolen ‘to burrow, dig around in s.th.’ (wühlen), which indicates a meaning like ‘grope around in the beer’. Cf. Wöhlbrandt (LGer.) = Wolbrand, see there. Wohlbrecht see Wollbrecht. Wolbert. Wohlbrück, Wollbrück: cf. Wo(h)lbeck (wol ‘swamp’).

Wohld: LGer. = ‘woods’, living near the woods; also Wohltmann; freq. contained in pl.ns.: Wohl near Hildesheim: (vandemWohlde), Wohld near Celle.

Wohler, Wöhler (freq. in Hbg.), documented Woler, is based on LGer. Wolder = Wolter, Walter (Walther); Woler besides Wolder as early as 1300 (e.g. in Lüb., 1423 in Frisia). cf. Rodewoller = Rodewolder, Holstein 1375; Wolderus Gropere, Hbg. 1275. Hence patr. Wohlers (numerous) (Wolderes), Wolderessone [son of Wolderes], Stade 1337. Less freq. Wohlert, Wöhlert (Hbg.). Sh.f. Wöhlk(e), patr. Wöhlken(s), Wöhlking, Wöhling besides Wöhl(e), also Wölke, Wölken, documented Woldeke: Wöldeke Wiltvang, Lüneburg 1374, Lazarus Wöldeke (Wölcke), Boizenburg 1602. For Wöhling cf. Diedrich Wolding, Oldenburg 1367. In Stade 1323 f.n. Wole (Fris.).

Wohlfahrt [welfare] (UGer.-Sil.-Sax.): falsely interpreted and changed from Wolfhart (‘bold like a wolf’), thus still around 1500; refers to a hero of the Nibelungenlied (nephew of Hildebrand), name was popular in the nobility: knight Wolfhart Kopacz, Sil 1293, Wolfhartv. Czedelicz (mil. captain at Glatz around 1375); Joh. Wolfhart, Brsl. 1371, Wolf Wohlfart, Ölsnitz, Sax. 1484. Cf. Magister [master] Woffahrt Spangenberg, Strasbg. 1606. See also Wölfel.

Wohlfeil [worth the price, inexpensivel]: surname for grocers, cf. the opposite: Teuerkauf (Dürkop) [buy expensively]. Lambert Wolveyle, Greifsw. 1363 (Kassel 1334), Hensel Wolfail, Prague 1364.

Wohlfromm, Wolfrum etc., see Wolfram.

Wohlgefahr(t): MHG wolgevar ‘healthy or pretty looking’ (gevar ‘having color’); Nic. Wolgevar, Liegn. 1380. Wohlgehagen (Hbg.): probably corrupted, besides Wohlgehaben, Wohlgehoben ‘started well, with a good start’. Wohlgethan: MHG = ‘well-shaped’, cf. Schönthan. Wohlgezogen, also Wolzogen: ‘well-raised, well-mannered’ (Heinrich der Wolgezogen, Freiburg 1308).

Wohlgemut: ‘well-meaning, cheerful’, freq. surname; Friedrich Wolgemut, Mnch. 1376, Nic. Wolgemmet, Brünn 1365, Heinrich Wolgemmt, 1370 near Pforzheim; later also shortened Wohlmuth (like Wolgezogen: Wolzogen; freq. in Vienna, Mnch.). Cf. pl.n. Wohlmuting in Aust., Wohlmuthausen (Würt., Thur.).

Wöhlke see Wöhler.

Wohllebe(n): person leading a good life; cf. Sanftleben (Sachtleben). Also Wohlleber (like Senftleber, Schönleber), UGer., besides Wohleb, Wolleb. cf. Cuonrat Wollebe 1295; Herman Wolleben, Freiburg 1235.

Wohlrab, Wohlrabe (freq. in Sax.) see Wallraff (LGer. Walraven). Joh. Wolrab (Walrab), Reichenbach, Sax. 1488. Also Wollrabe (Danzig 1359).

Wohlrich see Woldrich.

Wohlschlege (UGer.) see Woll-.

Wohltmann (LGer.) = Waldmann [woodsman]; see Wohld.

Wohlwill: MHG wol-wille ‘good will, benevolence’.

Wöhncke (Hbg.): Fris. sh.f. like Wonno, Wunno, Wunnike around 1280 in Hbg. besides Wunnerus, also cf. Wünneke Wüncke. Wunnenson, Stade 1312.

Wöhning (Hbg.): pl.n. Wöhningen E of Ülzen; but cf. Fris. Wöhncke.

Wöhren (Hbg.): its origin becomes clear through pl.n. Wöhren on the Lippe River (1368 toderWorden): like pl.n. Wöhrden near Stade; HenceWöhrmeier, Wö(h)rumm (Wördeman); LGer. word, wurd = ‘raised place of dwelling’ (of a farmstead in wet environment, freq. in a marsh). Cf. Sweder torWorder, Meppen on the Ems 1471.

Wöhrle, Wöhrlin (UGer., Bav., Würt., Baden) = Wörnle = Wernle = Werner; see also Wehrle. Likewise Wöhrn = Wern = Werner, Wörner. Benjamin Wörlin (Wehrlin), Alpirsbach, Würt. 1625.

