Aar: the old term for Ger. Adler (adel ar) and means ‘eagle’: Frid dictus [called] Ar, near Konstanz 1258. See Ahr. Aaron

W

Waack (freq. in Hbg., numerous in Ro.): in old documents Woke, recorded as pers.n. around 1337 in Stade (besides Woken.9, as FN in Bremen, Hbg., Lilb., Strals., Ro. around 1300. Cf. Ludeke Woke, Stralsund 1319, Thideman Woke, Lüb. around 1350, Joh. Woke, Segeberg 1373.

Waage [scales]: person who worked at the city scales (cf. Wäger: scale master). Nitsche aus derwage, Liegnitz 1382, Drevs vonderWaage, Schleswig 1593. Hence also Wagschal, Wagenwertere, Wagemann. But UGer. Wiag (Woog) means ‘standing water, pool’, Conrat amWag, Konstanz 1361; cf. pl.n. Roßwaag (Roßwog) 

Waas(e): from MHG wase ‘grass field’, wet meadow that u8ed to be swampy; OHG waso ‘swampy ground’; cf. Waasland in Flanders (Wasia), Wase Berg (part of the Süllberg near Hbg.), Wasungen on the Werra, also Wasen tune: Washington! Hence UGer. Wa(a)ser (Schönwaser): Jacob der Waser, Basel 1289, Wernher of demWasen, Wörrstadt 1318. Also see Wasmer. Wasner.

Wabbel (Hbg., Kiel): Fris. nickname for

Walburg (cf. S”t Walpurgis), like Wobbei for Wolburg; Wabete (fem.), Westph. 1390; cf. Wabbo (Fris.) 1462; for fürther info. see Hebbel. In Bremen 1313 Joh. WalburgÜ! In Ro. 1296 Ludolf Walburgis. Waber (Sil.)  dialect form for Weber [weaver], cf. Gerhart Hauptmann’s play IheWeavers, originally De Waber.

Wabersich, Wabersinke, Webersinke (Sudetenland, Gablonz): based on Czech Wawrzek, Wawenek (Wawra = Laurentius [Lawrencel). In Brel. 1374 Wabirske vorspreche Degal adviser, advocatel, 1367 Webirske, glazier.

Wäbs (fairly freq. in Hbg.). Slav. pl.n.

Wöbs near Eutin, also Wobes (FN Wobes, Lüb. 1318).

Wach(e) (Sil  , Lausitz, Bohemia) corresponds to Czech Wacha, nickn. for WaczIaw (we Zia ), like Jache: Jacha (Johannes), Stache: Stacha (Stanislaw, Stenczlaw, Stenzel), Mach(e): Macha (Matthias); cf. Dresdener Urkundenbuch [= Dresden document register] 1441: “Wacho in Bohemian and in German Wenczel”. Hence also patr. Wachner: WachnaBeme, Glatz 1397. Peter Wache, Grünberg 1418. Pronounced in German also Fache (Liegnitz).

Wachenhusen, Wachenhausen. pl.n. near Northeim like Wachenfurt in Rhineland, Wachenfeld in Hesse, Wachenbach (Wachenbeke) in Westph., wak (wach) ~moist, boggy’. Cf. Wachholtz.

Wachholtz:Wakholl (pl.n. Wachholz near

Stade) means ‘damp, boggy woods’, cf. Wake sele in Brabant, Wakenbeke (Wachmecke near Iserlohn), Waake near Göttingen and Eupen. A family of patricians and knights “von Wachholte” used to live in Pom.: thus Paridam deWacholte, (father and son), knights areund 1300; in Greifawald 1291 Rcymarus deWacholte, in Barth around 1370 (city) councilman Petrus W. Also cf. Wachhorst. Wachs: surname of a wax chandler, candie maker, wax dealer (Wachsmanger, Biberach 1254, Wachsziger, Strasb. 1394,

Wachsgießer, Brünn, Prague 1343,

Wachssleger, Thorn 1421, Wachs%4nder, Jena 1463). Wachsmann is mostly a sh.f. of Wachsmut, see there.

Wachsmuth, Wassmut, Wassmann: old Ger. pers.n., used to be very popular in LGer. region, means ‘of a sharp mind’; is supposedly related to OHG hwas, OS hwat ‘sharp’. Cf. Marshal [high court official in charge of cavalry] Wasmod von Knesebeck, Brsw. 1248, Wasman de goltsmid [goldsmith], Bremen 1381, her [Sirl Wasmet Schacke en rydder [a knight], Holstein 1368; WasmodusfiliusWasmodi [W. son of Wasmod], Lüb. aroünd 1325. Hence LGer. nickname: Wasseke, Wesseke, as in Halberstadt 1423 Wesseke (Wasmod) of Hornhusen, WessekeWesseken, Barth 1339; today FN Wesche (in Quedlinburg 1572 Wesche, Weschke); but also Was(s)mann (Han., Brsw., Bremen, Hbg.) like UGer. Wachstnann (besides pl.n. Waßmannsdorf near Berlin, Wachs(manns)dorf near Sagan). In UGer. cf. the courtly love poets “her [Sirl Wachsmuot von Künzich” and “her Wachsmuot von Mülnhusen”. Heinrich Wachsmut, Mergentheim 1311. In the medieval Dietrich epic Wahsmuotis the brother of Wolldietrich. Wachsmund, Was(S)mund are corrupted forms of the name.

Wachtel: surname of a Wachtler (Wächtler), i.e. quail hunter or catcher, like Vogel is surname for a bird catcher or dealer. Cf. C. Wechtelin (Wachtler), Würt. 1593. Heinrich Wechteler, Liegnitz 1372, Bartel Wachtel, Görlitz 1465.

Wachter, Wächter: generally for a night watchman, cf. “den wachtern alle nacht” [the watchmen all night], Nikolsburg 1414. Hence Slupwachter, Stralsund 1344, Greifswald 1399 (from MLG slupen ‘to slink, move slowly’); Scharwächter [police Zuard], Einwächter [single g.], Schildwächter [sentry], Thürwächter [door g.], Kleinwächter [small g.). Also Wach(t)niann, Wachtmeister (Heilman Wachtmeister, Gelnhausen 1325).

Wack(e) (Hbg.): from Wacken near Itzeho  . See also Waack.

Wackenhut (Stuttgart, Pforzheim, Karlsruhe).  from MHG wacken ‘to wobble’. Lenz Wackenhut [wobble the hat), 1494 near Nagold, P. Wackehütel, Chrudim 1401.

Wackenroder: ftom Wackenrode (abandoned village in N Thur.), likewise Hergenröder; cf. Wackenbeck, Wackenhusen, Wackenfeld, etc. (from wak, wach see Wachenhusen).

Wäckerle, Weckerle (Würt.), Weckerlein. Wackerl (Bav.) = Wacker [brave, valiantl, Wackermann. Also cf. Wackerbart (Hbg. 1299), Wackerfuß, Wackermul, Wackernagel (nagel = penis), Wackernell (UGer., cf. Spitzenel), Wackerzapp (porhaps also obscene, otherwiae name for a good wine or beer tapper, cf. SauerL9p); Wackerpfil, Worins 1197.

Wadel: frern MHG wadel, wedel Itail’, rf. Hasenwadel [hare’s taill, Hünerwadel [chicken tail], Katzenwadel, Ochsenwadel. WadIer (UGer.): ftem MHG wadelen ‘to wander, roam’, Hans WaMer (Wedeler), Villingen 1595.

Wade(n)pohl, Wadenpuhl (LGer.): ‘swampy pool’ (Wadepohl, Barth 1418), cf. a creek Wadebeke ‘swampy creek’, near Münster 1350, Wabeke at Vogler, Wadelache, L.Rhine 1080; for Wadenbach cf. Wadenbeke: Wahnbeck in Oldenburg, likewise Waden: Wahn at the Hümmling. Hence Wademann. But Wadeschinkel (Wittstock 1309) derives from MHG wade ‘calf (of the leg)’.

Wadenspanner: not fisherman (from MHG wate, wade ‘purse seine’).

Wadmenger ‘cloth merchant’, Wätgadmer, Regensburg 1294; cf.

Wadsack: from MHG = ‘travel bag, coat bag’ (wit ‘garment’), Godeke Whisak,

Wismar 1290.

Waftler (UGer.) like Wappler = armored man, shield bearer: Werli Waffeler, U.Alsace 1378.

Wagemann: person working at the eity scales, see Waage. (Herman Wageman, Ravensburg 1415, Petrus dictus [called] Wagheman, Lüb. 1329, Conrad Wagheman, Barth 1401). See also Wäger and Pünjer. Cf. Wage(n)wertere (Librator = scale master). But see also Wagenmann carter, waggoner).

Wagenblast, Wagenblaß (UGer.): ‘risk a fight’. Cf. Wag(en)trotz. Wag(en)hals [risk the neck]: a daredevil (Wagedenhals, Freiburg 1389).

Wagenführ, WagenR!hrer: cart or coach driver (LGer. Wagenvörer). Likewise Wagenknecht, Wagenmann, Wagendriver, Wagendriefer (deiven ‘to drive [the animals], aet in motion’). Wagenseil (Augsburg 1367) (surnanie of a carter, waggoner or a rope maker). Wagonschieffer (LGer.) = Wagenschieber [pusher]. Hence the sentence names: Schibenwagen, Scheubenwagen [both: push the cart, wagon], Smerwagen, Stürzenwagen [topple the wagon or coach in order to plunder it; thus name fer a robberl: Stärczewayn, Liegnitz 1383, Vellewagen, Zirlewagen (zirlen ‘to pluck, pull’), Stellwagen (Stelldenwagen [set the wagon1 1705): name for a cartwright, carriage maker.

Wagenhorst, Wagenfeld (Westph., Han.): ‘damp, boggy woods’ near Wittlage or Diepholz (like Kodenhorst, Kusenh., Musenh., Walenh.); for Wagenhart in Würt. cf. Muchenhart, Mörschenh., Schlittenh.

Wagenschwanz (UGer.): from MHG wagen ‘to move, [rnove the tail].

Wagensonn(or): Bav., Aust., related to loc.n. Wagensonn.

Wäger: master of the city scales, see Waage. Werner weghere = W. ponderator [weigherl, Hbg. 1270, Thid. wegher, Greifswald 1306, Joh. der woger, Liegnitz 1382.

Waggerl (Aust.) see Wacker.

Wagler, Wägler (Bav., Sax.) = Wagner, Wägner [cartwright, coachmaker, carriage maker] (H. Wagenlär, Mnch. 1378).

Wagner, Wagener (UGer.: Würt., Bav., Aust., Sax., Sil.), dial. Wainer, Weiner(t); especially Sil. also Wehner(t); Wähner, Wahner, Woiner (this in Glatz area): wheelwright, cartwright, carriage maker. Nitsche wayner (wagener), Liegnitz 1372, still 1527 in Görlitz: M. PomIt wayner; Henne wener, Frkf. 1387, Barthel Wehner 1535. Weg(e)ner (see there) is LGer.; Wegler variant in Baden; hence the surnames Wägelin, Wegei.e. (Heinrich

Wagelin, Würt. 1281). See also under Wagenknecht (Fabian der wagenknecht = carriage maintenance worker in the stable, Liegnitz 1558). Cf. Waynknecht.

Wagschal: (Bremen) ‘scale’. See Waage.

Wähe: from MHG = lpretty, neat’ (Cunrat Wäh, Überlingen 1291; Joh. Wähelin 1294; cf. Nie. Wehentrit, Iglau 1388).

Wahl (freq. in Hbg.), Wahle, Wahlen, Wähls: ah.f. which had not been recognized before, besides patr., in old documents Fris.  LGer. Wole, as in Stade 1323, like Bahl, Bahls, documented as Bole (= Boldewin, Bolewin); hence a full form Woler (doc. Wolder, = Walter), nowadays Wohler(s), Wahler(s) (Gerd Waler, Anklam 1406). Also cf. Rahl, Rahls. doc. Roi.e. But J. (de) Wale, Greifsw. 1322: pl.n. Wahl(e) may also mean a foreigner (from Italy or France, a merchant), a “Welscher” [person from a Romance countryl. CL Winand Wale (Gallicus), Soest 1328, Tyd. Wale, Ro. 1297, Nie. Waleke, Hbg. 1298.

Wahl(en)feld, Wahlstedt (Holstein) contain the ancient wal = ‘swamp’ (thus still in L.Rhine region); Westph. Wahlweide = .marßh’; for Wahlenfeld (Walefeld) cf. Wahlenhorst, Wahlenbach; for Wahlstedt (Wal stede): Malstedt (Mal stede). Also pl.n. Wahlscheidt (Walescheid), Wahlen, Wahle (FN Wahlmann). For further info. see Bahlow ON, p. 516.

Wähling, Wähler (Hbg.) see Wöhling, Wöhler. Wähl, Wählen see Wöhl, Wöhlen.

Wahn (Hbg.): pl.n. at the Hümmling Mtns. (older Waden from wad = ‘awamp’) or Wahn near Cel. (old Wande from wand ‘water’). Wähnel(t) = Weinel(t), cf. Wihner.

Wähner, Wihnert, Wahner: ECentr.Ger. (Sil. Sax. Thur.) and WCentr.Ger. (Frkf.) = Weiner, Weinert = Wagner, see there. In Fulda still today “der Wehner” [for a wagoner, carriage maker, wheelwright]. Henne wener, Frkf. 1387, Henneke wener, Mainz 1347, Herburd wener, Ursel 1351, Erhard Wehner, Hof 1532, B. Wehner, Schweidnitz 1535.

Wabmchaffe, LGer. Wanschap; Wanschaff MHG, MLG = ‘misshapen’. Cf. in Flensburg 1596: “wart ein wanschapenKind gebaren, hadde ein Angesicht als ein Ape* [a misshapen child was born, had a face like an apc]. Corrupted form Wahnschafft (Ro.). Cf. Wohlgeschaffen [nicely shaped].

Wahrendorf.  pl.n. in Westph. near a Ware River; war is an old IE word for ‘water, swamp’ dikewise wer, wir, wor), cf. Wahrstedt, Warfleth, Waerland, Wahr Mtn., a Warpe Creek (Warapa).

Wahren]holz: pl.n. near Gifhorn like Mahrenholz, but see Warnholz.

Währer (UGer.) = Wehrer = Werner

Werher der Maier, Würt. 1329. Cf. Währli = Wer(n)Ii.

Wahrlich see Warlich.

Wahrmann (Hbg.): Radeke Warman, Bremen 1358, LGer. for Wer man. Wehrmann, cf. Warmer(s) besides Wermer(s); but Thid. deWare, Bremen 1314.

Wahrmund: in old documents War mund (‘armed protector’) ar, in the MHG minstrel epic Oswald, also in Sil. 1228, several pl.ns. there contain the name(s) of landscouts Gocators of suitable land for settlers): Warmunthau, Warmuntowitz (in U.Sax.), also Hochkirch near Liegnitz bore that name before 1200; hence Pasco Warmundi, Sil. 1288, Gele Warmundes, Kassel 1457. See also Warmuth. Also FNo. Wermund, Wermuth.

Waib(e)l (UGer.), Waible, Weib(e)l.  from MHG = ‘bailiff, court usher’, later Webel, cf. Teldwebel’= sergeant.

Waidhaas see Weidhaas. Waidschreiber see Weidschreiber.

Waigl, Waigt see Weigel, Weigt.

Wainer see Weiner (Wagner).

Wais (UGer.) = WeiMaar) [whitehair]: as in Moravia 1392 “Petrus der Weiß and Hansel der Waiß sein pruder.” Otherwise it also means ‘orphan’, Uolrich Wayse (Weise): Orphanus, Würt. 1154.

Waitschies, Waitschat are Lith. E Pruss., of Jokschies (for Jacob).

Waitz (UGer.) see Weitz.

Walbeck: pl.n. E of Helmstedt, likewise Al­beck, Mal beck, Sal beck = ‘awampy creek’. Also pl.n. near Geldern. Bernt von

Walbeke, Haldsl. 1378; in Westph. Walbekt, Walpke for several creeks: see Bahlow ON, p. 516, for more info.

Walberg: cf. pl.n. Walburg E of Kassel, but see Walburg.

Walbert, Walbrecht (HbZ.): old LGer. pers.n. (Walbert besides Wolben freq.).

Walbröl: pl.n. near Waldbroel in Bergisches Land.

Walbrun: UGer. pers.n. (see Förstemann, col. 1502), cf. bishop of Avellino: Waldebrun(us) 1289 (Hessisches Urkundenbuch [document register], p. 377); also Walbrun, Meinz 1253, Kusa Walbrun, Wetzlar 1337, Eberhard Walbnm, Stuttgart 1350, Legn. 1344. Similar is Walkun, see there.

Walburg (Hbg.): metr. of the fem. Cn. Walburg (Wolburg), popular in LGer. region in the Middle Ages, cf. in Ro. 1296 Ludolfus Walburgis, likewise in Bremen 1313: Joh. Walburgis. Saint Walburg was the daughter of King Richard of England, abbess near Eichstitt around 770, thus still today Catholie f.n. (nickname Walpl, from Walpurgis!). Cf. Grete an santWalpurg, Würzburg 1409.

Walch (UGer.): from MHG   = “der Welsche” (foreigner from a Romance country: Italian or Frenchman), in some cases merely indicates relations to a Romance country, cf. Preuß [Prussian], Reuß [Russian], Böhm [Bohemian]. Knight Conrad Walch (Gallicus), Würt. 1286, Nie. Walch, Brünn 1365, Wilhalm Walch, Tyrol 1327.

Walcher: UGer. variant of Walker (cloth fuller), cf. in Brünn 1351 “praeparatores pannorum, qui walher dicuntur” fpreparers of cloth colled *walcher” = füllersl. Also in Brünn Nie. walcher 1345; Fricz der Walcher, Hechingen 1367. But Walchner: from pl.n. Walchen.