Woith(e), Woite (Sil.) besides Woitke, Woitek, Woitaz, etc.: sh.f. like Woiczech for Slav. pers.n. Woi(t)czlaw (voj = ‘man, warrior’). Evidence: Woytczlaff, provest of the monastery Czarnowand 1431; also there Woitke Gogel, peasant; in Kalisch 1426 Woytkepolan, in Liegn. 1384 Woytke Guldian, in Brsl. 1356 Woytke (Woyczech) vurman; patr. Barthol. Woytkener, Neiße distr. 1414. Woitzik (U.Sax.) besides Woitschek see Foitzik.

Woker (LGer.) = ‘usury’; Gereke Woker, Haldsl. 1433, Wokerer [usurer], Strals. 1363.

Wölber (Hbg.), Wolber is the LGer.-Fris. pers.n. Wol-bero (bero = ‘bear’, wol = ‘wolf’, unless = walt ‘woods’); see also Wohlbier. Wolbert (Rhineld. Wolbertz), Wolbers (Hbg.): LGer. pers.n. like Wollbrecht; also Wolpert, Wölpert, Wolpers (cf. Albers: Alpers); in old documents Wulbertus, Wolbertus, Wolbrecht around 1250 in Hbg., Strals., Ro.; Wolbero Plukkovel, Col. 1172. Patr.: Wolberding: Wollbring, Wolperding.

Wölbern (Hbg.): LGer.-Fris. pers.n. with the variant Wülbern, originally probably Wul(f)bern (bern = ‘bear’, cf. Vasbern, Reimbern); in documents around 1250-1350 Wulbern(us) in Stade, Hbg., Ro., etc. Also cf. Wöbbe, Wübbe.

Wölbling, Wölbeling: LGer.-Westph. patr. of Wölbert, Wölbern, Wolbrand.

Wolbrandt, Wolbrands like Wullbrand, Wulbrands (LGer.-Fris.) derive from Wolf-brand (brand = ‘flaming sword’). Freq. documented around 1250 in Ro. Wulbrand(us), e.g. Wulbrandus (Wulbernus) humularius. Nowadays also Wöhlbrandt, cf. Wöhlbier besides Wölber. See also Wölbern.

Wolbrecht see Wolbert.

Wölck(e), Wolck(e) see Wölke, Wolke.

Wold(e): LGer., see Wohld.

Woldehorn: old name of Ahrensburg, town NE of Hbg.

Woldenga (Fris.) see Wöhling under Wöhler.

Wöldicke (LGer.) see Wöhler. Woldert (Fris.) means Wohlert, see there. Cf. Aldert for Ahlert. Wolderich(s), Wohlrich: LGer. form of Walderich (‘wielding power’); documented Woldericus, Hbg. 1248, Stade 1294. Also Wolderk (cf. Hinnerk), Wölderks; Fris. Wolerk.

Woldmann, Woltmann (LGer., freq. in Hbg.) see Wohld. Likewise Woldt.

Wolf(f): freq., also as surname for dangerous, grim persons of a fierce nature; also Rauwolf. LGer. Wulf. As early as 1135 in Col.. Nivelung Wolf; cf. Ortlof der Wolf 1300; Elbel Wolf Brünn 1365. HenceWolfshirn [wolfs brain], Wolfskele [wolf s throat], Col. 1159 (also pl.n.), Wolfsdarm [wolf’s belly], Wolfsdrüssel [wolf’s trunk, gullet] etc. Also occurs as house name: Heinrich zemWolve, 13th c. on U.Rhine; Weißenwolf, zumgrauenWolf. Also Strutwolf (‘bush wolf’), Rorwolf [reed wolf], Schneewolf [snow wolf], Heidwolf [wolf of the open fields]. Hunters names: Dempewolf (LGer. dempen ‘to choke, throttle’), Schindewolf [flay the wolf], Gripenwulf [catch the wolf], etc., also Wolfangel [wolf trap]. Derisive names: Labenwolf [feed the wolf], Nbg. 1388 (like Labengeier [feed the vulture]). Wolf as f.n. (sh.f. for Wolfgang) becomes popular in 16th c. In the Middle Ages only Wölfel was used as sh.f. for Wolthart, Wolfram, cf. Wolf Mitzel, Liegn. 1546, Wolff Clement, Görlitz 1513. But Wolf Zenebus, knight!, Glatz 1424. Wolf (Wolfradus) v. Stain, knight!, Lorsch 1291.

Wölfel, Wölfle, Wölf(f)lin (UGer.-Alem.- Swab.): sh.f. of Wolfhart, Wolfram. cf. Wölfel Isengretel, Brsl. 1356, WölfelWolferam, 1395 near Eger, Wölfelin of Heidenheim, Würzburg 1355.

Wölfer, Wölfert besides Wolfer(t), Wolferts are based on Wolf-her, Woy-hart. cf. Wolver of Altdorf, Bav. 1274, Heinrich Wolfer, Eßlingen 1350. See also LGer. Wülfer, Wülfers. Hence Wolfermann.

Wolf(f)gang: not common in the Middle Ages; Wolfhart and Wolfram were the popular f.ns. with Wolf-; it became popular in the south, spreading from Bavaria, as saint’s name (hishop W. of Regensburg, died 994); later popular all over through Mozart and Goethe. (Bahlow, Vomamen, p. 106). Wolfgang Rüdel, Liegn. 1491.