Wald(e): name from the dwelling place [Wald = woods, foreBt] (Hans vorm Walde, Freiburg 1474, Wernher zu demWalde, Baden 1361) or place of origin, cf. pl.ns. Wald, Walda, Waldau. Peter Walde, Görlitz 1464. Walder, Waldner (UGer.): from the pl.no. and loc.na. Wald, Walden; cf. Finsterwalder (Tyrol), Hinterwaldner (Tyrol). See also Wallner. Freq. FN is Waldmann (from MHG = forest warden).

Waldeck (freq. in Kassel): pl.n. (from a town and a region in Hesse); does not mean .corner of a forest’ but contains the water word wald, documented form Waldegge, Waldei! (see Bahlow ON, p. 517).

Waldemar: ‘reigning in glory’, Danish royal name around 1200; around 1300 Margrave W. of Brandenburg.

Waldeyer (UGer.) = Waldauer, cf. Horneyer (from pl.n. Hornau), Ramseyer (from Ramsau), etc.

Waldherr (freq. in Mnch.): in some cases = Walther. Cf. Warnherr, Wohlherr.

Waldheyer, Waldheuer (UGer.) = Waldhauer = from MHG ‘lumberjack’.

Waldraff (UGer.) see Wallraff. (Andreas Waldraff [WallraB7, Konstanz 1580).

Waldrich (UGer.): rare pers.n. (LGer. Wolderich); Waldricus Viti, LUm 1465­Woldericusfilius [son of) Abben, Hbg. 1252. Walger (UGer.) means Waltger, cf. Walgger of Bisingen, knight, Walger Glogge (UGer.).

Walke, Walkes (Hbg.): cf. Fris. Walke Bolen 1527, Hans Walcksen, Husum 1552.

Walker: a füller in the cloth trade; active in a fulling mill. UGer. also Walcher, see there. LGer. also Welcker (cf. also Hutwalker or Hutwelker [hat fuller]). Greek (as Humanist name) Gnapheus (E Frisia). Hence Walk(e): from MHG = ‘fulling mill’. But see above under Walke.

Walkun: rare UGer. pers.n. (Waltkuon), only in the upper classes. Cf. magister [master] Walkunus (Walko), deacon of a cathedral, Konstanz 1277; Herman Walkunes, Villingen 1312; Sidel Walkun, Liegnitz 1345; Chunrat Waichmon, Tyrol 1379.

Walkusch, Walkan are Slav. sh.fs.; variant is Wolkan (in Bohemia).

Wall [earth bank, dikel = Imwalle, vom Walle, van den Wall. Also pl.n. Walle near Verden, Ülzen, etc. (Walle, Ro. 1295). Wallheineke. Wallmann, Wallmeyer.

Wallat (Lith.), Wallasch, Wallek, Walla (Slav.) = Valentin.

Wal«)baum: from MLG wal bom = ‘walnut tree’ (Welsh nut!) [Wal = Welshl. Kort Monnik tmnWallbome, Lippe 1530.

Wale)berg (Hbg.): unless it is loc.n. Walburg, Oce this.

WaRbott see Walpott.

Wallbrandt see Wollbrandt.

WaBbrecht, Walbert: old Ger. pers.n. See under Walpert.

WaHburg see Walburg.

WaUenstein: pl.n., originally Walden8tein in Bohemia, Czech dynasty of counts (Waldstein), one member was Albrecht von W., general during the Thirty Years’ War.

Waller (UGer.): = MHG waller ‘pilgrim’. Hugo Waller, Waldshut 1289. Sometimes = Walder (cf. Steinwaller, Steinwaldner). WaUert (Franc.) = Waller. Surname of a pilgrim: WaUstab, Wallstaff (from MHG = ‘pilgrim’s staff); but frequency of the FN in Magdeburg is due to the pl.n. Wallstawe near Salzwedel.

Wallner (UGer.) = Waldner, cf. Oberwaldner: Oberwallner. From the loc.ns. ending in  walden (Aust., Tyrol); less freq. from MHG waldener ‘forest warden’.

Wala)pott (Waldpott), Wallbott (UGer.­Rhine area): old Ger. pers,n. Wal(t) bot, cf. Adal bot, Sig bot, Mar bot; LGer. Wolbodo; Wolbot = ‘master, ruler’; Waltpoto, 1137 near Überlingen, Walpolo v. Bassenheim (Rhenish nobility), J. Walpado, Mainz 1293, knight Hartman der Walpotte (Walbot), Lahr 1316.

Wallraff (Waldraff), Walrafen, Walrave(n), freq. in L.Rhine region, in the form of Walraven (‘battlefield raven’) formerly a pepular Ln. in the l” nobility, with knights and patricians. Detmar Walraven, Lzb. 1299. Contraeted form Wallram (archbishop of Col. around 1340). Also Wallrabe, Wollrabe (in Sax. nowadays Wohlrab). Also see sh.f. Raven, Raben. For Wallram cf. Wolfram (Wolf raban), Gundram, Sindram.

WaHrath (freq. in Rhineld.): pl.n., Wallroth (in Erfürt, Halle) from a pl.n. in Hesse, Thur., likewise Wallrode, Wallroda.

Walischläger see Wollschliger.

Wallstab(e), WaMtaff see Waller.

Walpert, Walprecht (UGer.) = LGer.­Rhineld. Walbert, Walbrecht, see there. On tho Ahr River pl.n. Walporzheim (Walbrechtsheim). HenceWalpersdorf (near Siegen and Schwabach), Walpershofen (Saar). Conrad Walprecht, 1302 near Waldshut.

Walpurgis (saint’s name) see Walburg.

Wals(e)mann (Hbg.): from Walson near Diepholz (like Winsomann from Winsen); Walehusen means ‘Sumpfhausen’ [swampy place], see under Walbeck and Wahlstadt. Cf. Hinrik vanWalsen, Brsw. 1433.

Walser: UGer. naine of origin, cf. pl.n. Wals near Salzburg, like Welser from Wels; but otherwise also = Walleser: from the region Valais (Wallis) in Switzerland, hence freq. in Alem. region.

Walsleben: pl.n. (near Neuruppin and Osterburg). Also cf. Walschleben near Erfurt.

Walstab see Waller.

Walternath(e), Waldemathe, Woldemathe (LGer.): ‘well measured, moderate’.

Waltereit (Lith. E Pruss.) = ‘Walter’s son’.

Wal”rd, Walthert was a popular Alein.­Swiss f.n.

Walt(h)or: ‘reigning in the army’, ‘military leader’; eld and popular Germanic name (Walthari), espec. in Alem., where the 1 Oth c. Walthari Epic (heroic epic of Walther and Hildegund) originated. Name also farnous through WalthervonderVogelweide. As Cii. popular again around 1800 due to Schiller (Walther is Wilhelm Tell’s son in the drama W. Tell) and the Romantics. UGer. nicknames were Walz(el), Welz(el), and Alem. Wälti, Welti. See also LGer. Wolter(S), Wolder(s), Wohler(s), Wöldeke, Wöhlke, etc.

Walterfang: pl.n. Wallerfangen in Saar area, cf. Wallerfing ( angen =  ingen).

Waltner (UGer.) = Waldner.

Waltraut: naine of a Valkyrie in Wagner’s RingoftheNibelung (wal ‘battlefieldl, trud ‘strength’).

Wal(t)z, Walzel, Wältz, Weltz, Welzel, besides Alem. Wälti, Welti, Welte are UGer. nicknames for Walther. Walz vom Stain = Walther v. St. in Würt. 1410, Welczel Kuncz Kal = Walther K. K., Mährisch Trübau 1378; Welczel = Walczel Beler, Bral. 1370, Walther called Walze, 1296 near Tübingen; Weltin = Walther imme Hofe, Switz. 13th c., Weltlein Wassermann, Tyrol 1437.

Walzer (UGer.) probably means Walzenmidler, i.e. miller of a rolling mill (FN in Freiburg 1481), corrupted forms are Waldsenmaller, Waldseemüller (the latter was the Freiburg costnograph 1507, who put the name “America” on a geogr. map for the first time).

Walmott = Waltsgott [from “Walt es Gott”: the Lord willingl. Cf. the more complete form Ditel Walczingot, Waliseyngot, Brünn 1375; Hans Eberhard called Walzengott, Heilbrenn 1505.

Wambach: UGer. Rhine pl.n., in several docum. Wanebach ‘swarnp water’, like Banebach: Bambach, likewise Hanebach : Hambach; Manebach : Mambach, all related in meaning.

Wamp (UGer.): from MHG wampe, wambe ‘belly, paunch, stomach’ (Wamme); a 7th c. (!) king of the Visigoths, Wamba. Hence Konrad Wampp, Rottweil 1441. MHG wampenvlec means ‘tripe, intestines’. But Wampman (Greifsw. 1397) Iike Herm. deWampen (Greifsw. 1325) from the pl.n. W pen 

Wamser, Warneser, Wambescher, Wamsler (UGer.) = ‘waistcoat or jerkin Uacketl maker’: a Gogwin Wambestepper, Trier 1350. Heinrich der Wambescher, Freiburg 1328, Konrad der Wamseller, Eßlingen 1321, J. Wambaser, Prague 1356. Wambsganz, Wamsgans (Uger.): from Gans [goosel or ganz [wholel?