Wolflheim: relatively recent Jewish FN, as in some cases Wolff.

Wölfflin (Alem.) see Wölfel.

Wolfgart, Wolfgarten: loc.n., cf. ThierGert etc.

Wolfger (UGer.). rare old Ger. pers.n. (gêr ‘spear’).

Wolfgram(m) see Wolfram.

Wolfhart see Wohlfahrt.

Wölfing see Wölfing.

Wolfke(n) see Wülfke(n).

Wolfleib see Wulfleff.

Wolfram (corrupted Wolfrum, Wolfrom, Wohlfromm; Wolfgram, Wulfgram, LGer.): popular in the Middle Ages, famous from the Bav. medieval poet Wolfram von Eschenbach and his epic Parzival. Wolf and raven (Ger. Rabe, from OHG hraban: ram) were the animals accompanying Odin: the wolves, Geri and Freki (‘ravenous’ and ‘fresh, obnoxieus’), and the ravens, Hugin and Munin (‘thought’ and ‘memory’). Wolfram Cziterwange, Glatz 1332.

Woifrath, Wolfradt (von): rare OHG pers.n., knight Wolfradus von Stain, Lorsch 1291, cf. pl.n. Wolfratshausen S. of Mnch. But Wülfrath is a L.Rhine pl.n.

Wolfring: pl.n. in U.Pal.; unless = Wolfer(d)ing, patr. Wolfrum, Wolfrom see Wolfram.

Wolfsen (LGer.): patr. of the Wolf- names. But Wolffsohn is Jewish (recent formation), also cf. Wolff and Wolffheim.

Wolfskehl [wolf’s throat] old surname like Wolfsdrüssel, Wolfsgurgel, Wolfsdarm, see under Wolf. Gerhard Wolveskele, Col. 1159. Pl.n. Wolfskehlen near Darmstadt.

Wolfsteller, Wolfenstaller (Bav., Aust.): from U.Rhine pl.n. ending in -stall ‘place, stall, barn’ as in Bremstaller, Premstaller, Obersteller, Wintersteller. Also Wolfslast is apparently a field n.

Wolgast, Wollgast (freq. in Hbg.): Slav. pl.n. in Pom. (Frederik v. Wolgast, Strals. 1293).

Wölk(e), Wölken (freq. in Hbg.) see Wöhlke under Wöhler. Likewise Wolke, Wolken (Hbg.). But Wolkan, Wolkas are Slav. (cf. vlk ‘wolf), cf. Slav. pl.n. Wolka, Wolkau and FN Wolker (Liegn. 1316), also loc.n. Wölkau: FN Wölker. See also Wülker.

Wolkenbauer (N Ger., freq. in Hbg.): corrupted from documented Wolkenhaar; Cord Wolkenhar, Oldenburg 1465, Dietrich Wolckenhaar, Han. 1564. cf. also in Strals. 1345 Godeke Wolkenborst. The names are to be understood literally [Wolkenhauer = cloud beater, Wolkenhaar = cloud hair, Wolkenborst = cloud burst]. Pl.n. Wolkenwehe (from wede) near Oldesloe.

Wollbrand, Wollbrecht see Wol-, Wohl-.

Wollburg, Wollberg (Hbg.) perhaps shortened from Wollenburg, Wollenberg (Hbg.): pl.n. in Brandenburg (also W Ger.); but cf. the fem. f.n. Wolburg(is) under Wobbe, analogous to Wallburg (Walburgis). Also in Haldsl. around 1400: Wolburgh, daughter of a Vricke Kyritz, Wolbergh, wife of a H. Robbe.

Wollenbär, Wollenber (UGer., Würt.): surname, perhaps of a wool beater (cf. MHG ber = ‘beat, hit’); otherwise perhaps ‘woölly, shaggy bear’. Cuontz Wolenber, Stuttgart 1350. cf. Wollenhaupt (freq. in Hbg.): person with a woolly mop of hair.

Woll(en)schläger: person who cleaned and loosened the wool by beating; his tool: MHG wollen-boge, cf. (Conrad) Wulleboghe, Han. 1367. Also Wollschlegel, Wohlschlegel, Wohlschlag (Baden), Woblschläger (Bav.). See also UGer. Wollner. For Woll(en)weber [wool weaver] cf. LGer. Wullenweber, Wüllenweber, like Wüllner besides Wollner, Wöllner. Wolle [wool], LGer. Wulle, is an occ. zurname from the wool industry, likewise Wollensack (for the wool dealer: cf. Wollemenger, Col. 1180); also Wollmann means a dealer (cf. Biermann, Behrmann, Salzmann). Hence also LGer. Wullenpund (person who weighs the wool, cf. Wollenwiger, Mainz 1327).

Woller means like UGer. Wollner (both from MHG) wool beater: Ulrich Wollsleger, called Woller, Löffingen, Würt. 1445. Conrad Woller, Brünn 1348.

Wollerich see Wolderich.

Woller(s) is a variant of LGer. Wohler(s), see there. Likewise with umlaut Wöller besides Wollert, Wöllert (all in Hbg.).

Wongast see Wolgast.

Wollmann see Wollenweber.

Wöllmer (freq. in Hbg.) is old Ger. pers.n. Wol-mar: Wolmer, Ro. 1278, Werner Wolmers, Schwerin 1458. Also Wol(l)mer, Wollmar (but cf. pl.n. Wollmar near Marburg). A Wolfmarus de Lubec, Brsl. 1340.

Wöllner, Wollner (UGer.) see Woller and Wollenschläger. cf. pl.n. Wöllnau.

Wollrab, Wollram see Wohlrab. (Grave Wollrave, Waldeck 1532).

Wollseifer: from pl.n. Wollseifen, L.Rhine.

Wollwerth, Wöllwarth (Hbg.) cf. Wegwerth.

Wolpers (freq. in Hbg.): patr. of Wolper(t), like Alpers from Alper(t), Volpers from Volpert; with umlaut Wölper(t). The stem syllable Wol- may derive from Wolf- or Wal(t)-. Hence patr. Wolperding (Westph.) like Humperding (from Humbert), Wolberding: Wollb(e)ring. For Wölper also cf. pl.n. Wölpern E of Leipzig.

Woltemate, Woltmath (LGer.) = ‘well measured’, for a moderate person. Also Woldemade, Waltemathe.

Wolter, Wolters (freq. in Hbg.): LGer. form for Walt(h)er. Patr. (Westph.) Woltering (freq. in Münster); based on Woldering is Wollring (see Wolder, Wohler). Wolterke(s), Wölterges is L.Rhine, Wöltjes, Wöltjen is Fris. (= Woldeke, Wolteke).

Woltmann (freq. in Hbg.) see Woldmann, Wohldmann.

Wolz (UGer.) see Walz. Cf. Wolz (Walz) v. Sinkingen, 15th c. in Würt., Fritz Woltzlin 1380.

Wolzogen see Wolflgezogen.

Wömmel (Hbg.) is the rare Fris. fem. pers.n. Womele (1315 Stade, also Bremen and Hbg. 1254), with k-suffix Womelke(n), Stade 1288; apparently a variant of Wemele (Hbg. 1269), Wimele.

Wondraschek (Germanized Wanderscheck) see Wandrey. Likewise Wondra (Ondra, Czech = Andreas), Wondrich, Wandrich, Wandrack, Wandrach.

Woog see Waag.

Woost (LGer.) see Wost-. Cf. pl.n. Woosten in Meckl.

Wopfner (Tyrol): probably = Wopfinger.

Wöpner see Weppner.

Wöpp, Wöpken, Wöpldn (LGer.-Fris.) see Wöbb, Wöbke, Wöbbeking.

Worbs, Wurbs (Sil.): Slav. pl.n. cf. pl.n. Wurbis (Worbis) near Bautzen and Worbis in Eichsfeld. Hence also Würbs, Wirbs (freq. in Liegn.).- Wirbis, Liegn. 1374.

Worch see Wurch. (Dietr. Worch, 1339 near Würzburg).

Wördemann (freq. in Hbg.) besides Wörmann (Hbg.) see Wöhren. Also Wordtmann, Woortmann, Wurthmann, Würdemann.

Wörfel (Franc. Kulmbach) see Würfel.

Woringer: pl.n. Woringen near Memmingen.

Worker(t). name of E Ger. origin (pl.n. Workau).

Wörle, Wörlen, Wörlein see Wehrle.

Worm (LGer.) = Wurm [worm]; Joh. Worm (Vermis), Hbg. 1269.

Wörmann see Wöhren.

Wörmeling: pl.n. in Holstein.

Wörmke, Wörmbke (freq. in Hbg.): LGer. = Würmchen ‘little worm’, cf. Worm: Wurm [worm]. In MLG MHG also ‘snake, dragon’. A Wörmke River (in 1005 the name was Wermana) near Pyrmont.

Worms(er), Wurms(er): from the town of Worms.

Wormuth see Warmuth.

Wörner, Wörnhör (Bav.) see Werner, Wernher. Likewise sh.f. Wörnle, Wörndle, Wörn see Wernle. Wörnhart see Wernhart.

Wörnz see Wernz.

Wörpel (LGer.) = Würfel; ‘die’, occ. surname for a dice maker (or player); cf. Herman worpelmekere, Lüb. 1338.

Worringer: from Worringen near Col.

Worst (LGer.) see Wurst.

Wort(h)mam (freq. in Hbg.) see Wördemann under Wöhren. CL Albert upderWort, Han. 1586.

Wörthwein (Würthwein, Wirthwein, Wertwein): all in Franc. region, in old documents Wortwin, = Ortwin, popular f.n., cf. Wortwin Riedesel = Ortwin R., Eisenbach, Vogelsberg 1262, Wörtwin Laurin, Würt. around 1350, Wortwin Steckrübe, Würzburg 1409 (there also 1221 Heinrich filius Wortwini [son of W. ).

Wörz = Werz, likewise Wörnz = Wernz ( = Wernher), see there.

Wösler, Wösner (UGer.) = Wesler, Wesner, see Wesle. cf. Michel Wösner (Wesner), 1680 near Oberndorf.

Wossidlo (Meckl.): originally Wossidlow, E Ger.-Slav. pl.n.

Wost: (LGer.) = Worst, see Wurst. Cf. Langwost in Hbg., a butcher, Herm an Pluderworst 1331, Vûleworst [rotten sausage], Danzig 1377, Strykworst, Lüneburg 1397, Klöveworst (cleave, split the sausage).