Wanckel (UGer.): from MHG = ‘wavering, morally unstable’, likowize wankelbolt. Cf. Joh. Wanckelmot, Prignitz 1742.

Wand(t): may be surname of a cloth cutter, cloth maker as indicated by the names Seidenwand [silk cloth], Niewand [new clothl, and more obvious cf.. Arnold Sconewannt pannifex [cloth makerl, Greifsw. 1317 (cf. 6 ellen beydelwant: dress material, Haldsl. 1350). But from the dwelling place derive. Joh. Biderwant, [at the wall], Stettin 1351, Gert abderWant, Tyrol 1388 (= rock wall). Hence the name Wander Qike Graswander: “an der Gragwand” [at the grass wall], unloss = Wanderer, as in Nbg. 1431 Cuntz Wanderer, messenger.

Wandel, Wandelt: E CentrGer. UGer.

Wendel, Wendelt, see there.

Wandersleb(en): pl.n. near Gotha (old:

Wandesleben, like Ande(r)sleben near Erfurt: and wand = ‘water, swamp’).

WandreY, Wandrach, etc. Wend. forms for Andreas, like Pol. Jandrey, Jander. Hence with k auffix: Wanderscheck (Wandraach), Czech Ondrasch(ek).

Wandschneider (freq. in Hbg.),

Wandscher(or), Wandmaker, Wandmacher (all LGer.): = UGer. Sil. Gewandschneider, Gewandscherer ‘cloth merchant’ (who 8old garment material already cut out or eut it to order) or Tuchscherer (same meaning), see also Scherer (Scheer). Thid. dewandscherer, Bremen 1392, Ditbern wandsnider (pannicida), Greifsw. 1304; Wandemaker, Wesel 1569, W. Hülsman wandbereider, Münster 1576, Ludeke wandsnidere, Strals. 1283.

Wanfried, Wahnfried: pl.n. on the Werra River; prehistor. creek n. (like Wanfred in Engld.): Wanefteoda around 860 ‘swampy pool’ (for more info. see Bahlow ON, p. 519).

Wang, Wanger, Wangner (UGer.: in Würt., Bav., Aust.)  from field and pl.n. Wang, Wangen (= grass slope, grass field), cf. Binswanger, Feuchtwanger. Also Wäng0)or, cf. Furtwängler. But Bauschwängel (Olmütz 14th c.) and Pausewang refer to “Wange” [cheek] and mean ‘cherub checked’, cf. Mette mitdenrodenwangen, Haldsl. 1350, Cziterwange, Brsl. 1350.

Wanke, Wanck, Wanka, Wanek, Wanjek, also Wandtke (like Hanke, Handtke; Stanke, Standke): Slav. (Czech or Pol.) nickname for Johann; see Miklosich, no. 154. Wanko Placzek, Prague 1362, Wanke von Hassicz, Glatz 1402, Wanco cerdo, Brünn 1343, Wanek Owmik, Glatz 1400. But Wanke = Wenczel Hering 1486.

Wanner (UGer.): from field n. Wann(e) for a vallcy basin, or also a knoll; in some cases it means ‘Wannenmacher’ = tub maker (like 1414 in Freiburg): from MHG warme ‘winnowing basket (or fan)’ [used to clean grainl (cf. wanner lon: ‘pay for the cleaning of grain’, Herman der Wanner, Markdorf 1333; LGer. Thid. Wannekere, Bremen 1357). Wännenwetsch (Würt.) is related to the field n., cf. Bomwetsch, Bonwetsch; wetsch means (according to Buck, p. 300) all kinds of meadow herbs and grasm (from OHG wetesa).

Wannschaff, Wanschap see Wahnschaff.

Wanschleb: pl.n. Wanaleben near Halle or Wanzleben near Magdeburg.

Wan”eidt: pl.n. in Schwelm district.

Wanser, Wansner (UGer.): from Wansen.

Wänfig WC Wentig.

Wanzke, Wanzek, Wanzel see Wenzke, Wenzel.

Wapenhensch (LGer.): ‘iron glove’ 4)art of the armor), (cf. Henschenmeker); occ. sumarne (like wapenbeen: armor to protect the shins), similar word is Stahlhantsch [steel glove]. Wapenrock = coat ever the armor. Wappner, Wappler (UGer.) soe Weppner.

Warbende: Slav. pl.n. in Meckl. Strelitz.

Wmturg: pl.n. in Westph. (also Jowish FN).

Warch (UGer.): from MHG ‘pus’. But warc ‘hothead’; H. Warch, Baden 1330.

Wardemann: of N Ger. origin; cf. loc.n. Warde lo, pl.n. Wardenburg, Wardenphul, etc.

Warkenti(e)n (Meckl., Hbg.): Slav. pl.n.

Warmbier [warm beerl: surname for brewers, likewise Frischbier, Dünnbier, Sauerbier.

Warmbold (Hbg.), Warnebold (LGer.) is the old Ger. pers.n. Werinbold (Watinbald) ‘brave preservor or protector’, with LGer. ar for or, cf. Wehrenbold; Wennbold, Ro. 1261, patr. Bruneke Wermelding, Oldenburg 1428. Like%%ise Warmbert besides Wehrenbrecht (Werenberius, Stralsund 1277). Warmer(s): LGer. pers.n. Wer(in)mar. Wer mar(us), Bremen 1300; also Wermer(s). Hence the patr.: Warnüng, for Werming (in Westph.), cf. loc.n. (FN) Werminghoff , sh.f. Warmke besides Wermke.

Wann(b)t (Warrndt, Wärmpt)  Sil. form for the original name Warmuth. Burgold

Warmut, Bral. 1398, Niclas Warmut, Liegnitz 1437. See also Wa(h)rmund.

Warmwasser [warm water): surname for a barber or bathhouse operator; see also Wasserzieher. Hans Kern called Warmwasser, Würt. 1479.

Warn(c)ke, Warne(c)ke (freq. in Hbg.): LGer. nickname for Warner, originally Werneke, Werner (with LGer. sound change or to ar since ca. 1300). Patr. Warnken, Warnke8, Westph. Warneking (Werneking): Warnkönig! Herman Werneking, Han. 1497, Werneke (Wemerus) de Hele, Strals. 1309, Wernike known as Wemheri fabri [of Wernher the smithl, Hbg. around 1270. WarnUe(n) is Fris. Cf. Swantje for Swancke.

Wam(e)krm(s): LGer. for Wemekris ‘guard the pitcher’ (name for drinker, likewise Schwenkkrös [swing the pitcherl, Füllekrus, Lehrenkraus [empty the pitcherl), cf. Wehrenpenning [guard the pennyl.

Warner (Warners) , freq. in Hbg., LGer. form for Werner, like Warn(e)ke for Werneke, Warning for Werning, Warn(s) for Wern, Warnkönig for Werneking. Corrupted is Warnherr besides Wernher, cf. UGer. Waldherr for Walther. In Frisia also Warnders (like Meinders fer Meiners).

Warnht)I(t)z (freq. in Hbg.): was changed into standard German in the 16th c. from Warnholt, i.e. Wern olt Uike Arnholtz from Arnolt, Helmheltz from Helmolt, Weinholtz from Weinolt, Winolt). But for Ahrenholtz also cf. pl.n. A. near Githorn.

Waming (freq. in Hbg., Ro.): LGer. form for original form Weruing, patr. of Werner, Warner: Herman Werninck, Münster 1574, Gerrit Waming, Wesel 1581.

Warns (fairly freq. in Hbg.): LGer. patr. of nickname Warn, Wern = Warner, Werner. Cf. Warning, Warneke. Werneshagen, Warnshagen, Barth 1434.

Wamthe see Warnke.

Warrelmann (Hbg.): probably name of origin, cf. Garrelmann, Scharrelmann, Varrelmann. In Greifswald 1324 G. Werleman: from Werle in Westph. (Wer­10).

WarrenUes (Fris. patr.) = Warntjes (Warnekes) = Werner. For Fris. Warring cf. Harring (Harro.  Hermann); pl.n. Warringholz neu Itzehoe. Hence also Warren (cf. Warn). Warreniann.

Warrlich see Warlich.

Wmd(h)or (UGer.): moody name of origin, related to loc.n. and pl.n. Warthe, Warth, Wartha. Cf. Ulrich vonderWarte, Tyrol 1317, Peter Warter, Tyrol 1367. Hence Hohenwarter, Warthichler (Wartbühler), etc. Likewise Warünm UGer., probably = MHG wartman ‘man at a look out point, watehman, scout’. Bartold Wartman, Haldsl. 14th c. W. Rische called Wartman, Würt. 1345. Albrecht Wartman, Dux 1400.

Warwey, Warwig (Westph.): Kolonat [estate, fee farml Warweg in Westph. (Bernt Warwey, Lippe 1488).

Wäwhe see Wesche under Wachsmut (Wasmut).