Wöst(e): LGer., = MLG wôste ‘void, bare’ also Wöstmann; Wösthoff, Wösthaus, Wöstenberg, Wöstendick, Wostbrook, Wöstefeld (Wüstenfeld). Cf. Gerhard Wostekop, Lüb. 1328. Also cf. Wüst.

Wottke see Wüttke.

Wötz see Wetz.

Wötzel see Wetzel.

Woy(ach), Woyak: Slav. voj ‘man, warrior’.

Woyciech see Woiczech.

Woydt see Woit-

Woyke (Sil.) see Woitke (Woyke vischer = Woytke vischer, Brsl. 1356-67).

Woytas, Woytek see Woitke.

Woywood, Woiwood: Pol. = ‘governor’.

Wrage, Wraage, Wragge: (freq. in Hbg.) = ‘grumpy person’. But Thid. Wrake, Hbg. 1365 (MLG wrack ‘unfit, weak’).

Wramp(e): LGer. = ‘crooked, twisted’.

Wrang, Wrangel (LGer.): wrangen = ‘to twist, wring’, cf. Cord Wrangoge (‘cockeye’), Hamelin 1454. MLG wrange ‘bent object’ (plank of a ship, knee piece, krummholz), cf. Werner Dordewrangen, Hbg. 1251. Diderich Wrange, Col. 1135. Joh. Wrangere, Hbg. 1252 = ‘wringer’.

Wrba: Slav. = willow tree.

Wrede (freq. LGer.). an angry, wild, fierce person; [cf. E. wrath] with LGer. loss of dental also Wree (Kiel, Flensburg), likewise Schwede [Swede] : Schwee; Reimer Wrede, Ro. 1284, Herman der Wrede, Lippe 1380, Godeke Wredeloke, Strals. 1280. Also Wreth: Thord Jensen dictus [called] Wredth, 1361 near Lügum.

Wrege see Wrige, Wrigge.

Wrenger (LGer.) = ‘wringer’, likewise Dwenger besides Dwinger; cf. Wranger.

Wreth (LGer.) See Wrede.

Wriede (freq. LGer.), Wrieth, Wriedt (freq.): also Wriedstruck = brushwood, scrub.

Wriefpenning (LGer.): ‘rub the penny’, miser, niggard. Cf. Timmo Wriver, Lüb. 1358.

Wrig(g)e, Wricke, Wriege (LGer.): a crazy, spiteful, obstinate person. Conrad Wrighe, Ro. 1279, Clawes Wrighe or Wrichals, Halle around 1400, Ewald Wrigge, Danzig 1454, Wrege, Holstein 1343. Hence Wriggers (Hbg., Lüb.).

Wrobel (E Ger.-Slav.) = ‘sparrow’ (freq. in Brsl.); also Wrobbel , Wroblewski (name of origin).

Wrochem (von): L.Rhine pl.n. ending in -heim; wrok is old swamp or bog word, evident in Wrocklage in Westph. ‘moist lowlands’.

Wrona, Wronek, Wronka: Slav. wrona ‘crow’, cf. pl.n. Wronke near Posen; Hence FN Wronski.

Wröndel (Aust., Bav.): corrupted from Wörndl, Werndel (= Werner), as in Münchener Kirchenbuch [Mnch. church register], after 1761 mostly Wröndel.

Wroost (freq. in Meckl. Ro.): in documents Wrast,- Nic. Wrast, Strals. 1342; 1567, 1584 in Meckl. (according to Witte, p. 277: Wend. wrac ‘doctor, magician’).

Wroth: MLG wrot ‘mole’ (Rudolf Wrot, Hbg. 1255).

Wruck (Hbg., freq. in Stettin). also Wruuk, Wrugge: from MLG = ‘cantankerous’; cf. “een olen Wruck” [an old squabbler], Hbg. 1755. Hence Wruke, Hbg. 1301, Radolf Wruk, Strals. 1324, Heinrich Wruke, Danzig 1377.

Wübbe (Wubbe, Wobbc)-. Fris. sh.f. of Wülber(n), Wulbern, Wulbert, Wulbod, Wulbrand (all in Ro. around 1275, also Hbg., Bremen, Lüb.), like Wobbe from Wolbert, Wolbod, Wolbrand, etc. or from Wulburg (Wolburg), used as masc. as well as fem. Cf. Wubbeke = Wolburgis, Zeven 1482, like Wubbe (fem.), Bremen 1370, but Wubbeke (masc.), Oldenburg 1428. Hence patr. Haye Wubbena (a Fris. chieftain) 1397. cf. Wübbers (i.e. Wulberts), Wübbels, Wübbeler, Wübbeling, Wübbena, Wübken, Wübker.

Wuchepfennig (freq. in Hbg.): someone who knows how to increase his money. Also Wucher(er) [usurer], LGer. Woker (see there), Wokeror, also Wöckner; MHG wuocher = ‘gain from interest’; Albrecht der Wuochrer, Würt. 1290, Seidel Wuchrer, Iglau 1383.

Wüchner (UGer.): = Wöchner, MHG wochener ‘peasant or serf obligated to weekly service’ (MHG wuche = week); Klaus Brun called Wuchner (peasant), Würt. 1525.

Wucke see Wocke. cf. Hucke (Sax.): dialect for Hocke.

Wudtke see Wuttke.

Wühle (UGer.) = MHG wuole ‘wallowing sow’; Uolrich Wüle, Dürrheim, Würt. 1300.

Wühr(er): UGer. also Wuhrer, living by a water dam (MHG wuor, wüer); Wernlin Wuorer, 1380 near Rottweil.

Wülbern (Hbg.): LGer.-Fris. pers.n., documented Wulbern, Wolbern freq. in Ro. around 1260 (besides sh.f. Wulbo), likewise in Hbg. 1255; i.e. Wulf-bern (bern = ‘bear’, cf. Reim-bern, Rik-bern, Vabern). Patr. is Wulbering, Oldenburg 1428. See also Wölbern, Wübbe.

Wul(l)bieter (Hbg.): ‘wool biter’, surname for a wool dealer or weaver, cf. Stal-biter [steel biter] (Greifsw. 1325): for a steel dealer.

Widbrand see Wolbrand.

Wulf(f): LGer. form for Wolf; Wulf filius Wolberti [son of Wolbert], Strals. 1286, Wulf Pudwills, Pom. 1435. Like Wolf freq. surname: Bernd deWulf Ruhr area 1404. LGer. Wülfke(n), freq., corresponds to UGer. Wölfel, Wölflin, documented Wulveke: Wulveke et frater eius [W. and his brother] Clawes Wulv, Barth 1413 (i.e. junior and senior); Wulveke hudekoper, Strals. 1300; Sivert Wulfeken, Hbg. 1267. Hence also patr. Wulffen, Wolfen; L.Rhine Woeffen, Woeffkens, Weufkens.

Wülfer, Wülfers, Wulfer, patr. Wülferling, likewise Wulfert, in LGer. area derive from documented form Wulfhart: Wulfhardus Surscale, Ro. 1257, WulfardusWulfard, Barth 1423. Changed through interpretation: Wüllfährt like UGer.-CentrGer. Wohlfahrt. In Westph. patr. Wülferding. Also Wulverdessone [son of Wulverd], Stade 1337. Pl.n. Wülfer near Bielefeld.

Wulfgrom see Wolfram.

Wülfing is reminiscf.nt of heroic poetry, cf. Herzog Wülfing (hero under Ermanarich), slain by Alphart; the warriors of Theoderich are called “Wülfings”. Wülfinch of Chafenbergh, Kremsmünster, Aust. 1179. Pulsab Wölfing, Eger 1411.

Wülfke(n) see Wulf.

Wulfleff (LGer.-Fris.) like Wolfleff corresponds to UGer. Wolfleib (Zurich 1256): rare old Ger. pers.n.; cf. Detleff: Dietleib; lef. leib = ‘offspring’.

Wulfram see Wolfram.

Wülfrath: pl.n. near Wuppertal; -rath = -rode a clearing’; but see Wolfrath, Wulfrath.

Wulk (EGer.-Slav.): cf. pl.n. (FN) Wulkow, Wulkau, Wulka. In Eger 1395 Elbel Wulkener. Henceprobably Wülker (unless Westph.).

Wullbieter (LGer.) see Wulbieter-

Wullbrand see Wolbrand.

Wulle (LGer.) = ‘wool’, surname of a wool dealer or weaver.

Wüllen (van): from pl.n. Wüllen near Ahaus (bog area), like Wullen (distr. Hörde); wul, wol (like wal, wel, wil) is an old water word, cf. Wullenbruch [Bruch = swamp].

Wull(en)weber (freq. LGer.), also Wüllenweber, see Wollenweber. Famous due to the mayor of Lüb., Jürgen W. around 1530 (from Hbg.); in documents Wullenwever. HenceWull(en)schläger (see Wollenschläger): Herman Wullensleger, Duderstadt 1390. Wullenkoper (Ro. 1268), wool dealer, buyer. Also Wülner, Wöllner (UGer. Wollner): Kord Wullner = Konradus Lanifex (‘wool maker’), Lippe 1306. A family named Wullenpund (“dominus” = lord) around 1290 in Lüb. and Strals., Wullenferver [wool dyer] 1294 in Strals.

Wullkop(f) (LGer.) = wool head, cf. Wollenhaupt.

Wulsten (Hbg.) based on pl.n. Wul-seten, like Bulsten, Hulsten from Bul-seten, Hul­seten, all LGer.-Westph. ‘bog settlements’. Cf. Holsten (Holstein): from the Holt-seten ‘wood settlers’.

Wulz (UGer.): ‘tree stump’.

Wümpelmann: cf. Wompelschewen, Greifsw. 1398 (MLG, ‘pennant, veil’). Wimpeler, Stettin 1324.

Wunder, UGer. Wunderl(e), Wunderli(n): = Wunderer (MHG), person who deals with uncommen things or events, magician, also newsmonger; Wunderer in heroic epic is the name of a (man-eating) monster pursuing a beautiful maiden, he is killed by Dietrich of Bern (Theoderich). Jakl Wundrer, Znaim 1363, Heinczl Wunder, Znaim 1397. Kunz der Wunderer, Cannstatt 1345. Herman Wunder, Hbg. 1262.