Wascher (UGer., weithout umlaut), Wescher, Lat. Lavater Osivator), also Heringwäscher [heffing cleaner], Kuttelwäscher [intestine cleaner], Faßwäscher [barrel washer], Schleierwäscher, Wäachi.e. Marusch wescherynne (= Margaretha bleycherynne [bleacher]) worked in the linen weaving industry, Liegnitz 1382. Hence Nic. Waschkracz, Iglau 1365 (also Brsl.); Waschenpeull [wash the bag], Iglau 1365, Waschenhals [w. the neck], Salzbg. 1494 (likewise Waschenkragen [w. the collarl, Moravia 1397).

Waschk(e), Waschek. E Ger. Slav., nickname for pers.n. Vadislav, like Raschke (Raschek) for Radislav. Henve Waschkau, Wuchkies, Waschkuhn, etc.

Wad(e)lewsid (E Ger. Slav.): Russ. Vasilij = Basilius (bishop of Caesarea, saint); the monasteries of the Greck church followed his rule (= Basilians). See the Ger. nickname Bisecke.

Wasmer (UGer.) = Wasner, see Waase. Cf. Katharina andemwasen, Basel 1284.

Wasmund, Wasmuth (LGer.) see Wachsmund, Wachsmuth. Also cf Friedrich Wachsmund (Wachsmmet), Bav. 1434.

Wasserer (UGer.) = Wassermann. See there. Conrad Wasserer, Pfullingen 1349.

Wassennann [waterman]: name from the dwelling noar water, cf. Heneze amwasser, Arnstadt 1456. Heinel der Wasserman, Eger 1396, Heincze Wasserman, Liegnitz 1372; in Bav. spelling also Bmernum (both also Jewish today): Procop Rmsennan (Wasserman), Prague 1377. In some cases for a person who works with water, cf. Wasserftrer, Görlitz 1426 (Märer = transporter) like LGer. wutervorer, Ro. 1264 (and others), Han. 1322, Bremen 1480.

Wassenzieher: a bailer, water carrier in public baths, barber’s helper; Hamus Wasserudher, Liegnitz 1397, Leuther Wassercziher, Görlitz 1417, Syckenand bedder (Bader = barber, bathhouse operator) and Lotzc wasserzuger, Frkf. 1340, Cuncz wasserczieher, Iglau 1417. Cf. LGer. “Hans Waterintoger in Plotzes stoven” [in P.’s bathhousel, Haldsl. around 1340 (also there Herman Waterdregher). Watertogere, Lüb. 1322. A Wasserschöpfer [water bailer] lived 1357 in the publ. bath in Zurich.

Wassmann, Wassmund, Wassmuth see Wachsmann.

Wastl (Bav.) = Bastl = Sebastian; hence Wastlhuber, Wastler. And cf. vice versa Bassermann for Wassermann, Prague 1377. (here: b for w; above w for bl.

Waterhölter (Westph.): am Waterholt living at the “wet woods”, also see Scholhölter.

Watermann see Wassermann.

WäUen see Wethje.

Waterstra(d)t [water streetl (LGer.) name from the dwelling; also standardized: Wasserstraß; in N Ger. coastal towns there are still today “Wasserstraßen”.

Wathling: pl.n. Wathlingen near Cello.

Watsack, Watmenger, Watmann see Wadsack.

Wattenbach: pl.n. near Kassel and Ansbach, like LGer. Wattenbek; cf Wattenberg, Wattenscheid, etc. (watt, LGer. wad, Iswampl).

Watterodt, Watterott: Thur. Hess. pl.n. ending in  rode, like Vatterodt etc.

Watzke = Slav. Watzek, nickname for

Watdaw (Watzlawik): “Wir Waczlaw ... kunig zu Behaim” [We W. ... king of Bohemial 1388. With Ger.  1.  Watzel, unlIess dialect form for Wetzel (which = WeczIaw, but UGer. = Werner). Wätzold see Wetzel.

Wawer (Wauer, Waurick) = Czech Wawra = Laurentius; hence Wawrczek, Wawrzyn etc. In Ger. pronuneiation: Waber, Wabersinke!

Wax  see Wachs .

WeW see Waibel.

Weber (Wehber), Weeber, Bav. Wöber, Sil. Waber, LGer. Wever, Wefer (Wewers, Wefers, Weifers), Lat. textor, mean linen weaver (1,eineweber, Linnenweber) as well as wool weaver (Wollenweber, Wullenweber, Wüllenweber). Hence Reißenweber = Schleierweber. Weberling see Weferling.

Webersinke see Wabersinke.

Wechmann (Hbg.): LGer. = Wiechmann. See there.

Wechmar: pl.n. near Gotha (like Weimar, Vilmar, etc.: mar = ‘swampy area of springs’); Wech i8 related to ‘dampness, moisture, mud’, cf. Wechelde, Wechele, Wechloy, etc.; Bahlow ON, p. 523.

Wechsel, Wechselbaum = Weichsel(baum), a kind of sour cherry. Wechsler, Wexler, LGer. Wesseler = money changer, Lombard. Hans der Wechsler, Eger 1384, Ulrich Wechselmeister, Kuttenberg 1395.

Wechsung: pl.n. Wechsungen (old: WesBungen) near Nordhausen, cf. Gerstung, Fladung, Kauffung; in same area also pl.na. Bodungen, Faulungen, Holungen, etc. all related in meaning; wes ‘decay, rot’ as in Wesseloh, Wesseln, etc.

Weck (freq. in Hlig.), Wecke, Wecken, Weckes, Wecking are LGer., contracted from Wedeke, Wedeking, see there. CL Decke (frem Dodeke), Göcke (from Gödeke).

Wecker (Bav., Würt.): probably = Weckler ‘(bread) roll vondor’ (Weckemann) [Wecke, UGer. = roll], like Hiper, Hipenman waffle vendor.

Weckerle (Swab.) see Wacker. Also Weckherlin.

Weckesser (UGer.) = ‘(bread) roll eater’, derisive nickname for a baker (Weckbecker, Semmelbecker, Weckler), likewise Fladenesser [Fladen = flat bread], Motzenesser, etc. For the variant Wegesser cf. Spitzweg besides Spitzweck [meaning: pointed roll]. Related are Wegfraß [for someone who gobbles up rolls], Brotfraß. Hence Butterweck, Deigweck, Muschweck, Weckbrod, Spitzweck, see there. A18o aimply Weck (Stephel Wekk, Moravia 1414). Hebelwecke (Alem. = yeast rolls). Volker der Weckler, Rottenburg 1345. C. der Weggeler, Basel 1270, cf. baker

Schaßweggel, Tyrol 14th c.

Weckwerth (Hbg.) see Wegwerth.

Wedde (LGer.) see Wede. Weddel see Wedel.

Wedderkop (LGer.) = Widderkopf (Wederkop) [ram headl. Wed(d)or Mridder [ram].

Wedderwille (LGer.) = Widerwille [aversion, dislike], cf. Weddermode, Lüb. 1331. Wederspan see Wehrspohn (like Roweder: Rowehr).

Wedding (Hbg.). pl.n. Weddingen on the Wedde near Goslar (wed = ‘swamp’, cf. pl.n. Wedde in Mussel Bog, Weddewarden etc.).

Weddingen: famous from the submarine commander Otto W. (1914), is patr. form of the LGer. pers.n. Weddig(e), in old documents: WedegeMdigo), was used as Cii. Wedig until recently in the family Von der Osten; cf. Widukind. Wedekind. Probably identical to the famed Witege of the DietrichEpic, I.e. hero of the Goths Widi goja (ON Widugo, MHGWitegouwe); cf. the kings of the Goths Widi mer, Widi­rik,  from widu ‘woods’. Documentary evidence  Wedeghe Gripe, Brsw. 1385, Wedego de Buggenhagen, Greifsw. 1278. Wedege von Wedel, Pom. knight 1311. Heyne Wedege, Ro. 1580, Henr. Weddige, Höxter 1542. See also Wedekind.

Wedekind (contracted Wehkind) is the LGer Westph. form of Widukind (‘child of the woods’), famous name of the duke of the Saxons, opponent of Charlemagne; name was popular in aristocratie eircles in the Middle Ages: the e variant already 1266 with bishop Wedekind of Minden; Wedekind of Rordessen 1311; Wedekind van Nigenhagen, Han. 1453; a squire Widekind, son of (knight) Lord Widekind of Liechtenstein, neu Wetzlar 1343; Widekind Wackermul, Vöhl 1303; still 1526 in Kessel: Widdekind Rengeshusen. For the sh.f. cf. Wedeke (Wedekind) Buckendal, Brsw. 1500 (older LGer. Widuko); hence the Westph. patr  Wedeking, Wehking (with LGer. lose of dental aound d between vowele, likewise Göcking from Gödeking, Lückin from Lüdeking). Corrupted also WC&kin(n).

Wedel (Weddel): freq. in Hbg., means ‘ford through swampy terrain’ (in seine cazes confused and morged with LGer. wede [nidej ‘wooda’); for this see Marwedel; Brackwedel, Hollwedel, Soltwedel, Bleckwedel: Bleichwehl. Wedel, Wehdel and Wedde are also freq. pl.na., in old documents Wede to, hence Weddelbrook in Holstein. Cf. Wedege vonWedel, Ham vonWedet, Pom. knight 13th c. Arnold Wedelstede, Pom. knight 1302. The spelling Wedell was introduced by the 16th c. chanceries.