Wunderlich (Wunderling), freq. in Sax., Sil. Aust. with umlaut Wünderlich, unrounded Winderlich: MHG = ‘irritable, moody, odd, strange’. Herman and Wigant die wunderlichen gebrüder [the strange brothers], Frkf. 1358; Hannus Wunderlich, Liegn. 1372, Wenczel Winderlich, Liegn. 1558. Duke Heinrich der Wunderliche [the strange one] of Brunswick 1279.

Wunderschütz (Sil.): corrupted from Slav. Wondrasec, as is Wanderscheck. Cf. Wundrack, Wondrak, Wondra, Ondra, etc. Also Wundram is E Ger-Slav., like Gendram, Jastram, Kloddram, Pribram, Pausram.

Wündisch see Wünsch and Windisch.

Wundt: MLG wunt = ‘wounded’; Berthold der Wunde, Leutkirch 1353. Well-known philosopher, Wilhelm Wundt.

Wünning (Hbg.) is patr. of Wünn(e), Wunn(e) in Hbg., an old Fris. pers.n. (in Hbg. 1288-93 Wunno, Wonno), with k-­suffix Wünnecke, Wüncke (in Hbg. 1266 Wunnike, besides full form Wunnerus 1252: nowadays FN Wunner (freq. in Hbg.), unless seeondary form of Wunder [wonder] (freq. in Hbg., cf. Herman Wunder 1262), analogous to Klünder. Klünner. In Stade 1318 Woneke: nowadays FN Wöhnke. Also cf. Saint Wunibald, son of Wunna (wife of King Richard of England, sister of Winfrid = the missionary Beniface). Old Ger. wunne = ‘bliss(ful feeling), joy’. Asmes Wunsen, Flensburg 1562.

Wunsch (freq. in Vienna, Brsl., Danzig): cf. pl.n Wunsch, Wunscha in E Ger.-Slav. area, also pl.n. Wünsch near Merseburg; in rare cases = Wunschel, Wünschel. Also Wunschik indicates Slav. origin, likewise the enlarged form Wunscholt (Joh. Wunscholt, Liegn. 1540).

Wünsch, Wünsche, Wünschmann, Wünscher (all freq. in Sax. and U. Lausitz) mean Wendish (person), Wend, Sorb; see Windisch. Winsch. Cf. pl.n. Wünschendorf (literally: ‘at a Wendish, Windish village’) in Sil., Sax., Bohemia, also Wünschensuhl in Thur., Wünschmoos (1482 Windischenmoos) in Hesse, etc. But UGer. Wünsch(e)l (cf. Hans Wünschlin, Dettingen 1479) means wishful, covetous, greedy (person), cf. FN Wünschhütl; likewise without umlaut UGer. Wunschel.

Wuppermann: name of origin like Wippermann, Wesermann; the Wupper River was originally called Wipper; Nolde byderWupper 1466, Tile vonderWipper 1434. With umlaut Wüppermann. But the form common in Hbg., Wüpper, is the rounded variant of Wipper (LGer.-Fris. occ. surname), cf. “en wipper un twe dregers”. Hence Wüpperling. Wüpplinger (UGer.): name of origin.

Wurban, Wurbank (like Hurbank, Urbank, Urbanek): Slav. forms of f.n. Urban.

Wurbs see Worbs, Wirbs.

Wurch(e): E Ger.-Slav-, cf. Worch, Werch, Werchan, see there. Cf. pl.n. Werchhusen, Würchhusen in Thur.

Würdemann (Hbg.) see Wördemann. Cf. Verwürden (= von der Würden).

Würdtwein, Würthwein see Wörthwein.

Würfel, LGer. Wörpel (see there), unrounded form Werfel (see there), means dice maker (MHG würfeler) or dicf. player (cf. the city councillor Herman Schütewärfel, [shake the dice], Schweidnitz 1315 and Zetenwürfel [throw the dice] 1337: zetten ‘to strew’). Michel Würffel, Brünn 1365, Hannus Würfeler, Liegn. 1385.

Würkert: UGer., with seeondary t, = Würker (MHG wirker, würker [worker]).

Wurlitzer: pl.n. Wurlitz near Hof, Merkel Wurlitzer, Eger 1434.

Wurm [worm], Wurmb, LGer. Worm, besides Würmle, Würmlin, LGer. Wörmke: from MHG also meaning ‘lindworm (mythical animal), snake, dragon’ (Heinrich Wurm, squire, Bretten 1296, his coat of arms shows a dragon). Hence compounds like Käswurm [cheese worm], Krautwurm [cabbage w.], Rußwurm [soot w.] as occ. surnames; also Wurmstich [worin bite], Wurmmehl [w. meal], Wurmnest, Wurmsam [w. seed]; but Wurmseher from pl.n. Wurmsee (like Egelseher, Eichelseher or Eichelseer), likewise Wurmdobler (UGer.): dobel = ‘valley, gorge’, Wurmtausch(er) (pl.n. -rausch = ‘reeds’ in U.Pal.).

Würmeling (UGer.) in old documents = Würmelin: as in Bamberg 1185-94 Sifrit Würmelin (Wünnelinc).

Würmer (UGer.): from river and pl.n. Würm (Würt., Bav.), older Wirme, Wirmina (wir-m = ‘water, swamp’).

Wurms, Wurmser see Worms.

Würpel See Wörpel.

Würsig see Wirsig.

Wurst, Würstle, Würstl, LGer. Worst: occ. surname of a sausage maker (UGer. Wurster) or butcher; cf. butcher Dickwürstl, Olmütz 1350, obvious also in Engelbert mitterworst [with the s.]= Engelb. worst, Lüb. 1300. Of similar vividness Rörewurst [pipe sausage], Machwurst [make s.], Schluckwurst [swallow the s.], Schmeckwurst [taste the s.], Fretwurst [gobble the s.]! Hence Siebenwurst [seven s.], likewise in old docum. Siebenschuh for a shoemaker, Siebenrock for a tailor. Wurstbendel, Wursthorn; Hirnwurst [brain s.), Knackwurst [Wiener], Knapwurst, Krautwurst [cabbage s.], Koddewurst, Leberwurst [liver s.], Pagenworst (LGer. page = horse). Also Wurstler, Wurstner (UGer.) = ‘sausage maker’.

Wurth(mann): LGer., see Worthmann.

Würthwein see Wörthwein.

Würth, Würthle (UGer.) see Wirt, Wirtle [innkeeper, tavern owner]. cf. Albrecht der würt, Immendingen 1329.

Wür(t)z, Wurz (UGer.): MHG = ‘greenery, herb’, occ. surname of a greengrocer or herb dealer- Würzer, Würzner, Wurzer; Joh. Wurtzkremer, Pforzheim 1488; cf. Wurzegarten, Tübingen 1297, Pesco Würczer, Olmütz 1404. For Wurzel cf. the surname Warzelgraber [root digger], Wurzelmann. Oldewurtel (LGer.). For Wurzner also cf. pl.n. Wurzen in Sax.

Wüst: MHG wüeste’chaotic, wild, wasteful, (cf. around 1450 “ein wilder wüster Strunze” [a wild, chaotic braggart]). With strong inflectional ending Wüster (like Wilder, Starker, Langer, Kleiner), cf. Wüsterhund, Fribourg, Switz. 1645. Fricz Wüster, 1395 near Eger, Nic. der Wüest, Aust. 1369. Wöste, Wostekop, Rhine-Westph. Weuste. In some cases pl.n. (loc.n.) Wüste, Wöste, Wetiste [wasteland, isolated place] may be involved, cf. C. aufderWeusten, Schwelm 1742, Fridrich ausderWuoste (‘wasteland, wilderness’), Tyrol 1369. Told Wuster, Tyrol 1350, Fricz inderWüst, Tyrol 1394. Hence Wüstner, Wiestner (UGer.). Wüstney; Wüstehube (Sil.), Wüsthoff (Westph.). Wüst(e)mann: from loc.n. Wüste (N Ger.). For N Ger. Wustmann cf. pl.n. Wust (twice in Brandenburg).

Wustrow: Slav. pl.n., freq. in E Ger. area (Meckl., Brandenburg), also Wustrau (like Slav. Ostrowo, Ostrau). = ‘island, plot of land surrounded by water or swamp’, cf. peninsula Wustrow in Meckl.

Wuth(e): cf. pl.n. Wutha in Thur. and Wuthenow near Neuruppin. But Volkart v. Ouwe called Wutfuß [Wut = angry, Fuß = foot], Würt. 1398 means Wüterich [hothead] (in MHG also wuotegôß).

Wut(t)ke (freq. in Sil.) besides Wuttge,

Wuttig, Wuttka show dial. u for Slav. o, cf. Wottke (Wöttke), Wottka, Wottek, Wotte: Michel Wudke der greupner, Liegn. 1568. Unless Slav. woda (wodka) ‘water’is involved, Wotek (Wottke) may be a variant of Woitek, Witek (Woitke, Wittke), i.e. sh.f. of pers.n. Woitslaw, Witoslaw. Likewise Wutzke, Wuttschke, Wutschik variants of Woitzik, Woitschek or Witzek (Witzke); also cf. Wutkowski besides Witkowski. But Wutz (freq. in Bav.) see Wutzer. Cf. Jean Paul’s novel SchulmeisterleinWutz.

Wutz(l)er (Bav.): ‘restless person’ (wutzeln ‘to move around in a fidgety manner’); Chunrad Wuczler, 1395 near Eger, Rüdel Wuczer, Mährisch-Trübau 1406.

Wybert see Wiebert.

Wybrands (Rhine) see Wickbrand.

Wychgram see Wickram.

Wyneken see Wienke.

Wypkema (Fris.) see Mriebke.

Wyr(r)wa (Slav.) like Wrba ‘willow tree’; cf. pl.n. Wirrwitz.

Wyß (freq. in Switz.): Alem. form of Weiß (Purchard Wyß, Zurich 1153). See there.

  1. Anonymous (leach w. E. ?)

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    -Anonymous, 1917. " Results of the South Australian Museum expedition to Strzelecki and Cooper Creeks. September and October 1916". p 490. Trans.
  2. Recherche bei Umlauten ggf. über ae, oe, ue suchen! Dasselbe gilt: Wenn mit „ß“ kein Ergebnis vorliegt, ggf mit „ss“ suchen! Bei den

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    Recherche bei Umlauten ggf. über ae, oe, ue suchen! Dasselbe gilt: Wenn mit „ß“ kein Ergebnis vorliegt, ggf. mit „ss“ suchen! Bei den Signaturnummern gibt das letzte Kürzel (z.

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