Wede(nmm), Wedemeyer (freq. in Hbg.) I Ger Westph., also Wehmann, Wehmeyer, named for the dwelling “am Wede” = at a forest, woods (ON midu ‘woods’); Heyse Wedemeyer, Duderstadt 1388, Joh. vandemWede, Bremen 1386, Joh. Wedeman, Bremen 1473. Also We(h)de (freq. in Hbg.) besides Weh(e) means the same, also cf. Wedde (pl.ns. and FNs Brickwedde, Brückweh!, Vogelwedde, etc.)

Wedemer see Wehmer.

Weden, Wehden is a N Ger. pl.n., see Wede( ann).

Wedewer (LGer.) see Wittwer [widower]. CL Lud. derwedewen, Haldsl. 1432, A. wedewensun [widow’s son], Ro. 1296, A. wedewenftiger Wdow’s suitorl, Ro. 1298.

Wedler (UGer.): manufacturer of “Wedeln” [feather duster, whisk], espec. for herbere; es in 14th c. Frkf. besides wedelmecher; Hensel Wedler, Iglau 1387, Cuncz Wedeler, Würzburg 1409. But see also Wadler (from MHG wedeln, wedeln ‘to roam, wander about’). E CentrGer. (Sex.) is Wedler, dial. form for Weidler, like Zedler for Zeidler. Also cf Wedlich.

Weffich see Weidlich.

Weeger, Weger see Wiger.

Weeke(s) see Wedeke, Wedekind. (Also Wehke ).

Weers, Weerssen (Hbg.): see Wehrs.

Weese (Hbg.): pl.n. at Vinter Bog east of Bramsche (in old docum. Msi around 1000) or pl.n. Weesen near Celle (in old docum. Wesende, like Holende); wie (wes) is an old swamp word, hence Ger. Wiese = ‘wet grassland’; cf. the Wis apa (tributary of the Maas), Wisenbeke: Wesernbeck in Brabant, Wesendonk, L.Rhine(likeCorgendonk, cors = ‘swamp’), a Wese (tributary of the Eder) etc. Also cf. Wesenum, Wesemeyer.

Wefels, Wefeler see Wevels, Weveler.

Wefer, Wefers (Hbg.) = Wever (LGer.)

Weber [weaver]: Matthias Wevere sive [orl Textor [weaver], Hbg. 1275. Hence Westph. L.Rhine withpatr.  ing: Wevering.

Weferling (Hbg.): pl.n. Weferlingen near Helmstodt (Cordt Weferlinck, Han. 1501).

Wegbrod: from MHGwege brot ‘food and drink for the road’ (viaticum), likewise Weckbrot.

Wege (von Wege). several in Hbg. from loc.n. (pl.n.) Wege, e.g. in district Syke (Weye), I.e. ‘swamp’ (meaning confirmed locally), cf. Wege sate 942 (like Hunesate, Voresate), Wegeleben, Wegenstedt, Wegebach, Weyhausen, Wege on the Eder River, etc.

Wegehaupt (sentence name): ‘move the head’ (LGer. Weghöft), cf. Schüddekopf [shake the head]. Similar Wegemul [move the mouth], Wegenast, Wegekop (Weykopf) fmove the head], Wegemund [move the mouth].

Wegel(e), Wägelin (UGer.) means Wegeler, Wägler = Wagner [cartwright, wheelwright, corriage maker, waggoner], see also Wagenführ. Cuni Wegenli, Müllheim 1409.

Wegener (freq. in Hbg.), LGer., see Wegner, Wagner.

Weger (several in Hbg.) see Wäger. (Ulreich der Weger, Eger 1350; Apel Weger, Würzburg 1384): from this derived later FN Wegert, cf. Weiner(t), Wehner(t), E CentrGer. = Wägner.

Weg(e)rich (Thur., Sax.), Weyrich (Sil.): plant name [‘plantein’], probably surname for an herbalist, herb gatherer. Joh. Weyrich, Liegnitz 1391 (but se4 Weihrich, Weihrauch).

Wegert see Weger.

Wegesende: living at the end of the path, also house n.

Wegewitz: E Ger. Slav. pl.n.

Wegfraß (UGer.) see Weckesser. Likewise

Wegesser. Cf. Spitzweg.

Weggler (UGer.) see Weckler.

Wegmann: living along the way or road; Heinz mittenimwege [midwayj, Würzburg 1409, Göczlin zwischendenwegen [betwoen the stroetz or paths], Iglau 1404; WelzliWegman, 1390 near Bregenz. Nic. Wegeman, Lüb. 1346.

Wegner, Wegener (freq. in Hbg ): LGer. form for UGer. Wagner [wagonerl, see there. Joh. Wegener, Ro. 1299. See also Radernaker, Stellemaker.

Wegst: Cunrad Wegst 1377, farmer at Laichingen. Also cf. her Vordl Ticze Wegiste (v. Czedelicz), Liegnitz 1384.

Wegwerth, Weckwerth (Hbg.)  probably

Wegewart [today Wegwarte], a medicinal plant [succory or wild chiccory].

Wehde (freq. in Hbg.) see Wede. Wehe (LGer.) see Wede.

Weheli (UGer.) see WäheQin). Hence

WaltherWehelin, Alsace 1294, Joh. Wähelin, 1294 near Schaffhausen.

Wehking (several in Hbg.) see Wedeking.

Wehl (Hbg.) besides Wehlmann: from pl.n. Ooc.n.) Wehl (several times) = Wedel. Wehlen (freq. in Hbg.), also Wehle: from pl.n. Wehlen in the Harburg distriet, or pl.n. Wehlen near Pirna, probably also Wehler(t) derives from it.

Wehling (several in Hbg.): cf. Welingus,

Strals. 1307, Welinc (Welingus), Ro. 1267, there also 1294 “de Welinghove”; also in Hildesheim 1383 Welinc.

Wehmann, Wehnieyer (LGer.) see

Wedemann, Wedemeyer.

Wehmer (LGer. Westph.): i.e. Wedemer (UGer. Widemer) = a peasant, who farms the farm of the pastor; cf. Tile up der

Wedemen, Duderstadt 1388, Kort tor

Wedeme, Lippe 1507, Cort torweme, Lippe 1530, Joh. imWedemekampe (glkhmkampe), Lippe 1644. Also cf. pl.n. Welun in Oldenburg.

Wehn, Wehnke (Hbg., Bremen): LGer.Tris. pers.n., sh.f. for Winemar (Wenemar); wini ‘friend’, mar ‘famous’. Weneko friso [Frisianl, Hbg. 1252, besides Weno and Wineko; see Wenke, Wennemer. Wenn.

Wehner, Wehnert (freq.): ContrGer. dialect form for Weiner(t) = Wagner, see there.

Wehr, Wehrs (freq. in Hbg.) like Weer, Weers (Weerssen) indieates contraction from Weder, Weders, LGer. form of the pers.n. Wider (Wid her), Germanie Widuhari (OHG Witi heri), sh.f. Widiko (LGer. Wedeke). A Wider(us) 1298 in Ro. But also cf. FN Weder (Wieder), but also Wer mar.  Warmer.

Wehren (von): from pl.n Wehren on the Werre River near Detmold, or Wehren N of Fritzlar. Also cf. pl.n. Wehre on the Wehre near Goslar (wer = ‘swanipwater, water’). Wehr (Wore) near Aachen. Hence FN Wehrenberg, Wehrhagen, Wehrbrink, Wehrstedt, Wehrbleck, etc. Wehrholz is freq. a name for a town in the woods in Hem.

Wehrenbold see Warmbold. Likewise Wehrenbrecht.

Wehrenpfennig see Pfennig. Cf. Werdenpfenning, Quedlinburg 1525.

Wehrhahn (LGer.) = Weder han ‘weathercock’, attested as house n. in Col. 1135, Mainz 1316.

Wehring (freq. in Hbg.): LGer. patr. of Werinbrecht, Wermar, etc., cf. pers.n. Wering(us), Strals. 1275.

Wehrie (Alem. Swab.): nickname for Werner, also Wehrlein, Wöhrlin, Wöhri.e. See also Werni.e. Werli (Wernlin) = Wemher Gartner (tailor), Basel 1300, WerlinWernher Stamler, U.Rhine 1293, WerlyWemli Kob, Villingen 1320.

Wehrmann (freq. in Han., Hbg., Brsw.): see Wehren and Wahrmann. Cf. Staties Werman (Werneman, Hildesheim 1538).

Wehrs (Hbg.) see Wehr.

Wehrmeester, Wehrmaker: person in charge of water darns. UGer. Wehrmeister (Hans Wermeister, Wangen 1408).

We(h)rsig (in Hirschberg) see Wiersig.

Wehrspohn (LGer.) = UGer. Wiederspahn (from MHG widerspan = widerspenstig ‘obstinate’). Also Wehrspann.

Wehrt: NW Ger. L.Rhine = river island, also cf. Aus’m Werth, An der Werth, etc.

Wehge (Fris.) = Wedeke.

Weibel, Weiblen (UGer. Swab.) see Waibel.

Weibezahl (UGer.): zahl = zagel ‘tail’, weiben ‘to move back and forth, wiggle’ from MHG weibezegeln ‘to wiggle (the tail)l.

Weich, Weiche (Bav.), has an extended form Weichmann like LGer. Wiech also Wears as Wiechmann; old Ger. pers.n. (wig = ‘fight, battle’); in old documents Wicho, Bral. 1350. Wiche von Evehe, Bav. 1180. Also Weichlein, Weichel (see Weigel).

Weichbrodt (Hbz.), LGer. Weckbrodt: baker name. Henneman Weychebrod, Kassel 1427, Diderik Weykebrod, Hbg., Reval? 1419.

Weicheit (numerous in Dresden) see Weigelt.

Weichert (Sil., Laus., Sax., Bav.): in old documents Wicher (pers.n. Wig her). Wicher von Haaelstein 1119 in Sax., Mcherus de Benebure, Sax. 1140. Nic. Weycher, Freystadt 1414 (but cf. pl.n. Weichau near Freystadt).

WeichNardt (Bav., Aust., Sax.) besides Weighardt: old Ger. pers.n. Wig hard (Wichard) ‘bold in battlel. Nio. Wighart, Freiberg 1365, Nic. Weighard, Chemnitz 1420, Matthias Weychart, Moravia 1401. CEWeichati, vidame (deputy) of the duke of Bav.

Weichmann (Bav., Aust., Sax., Sil.) besides Weigmann: old Ger. pers.n. Wigman (Wichman), see also Weichert, Weichhardt, Weiche. Cf. LGer, Wiechmann. In old docum.: Heinrich Weichman, Bav. 1326, H. Wichmannus, Augsburg 1280, Mehman v. Griesingen, Ulm 1349, Wichman (counoillor), Brsl. around 1300.

Weichsel (UGer.): from MHG wisel ‘mahaleb cherry’ [a kind of sour cherryl, hence Weichselbaum, WeixIbaum, Wechselbaum, Weißelbaum [cherry tree] (also FN Weichselgärtner from loc.n. Weichselgarten); Weichsel eder (from loc.n. Weichselöd). Also Weichsler from pl.n. Weichsel or Weisel (Wichsler), Aargau 1498, B. Weichsler, Weißler, Kempten 1537.

Weicht see Weigt.

Weicker(t), Weickbardt, Weickmann see Weichert, Weichhardt, Weichmann, also Weighardt, Weigert. WeykerWeykeri, Lpz. 1413. ekerus, Mainz 1335, P. Wyker, Liegnitz 1418, A. Weicker, Liegn. 1453, C. Weicker, Bunzlau 1577, M. Weickardt, Liegn. 1547.

Weickgemm(n)t (Franc.): corrupted from Weiknand, i.e. Wig nand ‘bold in battle’; also Weidgenannt, Weigenand, IWk£nand Wernike, Kassel 1350. In most other cases contracted to Winand, Weinand, see Weinhold.

Weide (freq.): name from dwelling (neu willow trees) or place of origin (pl.n. Weida in Sax., Thur.); from MHG wide = willow tree. But Vogelweidt, Viehweiden etc. from MHG ‘grazing field, hunting grounds’, cf. L.Rhine Terweide; hence also Weid(e)mann (MHG = Ihunter’, but also ‘fisherman’), who practices “Weidwerk« fhunting], except when the documented old form is Widemann (Merkel Wydeman, Weideman, Heidelberg 1386); cf. Eichmann [from oak], Lindemann. The same holds true for Weidner (because of the frequency alone): in some cases in UGer. the name might indicate ‘hunter, fisherman’ (from MHG weidener), the equivalent in E CentrGer. Sil. Sudeten documents is Wydener.  I.e. bidenwiden [by the willows1 or from, Widen(au): Weiden(au), as in FN9 Lindner, Büchner [from beech treel, Birkner, Eichner. Nitgche U5?dener, Liegnitz 1372, Herbord Widenere, Darmstadt 1291. Nickel von derWeydena,­P. v. Burg alias deWyden (where he owned land), Brs). 1350. Herman subsalice (‘under the willow’), Brsl. 1350. In L.Rhine area freq. FN “van der Weiden” (Latinized  de Salicibus).

Weidel (UGer.) besides Weidle = MHG widelin ‘willow twiz or rod’, small willow.

Weid(e)num, Weidner see Weide.

Weidier = Weidner; cf. Eichler: Eichner; Anselm Weideler, Friedberg in Hesse 1285. Joh. Widler, Aargau 1397. Also Weidtler.

Weidhan (UGer., Thur., Sax.): probably surname of a hunter like Feldhaas [haas from Hase = bare, rabbit], Sandhaas, Kohlhaas, etc. But L.Rhine Weithaaso = Joh. Weithose [wide pants] in Col. (like Korthas ‘short pants’).

Weidhah, Waidhals (UGer.): MHG = ‘big throat’, probably aurname for a greedy, voracious person or aimply for a hunter; Nickel Waydehals, Eger 1368. But cf. Wilhals ‘white neck’, Strals. 1340, Weitsnabel Mde beakl, Baden 1367.

Weidig = MHG widach ‘willow thicket’.

Weidlich (ECentrGer. Sil.) dialect Wedlich: from MHG weidenlich lfresh, frisky, stately’ (actually: suited for hunting); Weidenlich, Würzburg 1409, Miegnitz 1453, Weidelich, Görlitz 1478. Also WeidUM9 likewise Wunderling for Wunderlich.

Weidt (freq. in Ro.) = UGer. Weitz (‘wheat marchant’; Weizen = wheat). Cf. Weitekamp ‘wheat field’. See also Weiter. Weier, Weyer (L.Rhine Weiers, Weyers), freq. in L.Rhine region (Col., Krefeld)  cf. .van de Weyer” (Dutch Wijer), in the sense of ‘standing water, swamp, pondl (M. Schönfeld, Waternamen, p. 238).

Weifer(s), L.Rhine, see Wever(s), Weber.

WeifMert: cf. pl.n. Weiffersdorf (Aust.) on the Enns. In Tyrol cf. Gosman Weifner 1564 and farmstead Weifen.

Weiffenbach (freq. in Kassel): pl.n. in Hesse.

Weigand (UGer. ContrGer., LGer.

Wiegand): from MHG wigant ‘warrior, hero’ (freq. in the medieval epic Nibelungenlied), also popular as Cn. (espec. in Hesse, with nickname Witzel); Wigant Cleynod, 1325 near Wetzlar, Wigand von Büchleins, Glatz 1328, Wiegand Spieß, printer in Eltville, Weigandt Zigler, Freiberg 1452, WeigandPuntschuech, Tyrol 1459. Still 1588 in Kreuznach: Wigand Spanheim. Nicknames are Weigel and Wittzel; Weigt is Sil. Corrupted Weigang (Hans Weigang, Grünberg 1520), several in Glatz region.

Weig(e)l (UGer.), Weigle, E Centr.Ger. Sil. also Weigelt (like Reichel: Reichelt): once a popular nickname for Wigand: Weigand, see there. Wigel (Wigand) Echzeler, Hesse 1388, Wigel vern Guden, Romrod (Hess.) 1338, Wigel textor [weaverj, Liegnitz 1342. Wigel (Weigel) Zachenkirche, Schweidnitz 1398.

Weigert see. Weichert. Weigmann see Weichmann. A. legman, Liegnitz 1372, Hans Weigman, Görlitz 1542 (Liffl. 1434), Joachim WeigmannlWeichmann, Perleberg 1556.

Weigold (UGer.) = in old docum. Wigold (Augsburg 1150); D. Wigott, Weigott, Tübingen 1550. Otherwise (in Sax.)

Weicholt: Weichelt = Weigelt. See there.

Weigt (freq. in Sil.), Weicht (Sax., cf. Weichelt: Weigelt): contracted from Weigand (Wiegand), cf. pl.n. Weigsdorf near Friedland: 1381 Wigandisdorf. But also cf. Seibt for Seibot (Sibot).

Weibe (fteq. in Hbg.), von der W.: pl.n. (Han., Oldenburg), older Wege means ‘damp place’. Bruchwyhe however means ‘harrier’ [the bird], Frkf. 1345.

Weiher (UGer., Bav., Aust. etc.): loc.n. and pl.n. (MHG Wiher, wiger, Lat. vivarium ‘fish pond’). Erasmus zum Weiher, Freiburg 1539, Sweiklin Weyer, Tyrol 1369.

Wei(h)nacht [Christmas], UGer. also Weihnachter: like the names Paschen (Ostern) [Easter] and Pfingsten [Pentecostl, not derived from the day of birth but from dates of obligations (service liability or tax payments). Dietrich Winacht, Wangen in Allgäu 1384, Georg Wbocher, Schongau 1491.

Wei(h)rauch [incense] E Centr.Ger. Sil. also Wei(h)lich: probably occ. surname for priests spreading incense, cf. priest Peter Wyroch, Liegnitz 1418, besides preacher Joh. Weyrich, Liegn. 1391. Nickel Wyroch, Görlitz 1428. Weirich, Weyrich may also derive from Wegerich (see there) and from (UGer. W Ger.) pers.n. Wirich (Wigrich ‘mighty in battle’), thus Wirich (Wigerich) v. Schnellingen near Welfach 1332, Wiricus Kropf, Franc. 1343, H. W. Wytich (Weyrich), Weinsberg 1601.

Wei(h)rauter, Wei(h)rater (Tyrol) besides Wei(h)reuter is derivation from loc.n. ending in  reut (‘forest clearing’), likewise Hochrauter, Hochreuter, Neurauter, Neureuter or Antater besides Anteuter.

Weihtag is probably not LGer. Wedag ‘pain’ but Slav. Woitak, Woitek (see Woitzik), cf. Mortag for Mortak (= Martin).

Weikert, Weikmann see Weichert, Weichmann.

Weil (UGer.). wveral pl.na. (Baden, Würt., Bav.); Jeckel Weit, 1395 near Eger; bence the Jewiah FN Weill (cf. Kurt Weill’s Ih Pe yOpe ) 

Weiland is a younger form for Weinand (Winand) or Wieland; cf. in Plauen 1524 Blasius Wiland (Weiland), in Pirna 1352 Hans Wynand (later Weynand).

Weflepp (Thur.): pl.n. Wegeleben, cf. Uthlepp (Uthleben), Hemmlepp, Hemmleb, etc., all Thuringian.

Weder (Weilert): freq. S Ger, pl.n. (Lat. vilare), ‘single (isolatod) farm’.

Weimann is an assimilated form of Weinniann, like LGer. Wiernann from Winmann, I.e. wino merchant; cf. Biermann (LGer. Behrmann), Salzmann (LGer. Soltmann), etc; likewise Reimann for Reinmann, Heymann for Heynemann. Cf. Hans Wiman (formerly Wimnan.~, Rottweil 1474. Lorencz Weyman (Weynman), Liegn. 1453. *Also in Lüb. around 1325Wman besides Winman. Hence Weimeister: Wynmeister, Eisleben 1417, Ulrich der Weinmeister, Mnch. 1408. The loading and delivery of wine barrels (= Verschroten) was carried out by the Winschroder (Ub. 1347), Winschräter (Jena 1406), cf. Bierschröter. See also Weinrufer, Weinstecher, Weinzapf (Wientapper), etc. Weymchreiber (Liegn. 1426) is the name for an accountant in the wine trade.

Weimer, Weimar derives from the pl.n. Weimar only in some cases (in Thur., Hesse in soveral old documents. Wimar) for .gwampy spring area’; in others it is the equivalent of LGer. Wiemer(s), Wiernar, which has its origin in the pers.n. Wichmar (Wigmar): thus Heinrich Wimar (Wigmar), Heilbronn 1364, or Wunnar: as in Franc. documents. Weinmar, Weimar, Weimer, all variants of one FN (see Nied, p. 158), bence Winmar von Burgweiler, Würt. 1258, Hans Winmar, Heilbronn 1378 (see

Wein in general means (wine) tavern owner, wine pourer, wine merchant, vintner; FN Bier means brewer, beer morchant. Hence Gutwein, Kühlwein, Sauerwein: Lobenwein rpraise the winel, Hassenwein [hate the w.], Schlindenwein [waste the wine], Bausenwein; Mengewein like Mengebier (from monger = ‘daaler, merchant’). In N Germany the pl.n. Weine near Paderborn may be involved, old Wene, I.e. swamp water: hence Eckehard Weyne, Kassel 1420!

Weinand (Weynands), freq. in Rhineland, equivalent to LGer. Wienand, i.e. popular pers.n. in the Middle Agos Wig nandbold in battle’ (Joh. Wnandi, Lüttich 1307). For more info. see Weinhold.

Weinaug, Weinäugel: a whiny person, see Auge [eye]. Heinrich Winoghe, near Oppenheim 1226, Herman Weinouge, Jena 1502, Hans Weyneugel, Kitzingen 1495.

Weinbe(e)r [grape] (Bav.): surname of a grape merchant or vintner; Hensel Winber (Weinber), Freiberg 1477, Weynperer, Iglau 1368.

Weinberg [vineyard] (freq. in Aust., Bav.): freq. pl.n.

Weinbold, Weinpold, Weinbrecht are old Ger. pers.no.: Winibold, Winiberht (wini = ‘friend’, bald = ‘bold’, berht = ‘shining’). Wibold, Ro. 1262.

Weinbrenner (UGer.): brandy maker (distilled from wine) (Dietrich Winbrant, Breisgau 1319); Heincz Winbrenner, Würzburg 1409, Weynprenner, Brünn 1365.

Weinel (Hess. Franc.), Weindl (Bav. Aust.), Weinte (Swab.); nickname for the popular pers.n. Wnand (Wignand), see Weinand and Weinhold. Also for Wintich, Winmar. Cf. Heinrich Weinel, known theologian from distr. of Büdingen/Hesse. For Weindl cf. Meindl. Winlin = Winant (Voyt), Brsl. 1349.

Weinelt (Sudeten) = Weinel with secondary  t like Weigelt, Reichelt, Eckelt, Härtelt.

Weiner, Weinert (E CentrGer. Sil.) see Wagner. Cf. T. Weinerl (Weiner), Görlitz 1660.

Weingand: corrupted from Weigand like Wei(n)rauch. J. Weingand (Weigand), Weißenfels 1530; likewise Weingang.

Weingardt [vineyard], Rhineld. Weingartz (like Baumgartz, Bongartz): from freq. loc.n. and pl.n. Weingart(en). Variant ending in -er is UGer.: Weingarter, Weingartner, Weingärtner, in some cases = vintner, cf. Baugart: Baumgärtner.

Weinhardt (Bav., Würt.): documented Winhart (win = ‘friend’); Conrad Winehart, 1270 near Weingarten (1470 also in Schwäbisch-Hall), Simon Weinhart, Augsburg 1492.

Weinheber (Aust.): known through the writer Josef. W. from Aust.; probably surname for a person working in a wine cellar. cf. Faßheber, Stahlheber, Steinheber. Hinr. Winhaber, U.Bav. 1210 (heben = to scoop, ladle), cf. hebevaß ‘pail, bucket, scoop’.

Weinhold (Sil., U.Lausitz, freq. in Sax.): through several sound changes the name derived from Winand (Wignand), a popular name in the Middle Ages (see Weinand, Weinelt); at first through dissimilation of the two n’s in the final syllable, as in Gernold for Gernand (Görlitz 1462), thus Winald, Winold: as early as 1434 Thomas Wynolt (Liegnitz); then diphthongization i:ei occurred: Weinold (Caspar Weinold, Weinald, Weiland!) Chemnitz 1522; Melchior Weynolt, Löwenberg 1481; finally like all names ending in -old, this part was interpreted as -hold.- cf. Reinold to Reinhold, Meinold to Meinhold. For documentary proof see under Weinholtz. Evidence for Winand: WinandusWinandi, Brsl. 1325, Winandus Drydumen, Liegnitz 1349, Weinandus Renesis, Brünn 1347, Heineze Wynand, Liegnitz 1372.

Weinholtz (freq. in Pom.): with the approach of NHG in the 16th c. the name took the place of LGer. Wienholt, in which -holt was understood to mean “Holz” [wood], in ignorance of the older form Winholt (Sil. equivalent is Weinhold, see there); this standardization process may be observed in the church registers of Stargard, parallel developments in e.g. Helmholtz for Helmolt,Volkholtz for Volkolt, Huhnholtz for Hunolt, Ahrnholtz for Arnolt. Winolt in the Middle Ages was often used identically with the popular Winand: Winoldus = Winandus Baggele (mayor), Ro. around 1400, Winoldus = Winandus Droghehorn, Strals. 1328, Wineld = Winandus de Reval, Bremen 1388. Hence Tideke Wynold, Lüb. 1470. Nowadays also Wienholtz, Wienhold: cf. Winholdus Winholdus, Bremen 1594, Hans Weinholtz, Berlin 1588, David Weinholtz, Pyritz 1625, but earlier Hans Wynholt, StarGerd 1451.

Weini(n)ger (Bav., Aust.): from Weini(n)gen.

Weinkauf like LGer. Wienkoop means Wine merchant, wine buyer. cf. Kauf, Koop = seller, merchant; Kleinkauf, Kornkauf, Tuchkauf [cloth seller], Teuerkauf (Dürkop). Ortlip Winkauff, Heidelberg 1417, Bernd Winkop, Ro. 1289. False interpretations: Weinkopf [Kopf = head], Wienkopf.

Weinke see Wienke.

Weinknecht see Wagenknecht.

Weinmann (Bav., Aust., Würt.) see Weimann. Berchtold Winman, Überlingen 1226. cf. LGer. Wie(n)mann.

Weinmar (Würt.): old Ger. Wini-mar ‘famous as a friend’, see Weimer.

Weinmayer (Bav., Würt., Aust.): estate manager (Maier) who oversaw the taxes paid in wine; manager of a vine-g

  1. Anonymous (leach w. E. ?)

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    -Anonymous, 1917. " Results of the South Australian Museum expedition to Strzelecki and Cooper Creeks. September and October 1916". p 490. Trans.
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